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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 29-35, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Salep is obtained by grinding dried orchid tubers and used as a valuable ingredient in the food industry. Because of the glucomannan content of salep, it is thought to have prebiotic potential. However, there is little information in studies concerning the fermentation characteristics and potential prebiotic properties of salep. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of salep on bifidobacterial growth by measuring the highest optical density (OD), calculating the specific growth rates, and determining the production of lactic acid and short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, and butyric acid) as a result of bacterial fermentation. RESULT: The OD and pH values obtained in this study showed that salep was utilized as a source of assimilable carbon and energy by the Bifidobacterium species (BS). All Bifidobacterium strains produced lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, indicating that salep is readily fermented by these bacteria. Salep at 1% (w/v) showed a similar effect on bifidobacterial growth as that promoted by 1% (w/v) glucose used as a traditional carbon source. CONCLUSIONS: Bifidobacterium species can develop in media containing salep as well as in glucose and exhibit the potential to be used as new sources of prebiotics.


Subject(s)
Powders/metabolism , Bifidobacterium/growth & development , Bifidobacterium/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Volatile/biosynthesis , Propionates/analysis , Propionates/metabolism , Food Industry , Acetic Acid/analysis , Acetic Acid/metabolism , Lactic Acid/analysis , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Probiotics , Butyric Acid/analysis , Butyric Acid/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Volatile/analysis , Prebiotics , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1449-1457, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131489

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess different prebiotic concentrations and principles, in addition to calcium butyrate, aiming to replace colistin as a growth promoter. The sample consisted of 120 piglets weaned at 22 days old with mean initial weight of 5.475 ± 0.719kg. The animals were assigned to random blocks in six treatments corresponding to the use of the following dietary additives: T1) colistin (40 ppm); T2) ß-glucan/mannan-oligosaccharides (0.2%); T3) calcium butyrate (0.1%); T4) ß-glucan/mannan-oligosaccharides (0.1%) + fructooligosaccharides (0.01%) + galactooligosaccharides (0.09%); T5) ß-glucan/mannan-oligosaccharides (0.1%) + fructooligosaccharides (0.03%) + galactooligosaccharides (0.07%); and T6) ß-glucan/mannan-oligosaccharides (0.1%) + fructooligosaccharides (0.05%) + galactooligosaccharides (0.05%). The results showed no difference among treatments for the performance parameters in any of the phases evaluated. For diarrhea incidence and intensity, the results indicated that the treatments with alternative additives had similar effects as the group treated with colistin. A significant difference was found for the profile of propionic acid (0.23% colistin and 0.32%, 0.36%, 0.37% additives) and total fatty acids (0.67% colistin and 0.97% additives) values in the caecum. The supplementation with different compositions and concentrations of prebiotics and butyric acid may viably replace colistin in controlling diarrhea and modulating volatile fatty acid production in the caecum.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as diferentes concentrações e princípios de prebióticos e do butirato de sódio, visando substituir a colistina como promotor de crescimento. Foram utilizados 120 leitões, desmamados aos 22 dias de idade, com peso médio inicial de 5,475 ± 0,719kg. Os animais foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, em seis tratamentos, que corresponderam ao uso dos seguintes aditivos dietéticos: T1) colistina (40ppm); T2) ß-glucanos/mananoligossacarídeos (0,2%); T3) butirato de cálcio (0,1%); T4) ß-glucanos/mananoligossacarídeos (0,1%) + frutoligossacarídeos (0,01%) + galactoligossacarídeos (0,09%); T5) ß-glucanos/mananoligossacarídeos (0,1%) + frutoligossacarídeos (0,03%) + galactoligossacarídeos (0,07%); e T6) ß-glucanos/mananoligossacarídeos (0,1%) + frutoligossacarídeos (0,05%) + galactoligossacarídeos (0,05%). Os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para nenhum dos parâmetros de desempenho em nenhuma das fases avaliadas. Para a incidência e a intensidade de diarreia, os resultados apontam que os tratamentos com os aditivos alternativos apresentaram efeitos semelhantes aos do grupo tratado com colistina. Foi encontrada diferença significativa para perfil dos ácidos graxos propiônicos (0,23% colistina e 0,32%, 0,36%, 0,37% aditivos) e ácidos totais (0,67% colistina e 0,97% aditivos) no ceco. A suplementação com diferentes composições e concentrações de prebióticos e do ácido butírico pode substituir a colistina de forma viável no controle da diarreia e na modulação da produção volátil de ácidos graxos no ceco.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/growth & development , Butyric Acid/administration & dosage , Prebiotics/administration & dosage , Weight Gain , Food Additives/administration & dosage
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190359, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132226

