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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 312-320, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878564

ABSTRACT

To enhance recombinant protein production by CHO cells, We compared the impact of overexpression of metabolic enzymes, namely pyruvate carboxylase 2 (PYC2), malate dehydrogenase Ⅱ (MDH2), alanine aminotransferase Ⅰ (ALT1), ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase Ⅰ (CPSⅠ), and metabolism related proteins, namely taurine transporter (TAUT) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb), on transient expression of anti-hLAG3 by ExpiCHO-S. Overexpression of these 7 proteins could differentially enhance antibody production. OTC, CPSI, MDH2, and PYC2 overexpression could improve antibody titer by 29.2%, 27.6%, 24.1%, and 20.3%, respectively. Specifically, OTC and MDH2 could obviously improve early-stage antibody production rate and the culture period was shortened by 4 days compared with that of the control. In addition, OTC and MDH2 had little impact on the affinity of anti-hLAG3. In most cases, overexpression of these proteins had little impact on the cell growth of ExpiCHO-S. MDH2 and ALT1 overexpression in H293T cells could also improve antibody production. Overall, overexpression of enzymes involved in cellular metabolism is an effective tool to improve antibody production in transient expression system.


Subject(s)
Animals , CHO Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Enzymes/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 86-94, nov. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the workhorse for obtaining recombinant proteins. Proteomic studies of these cells intend to understand cell biology and obtain more productive and robust cell lines for therapeutic protein production in the pharmaceutical industry. Because of the great importance of precipitation methods for the processing of samples in proteomics, the acetone, methanol-chloroform (M/C), and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-acetone protocols were compared for CHO cells in terms of protein recovery, band pattern resolution, and presence on SDS-PAGE. RESULTS: Higher recovery and similar band profile with cellular homogenates were obtained using acetone precipitation with ultrasonic bath cycles (104.18 ± 2.67%) or NaOH addition (103.12 ± 5.74%), compared to the other two protocols tested. TCA-acetone precipitates were difficult to solubilize, which negatively influenced recovery percentage (77.91 ± 8.79%) and band presence. M/C with ultrasonic homogenization showed an intermediate recovery between the other two protocols (94.22 ± 4.86%) without affecting protein pattern on SDS-PAGE. These precipitation methods affected the recovery of low MW proteins (< 15 kDa). CONCLUSIONS: These results help in the processing of samples of CHO cells for their proteomic study by means of an easily accessible, fast protocol, with an almost complete recovery of cellular proteins and the capture of the original complexity of the cellular composition. Acetone protocol could be incorporated to sample-preparation workflows in a straightforward manner and can probably be applied to other mammalian cell lines as well.


Subject(s)
Animals , Recombinant Proteins , CHO Cells , Proteomics/methods , Acetone , Chemical Precipitation , Solubility , Trichloroacetic Acid , Cell Separation , Chloroform , Cell Culture Techniques , Methanol , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1041-1050, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826872

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the demand of biologics has increased rapidly. Cell culture process with perfusion mode has become more and more popular due to its high productivity, good quality and high efficiency. In this paper, the unique operation and the details of process optimization for perfusion culture mode are discussed by comparing with traditional batch culture process. Meanwhile, the progress and strategies in the development and optimization of perfusion culture process in recent years are summarized to provide reference for the future development of mammalian cell perfusion culture technology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Batch Cell Culture Techniques , Bioreactors , Reference Standards , CHO Cells , Cricetulus , Mammals , Perfusion
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1209-1215, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826857

ABSTRACT

Bioreactors have been central in monoclonal antibodies and vaccines manufacturing by mammalian cells in suspension culture. Numerical simulation of five impeller combinations in a stirred bioreactor was conducted, and characteristics of velocity vectors, distributions of gas hold-up, distributions of shear rate in the bioreactor using 5 impeller combinations were numerically elucidated. In addition, genetically engineered CHO cells were cultivated in bioreactor installed with 5 different impeller combinations in fed-batch culture mode. The cell growth and antibody level were directly related to the maximum shear rate in the bioreactor, and the highest viable cell density and the peak antibody level were achieved in FBMI3 impeller combination, indicating that CHO cells are sensitive to shear force produced by impeller movement when cells were cultivated in bioreactor at large scale, and the maximum shear rate would play key roles in scaling-up of bioreactor at industrial scale.


