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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1666-1672, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143670

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire world, posing a serious threat to human health. T cells play a critical role in the cellular immune response against viral infections. We aimed to reveal the relationship between T cell subsets and disease severity. METHODS: 40 COVID-19 patients were randomly recruited in this cross-sectional study. All cases were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Patients were divided into two equivalent groups, one severe and one nonsevere. Clinical, laboratory and flow cytometric data were obtained from both clinical groups and compared. RESULTS: Lymphocyte subsets, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, memory CD4+ T cells, memory CD8+ T cells, naive CD4+ T cells, effector memory CD4+ T cells, central memory CD4+ T cells, and CD3+CD4+ CD25+ T cells were significantly lower in severe patients. The naive T cell/CD4 + EM T cell ratio, which is an indicator of the differentiation from naive T cells to memory cells, was relatively reduced in severe disease. Peripheral CD4+CD8+ double-positive T cells were notably lower in severe presentations of the disease (median DP T cells 11.12 µL vs 1.95 µL; p< 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: As disease severity increases in COVID-19 infection, the number of T cell subsets decreases significantly. Suppression of differentiation from naive T cells to effector memory T cells is the result of severe impairment in adaptive immune functions. Peripheral CD4+CD8+ double-positive T cells were significantly reduced in severe disease presentations and may be a useful marker to predict disease severity.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: A pandemia de COVID-19 tem afetado o mundo todo, constituindo uma ameaça grave para a saúde humana. As células T desempenham um papel crítico na imunidade celular contra infecções virais. Procuramos desvendar a relação entre sub grupos de células T e a severidade da doença. MÉTODOS: Um total de 40 pacientes com COVID-19 foram aleatoriamente recrutados para o presente estudo transversal. Todos os casos foram confirmados por RT-PCR quantitativo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos equivalentes, um grave e um não-grave. Os dados da avaliação clínica, laboratorial e da citometria de fluxo foram obtidos para ambos os grupos e comparados. RESULTADOS: Os subconjuntos de linfócitos, células T CD4+ e CD8+, células T de memória CD4+, células T de memória CD8+, células T CD4+ virgens, células T efetoras CD4+, células T de memória central CD4+ e células T CD3+ CD4+ CD25+ estavam significativamente mais baixas nos pacientes graves. A razão células T virgens/células T efetoras TCD4+, que é um indicador da diferenciação entre células T virgens e células de memória, estava relativamente reduzida em casos graves da doença. As células T duplo-positivas CD4+CD8+ periféricas estavam notavelmente mais baixas em casos graves da doença (mediana das células T DP: 11,12 µL vs. 1,95 µL; p< 0,001). CONCLUSÃO: Conforme aumenta a gravidade da doença nos casos de COVID-19, o número de subconjuntos de células T diminui significativamente. A supressão da diferenciação de células T virgens para células T efetoras é o resultado do comprometimento grave das funções imunológicas adaptativas. As células T duplo-positivas CD4+CD8+ periféricas estavam notavelmente mais baixas em casos graves da doença e podem ser um marcador útil para predizer a severidade da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Cell Differentiation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Adaptive Immunity , Middle Aged
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(3): 151-159, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019551

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: HIV infection harms adaptive cellular immunity mechanisms. Long-term virological control by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of mycobacterial infections. Thus, we aimed to study cellular responses to mycobacterial antigens in 20 HIV-infected adolescents with at least one year of virological control (HIV-RNA <40 copies/mL) and 20 healthy adolescents. Methods: We evaluated CD8 and γδ T-cell degranulation by measurement of CD107a membrane expression after stimulation with lysates from BCG (10 µg/mL) and H37RA Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, 10 µg/mL). Immune activation and antigen-presenting ability were also assessed by determination of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 markers. Results: TCR γδ T-cell CD107a expression was similar between groups in response to mycobacterial antigens, and lower in the HIV-infected group in response to mitogen. Higher baseline HLA-DR expression and lower mycobacterial-stimulated expression was found within the HIV-infected group. Conclusions: Similar degranulation in stimulated CD8+ and TCR γδ T-cells from HIV-infected adolescents, when compared to healthy controls suggests long-term immunological preservation with immune reconstitution under successful cART. However, differences in HLA-DR expression may represent ongoing inflammation and lower specific responses in HIV-infected youth. These features may be relevant in the context of the precocity and severity of vertically acquired HIV infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Immunophenotyping , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Antigens, Bacterial/drug effects
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190101, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013318