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leaves of mate is one of the main non-timber forest products marketed in South America, which makes establishment of new plantations of great interest. However, vegetative propagation of mate plantlets presents difficulties, which may be associated with the complexity of adventitious root formation. The aims of this study were to anatomically characterize the adventitious roots of mate-clone mini-cuttings and investigate the relationship of phenols and starch with adventitious rooting competence in mini-cuttings treated or not with indole-butyric acid (IBA). The mini-cuttings of four clones were collected at 0, 30, and 60 days of cultivation, fixed in a solution containing 1% glutaraldehyde and 4% formaldehyde, pre-infiltrated and infiltrated in (2-hydroxyethyl) methacrylate, and sectioned in a microtome. Ferric chloride and toluidine blue were used to detect phenolic compounds and lugol to identify starch. Adventitious roots formed in mini-cuttings treated with IBA presented disorganized xylem and phloem and poles irregularly but exhibited sclerenchyma vessel elements and tracheid cells indicating functionality. Differences in the rhizogenic ability of mate clones mini-cuttings were not due to the presence of anatomical barriers or the accumulation of phenolic compounds but be associated with the presence and distribution of starch grains in vegetative propagules.


Subject(s)
Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/drug effects , Butyric Acid/pharmacology , Ilex paraguariensis/growth & development , Ilex paraguariensis/drug effects , Time Factors
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High-fat diet is known to be implicated in the pathogenesis of various metabolic disorders related to an inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high-fat diet for intestinal acetic acid and butyric acid concentrations which are related to inflammation-associated colon cancer risk. METHODS: Both male and female rats of 6, 31, 74 and 104-week of age were fed chow diet or high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured weekly during the feeding period. Intestinal acetic acid and butyric acid levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography from luminal contents of ileum and cecum. RESULTS: Male rats showed greater weight change than female rats in every age. Calorie-adjusted food intake was also higher in male rats compared to female rats. Male rats showed similar intake of food in every age while 31-week old female rats showed increased intake, which was decreased at 74-week and 104-week of age. The ileal acetic acid concentration was increased in male rats fed high-fat diet, while female rats fed high-fat diet showed no significant change in the ileal acetic acid level. On the other hand, butyric acid almost disappeared in high-fat diet fed rats regardless of sex. CONCLUSIONS: High-fat diet increases the intestinal acetic acid concentration while reducing the butyric acid concentration which may account for increased risk of inflammation-associated colon cancer.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Animals , Body Weight , Butyric Acid , Cecum , Chromatography, Liquid , Colonic Neoplasms , Diet , Diet, High-Fat , Eating , Female , Hand , Humans , Ileum , Male , Phenobarbital , Rats
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775125

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the levels of short-chain fatty acids in enterobacteria-related metabolites in feces between infants with cholestatic hepatopathy and healthy infants.@*METHODS@#Thirty infants with cholestatic hepatopathy were enrolled in this study as the disease group, while 30 healthy infants were enrolled as the control group. Fecal specimens were collected from the disease group before and after treatment and from the control group. Gas chromatography was used to quantitatively determine the content of short-chain fatty acids in the feces of both groups including acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid, and isovaleric acid.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences in the concentrations of acetic acid and propionic acid between the control and disease groups before and after treatment, as well as no significant changes in the two markers in the disease group after treatment (P>0.05). The disease group had a significantly increased concentration of butyric acid after treatment (P<0.05). The concentrations of isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid in the control group were significantly higher than those in the disease group before and after treatment (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Intestinal protein metabolites in infants with cholestatic hepatopathy are significantly different from those in healthy infants, whereas there is no significant difference with respect to carbohydrate metabolites.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Butyric Acid , Enterobacteriaceae , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Feces , Humans , Infant
6.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 79 p. graf, ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-883230