Subject(s)
Animals , Batch Cell Culture Techniques , Bioreactors , Reference Standards , CHO Cells , Cell Count , Computer Simulation , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Industrial Microbiology , Methods
5.
Biol. Res ; 53: 52, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most commonly used mammalian host cell In the commercial-scale production of biopharmaceutical proteins. Modification of genes involved in apoptosis may improve the productivity of CHO cells. Executive caspases, including caspases 3 and 7, play critical roles in apoptosis. The effects of the ablation of the caspase 7 gene on proliferation and viability of CHO cells remains unknown. In this study, we applied clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9) to target caspase 7 gene of CHO K1 cell via all in one and homology targeted integration strategies. Consequently, the effect of caspase 7 deficiency on cell proliferation, viability, and apoptosis was studied by MTT assay and flow cytometry. RESULTS: Findings of gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and sequencing confirmed the caspase 7 gene silencing in CHO cells (CHO-KO). Proliferation assay revealed that caspase 7 deficiency in CHO cells resulted in the reduction of proliferation in various CHO-KO clones. Besides, the disruption of caspase 7 had negative effects on cell viability in exposure with NaBu which confirmed by MTT assay. Results of flow cytometry using Anexin V/PI demonstrated that Nabu treatment (11 mM) declined the percentage of live CHO-K1 and CHO-KO cells to 70.3% and 5.79%. These results verified that the CHO-K1 cells were more resistant to apoptosis than CHO-KO, however most of CHO-KO cells undergone early apoptosis (91.9%) which seems to be a fascinating finding. CONCLUSION: These results reveal that caspase 7 may be involved in the cell cycle progression of CHO cells. Furthermore, it seems that targeting caspase 7 is not the ideal route as it had previously been imagined within the prevention of apoptosis but the relation between caspase 7 deficiency, cell cycle arrest, and the occurrence of early apoptosis will require more investigation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Survival , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Caspase 7/deficiency , Cricetulus , Cricetinae , CHO Cells , Caspase 7/genetics
6.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 504-510, Sep.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286551

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a multifactorial disease that constitutes a serious public health problem worldwide. Prostate cancer advanced stages are associated with the development of androgen-independent tumors and an apoptosis-resistant phenotype that progresses to metastasis. By studying androgen-independent lymphoid nodule carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) cells induced to apoptosis by serum elimination, we identified the activation of a non-selective cationic channel of 23pS conductance that promotes incoming Ca2+ currents, as well as apoptosis final stages. arp2cDNA was isolated and identified to be of the same cell type, and mRNA was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, which was found to be associated with the activation of incoming Ca2+ currents and induction to apoptosis. cDNA, which encodes the ARP2 protein, was overexpressed in LNCaP cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells, which induced apoptosis. Our evidence suggests that protein ARP2 overexpression and transit to the cell membrane allows an increased Ca2+ incoming current that initiates the apoptosis process in epithelial-type cells whose phenotype shows resistance to programmed cell death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Calcium/metabolism , Apoptosis/physiology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Ovum/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Xenopus laevis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cricetulus , CHO Cells , DNA, Complementary/isolation & purification , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/isolation & purification
7.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 56-59, sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087166

ABSTRACT

Background: Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most dependable mammalian cells for the production of recombinant proteins. Replication-incompetent retroviral vector (retrovector) is an efficient tool to generate stable cell lines. Multiple copies of integrated genes by retrovector transduction results in improved recombinant protein yield. HEK-293 and their genetic derivatives are principal cells for retrovector production. Retrovectors packaged in HEK-293 cells pose a risk of infectious agent transmission, such as viruses and mycoplasmas, from serum and packaging cells. Results: In this report, retrovectors were packaged in CHO cells cultured in chemically defined (CD) media. The retrovectors were then used to transduce CHO cells. This method can block potential transmission of infectious agents from serum and packaging cells. With this method, we generated glucagon-like protein-1 Fc fusion protein (GLP-1-Fc) stable expression CHO cell lines. Productivity of GLP-1-Fc can reach 3.15 g/L. The GLP-1-Fc protein produced by this method has comparable bioactivity to that of dulaglutide (Trulicity). These stable cell lines retain 95­100% of productivity after 40 days of continuous culture (~48­56 generations). Conclusions: Suspension CHO cells are clean, safe, and reliable cells for retrovector packaging. Retrovectors packaged from this system could be used to generate CHO stable cell lines for recombinant protein expression.