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) is a disease caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) that mainly infects CD4 T cells-for example, those of the CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ [Treg] phenotype-where it inhibits forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) expression and promotes interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expression. However, the role it exerts on regulatory B cells (CD19+CD24hiCD38hi; Breg) is unknown. METHODS: The frequencies of Treg and Breg cells was evaluated and the Th1 profiles were assessed in TSP/HAM patients and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Low percentages of Breg cells and high production of IFN-γ were observed in patients compared to those in healthy control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of Breg cells in patients and the increase in the frequency of Th1 cells suggest an imbalance in the control of the inflammatory response that contributes to the immunopathogenesis of TSP/HAM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/virology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , Viral Load , B-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/virology
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 142-145, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039213

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The HIV-1 initial viral infection may present diverse clinical and laboratory course and lead to rapid, intermediate, or long-term progression. Among the group of non-progressors, the elite controllers are those who control the infection most effectively, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this paper, the TH1, TH2 and TH17 cytokines profiles are described, as well as clinical and laboratory aspects of an HIV-infected patient with undetectable viral load without antiretroviral therapy. Production of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17 was detected; in contrast IL-4 was identified. Host-related factors could help explain such a level of infection control, namely the differentiated modulation of the cellular immune response and a non-polarized cytokine response of the TH1 and TH2 profiles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , HIV-1 , HIV Long-Term Survivors , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/virology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Immunity, Cellular/immunology
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(11): 733-740, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894850

ABSTRACT

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a chronic disease caused by species of the protozoan Leishmania and characterised by the presence of ulcerated skin lesions. Both parasite and host factors affect the clinical presentation of the disease. The development of skin ulcers in CL is associated with an inflammatory response mediated by cells that control parasite growth but also contribute to pathogenesis. CD8+ T cells contribute to deleterious inflammatory responses in patients with CL through cytotoxic mechanisms. In addition, natural killer cells also limit Leishmania infections by production of interferon-γ and cytotoxicity. In this review, we focus on studies of cytotoxicity in CL and its contribution to the pathogenesis of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/parasitology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/parasitology , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic/immunology , Disease Models, Animal
6.
Clinics ; 72(11): 652-660, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890691

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The impact of Chagas disease (CD) in HIV-infected patients is relevant throughout the world. In fact, the characterization of the adaptive immune response in the context of co-infection is important for predicting the need for interventions in areas in which HIV and Chagas disease co-exist. METHODS: We described and compared the frequency of cytokine-producing T cells stimulated with soluble antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) using a cytometric assay for the following groups: individuals with chronic Chagas disease (CHR, n=10), those with Chagas disease and HIV infection (CO, n=11), those with only HIV (HIV, n=14) and healthy individuals (C, n=15). RESULTS: We found 1) a constitutively lower frequency of IL-2+ and IFN-γ+ T cells in the CHR group compared with the HIV, CO and healthy groups; 2) a suppressive activity of soluble T. cruzi antigen, which down-regulated IL-2+CD4+ and IFN-γ+CD4+ phenotypes, notably in the healthy group; 3) a down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines on CD8+ T cells in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease; and 4) a significant increase in IL-10+CD8+ cells distinguishing the indeterminate form from the cardiac/digestive form of Chagas disease, even in the presence of HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data suggest the presence of an immunoregulatory response in chronic Chagas disease, which seems to be driven by T. cruzi antigens. Our findings provide new insights into immunotherapeutic strategies for people living with HIV/AIDS and Chagas disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Chagas Disease/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , HIV Infections/complications , Chronic Disease , Chagas Disease/complications , Coinfection/immunology , Flow Cytometry
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 43-50, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65064