ABSTRACT

O câncer primário de fígado (CPF) apresenta mau prognóstico, o que torna importante sua quimioprevenção. Nesse sentido, a tributirina (TB), um pró-fármaco do ácido butírico (AB), presente em laticínios e no mel, mostrou-se um agente quimiopreventivo promissor da hepatocarcinogênese experimental. Os efeitos inibitórios da TB têm sido relacionados à inibição do desenvolvimento de lesões pré-neoplásicas, bem como indução de apoptose e hiperacetilação de histonas. A quimioterapia é uma das abordagens mais comuns para o tratamento de diversos tipos de câncer, inclusive o CPF. Neste caso, o tratamento com sorafenibe (SO) é capaz de prolongar a sobrevida média dos pacientes com a doença em fases avançadas em aproximadamente apenas três meses. Em vista disso, são necessários estudos da associação do sorafenibe com outros compostos que possam aumentar a eficácia do tratamento quimioterápico. Desta forma, a associação de fármacos anti-neoplásicos com compostos bioativos dos alimentos pode consistir em uma estratégia potencial para aumentar a eficácia contra o câncer. No presente estudo, foi avaliada a atividade anticarcinogênica da TB e do SO, isoladamente ou em associação, na etapa de progressão da hepatocarcinogênese. Para tanto, foram realizados implantes singênicos no flanco de ratos Fischer-344 a partir de células da linhagem tumoral GP7TB. Quando as neoplasias atingiram 1 cm3, os animais foram aleatorizados em grupos experimentais: Grupo controle (CO), constituído por 10 ratos Fischer 344 que receberam Maltodextrina (300mg/ 100 g. p. c.), controle isocolarico e solução de etanol à 12,5% e Cremofor à 12,5% em agua estéril; Grupo Tributirina (TB), constituído por 9 ratos Fischer 344 que receberam TB (200mg/ 100 g. p. c.) e solução de etanol à 12,5% e Cremofor à 12,5% em água estéril; Grupo sorafenibe (SO) constituído por 9 ratos Fischer 344 que receberam Maltodextrina (300 mg/ 100 g. p. c.), controle isocalorico e tosilato de sorafenibe (3mg / 100 g. p. c. ) em água estéril; Grupo associação da tributirina com o sorafenibe (AS) constituído por 9 ratos Fischer 344 que receberam TB (20 mg/ 100 g. p. c.) e tosiliato de sorafenibe (3mg/ 100 g. p. c.); tratados por administração intragástrica (i.g) diariamente por 5 semanas consecutivas. As concentrações de AB e SO foram analisadas por cromatografia gasosa associada à espectrometria de massa e as neoplasias foram caracterizadas por imunoistoquímica. Em relação à evolução do tamanho das neoplasias o grupo AS apresentou menor (p=0,009) tamanho das mesmas em relação ao grupo CO. No entanto, estas diferenças não atingiram diferenças significativas (p>0,05) entre os grupos TB e CO, bem como entre os grupos SO e CO. Contudo, quando ajustados os valores do tamanho da neoplasia pela latência, observou-se alterações significativas (p<0,05) nos diversos grupos quando comparados ao grupo CO. O grupo SO aumentou a área necrótica das neoplasias, embora esta diferença não tenha atingido diferença significativa (p>0,05), enquanto que o grupo TB reduziu essa área necrótica em relação ao grupo CO (p=0,005). O grupo TB e AS apresentaram significativamente maiores (p<0,05) concentrações hepáticas e neoplásicas de AB em relação ao grupo CO. O grupo SO e AS apresentaram significativamente maiores (p<0,05) concentrações neoplásicas de SO em relação ao grupo CO. Os grupos SO e AS reduziram a expressão de PTEN, quando comparados ao grupo CO, embora esta diferença não tenha atingido diferença significativa (p>0,05). O grupo TB por sua vez expressou maiores niveis de PTEN, embora esta diferença não tenha atigindo significância estatística (p>0,05). Todos os grupos expressaram maiores niveis de caspase 3 clivada quando comparada ao grupo CO (p>0,05). OS grupos TB e SO reduziram a expressão de pERK ½ quando comparados ao grupo CO. embora estas diferenças não tenham atingidos diferença estatística (p>0,05). O grupo AS apresentou maior expressão de pERK ½ quando comparada ao grupo CO, embora esta diferença não tenha atingido diferença significativa (p>0,05). A caracterização das neoplasias do grupo CO foi padronizada por imunoistoquímica, apresentando-se positivas para CK 7, CK8, CK19 e Arginase e negativas para HepPar1 e CK18. Assim, os resultados sugerem que as neoplasias obtidas por implantes com células da linhagem GP7TB apresentam características de CPF oriundo de células tronco neoplásicas. Além disso, os grupos experimentais TB e AS apresentaram atividade anticarcinogênica promissora no modelo de implantes singênicos com células GP7TB, que eventualmente envolvem mecanismos de ação distintos da atividade quimioterápica apresentada pelo SO