Subject(s)
Retroviridae , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , CHO Cells/metabolism , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments , Cell Line , Chromatography, Gel/methods , Disease Vectors , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Batch Cell Culture Techniques
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1071-1078, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771821

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the chimeric intron in different directions on the expression of the nerve growth factor (NGF) in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The chimeric intron that contained the splice sequence of the first intron of the human β-globin and the human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region intron was used. NGF gene was cloned into the expression vectors containing the chimeric intron in the forward or reverse direction, followed by transfecting into CHO cells, and screened under G418 to produce the stable transfected CHO cells. Fluorescence quantitative PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting were performed to detect the recombinant NGF gene expression in CHO cells. The results showed that the chimeric introns could significantly enhance the expression of NGF in recombinant CHO cells. Moreover, the enhancing effect on NGF expression level by the intron in the forward direction showed stronger than that of the reverse direction both at mRNA and protein level. In conclusion, the chimeric intron could increase NGF expression in stably transfected CHO cells and the effect is associated with the direction of the intron insertion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , CHO Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Gene Expression , Humans , Introns , Transfection
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774331

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish 293T cell lines stably expressing Calpain-cleavage related α3 cytoplasmic tail mutants, and to explore the effect of amino acid motifs in integrin β3 cytoplasmic tail on αⅡbβ3-mediated cell function.@*METHODS@#293T cell lines stably co-expressing human wild type integrin αⅡb and full length β3 or mutant β3, including β3-ΔNITY (β3 cytoplasmic tail NITY motif deleted), β3-Δ754 (β3 cytoplasmic tail TNITYRGT motif deleted) and β3-Δ759 (β3 cytoplasmic tail RGT motif deleted) were established. Spreading and adhesion of these stable cell lines on immobilized fibrinogen were tested.@*RESULTS@#293T-αⅡbβ3ΔNITY, 293T-αⅡbβ3Δ754, 293T-αⅡbβ3Δ759 and 293T-αⅡbβ3 cell lines were successfully established. Compared with the 293T cells, 293T-αⅡbβ3 cells which expressed full β3, possessed well adhesion and spread ability on immobilized fibrinogen, suggesting it can be as a surrogate for platelet. Compared with 293T-αⅡbβ3 cells, the 293T-αⅡbβ3ΔNITY cells showed a partial impairment of adhesion and spreadability on immobilized fibrinogen. while the 293T-αⅡbβ3Δ754 cells and 293T-αⅡbβ3Δ759 cells failed to adhere or spread on immobilized fibrinogen.@*CONCLUSION@#To the cell spreading function mediated by integrin β3, RGT motif is vital, while NITY can be dispensable. These established 293T cell lines stably expressing different β3 mutants provide a solid basis for a further analysis of mass spectrometry.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Motifs , Animals , CHO Cells , Cell Adhesion , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Integrin beta3 , Genetics , Metabolism , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex , Genetics , Metabolism , Signal Transduction
10.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 93 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-998850

ABSTRACT

O fator de crescimento transformante beta tipo 1, TGF-ß1, é uma proteína extracelular homodimérica secretada por vários tipos celulares, que pode ter ação parácrina ou endócrina. Essa proteína está envolvida em processos celulares de diferenciação, proliferação, mobilidade e formação de matriz extracelular. Além disso, é parte importante dos processos de regeneração tecidual, atuando, de maneira decisiva, no reparo, atraindo macrófagos e fibroblastos para o local da injúria e estimulando a angiogênese. Assim, considerando o papel desse peptídeo no processo regenerativo, o uso de TGF-ß1 como proteína terapêutica na área de Bioengenharia Tecidual é bastante promissor. Apesar disso, a venda dessa proteína, para fins terapêuticos, é inexistente no mercado e a proteína recombinante vendida, que só pode ser utilizada em pesquisas científicas, não é produzida nacionalmente e chega a custar R$200.000,00/mg. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente trabalho é desenvolver uma metodologia de produção do fator recombinante TGF-ß1 em células de ovário de hamster chinês (CHO), visando à obtenção de níveis altos de rendimento, e, futuramente, a transferência da tecnologia de produção para a iniciativa privada, tornando possível seu uso na Medicina Regenerativa, sozinho ou em combinação com outros fatores de crescimento. O cDNA de TGF-ß1 foi amplificado a partir de um banco de cDNA humano e clonado no vetor proprietário pNU1 de expressão de mamífero. A construção pNU1/TGF-ß1 foi utilizada para transfectar estavelmente células CHO DG44 e uma estratégia de co-amplificação foi utilizada para selecionar células transfectantes com maior número de cópias da sequência correspondente a TGF-ß1. Estas culturas foram submetidas ao processo de amplificação gênica com concentrações crescentes de metotrexato. Ensaios de Western Blot e ELISA foram realizados utilizando-se o meio condicionado pelas populações selecionadas e por clones superprodutores. Entre os 41clones obtidos, cinco apresentaram maiores níveis de produção de TGF-ß1, entre 1.000 e 2.000 ng/mL. Estes clones foram selecionados para a realização de testes de atividade in vitro utilizando-se células A549, que permitem avaliar a transição epitélio-mesênquima. Um ensaio de cicatrização de feridas em peles do dorso de camundongos foi padronizado e utilizado para avaliar a atividade in vivo do clone que apresentou melhor resultado in vitro. A proteína TGF-ß1 foi parcialmente purificada por HPLC em uma coluna de afinidade. Portanto, a proteína TGF-ß1 humana recombinante foi produzida, apresentando atividade biológica in vitro e in vivo, sendo capaz de reparar eficientemente feridas cutâneas. Essa iniciativa pode oferecer aos pacientes uma alternativa para o tratamento de lesões teciduais, acelerando a cicatrização de feridas e o reparo de tecidos