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify new immunogenic HLA-A*33;03-restricted epitopes from the human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E7 protein for immunotherapy against cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We synthesized fourteen overlapping 15-amino acid peptides and measured intracellular interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in PBMC and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) after sensitization with these peptides using flow cytometry and ELISpot assay. The immunogenicity of epitopes was verified using a ⁵¹Cr release assay with SNU1299 cells. RESULTS: Among the fourteen 15-amino acid peptides, E7₄₉₋₆₃ (RAHYNIVTFCCKCDS) demonstrated the highest IFN-γ production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and CD8+ CTLs sensitized with E7₄₉₋₆₃ showed higher cytotoxic effect against SNU1299 cells than did CD8+ CTLs sensitized with other peptides or a negative control group. Thirteen 9- or 10-amino acid overlapping peptides spanning E7₄₉₋₆₃, E7₅₀₋₅₉ (AHYNIVTFCC), and E7₅₂₋₆₁ (YNIVTFCCKC) induced significantly higher IFN-γ production and cytotoxic effects against SNU1299 cells than the other peptides and negative controls, and the cytotoxicity of E7₅₀₋₅₉- and E7₅₂₋₆₁-sensitized PBMCs was induced via the cytolytic effect of CD8+ CTLs. CONCLUSION: We identified E7₅₀₋₅₉ and E7₅₂₋₆₁ as novel HPV 16 E7 epitopes for HLA-A*33;03. CD8+ CTL sensitized with these peptides result in an antitumor effect against cervical cancer cells. These epitopes could be useful for immune monitoring and immunotherapy for cervical cancer and HPV 16-related diseases including anal cancer and oropharyngeal cancer.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Female , HLA-A Antigens , Human papillomavirus 16/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy
8.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 92(6): 581-587, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829128

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study is to define the predictors of chronic carditis in patients with acute rheumatic carditis (ARC). Methods: Patients diagnosed with ARC between May 2010 and May 2011 were included in the study. Echocardiography, electrocardiography, lymphocyte subset analysis, acute phase reactants, plasma albumin levels, and antistreptolysin-O (ASO) tests were performed at initial presentation. The echocardiographic assessments were repeated at the sixth month of follow-up. The patients were divided into two groups according to persistence of valvular pathology at 6th month as Group 1 and Group 2, and all clinical and laboratory parameters at admission were compared between two groups of valvular involvement. Results: During the one-year study period, 22 patients had valvular disease. Seventeen (77.2%) patients showed regression in valvular pathology. An initial mild regurgitation disappeared in eight patients (36.3%). Among seven (31.8%) patients with moderate regurgitation initially, the regurgitation disappeared in three, and four patients improved to mild regurgitation. Two patients with a severe regurgitation initially improved to moderate regurgitation (9.1%). In five (22.8%) patients, the grade of regurgitation [moderate regurgitation in one (4.6%), and severe regurgitation in 4 (18.2%)] remained unchanged. The albumin level was significantly lower at diagnosis in Group 2 (2.6 ± 0.48 g/dL). Lymphocyte subset analysis showed a significant decrease in the CD8 percentage and a significant increase in CD19 percentage at diagnosis in Group 2 compared to Group 1. Conclusion: The blood albumin level and the percentage of CD8 and CD19 (+) lymphocytes at diagnosis may help to predict chronic valvular disease risk in patients with acute rheumatic carditis.