Primary liver cancer (PLC) presents poor prognosis, which makes its chemoprevention important. In this sense, tributyrin (TB), a prodrug of butyric acid (AB), present in dairy products and honey, has been shown to be a promising chemopreventive agent for experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. The inhibitory effects of TB have been related to inhibition of the development of pre-neoplastic lesions, as well as induction of apoptosis and hyperacetylation of histones. Chemotherapy is one of the most common approaches for treating various types of cancer, including PLC. In this case, treatment with sorafenib (SO) is able to prolong the average survival of patients with the disease in advanced stages in approximately three months. In view of this, studies of the association of sorafenib with other compounds that may increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatment are necessary. Thus, the association of anti-neoplastic drugs with bioactive compounds in food may be a potential strategy to increase efficacy against cancer. In the present study, the anticarcinogenic activity of TB and SO was evaluated, alone or in combination, in the progression stage of hepatocarcinogenesis. For this purpose, syngenic implants were performed on the flank of Fischer-344 mice from GP7TB tumor cells. When the neoplasms reached 1 cm3, the animals were randomized into experimental groups: Control group (CO), consisting of 10 Fischer 344 rats receiving Maltodextrin (300mg / 100 g.p.c), isocaloric control and 12.5% ethanol solution, and Cremofor to 12.5% in sterile water; Tributyrin group (TB), consisting of 9 Fischer 344 rats that received TB (200mg / 100 g.p.c.) and 12.5% ethanol solution and Cremofor 12.5% in sterile water; Sorafenib group (SO) consisting of 9 Fischer 344 rats receiving maltodextrin (300 mg / 100 g, w / w), isocaloric control and sorafenib tosylate (3 mg / 100 g, w / w) in sterile water; The association group of tributyrin and sorafenib (AS) consisted of 9 Fischer 344 rats receiving TB (20 mg / 100 g p.o.) and sorafenib tosylate (3 mg / 100 g p.o.); treated intragastric (i.g) daily for 5 consecutive weeks. The concentrations of AB and SO were analyzed by gas chromatography associated with mass spectrometry and the neoplasms were characterized by immunohistochemistry. In relation to the evolution of the size of the neoplasias, the AS group presented smaller (p = 0.009) size of the same ones in relation to the CO group. However, these differences did not reach significant differences (p> 0.05) between the TB and CO groups, as well as between the SO and CO groups. However, when adjusted for size of the neoplasm by latency, significant changes (p <0.05) were observed in the different groups when compared to the CO group. The SO group increased the necrotic area of the neoplasias, although this difference did not reach a significant difference (p> 0.05), while the TB group reduced this necrotic area in relation to the CO group (p = 0.005). The TB and AS groups presented significantly higher (p <0.05) hepatic and neoplastic AB concentrations than the CO group. The SO and AS groups presented significantly higher (p <0.05) neoplastic concentrations of SO in relation to the CO group. The SO and AS groups reduced the PTEN expression when compared to the CO group, although this difference did not reach a significant difference (p> 0.05). The TB group in turn expressed higher levels of PTEN, although this difference did not increase statistical significance (p> 0.05). All groups expressed higher levels of caspase 3 cleaved when compared to the CO group (p> 0.05). The TB and SO groups reduced the expression of pERK ½ when compared to the CO group. although these differences did not reach statistical difference (p> 0.05). The AS group presented higher pERK ½ expression when compared to the CO group, although this difference did not reach a significant difference (p> 0.05). Characterization of the neoplasias of the CO group was standardized by immunohistochemistry, presenting positive for CK 7, CK8, CK19 and Arginase and negative for HepPar1 and CK18. Thus, the results suggest that the neoplasias obtained by implants with GP7TB cells present CPF characteristics originating from neoplastic stem cells. In addition, the experimental groups TB and AS presented promising anticarcinogenic activity in the model of syngeneic implants with GP7TB cells, which eventually involve mechanisms of action distinct from the chemotherapy activity presented by SO


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Anticarcinogenic Agents/analysis , Liver Neoplasms/prevention & control , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Tumor Cells, Cultured/classification , Blotting, Western/instrumentation , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Butyric Acid/agonists , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
7.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 75 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-885130

ABSTRACT

O carcinoma hepatocelular (HCC) é uma neoplasia primária com mau prognóstico e alta taxa de recorrência. Estudos recentes demostram que o HCC pode ser classificado em três subtipos segundo o perfil molecular. Destes subtipos, o HCC pouco diferenciado apresenta pior prognostico. Neste sentido, torna-se de particular interesse o estudo de compostos com efeitos diferenciadores e citotóxicos nas células destas neoplasias pouco diferenciadas. O butirato, um ácido graxo de cadeia curta produzido pela fermentação microbiana da fibra alimentar no intestino, tem demonstrado atividade anti-neoplásica e capacidade moduladora da diferenciação celular em diversos tipos celulares, incluindo linhagens de HCC humano e células progenitoras hepáticas. Assim, objetivou-se neste estudo, caracterizar o efeito do butirato de sódio (NaBu) em duas linhagens de células neoplásicas de rato: uma pouco diferenciada (GP7TB) e a outra, uma linhagem derivada de um HCC diferenciado (JM-1). A linhagem GP7TB mostrou maior resistência ao NaBu (ED50= 7,7 mM) do que as células JM-1 (ED50= 5,2 mM). A redução na viabilidade celular após 72 h de tratamento com NaBu esteve relacionada com a diminuição na proliferação celular e no caso das células GP7TB, de um aumento na apoptose. O tratamento com NaBu induziu alterações morfológicas nas duas linhagens celulares, porém apenas nas células do tipo GP7TB, essas alterações sugerem um processo de diferenciação/transdiferenciação celular. O aumento na expressão de genes envolvidos no controle da pluripotência de células tronco, assim como de alguns marcadores de células tronco, sugere que o NaBu induziu uma reprogramação profunda das células GP7TB. Por outro lado, a redução na expressão de genes relacionados com migração e plasticidade celular assim como de proliferação celular apontam que estas células diminuíram seu potencial invasivo e a capacidade de autorenovação. Embora sejam necessárias análises adicionais para confirmar o efeito observado nos perfis de expressão gênica, os resultados deste estudo sugerem que o NaBu apresenta efeito antineoplásico por meio da redução da proliferação, aumento da apoptose e modulação da expressão de genes associados com a transição epitéliomesenquimal em células com características tronco tumorais