The transforming growth factor beta 1, TGF-ß1, is a homodimeric extracellular protein secreted by several cell types, which may have paracrine or endocrine action. This protein is involved in cellular processes of differentiation, proliferation, mobility and formation of extracellular matrix. In addition, it is an important part of the tissue regeneration processes, acting decisively on repair, attracting macrophages and fibroblasts to the site of injury and stimulating angiogenesis. Therefore, considering the role of this peptide in the regenerative process and the use of TGF-ß1 as a therapeutic protein in the field of Tissue Bioengineering is very promising. Despite this, the sale of this protein for therapeutic purposes is nonexistent in the market and the recombinant protein available in the market, which can only be used in scientific research, is not produced nationally and the costs are in the order of R$ 200,000.00/mg. In this context, the objective of the present work is to develop a methodology for the production of the TGF-ß1 recombinant factor in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, aiming at obtaining high yields, and, in the future, transfering the production technology to the private initiative, allowing its use in Regenerative Medicine, alone or in combination with other growth factors. The TGF-ß1 cDNA was amplified from a human cDNA library and cloned into the proprietary pNU1 mammalian expression vector. The pNU1/TGF-ß1 construct was used to stably transfect CHO DG44 cells, and a co-amplification strategy was used to select transfectant cells with the largest number of gene copies. These cultures were subjected to the process of gene amplification with methotrexate. Western Blot and ELISA were used to assay the conditioned medium obtained from the selected cell populations and from overproducing cell clones. Among the 41 clones obtained, five presented higher levels of TGF-ß1 production, between 1,000 and 2,000 ng/mL. These clones were selected for in vitro activity testing using A549 cells to evaluate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Awound healing assay on mouse dorsal skin was standardized and used to evaluate the in vivo activity of the cell clone which displayed the highest result in vitro. The TGF-ß1 protein was partially purified by HPLC on an affinity column. Therefore, the recombinant human TGF-ß1 protein was produced and shown to display biological activity both in vitro and in vivo, being able to eficiently repair cutaneous wounds. This initiative may provide patients with an alternative treatment for tissue damage, accelerating wound healing and tissue repair


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , CHO Cells/cytology , Production of Products , Regenerative Medicine/classification , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/agonists , Mammals , In Vitro Techniques , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/statistics & numerical data , Blotting, Western/statistics & numerical data , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation
11.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 93 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-967928