Resumo Objetivo: Definir os preditores da cardite crônica em pacientes com cardite reumática aguda (CRA). Métodos: Os pacientes diagnosticados com CRA entre maio de 2010 e maio de 2011 foram incluídos no estudo. Foram feitos os testes de ecocardiografia, eletrocardiograma, uma análise do subgrupo de linfócitos, provas de fase aguda, níveis de albumina plasmática, antiestreptolisina-O (ASO) na manifestação inicial. As avaliações ecocardiográficas foram repetidas no 6º mês de acompanhamento. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a persistência da patologia valvular no 6º mês como Grupo 1 e Grupo 2 e todos os parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais na internação foram comparados entre dois grupos de comprometimento valvular. Resultados: Durante o período do estudo de um ano, 22 pacientes apresentaram doença valvular; 17 (77,2%) apresentaram regressão da patologia valvular. Houve desaparecimento de regurgitação moderada inicial em oito pacientes (36,3%). Entre sete (31,8%) pacientes com regurgitação moderada inicialmente, a regurgitação desapareceu em três e quatro apresentaram melhoria para regurgitação leve. Dois pacientes com regurgitação grave inicialmente apresentaram melhoria para regurgitação moderada (9,1%). Em cinco (22,8%) pacientes o grau de regurgitação (regurgitação moderada em um [4,6%] e regurgitação grave em quatro [18,2]) continuou inalterado. O nível de albumina foi significativamente menor no diagnóstico no Grupo 2 (2,6 ± 0,48 gr/dL). A análise do subgrupo de linfócitos mostrou uma redução significativa no percentual de CD8 e um aumento significativo no percentual de CD19 no Grupo 2 em comparação com o Grupo 1. Conclusão: O nível de albumina no sangue e o percentual de linfócitos CD8 e CD19 (+) no diagnóstico podem ajudar a prever risco de doença valvular crônica em pacientes com cardite reumática aguda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis , Rheumatic Heart Disease/diagnosis , Serum Albumin/analysis , Antigens, CD19/immunology , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/classification , Rheumatic Heart Disease/blood , Echocardiography, Doppler , Acute Disease , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Electrocardiography , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/classification , Myocarditis/blood , Antistreptolysin/blood
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42469

ABSTRACT

In allogeneic transplantation, including the B6 anti-BALB.B settings, H60 and H4 are two representative dominant minor histocompatibility antigens that induce strong CD8 T-cell responses. With different distribution patterns, H60 expression is restricted to hematopoietic cells, whereas H4 is ubiquitously expressed. H60-specific CD8 T-cell response has been known to be dominant in most cases of B6 anti-BALB.B allo-responses, except in the case of skin transplantation. To understand the mechanism underlying the subdominance of H60 during allogeneic skin transplantation, we investigated the dynamics of the H60-specific CD8 T cells in B6 mice transplanted with allogeneic BALB.B tail skin. Unexpectedly, longitudinal bioluminescence imaging and flow cytometric analyses revealed that H60-specific CD8 T cells were not always subdominant to H4-specific cells but instead showed a brief dominance before the H4 response became predominant. H60-specific CD8 T cells could expand in the draining lymph node and migrate to the BALB.B allografts, indicating their active participation in the anti-BALB.B allo-response. Enhancing the frequencies of H60-reactive CD8 T cells prior to skin transplantation reversed the immune hierarchy between H60 and H4. Additionally, H60 became predominant when antigen presentation was limited to the direct pathway. However, when antigen presentation was restricted to the indirect pathway, the expansion of H60-specific CD8 T cells was limited, whereas H4-specific CD8 T cells expanded significantly, suggesting that the temporary immunodominance and eventual subdominance of H60 could be due to their reliance on the direct antigen presentation pathway. These results enhance our understanding of the immunodominance phenomenon following allogeneic tissue transplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigen Presentation , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Graft Rejection/immunology , Interferon-gamma , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Mice , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/immunology , Skin Transplantation , Transplantation, Homologous
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207961