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary neoplasia with poor prognosis and high recurrence rate. Recent evidence suggests that HCC can be classified in three different subtypes based on their molecular profile. Among these subtypes, the poorlydifferentiated HCC has the worst prognosis. Therefore, the study of compounds with pro-differentiating and cytotoxic effects on poorly-differentiated neoplastic cells represents a matter of primary concern. Butyrate which is a short-chain fatty acid produced by microbial fermentation in the intestine, has demonstrated anti-neoplastic activity and pro-differentiating potential in several cell types, including, human HCC cell lines and liver progenitor cells. In this study, we aimed to characterize the effect of sodium butyrate (NaBu) on two neoplastic cell lines derived from rats: a poorlydifferentiated cell line (GP7TB) and, a cell line derived from a well-differentiated HCC. GP7TB showed increased resistance to NaBu treatment (ED50= 7.7 mM) compared to JM-1 (ED50= 5.2 mM). The reduction in cell viability observed after 72 h of treatment was explained by a reduction in cell proliferation and, in the case of GP7TB, by increased levels of apoptosis. The NaBu treatment induced morphological alterations in both cell lines. However, only in the case of GP7TB cells, the alterations suggested a differentiation/transdifferentiation process. The up-regulation of genes involved in pluripotency and genes expressing stem cell markers indicated that NaBu triggered a deep reprogramming of GP7TB cells. Besides, a down-regulation in the expression of genes related with cell migration and plasticity suggested that these cells reduced their invasive potential and their self-renewal capacity. Additional analyses are necessary to confirm the observed effect on gene expression profiles. However, the results of this study suggest that NaBu exert anti-neoplastic effects through apoptosis, reduction of cell proliferation and downregulation of genes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer stem-like cells


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Butyrates/analysis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/prevention & control , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Cell Line , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Immunophenotyping/instrumentation , Butyric Acid , Flow Cytometry/methods
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727857

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders that share behavioral features, the results of numerous studies have suggested that the underlying causes of ASDs are multifactorial. Behavioral and/or neurobiological analyses of ASDs have been performed extensively using a valid model of prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA). Abnormal synapse formation resulting from altered neurite outgrowth in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) during embryonic brain development has been observed in both the VPA model and ASD subjects. Although several mechanisms have been suggested, the actual mechanism underlying enhanced neurite outgrowth remains unclear. In this study, we found that VPA enhanced the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), particularly mature BDNF (mBDNF), through dual mechanisms. VPA increased the mRNA and protein expression of BDNF by suppressing the nuclear expression of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), which is a transcriptional repressor of BDNF. In addition, VPA promoted the expression and activity of the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which induces BDNF maturation through proteolytic cleavage. Trichostatin A and sodium butyrate also enhanced tPA activity, but tPA activity was not induced by valpromide, which is a VPA analog that does not induce histone acetylation, indicating that histone acetylation activity was required for tPA regulation. VPA-mediated regulation of BDNF, MeCP2, and tPA was not observed in astrocytes or neurons. Therefore, these results suggested that VPA-induced mBDNF upregulation was associated with the dysregulation of MeCP2 and tPA in developing cortical NPCs.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Astrocytes , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Butyric Acid , Histones , Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2 , Neurites , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Neurons , RNA, Messenger , Stem Cells , Synapses , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Up-Regulation , Valproic Acid
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740108

ABSTRACT

Although genetic background is known to contribute to colon carcinogenesis, the exact etiology of the disease remains elusive. The organ’s extensive interaction with microbes necessitated research on the role of microbiota on development of colon cancer. In this review, we summarized the defense mechanism of colon from foreign organism, and germ-free animal models that have been employed to elucidate microbial effect. We also comprehensively discussed the metabolic property of microbiota such as butyrate production, facilitation of heme toxicity, bile acid transformation, and nitrate reduction that has been shown to contribute to the development of the tumor. Finally, up-to-date subjects such as the effect of age and gender on microbiota are briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
Bile , Bile Acids and Salts , Butyrates , Butyric Acid , Carcinogenesis , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Genetic Background , Heme , Microbiota , Models, Animal
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 27: 55-62, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010296