ABSTRACT

O fator de crescimento transformante beta tipo 1, TGF-ß1, é uma proteína extracelular homodimérica secretada por vários tipos celulares, que pode ter ação parácrina ou endócrina. Essa proteína está envolvida em processos celulares de diferenciação, proliferação, mobilidade e formação de matriz extracelular. Além disso, é parte importante dos processos de regeneração tecidual, atuando, de maneira decisiva, no reparo, atraindo macrófagos e fibroblastos para o local da injúria e estimulando a angiogênese. Assim, considerando o papel desse peptídeo no processo regenerativo, o uso de TGF-ß1 como proteína terapêutica na área de Bioengenharia Tecidual é bastante promissor. Apesar disso, a venda dessa proteína, para fins terapêuticos, é inexistente no mercado e a proteína recombinante vendida, que só pode ser utilizada em pesquisas científicas, não é produzida nacionalmente e chega a custar R$200.000,00/mg. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente trabalho é desenvolver uma metodologia de produção do fator recombinante TGF-ß1 em células de ovário de hamster chinês (CHO), visando à obtenção de níveis altos de rendimento, e, futuramente, a transferência da tecnologia de produção para a iniciativa privada, tornando possível seu uso na Medicina Regenerativa, sozinho ou em combinação com outros fatores de crescimento. O cDNA de TGF-ß1 foi amplificado a partir de um banco de cDNA humano e clonado no vetor proprietário pNU1 de expressão de mamífero. A construção pNU1/TGF-ß1 foi utilizada para transfectar estavelmente células CHO DG44 e uma estratégia de co-amplificação foi utilizada para selecionar células transfectantes com maior número de cópias da sequência correspondente a TGF-ß1. Estas culturas foram submetidas ao processo de amplificação gênica com concentrações crescentes de metotrexato. Ensaios de Western Blot e ELISA foram realizados utilizando-se o meio condicionado pelas populações selecionadas e por clones superprodutores. Entre os 41clones obtidos, cinco apresentaram maiores níveis de produção de TGF-ß1, entre 1.000 e 2.000 ng/mL. Estes clones foram selecionados para a realização de testes de atividade in vitro utilizando-se células A549, que permitem avaliar a transição epitélio-mesênquima. Um ensaio de cicatrização de feridas em peles do dorso de camundongos foi padronizado e utilizado para avaliar a atividade in vivo do clone que apresentou melhor resultado in vitro. A proteína TGF-ß1 foi parcialmente purificada por HPLC em uma coluna de afinidade. Portanto, a proteína TGF-ß1 humana recombinante foi produzida, apresentando atividade biológica in vitro e in vivo, sendo capaz de reparar eficientemente feridas cutâneas. Essa iniciativa pode oferecer aos pacientes uma alternativa para o tratamento de lesões teciduais, acelerando a cicatrização de feridas e o reparo de tecidos


The transforming growth factor beta 1, TGF-ß1, is a homodimeric extracellular protein secreted by several cell types, which may have paracrine or endocrine action. This protein is involved in cellular processes of differentiation, proliferation, mobility and formation of extracellular matrix. In addition, it is an important part of the tissue regeneration processes, acting decisively on repair, attracting macrophages and fibroblasts to the site of injury and stimulating angiogenesis. Therefore, considering the role of this peptide in the regenerative process and the use of TGF-ß1 as a therapeutic protein in the field of Tissue Bioengineering is very promising. Despite this, the sale of this protein for therapeutic purposes is nonexistent in the market and the recombinant protein available in the market, which can only be used in scientific research, is not produced nationally and the costs are in the order of R$ 200,000.00/mg. In this context, the objective of the present work is to develop a methodology for the production of the TGF-ß1 recombinant factor in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, aiming at obtaining high yields, and, in the future, transfering the production technology to the private initiative, allowing its use in Regenerative Medicine, alone or in combination with other growth factors. The TGF-ß1 cDNA was amplified from a human cDNA library and cloned into the proprietary pNU1 mammalian expression vector. The pNU1/TGF-ß1 construct was used to stably transfect CHO DG44 cells, and a co-amplification strategy was used to select transfectant cells with the largest number of gene copies. These cultures were subjected to the process of gene amplification with methotrexate. Western Blot and ELISA were used to assay the conditioned medium obtained from the selected cell populations and from overproducing cell clones. Among the 41 clones obtained, five presented higher levels of TGF-ß1 production, between 1,000 and 2,000 ng/mL. These clones were selected for in vitro activity testing using A549 cells to evaluate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Awound healing assay on mouse dorsal skin was standardized and used to evaluate the in vivo activity of the cell clone which displayed the highest result in vitro. The TGF-ß1 protein was partially purified by HPLC on an affinity column. Therefore, the recombinant human TGF-ß1 protein was produced and shown to display biological activity both in vitro and in vivo, being able to eficiently repair cutaneous wounds. This initiative may provide patients with an alternative treatment for tissue damage, accelerating wound healing and tissue repair


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , CHO Cells/chemistry , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Blotting, Western/instrumentation , Regenerative Medicine/trends , Latent TGF-beta Binding Proteins
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786975