ABSTRACT

A novel recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vaccine co-expressed Eimeria tenella rhomboid and cytokine chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) was constructed, and its efficacy against E. tenella challenge was observed. The rhomboid gene of E. tenella and chIL-2 gene were subcloned into integrative expression vector pMV361, producing vaccines rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2. Animal experiment via intranasal and subcutaneous route in chickens was carried out to evaluate the immune efficacy of the vaccines. The results indicated that these rBCG vaccines could obviously alleviate cacal lesions and oocyst output. Intranasal immunization with pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 elicited better protective immunity against E. tenella than subcutaneous immunization. Splenocytes from chickens immunized with either rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 had increased CD4+ and CD8+ cell production. Our data indicate recombinant BCG is able to impart partial protection against E. tenella challenge and co-expression of cytokine with antigen was an effective strategy to improve vaccine immunity.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/genetics , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antigens, Protozoan/genetics , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Chickens , Coccidiosis/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Carriers/administration & dosage , Eimeria tenella/genetics , Genetic Vectors , Injections, Subcutaneous , Interleukin-2/genetics , Protozoan Vaccines/administration & dosage , Spleen/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
11.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 834-840, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187586

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate tumor-specific immunity and define the mechanisms involved in the cryoimmunologic response, we compared the tumor control efficacy and immunologic responses of cryoablation with those of surgical excision in a tumor rechallenge model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty BALB/c mice with RENCA tumors that were generated in the left flank area underwent cryoablation or radical excision. The mice successfully treated were rechallenged with RENCA or an undifferentiated colon carcinoma cell line, CT26, in the contralateral right flank area. The recurrence rate after tumor rechallenge in each group was then observed. To assess the immunologic response of each treatment modality, fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and a cytotoxicity assay using 51Cr release were performed. RESULTS: After reinoculation of the RENCA cells, the rate of tumor growth was significantly higher in the surgical excision group than in the cryoablation group (94.4% vs. 11.1%, p=0.001). In the cryoablation group, the tumor growth rate was significantly increased after rechallenge of CT26 cells compared with RENCA (94.1% vs. 11.1%, p=0.001). The cryoablation group showed an elevated CD3, CD4, CD8 T, and natural killer cell count in the FACS analysis and also showed significantly increased cytotoxicity in the 51Cr release assay compared with the excision group. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that cryoablation, compared to surgical resection, was more effective in preventing tumor growth after rechallenge with RENCA cells and that this response was tumor-specific, because the CT26 cells did not have the same effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/immunology , Cell Death , Cryosurgery/methods , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Disease Models, Animal , Kidney Neoplasms/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/immunology , Neoplasm Transplantation
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199828

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the effectiveness of rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) vaccination on the induction of antitumor immunity in a mouse lymphoma model using EG7-lymphoma cells expressing ovalbumin (OVA). BMDCs treated with RG-II had an activated phenotype. RG-II induced interleukin (IL)-12, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production during dendritic cell (DC) maturation. BMDCs stimulated with RG-II facilitate the proliferation of CD8+ T cells. Using BMDCs from the mice deficient in Toll-like receptors (TLRs), we revealed that RG-II activity is dependent on TLR4. RG-II showed a preventive effect of immunization with OVA-pulsed BMDCs against EG7 lymphoma. These results suggested that RG-II expedites the DC-based immune response through the TLR4 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Acute-Phase Proteins/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/metabolism , Animals , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Nucleus/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Neoplasms/immunology , Pectins/pharmacology , Phenotype , Protein Transport/drug effects , Receptors, Chemokine/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/cytology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/agonists
13.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2012 Jan-Mar 55(1): 22-27
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142170