ABSTRACT

Background: To reduce costs associated with productivity of recombinant proteins in the biopharmaceutical industry, research has been focused on regulatory principals of growth and survival during the production phases of the cell culture. The main strategies involve the regulation of cell proliferation by the modulation of cell cycle control points (G1/S or G2/M) with mild hypothermia and the addition of sodium butyrate (NaBu). In this study, batch culture strategies were evaluated using CHO TF 70R cells producing the recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rh-tPA), to observe their individual and combined effect on the cellular physiological state and relevant kinetic parameters. Results: NaBu addition has a negative effect on the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), the values of which are remarkably diminished in cultures exposed to this cytotoxic compound. This effect was not reflected in a loss of cell viability. NaBu and mild hypothermic conditions increased the doubling time in the cell cultures, suggesting that these strategies triggered a general slowing of each cell cycle phase in a different way. Finally, the individual and combined effect of NaBu and mild hypothermia produced an increase in the specific rh-tPA productivity in comparison to the control at 37°C without NaBu. Nevertheless, both strategies did not have a synergistic effect on the specific productivity. Conclusions: The combination of NaBu addition and mild hypothermic condition causes an impact on physiological and metabolic state of CHO TF 70R cells, decreasing cell growth rate and improving glucose consumption efficiency. These results therefore provide a promising strategy to increase specific productivity of rh-tPA.


Subject(s)
Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , CHO Cells/metabolism , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/metabolism , Butyric Acid/metabolism , Hypothermia , Cell Cycle , Cell Survival , CHO Cells/physiology , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/biosynthesis , Cell Proliferation , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351396

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the protective effect of histone acetylation against hypoxic-ischemic cortical injury in neonatal rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 90 neonatal rats aged 3 days were divided into three groups: sham-operation, cortical injury model, and sodium butyrate (a histone deacetylase inhibitor) treatment. The rats in the model and the sodium butyrate treatment groups were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (0.05 mg/kg), and then right common carotid artery ligation was performed 2 hours later and the rats were put in a hypoxic chamber (oxygen concentration 6.5%) for 90 minutes. The rats in the sham-operation group were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline and the right common carotid artery was only separated and exposed without ligation or hypoxic treatment. The rats in the sodium butyrate treatment group were intraperitoneally injected with sodium butyrate (300 mg/kg) immediately after establishment of the cortical injury model once a day for 7 days. Those in the sham-operation and the model groups were injected with the same volume of normal saline. At 7 days after establishment of the model, Western blot was used to measure the protein expression of histone H3 (HH3), acetylated histone H3 (AH3), B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), cleaved caspase-3 (CC3), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Immunofluorescence assay was used to measure the expression of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) as the cortex cell proliferation index.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The sodium butyrate treatment group had a significantly lower HH3/AH3 ratio than the model group (P<0.05), which suggested that the sodium butyrate treatment group had increased acetylation of HH3. Compared with the model group, the sodium butyrate treatment group had a significant increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio, a significant reduction in CC3 expression, and a significant increase in BDNF expression (P<0.05). The sodium butyrate treatment group had a significant increase in the number of BrdU-positive cells in the cortex compared with the model group (P<0.05), and BrdU was mainly expressed in the neurons.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Increased histone acetylation may protect neonatal rats against cortical injury by reducing apoptosis and promoting regeneration of neurons. The mechanism may be associated with increased expression of BDNF.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Apoptosis , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Butyric Acid , Therapeutic Uses , Cerebral Cortex , Pathology , Female , Histones , Metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725019

ABSTRACT

The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) is a tool used to detect concentrations of brain metabolites such as N-acetyl aspartate, choline, creatine, glutamate, and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). It has been widely used because it does not require additional devices other than the conventional magnetic resonance scanner and coils. Demyelination, or the neuronal damage due to loss of myelin sheath, is one of the common pathologic processes in many diseases including multiple sclerosis, leukodystrophy, encephalomyelitis, and other forms of autoimmune diseases. Rodent models mimicking human demyelinating diseases have been induced by using virus (e.g., Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus) or toxins (e.g., cuprizon or lysophosphatidyl choline). This review is an overview of the MRS findings on brain metabolites in demyelination with a specific focus on rodent models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aspartic Acid , Autoimmune Diseases , Brain , Butyric Acid , Choline , Creatine , Demyelinating Diseases , Encephalomyelitis , Glutamic Acid , Humans , Models, Animal , Multiple Sclerosis , Myelin Sheath , Neurons , Pathologic Processes , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Rodentia , Spectrum Analysis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728760

