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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161033

ABSTRACT

Neural stem cells (NSCs) have mainly been applied to neurodegeneration in some medically intractable neurologic diseases. In this study, we established a novel NSC line and investigated the cytotoxic responses of NSCs to exogenous neurotoxicants, glutamates and reactive oxygen species (ROS). A multipotent NSC line, B2A1 cells, was established from long-term primary cultures of oligodendrocyte-enriched cells from an adult BALB/c mouse brain. B2A1 cells could be differentiated into neuronal, astrocytic and oligodendroglial lineages. The cells also expressed genotypic mRNA messages for both neural progenitor cells and differentiated neuronoglial cells. B2A1 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide and L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine underwent 30-40% cell death, while B2A1 cells treated with glutamate and kainate showed 25-35% cell death. Cytopathologic changes consisting of swollen cell bodies, loss of cytoplasmic processes, and nuclear chromatin disintegration, developed after exposure to both ROS and excitotoxic chemicals. These results suggest that B2A1 cells may be useful in the study of NSC biology and may constitute an effective neurotoxicity screening system for ROS and excitotoxic chemicals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/cytology , Buthionine Sulfoximine/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line , Cell Lineage , Cytokines/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists/pharmacology , Glutamic Acid/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/pharmacology , Kainic Acid/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Multipotent Stem Cells/cytology , Neuroglia/cytology , Neurons/cytology , Neurotoxins/pharmacology , Oxidants/pharmacology , Phenotype , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
2.
Biol. Res ; 40(3): 207-317, 2007. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-481308

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that transcription factors, API and NFkB exert important roles in the process by which selenium regulates spermatogenesis. Glutathione, an intracellular thiol, acts as a source of reducing power and aids in maintenance of the cellular redox status. The activities of selenium are closely related to the availability of glutathione. Presently, mouse testicular cells were cultured in the presence of BSO, a known glutathione depletor, to generate oxidative stress. Selenium (Se) was added as sodium selenite to these cells at concentrations of 0.5 µM and 1.5 µM. It was observed that at 1.5 µM, Se acted as a pro-oxidant and significantly decreased the redox ratio. RT PCR analysis revealed that cjun, cfos expression increased in testicular cells cultured with Se compared to control. However, the major outcome was that the combined effect of Se supplementation and GSH depletion resulted in reduced expression of cjun and cfos while p65 expression increased. This suggests that selenium affects both these transcription factors differently. Our study indicates that though low levels of oxidative stress generated by moderate doses of selenium augments the expression of cjun and cfos, a robust increase in the ROS generation caused by the dual effect high levels of selenium and glutathione depletion leads to decrease in the expression of these genes. The present work substantiates our in vivo experiments and indicates the detrimental effect of excess selenium supplementation on male fertility.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Buthionine Sulfoximine/pharmacology , Glutathione/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Selenium/pharmacology , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Glutathione/drug effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C , NF-kappa B/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Testis/cytology
3.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2005 Oct; 43(10): 849-53
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56331

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the possible role of free radicals in aminophylline-induced seizures was evaluated in albino rats. Aminophylline (theophylline in ethylene diamine; 50 - 300 mg/kg) induced convulsions in rats in a dose-dependent manner, and both incidence of seizure and mortality were maximum at 300 mg/kg. Conventional anti-epileptics, diphenylhydantoin and dizocilpine, as well as adenosine agonists were ineffective in antagonizing these seizures. On the other hand, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, pentoxyphylline and rolipram, showed insignificant seizurogenic effects. Pretreatment with antioxidants (ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and melatonin) showed differential attenuating effects on aminophylline seizures and lethality. Further, prior administration of 1-buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO, glutathione depletor) and triethyltetramine (TETA, superoxide dismutase inhibitor), precipitated seizures and enhanced lethality in response to subthreshold doses of aminophylline. The present results suggested of the possible involvement of oxidative stress during aminophylline-induced seizures.