ABSTRACT

Background: Hepatitis E is being increasingly recognized as an emerging infection in developed countries. Data on histological findings and nature of inflammatory cell infiltrate in liver in this disease are quite sparse. Aims: This study was planned to study the histological features and the type of inflammatory infiltrate in liver biopsies of patients with acute fulminant hepatitis E. Materials and Methods: We retrieved postmortem liver biopsies of 11 Indian patients with fulminant hepatitis E, and compared these with biopsies from seven patients with fulminant hepatitis B. Results : Biopsies from acute fulminant hepatitis E showed varying degrees of hepatocyte necrosis, mixed portal and lobular inflammation, accompanied by bile ductular proliferation, lymphocytic cholangitis, Kupffer cell prominence, cholestasis, apoptotic bodies, pseudo-rosette formation, steatosis, and presence of plasma cells in portal tracts. Interface hepatitis was more frequent in acute hepatitis B than in acute hepatitis E (100% vs 20%; P<0.05). These findings differ from those reported in cases with autochthonous hepatitis E in Europe. On immunohistochemistry, lymphocyte infiltrate consisted predominantly of CD3 + T cells in both hepatitis E and hepatitis B; these cells contained a predominant cytotoxic (CD8 + ) cell subpopulation in 81.8% of cases with hepatitis E and in 50% of cases with hepatitis B. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that histological changes in HEV infection may vary with geographical location because of prevalent HEV genotypes, and that CD8 + lymphocytes play a role in HEV-induced liver injury.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , CD3 Complex/analysis , Biopsy , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Child , Female , Hepatitis B/pathology , Hepatitis E/pathology , Histocytochemistry , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Liver/pathology , Male , Microscopy , Middle Aged , Young Adult
14.
Annals of Saudi Medicine. 2012; 32 (2): 162-168
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-118096

ABSTRACT

Vaccination during periods of lymphopenia may facilitate immune responses to weak self-antigens and enhance antitumor immunity. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of tumor vaccine immunotherapy combined with immune reconstruction using tumor-bearing host immune cells in lymphopenia, and to investigate the role of tumor-bearing host T cells activated in vitro during immunotherapy. Animal study conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from January 2009 to January 2010. Lymphopenia was induced by cyclophosphamide. A reconstituted immune system with different syngeneic lymphocytes was employed, including lymphocytes from naive rats [unsensitized group], tumor-bearing rats [tumor-bearing group], and tumor-bearing rats activated in vitro [activated group]. All rats were immunized with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]-modified NuTu-19 ovarian cancer [GM-CSF/NuTu-19] cells. Tumor vaccine-draining lymph nodes [TVDLNs] were harvested, and then stimulated to induce effector T cells [T[E]]. T[E] were then adoptively transferred to rats bearing a 3-day pre-established abdominal tumor [NuTu-19], and the survival rate was calculated. Compared with the unsensitized group, the levels of interleukin-2 [IL-2] were significantly lower in the tumor-bearing group, whereas that of IL-4 were significantly higher [P<.05]. The number of CD4+T cells secreting interferon-gamma and the specific cytotoxicity of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes were significantly lower [P<.05]. The survival was significantly higher in the activated group compared with the other groups. Lymphocytes from tumor-bearing rats activated in vitro can effectively reverse the immunosuppressive effects of tumor-bearing hosts


Subject(s)
Animals , Lymphopenia/chemically induced , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cyclophosphamide , Rats
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45627

ABSTRACT

In fascioliasis, T-helper 2 (Th2) responses predominate, while little is known regarding early immune phenomenon. We herein analyzed early immunophenotype changes of BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H/He mice experimentally infected with 5 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. A remarkable expansion of CD19+ B cells was observed as early as week 1 post-infection while CD4+/CD8+ T cells were down-regulated. Accumulation of Mac1+ cells with time after infection correlated well with splenomegaly of all mice strains tested. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA in splenocytes significantly decreased while that of IL-4 up-regulated. IL-1beta expression was down-modulated in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, but not in C3H/He. Serum levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta were considerably elevated in all mice during 3 weeks of infection period. These collective results suggest that experimental murine fascioliasis might derive immune suppression with elevated levels of TGF-beta and IL-4 during the early stages of infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Down-Regulation , Fasciola hepatica/immunology , Fascioliasis/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Immunosuppression , Interleukin-4/blood , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C3H , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spleen/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/blood
16.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2011 Oct-Dec; 29(4): 401-405
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143864