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a key role in endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, and atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess blood clearance and in vivo kinetics of radiolabeled oxLDL in mice.METHODS: We synthesized ¹²³I-oxLDL by the iodine monochloride method, and performed an uptake study in CHO cells transfected with lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). In addition, we evaluated the consistency between the ¹²³I-oxLDL autoradiogram and the fluorescence image of DiI-oxLDL after intravenous injection for both spleen and liver. Whole-body dynamic planar images were acquired 10 min post injection of ¹²³I-oxLDL to generate regional time-activity curves (TACs) of the liver, heart, lungs, kidney, head, and abdomen. Regional radioactivity for those excised tissues as well as the bladder, stomach, gut, and thyroid were assessed using a gamma counter, yielding percent injected dose (%ID) and dose uptake ratio (DUR). The presence of ¹²³I-oxLDL in serum was assessed by radio-HPLC.RESULTS: The cellular uptakes of ¹²³I-oxLDL were identical to those of DiI-oxLDL, and autoradiograms and fluorescence images also exhibited consistent distributions. TACs after injection of ¹²³I-oxLDL demonstrated extremely fast kinetics. The radioactivity uptake at 10 min postinjection was highest in the liver (40.8 ± 2.4% ID). Notably, radioactivity uptake was equivalent throughout the rest of the body (39.4 ± 2.7% ID). HPLC analysis revealed no remaining ¹²³I-oxLDL or its metabolites in the blood.CONCLUSION: ¹²³I-OxLDL was widely distributed not only in the liver, but also throughout the whole body, providing insight into the pathophysiological effects of oxLDL.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Animals , Atherosclerosis , CHO Cells , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cricetinae , Fluorescence , Head Kidney , Heart , Inflammation , Injections, Intravenous , Iodine , Kinetics , Lipoproteins , Liver , Lung , Methods , Mice , Radioactivity , Spleen , Stomach , Thyroid Gland , Urinary Bladder
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 27: 55-62, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010296

ABSTRACT

Background: To reduce costs associated with productivity of recombinant proteins in the biopharmaceutical industry, research has been focused on regulatory principals of growth and survival during the production phases of the cell culture. The main strategies involve the regulation of cell proliferation by the modulation of cell cycle control points (G1/S or G2/M) with mild hypothermia and the addition of sodium butyrate (NaBu). In this study, batch culture strategies were evaluated using CHO TF 70R cells producing the recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rh-tPA), to observe their individual and combined effect on the cellular physiological state and relevant kinetic parameters. Results: NaBu addition has a negative effect on the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), the values of which are remarkably diminished in cultures exposed to this cytotoxic compound. This effect was not reflected in a loss of cell viability. NaBu and mild hypothermic conditions increased the doubling time in the cell cultures, suggesting that these strategies triggered a general slowing of each cell cycle phase in a different way. Finally, the individual and combined effect of NaBu and mild hypothermia produced an increase in the specific rh-tPA productivity in comparison to the control at 37°C without NaBu. Nevertheless, both strategies did not have a synergistic effect on the specific productivity. Conclusions: The combination of NaBu addition and mild hypothermic condition causes an impact on physiological and metabolic state of CHO TF 70R cells, decreasing cell growth rate and improving glucose consumption efficiency. These results therefore provide a promising strategy to increase specific productivity of rh-tPA.


Subject(s)
Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , CHO Cells/metabolism , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/metabolism , Butyric Acid/metabolism , Hypothermia , Cell Cycle , Cell Survival , CHO Cells/physiology , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/biosynthesis , Cell Proliferation , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345329

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To generate recombinant GPⅢa as an alternative source for HPA-1a antigen and combine it with Luminex xMAP beads for the detection of HPA-1a-specific alloantibody.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The full coding region of ITGB3 gene was amplified and ligated with pcDNA3.1. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CHO cells, and those with stable expression were screened with G418. Expressed protein was identified and coupled with Luminex xMAP beads, which were then reacted with sera samples. Subsequently, phycoerythrin-labeled anti-species IgG antibody was added to the reaction wells and the median fluorescence was determined on a Luminex-100 analyzer.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>DNA sequencing confirmed that the cloned ITGB3 gene was HPA-1aa. The recombinant GPⅢa was coupled with Luminex xMAP beads. The sensitivity of Luminex beads assay to detect HPA-1a antibody was dilution 1/32 (3.125 U/mL). The Luminex beads assay could specifically identify the HPA-1a antibody from the test sera, and the results were consistent with that of monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA) technology. Cross-reactivity was not observed with the samples containing HLA, ABO and other HPA antibodies (HPA-3a and HPA-5b). The results illustrated that to detect HPA antibody with Luminex xMAP beads technology is feasible.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Recombinant GPⅢa was successfully obtained and used to establish a Luminex technology-based method for the detection of HPA antibodies.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Human Platelet , Allergy and Immunology , Autoantibodies , Allergy and Immunology , Base Sequence , Blotting, Western , CHO Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humans , Immunoassay , Methods , Integrin beta3 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Microspheres , Recombinant Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Reproducibility of Results
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-323783