Subject(s)
Aminophylline/pharmacology , Animals , Anticonvulsants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Buthionine Sulfoximine/pharmacology , Dizocilpine Maleate/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Free Radicals , Male , Oxidants/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Phenytoin/pharmacology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reactive Oxygen Species , Rolipram/pharmacology , Seizures/chemically induced , Trientine/pharmacology
4.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 1996 Oct; 33(5): 409-13
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-26853

ABSTRACT

The effect of luminal exposure of enterotoxins on the intestinal mucosal glutathione (GSH) was studied in rat. Cholera toxin induced fluid secretion and decreased mucosal GSH by 35% without altering oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level. Toxin induced fluid secretion was tested after mucosal GSH depletion by compounds such as diethyl maleate (DEM) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and thiol supplementation with N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC). Fluid secretion was not altered by prior thiol depletion or supplementation. Exposure of intestinal lumen to bacterial endotoxin resulted in 25% decrease in mucosal GSH with two fold increase in GSSG. Luminal exposure of Shiga toxin did not alter the mucosal thiol. The level of other low molecular weight thiols, cysteine and cystine was not altered by luminal exposure of any of these toxins. These results show that although cholera toxin decreased the mucosal GSH level, prior modulation of thiol status of the mucosa may not have any effect on toxin-induced fluid secretion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Buthionine Sulfoximine/pharmacology , Cholera Toxin/toxicity , Cysteine/metabolism , Endotoxins/toxicity , Glutathione/analogs & derivatives , Glutathione Disulfide , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Maleates/pharmacology , Rats , Sulfhydryl Compounds/metabolism
5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1996 Sep; 34(9): 905-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56990

ABSTRACT

To understand the cellular and biochemical nature of radioresistance in the strain M5 derived from Chinese hamster V79 cells, the sensitivity of the resistant cells towards CdCl2, Zn(Ac)2, and H2O2 by the colony forming ability has been tested. D0 values for these compounds in Chinese hamster V79 cells were 5.4 microM, 27.8 microM and 4.3 micrograms/ml respectively while for M5 cells these were 8.3 microM, 142.9 microM and 11.9 micrograms/ml respectively. The resistance to heavy metals as well as the oxidative damage could be reversed by the inhibition of glutathione synthesis by the drug buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). These set of data indicate that the cellular antioxidant glutathione plays an important role in the observed oxidant-resistant phenotype as well as heavy metal resistance in M5 cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Buthionine Sulfoximine/pharmacology , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Glutathione/antagonists & inhibitors , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity , Male , Metals/toxicity , Oxidative Stress , Radiation Tolerance
6.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1996 Mar; 34(3): 247-51
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60295

ABSTRACT

Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) enhances the radiosensitivity of in vitro mammalian cells, possibly by inhibiting de novo biosynthesis of glutathione (GSH); however, administration of BSO to intact animals results in no effect or possibly radioprotection. Keeping in view that BSO affords radioprotection its physico-chemical action in dry (metabolically inert) and pre-soaked (metabolizing) barley seeds has been investigated with a view that the effects of GSH and BSO on the radiation-induced O2-dependent and - independent components of damage could be unambiguously resolved. It was observed that (i) BSO does not inhibit the uptake of GSH in dry or metabolizing seeds, (ii) BSO also, like GSH, affords radioprotection against post-irradiation O2-dependent damage, and (iii) both additives enhance the O2-independent (i.e. N2- or N2O-mediated) component of damage. An equimolar mixture of these two additives also behaves as either alone on the oxic and anoxic components of radiation damage. Since GSH more efficiently reacts with electrons than it donates an H-atom to the damaged target molecules, and the glutamyl moiety is common to both GSH and BSO, physico-chemical mechanisms possibly involved in the differential modification of oxic and anoxic components are briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
Buthionine Sulfoximine/pharmacology , Glutathione/pharmacology , Hordeum/drug effects , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects
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