ABSTRACT

Purpose: In all CD4+/CD8+ T-cell estimation systems, the reagents used are liquid in nature and have to be transported and stored at 2°-8°C. This causes problems in countries where the ambient temperature is high for most parts of the year or where the laboratories are at remote places. Materials and Methods: We evaluated a dry format of CD4/CD8 reagents from ReaMetrix (Bangalore, India) against the existing liquid reagents from Becton Dickinson (San Jose, CA, USA) and Guava PCA system (Guava Technologies, Hayward, CA, USA). Blood samples collected during March 2009 through May 2009 from 102 HIV-infected individuals and 31 normal healthy individuals in a tertiary care centre in India (south) were tested by Guava; EasyCD4™ System (PCA) and FACSCount using the respective reagents and the corresponding ReaMetrix reagents. Results: Overall, the correlation (r) of the new Rea T Count and FACSCount reagents for the CD4+ T-cell estimation was 0.98, while with ReaPan 3 4 G reagent in the Guava PCA system with the Guava reagent was 0.97. The mean bias for CD4+ T-cell measurements between Rea T count and BD reagent was -6 cells/ml, while the same with ReaPan 3 4 G reagent in the Guava PCA system was 78 cells/ml. The mean bias for the Rea T count and the ReaPan 3 4 G reagent tested in the FACSCount and Guava PCA system was 17 cells. Conclusions: The dry reagents were found to be reliable and cheaper compared to the existing liquid reagents. This allows the transportation of reagents in the absence of cold chain and will facilitate a more user-friendly CD4+ T-cell testing system.


Subject(s)
Adult , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , India , Lymphocyte Count/methods , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222442