ABSTRACT

Sodium butyrate (SB) has various metabolic actions. However, its effect on dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) needs to be studied further. We aimed to evaluate the metabolic actions of SB, considering its physiologically relevant concentration. We evaluated the effect of SB on regulation of DPP-4 and its other metabolic actions, both in vitro (HepG2 cells and mouse mesangial cells) and in vivo (high fat diet [HFD]-induced obese mice). Ten-week HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice were subjected to SB treatment by adding SB to HFD which was maintained for an additional 16 weeks. In HepG2 cells, SB suppressed DPP-4 activity and expression at sub-molar concentrations, whereas it increased DPP-4 activity at a concentration of 1,000 µM. In HFD-induced obese mice, SB decreased blood glucose, serum levels of insulin and IL-1β, and DPP-4 activity, and suppressed the increase in body weight. On the contrary, various tissues including liver, kidney, and peripheral blood cells showed variable responses of DPP-4 to SB. Especially in the kidney, although DPP-4 activity was decreased by SB in HFD-induced obese mice, it caused an increase in mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. The pro-inflammatory actions of SB in the kidney of HFD-induced obese mice were recapitulated by cultured mesangial cell experiments, in which SB stimulated the secretion of several cytokines from cells. Our results showed that SB has differential actions according to its treatment dose and the type of cells and tissues. Thus, further studies are required to evaluate its therapeutic relevance in metabolic diseases including diabetes and obesity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Cells , Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Butyric Acid , Cytokines , Diet , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Hep G2 Cells , In Vitro Techniques , Insulin , Interleukin-6 , Kidney , Liver , Mesangial Cells , Metabolic Diseases , Mice , Mice, Obese , Obesity , RNA, Messenger , Sodium
14.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2017; 16 (61): 33-44
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185712

ABSTRACT

Background: Plant growth regulators [PGRs] have important roles in many processes such as germination, seedling growth, nutrition uptake, morphogenesis, ripening, etc


Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid, indole butyric acid, and methanol as plant growth regulators on morpho-physiological and phytochemical features in Thymus vulgaris L


Methods: The farm experiment based on a randomized complete block design was performed at 2014. The treatments were included G1M1 [GA3 50 ppm + methanol 20 %], G1M2 [GA3 50 ppm +methanol 40 %], G2M1 [GA3 100 ppm + methanol 20 %], G2M2 [GA3 100 ppm + methanol 40 %], I1M1 [IBA 50 ppm + methanol 20 %], I1M2 [IBA 50 ppm + methanol 40 %], I2M1 [IBA 100 ppm + methanol 20 %], I2M2 [IBA 100 ppm + methanol 40 %], G1I2M2 [GA3 50 ppm + IBA 100 ppm + methanol 40 %], G1I2M2 [GA3 100 ppm + IBA 50 ppm + methanol 40 %], and control [distillate water]


Results: The results showed that the combination of GA3 or IBA along with methanol changed significantly leaf length and width, number of branches, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, plant dry weight, seed weight, essential oil content and thymol amount. The highest values of the most traits were observed in I1M1 treatment


Conclusion: Methanol combination with one of the GA3 or IBA can improve morpho-physiological and phytochemical traits of thyme [Thymus vulgaris L.]. Thus, the most effective PGRs combination was related to GA3 50 ppm + Methanol 20 % and IBA 50 ppm + Methanol 20 %


Subject(s)
Gibberellins/pharmacology , Butyric Acid/pharmacology , Methanol/pharmacology , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology
15.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 224-230, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221834

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effects of the sirtuin-2 (SIRT2) inhibitor AK-7 on novel object memory, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus. In addition, we also observed the relationships with sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on the hippocampal functions. To investigate the effects of AK-7 on hippocampal functions, 10-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg AK-7 alone or in combination with subcutaneous administration of 300 mg/kg sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, for 21 days. A novel object recognition test was conducted on days 20 (training) and 21 (testing) of treatment. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed for immunohistochemistry for Ki67 (cell proliferation) and doublecortin (DCX, neuroblast differentiation). AK-7 administration significantly reduced the time spent exploring new objects, while treatment in combination with sodium butyrate significantly alleviated this reduction. Additionally, AK-7 administration significantly reduced the number of Ki67-positive cells and DCX-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus, while the treatment in combination with sodium butyrate ameliorated these changes. This result suggests that the reduction of SIRT2 may be closely related to age-related phenotypes including novel object memory, as well as cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus. In addition, sodium butyrate reverses SIRT2-related age phenotypes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Butyric Acid , Cell Proliferation , Dentate Gyrus , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors , Immunohistochemistry , Memory , Mice , Neurogenesis , Phenotype , Sirtuin 2 , Sodium
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17773