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate whether inhalable particulate matters can cause the damage of chromosome or mitotic apparatus to produce micronucleus, and to evaluate genetic toxicology of moxa smoke on chromosome.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>By MTT method, the 24 h half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxa smoke condensation (MSC) on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was 0.087 mg/mL. CHO cells, which were cultured in vitro, were divided into a solvent control group, a positive control group (cyclophosphamide as solvent), a low concentration group, a moderate concentration group and a high concentration group. The low concentration group, moderate concentration group and high concentration group were set approximately 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 of IC50, respectively. Whether micronucleus had dose-effect response induced by the damage of chromosome or mitotic apparatus was observed after CHO cells were contaminated by MSC in the low concentration group, moderate concentration group and high concentration group.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The rate of micronucleus induced by MSC in the low concentration group, moderate concentration group and high concentration group was higher than that in the solvent control group (all P < 0.05), which presented dosage-effect response. The experiment was repeated 3 times, indicating it was repeatable with statistical significance.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>High concentration of MSC shows toxicity to induce chromosome damage, which disappears at low concentration. The genetic toxicology is also dependent on concentration, and the concentration of moxa smoke is essential. In clinical treatment, it is noted to control the level of moxa smoke, while the clinical safety standard of moxa smoke concentration is in need of further study.</p>


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Animals , CHO Cells , Cell Nucleus , Genetics , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Inhalation Exposure , Micronucleus Tests , Moxibustion , Particulate Matter , Smoke
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296539

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the hepatitis B immunoprophylactic failure rate in infants born to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected mothers and to characterize HBV genes.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>HBV-serological testing was conducted for pregnant women and infants. The complete genomes of 30 HBV isolates were sequenced, and genetic characteristics were analyzed using MEGA 5 software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The immunoprophylactic failure rate for infants who had completed the scheduled hepatitis B vaccination program was 5.76% (32/556). High sequence homology (99.8%-100%) was observed in 8 of the 10 mother-infant pairs. We identified 19 subgenotype C2 strains, 9 subgenotype B2 strains, and 2 subgenotype C1 strains. Three serotypes were detected: adr (19/30), adw (9/30), and ayw (2/30). The frequency of amino acid mutation of the 'a' determinant region was 16.67% (5/30), including that of Q129H, F134Y, S136Y, and G145E. We detected 67 amino acid mutations in the basal core promoter, precore, and core regions of the genome.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The immunoprophylactic failure rate in infants born to HBV-infected mothers is low in the regions of China examined during this study. Moreover, HBV mutation in the 'a' determinant region could not account for immunoprophylactic failure for all infants.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , CHO Cells , China , Epidemiology , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Female , Hepatitis B , Epidemiology , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Therapeutic Uses , Hepatitis B virus , Genetics , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mutation , Phylogeny , Pregnancy , Treatment Failure , Young Adult
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287959

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the function of a novel nonsense mutation c.1476G>A of ITGB3 gene using an in vitro expression system.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>An eukaryotic expression vector containing ITGB3 c.1476G>A cDNA was generated by site-directed mutagenesis and transformed into E.coli. Plasmid DNA was extracted and sequenced to confirm the target mutations. Wild-type and mutant recombination plasmids were transfected into Chinese hamster ovarian cancer (CHO) cells by nonliposome method, and the stable expression cells were harvested by G418 screening. The ITGB3 gene mRNA transcription and GPIIIa expression level in CHO cells were detected with real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting and flow cytometry, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The eukaryotic expression vectors of wild ITGB3 cDNA and c.1476G>A mutant were successfully constructed. CHO cells with stable expression were obtained after transfection and screening. Compared with the wild-type transfected cells, the amount of CD61 antigen expression was 37% and mRNA transcription level was only 6% in the mutant-transfected cells. Full length GPIIIa protein was found only in the stably wild-type-transfected cells, but not in mutant-transfected cells by Western blotting analysis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The ITGB3 c.1476G>A mutation can decrease the transcription level and further affect GPIIIa synthesis and CD61 antigen expression.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , Blood Platelets , Cell Biology , Metabolism , CHO Cells , Cloning, Molecular , Codon, Nonsense , Genetics , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humans , Integrin beta3 , Genetics , Metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Plasmids , Genetics , Metabolism , Point Mutation
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(4): 291-294, July 2015. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757866