ABSTRACT

Relatively little has been studied on the AMA-1 vaccine against Plasmodium vivax and on the plasmid DNA vaccine encoding P. vivax AMA-1 (PvAMA-1). In the present study, a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding AMA-1 of the reemerging Korean P. vivax has been constructed and a preliminary study was done on its cellular immunogenicity to recipient BALB/c mice. The PvAMA-1 gene was cloned and expressed in the plasmid vector UBpcAMA-1, and a protein band of approximately 56.8 kDa was obtained from the transfected COS7 cells. BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly or using a gene gun 4 times with the vaccine, and the proportions of splenic T-cell subsets were examined by fluorocytometry at week 2 after the last injection. The spleen cells from intramuscularly injected mice revealed no significant changes in the proportions of CD8+ T-cells and CD4+ T-cells. However, in mice immunized using a gene gun, significantly higher (P<0.05) proportions of CD8+ cells were observed compared to UB vector-injected control mice. The results indicated that cellular immunogenicity of the plasmid DNA vaccine encoding AMA-1 of the reemerging Korean P. vivax was weak when it was injected intramuscularly; however, a promising effect was observed using the gene gun injection technique.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Protozoan/administration & dosage , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COS Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Membrane Proteins/administration & dosage , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Plasmodium vivax/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/administration & dosage , Protozoan Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the recent introduction of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies against cluster of differentiation (CD) 45 for the treatment of lymphoma, the clinical significance of the CD45 antigen has been increasing steadily. Here, we analyzed CD45 expression on lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry in order to predict the susceptibility of normal lymphocytes to RIT. METHODS: Peripheral blood specimens were collected from 14 healthy individuals aged 25-54 yr. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the cell surface antigens was measured using a FACSCanto II system (Becton Dickinson Bioscience, USA). MFI values were converted into antibody binding capacity values using a Quantum Simply Cellular microbead kit (Bangs Laboratories, Inc., USA). RESULTS: Among the lymphocyte subsets, the expression of CD45 was the highest (725,368+/-42,763) on natural killer T (NKT) cells, 674,030+/-48,187 on cytotoxic/suppressor T cells, 588,750+/-48,090 on natural killer (NK) cells, 580,211+/-29,168 on helper T (Th) cells, and 499,436+/-21,737 on B cells. The Th cells and NK cells expressed a similar level of CD45 (P=0.502). Forward scatter was the highest in NKT cells (P<0.05), whereas side scatter differed significantly between each of the lymphocyte subsets (P<0.05). CD3 expression was highest in the Th and NKT cells. CONCLUSIONS: NKT cells express the highest levels of CD45 antigen. Therefore, this lymphocyte subset would be most profoundly affected by RIT or pretargeted RIT. The monitoring of this lymphocyte subset during and after RIT should prove helpful.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies/immunology , Leukocyte Common Antigens/analysis , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate/chemistry , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphoma/radiotherapy , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , Protein Binding , Radioimmunotherapy , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the recent introduction of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies against cluster of differentiation (CD) 45 for the treatment of lymphoma, the clinical significance of the CD45 antigen has been increasing steadily. Here, we analyzed CD45 expression on lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry in order to predict the susceptibility of normal lymphocytes to RIT. METHODS: Peripheral blood specimens were collected from 14 healthy individuals aged 25-54 yr. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the cell surface antigens was measured using a FACSCanto II system (Becton Dickinson Bioscience, USA). MFI values were converted into antibody binding capacity values using a Quantum Simply Cellular microbead kit (Bangs Laboratories, Inc., USA). RESULTS: Among the lymphocyte subsets, the expression of CD45 was the highest (725,368+/-42,763) on natural killer T (NKT) cells, 674,030+/-48,187 on cytotoxic/suppressor T cells, 588,750+/-48,090 on natural killer (NK) cells, 580,211+/-29,168 on helper T (Th) cells, and 499,436+/-21,737 on B cells. The Th cells and NK cells expressed a similar level of CD45 (P=0.502). Forward scatter was the highest in NKT cells (P<0.05), whereas side scatter differed significantly between each of the lymphocyte subsets (P<0.05). CD3 expression was highest in the Th and NKT cells. CONCLUSIONS: NKT cells express the highest levels of CD45 antigen. Therefore, this lymphocyte subset would be most profoundly affected by RIT or pretargeted RIT. The monitoring of this lymphocyte subset during and after RIT should prove helpful.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies/immunology , Leukocyte Common Antigens/analysis , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate/chemistry , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphoma/radiotherapy , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , Protein Binding , Radioimmunotherapy , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62042

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii KI-1, a recent new isolate from Korea, shows similar pathogenicity and infectivity to mice compared to the virulent RH strain. To understand characteristics of host immunity, including immune enhancement or suppression, we investigated proliferative responses and phenotypes of spleen cells. In addition, kinetics of IFN-gamma, a Th1 cytokine, was examined in BALB/c mice up to day 6 post-infection (PI). Intraperitoneal injection of mice with 103 KI-1 tachyzoites induced significant decreases (P < 0.05) in proliferative responses of spleen cells. This occurred at days 2-6 PI even when concanavalin A (con A) was added and when stimulated with KI-1 antigen, suggesting suppression of the immunity. CD4+ T-cells decreased markedly at day 2 PI (P < 0.05), whereas CD8+ T-cells, NK cells, and macrophages did not show significant changes, except a slight, but significant, increase of CD8+ T-cells at day 6 PI. The capacity of splenocytes to produce IFN-gamma by con A stimulation dropped significantly at days 2-6 PI. These results demonstrate that intraperitoneal injection of KI-1 tachyzoites can induce immunosuppression during the early stage of infection, as revealed by the decrease of CD4+ T-cells and IFN-gamma.


Subject(s)
Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Proliferation , Female , Immune Tolerance , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Spleen/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology
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