ABSTRACT

Delirium is an acute disturbance of consciousness and cognition with fluctuating course over a short period of time. Recognition of delirium in post-stroke patients is important because of its association with a longer stay in the hospital, a poor functional outcome, an increased risk of deteriorated cognition, and a higher mortality rate. It is occasionally under-recognized due to the fluctuating course and the neurological deficits that are caused by the stroke. Disturbance of several neurotransmitter systems including not only acetylcholine and dopamine but also serotonin, noradrenaline and gamma amino butyric acid have been implicated for the possible pathophysiology of delirium. Numerous potential precipitating and predisposing factors have been proposed such as comorbid condition, age, acute medical insults and environmental issues. In view of the complex multifactorial causes of delirium, multicomponent non-pharmacological approaches for risk factors are the most effective strategy for prevention of delirium. Preventive interventions such as frequent reorientation, early and recurrent mobilization, pain management, adequate nutrition and hydration, reducing sensory impairments, and ensuring proper sleep patterns have all been shown to reduce the incidence of delirium, regardless of the care environment. Pharmacologic interventions and physical restraints should be reserved for patients who are a threat to their own safety or the safety of others. This review describes epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnostic methods, and management of delirium in post-stroke patients.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Butyric Acid , Causality , Cognition , Consciousness , Delirium , Diagnosis , Dopamine , Epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Mortality , Neurotransmitter Agents , Norepinephrine , Pain Management , Restraint, Physical , Risk Factors , Serotonin , Stroke
17.
Immune Network ; : 313-318, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92649

ABSTRACT

Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 microM dbcAMP or 0.5 microM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 microM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 microM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 microM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity.


Subject(s)
Bucladesine , Butyric Acid , Cytokines , Eosinophils , Humans , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome , Leukocytes
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121253

ABSTRACT

We are reporting a case of zolpidem induced multimodal hallucinations in a 22 year old female without any history of psychiatric disorders. Zolpidem, by acting on gamma-amino butyric acid type A receptor has a potential to cause a paradoxical reaction and there also exists a possibility of an induced delirium with its use. This case reports evaluates its potential to cause multimodal hallucinations. Zolpidem needs to be prescribed judiciously with the caution of potential side effects particularly in females.


Subject(s)
Butyric Acid , Delirium , Female , Hallucinations , Humans , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 892-901, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727018

ABSTRACT

In response to demand from industry for microorganisms with auspicious biotechnological potential, a worldwide interest has developed in bacteria and fungi isolation. Microorganisms of interesting metabolic properties include non-pathogenic bacteria of the genus Clostridium, particularly C. acetobutylicum, C. butyricum and C. pasteurianum. A well-known property of C. butyricum is their ability to produce butyric acid, as well as effectively convert glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (38.2 g/L). A conversion rate of 0.66 mol 1,3-propanediol/mol of glycerol has been obtained. Results of the studies described in the present paper broaden our knowledge of characteristic features of C. butyricum specific isolates in terms of their phylogenetic affiliation, fermentation capacity and antibacterial properties.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Butyric Acid/metabolism , Clostridium butyricum/metabolism , Glycerol/metabolism , Industrial Microbiology , Propylene Glycols/metabolism , Biotransformation , Cluster Analysis , Clostridium butyricum/classification , Clostridium butyricum/growth & development , Clostridium butyricum/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Phylogeny , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
20.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 36(1): 39-46, Jan-Mar. 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-702639

ABSTRACT

Objective: In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of repeated D-amphetamine (AMPH) exposure, a well-accepted animal model of acute mania in bipolar disorder (BD), and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on locomotor behavior and HDAC activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rats. Moreover, we aimed to assess brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and mRNA levels in these samples. Methods: We treated adult male Wistar rats with 2 mg/kg AMPH or saline intraperitoneally for 14 days. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received 47.5 mg/kg lithium (Li), 200 mg/kg sodium valproate (VPT), 2 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB), or saline. We evaluated locomotor activity in the open-field task and assessed HDAC activity in the PFC and PBMCs, and BDNF levels in the PFC and plasma. Results: AMPH significantly increased locomotor activity, which was reversed by all drugs. This hyperactivity was associated with increased HDAC activity in the PFC, which was partially reversed by Li, VPT, and SB. No differences were found in BDNF levels. Conclusion: Repeated AMPH administration increases HDAC activity in the PFC without altering BDNF levels. The partial reversal of HDAC increase by Li, VPT, and SB may account for their ability to reverse AMPH-induced hyperactivity. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/analysis , Dextroamphetamine/pharmacology , Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Histone Deacetylases/analysis , Motor Activity/drug effects , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Antimanic Agents/pharmacology , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Bipolar Disorder/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/drug effects , Butyric Acid/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Histone Deacetylases/drug effects , Lithium/pharmacology , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Valproic Acid/pharmacology
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