ABSTRACT

Background Polycosanols derived from plant species have traditionally been used in medicine as antiproliferative agents for treating various viruses (primarily the herpes simplex virus). However, few studies have studied their effects on hyperproliferative cell lines. In this work, the antiproliferative capacity of polycosanols from tall-oil pitch, obtained from black liquor soaps in the kraft pulping process of cellulose (specifically from Pinus radiata, Pinus taede, and Eucalyptus globulus), was evaluated on CHO-K1 and CRL-1974 human melanoma cell lines. Results The proliferative capacities and cell viabilities were measured for 72 and 140 h, respectively. Treatment with docosanol produced differential effects on the CHO-K1 and human melanoma cells and significantly affected their proliferation rates, but not their cell viabilities. Tetracosanol produced a significant negative effect on the proliferation of human melanoma cells, and this effect was less than that caused by docosanol. However, it had no effect on the proliferation of CHO-K1 cells and did not induce any significant effect on the viability of the studied cell lines. Conclusion Docosanol and tetracosanol induced antiproliferative effects on the studied cell lines and exhibited significantly greater effects on the oncogenic cell lines. Prior to this study, the capacity of these polycosanols has never been investigated. Future studies will be necessary to determine their mechanisms of action on these cell systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Oils , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Fatty Alcohols/pharmacology , Fatty Alcohols/chemistry , Melanoma , CHO Cells , Pinus , Cell Line, Tumor , Eucalyptus
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Apr; 53(4): 195-201
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158416

ABSTRACT

Erythropoietin is a glycohormone involved in the regulation of the blood cell levels. It is a 166 amino acid protein having 3 N-glycosylation and one O-linked glycosylation sites, and is used to treat anaemia related illness. Though human recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) is produced in CHO cells, the loss in quality control is 80% due to incomplete glycosylation of the rEPO with low levels of fully glycosylated active rEPO. Here, we describe the expression from CHO cells of fully glycosylated human rEPO when expressed as a GPI anchored molecule (rEPO-g). The results demonstrated the production of a homogenous completely glycosylated human rEPO-g as a 42 kD band without any low molecular weight glycoform variants as shown by affinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE and anti-human EPO specific western blot. The western blot using specific monoclonal antibody is the available biochemical technique to prove the presence of homogeneity in the expressed recombinant protein. The GPI anchor can be removed during the purification process to yield a therapeutically relevant recombinant erythropoietin molecule cells with a higher in vivo biological activity due to its high molecular weight of 40 kD. This is possibly the first report on the production of a homogenous and completely glycosylated human rEPO from CHO cells for efficient therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , CHO Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Erythropoietin/metabolism , Glycosylation , Glycosylphosphatidylinositols/metabolism , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism
20.
Salud pública Méx ; 57(1): 4-13, ene.-feb. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-736456

ABSTRACT

Objective. To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Materials and methods. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1) expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2) frequency of consumption of comida corrida or restaurant food and street food. Results. Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (p<0.001 for all relationships in bivariate analyses). Conclusions. Consumption of food prepared outside home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment.


Objetivo. Describir los gastos en alimentos y el consumo de alimentos preparados fuera de casa en población mexicana. Material y métodos. Los datos fueron de 45 241 adultos mexicanos en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de 2006, representativa al nivel nacional. Se utilizaron estadísticas descriptivas y regresión linear y logística para estimar la relación entre el lugar de residencia, el nivel educativo y el nivel socioeconómico, con el gasto en todos los alimentos y en restaurantes, y con la frecuencia de consumo de comida corrida, en restaurantes y de la calle. Resultados. El gasto en alimentos y el consumo de alimentos preparados se asociaron positivamente con el nivel socioeconómico, el nivel educativo y la residencia rural (p<0,001 para todas las relaciones). Conclusiones. El consumo de alimentos preparados puede ser una parte importante de la dieta de los adultos urbanos y de aquéllos con altos niveles socioeconómicos y educativos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels/chemistry , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Tyrosine/chemistry , Anisomycin/chemistry , Antibodies/chemistry , Behavior , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , CHO Cells , DNA , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electrophysiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels/physiology , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Heart Atria/metabolism , Heart Ventricles/cytology , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Immunoblotting , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Muscle Cells/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Plasmids/metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Sciatic Nerve/metabolism , Spinal Cord/pathology , Xenopus laevis
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