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1.
S. Afr. med. j ; 112(2): 81-85, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1358373

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in an HIV-negative 21-year-old man recovering from abdominal and thoracic trauma. Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs collected at 12 time points over a 95-day span all tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Genotyping revealed canonical beta-variant E484K and N501Y mutations at earlier time points. Human rhinovirus, coronavirus NL63 and respiratory syncytial virus B were detected at different time points by RT-PCR. Full blood analysis at time point 9 (day 82) showed leukopenia with lymphocytosis. The patient's NP swab tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR 101 days after the first positive test. The prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in the context of trauma presented here is unique and has important implications for COVID-19 diagnosis, management and policy guidelines


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pneumothorax , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
2.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1361415

ABSTRACT

Background. SARS-CoV-2 viral loads may aid in the risk stratification of patients with COVID-19. Methods. 486 patients tested positive for SARS Cov2 by real time RT-PCR were included in this study. All the tests were performed on nasopharyngeal swabs during the first week after symptom onset using Sansure Biotech™ SARS Cov2 real time RT-PCR kits. Patient's condition was monitored over a period of one month after the onset of symptoms. Results. The mean Ct value in the group of patients who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS +) was 18.27 (95% CI: 17.43-19.10) while for the ARDS group it was 33.06 (95% CI: 32.77-33.34). Discussion. The Ct values in the group of patients who developed ARDS (ARDS +) were significantly lower than those observed in the ARDS- group. By setting a cut-off value, the determination Ct values (on a qualitative technique) from nasopharyngeal swabs performed during the first week after symptom onset will assist clinicians in risk-stratifying patients. Conclusion. Our data show that the determination of SARS CoV2 RTPCR cycle threshold values from nasopharyngeal swabs performed during the first week after symptom onset may aid in the risk stratification of patients with COVID-19


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , SARS Virus , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19
3.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 31(3): 476-483, Sep.-Dec. 2021. graf, map, tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1356367

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the arrival of the SARS-CoV-2 (Coronavirus 2 of severe acute respiratory syndrome) pandemic in Brazil, especially in the city of São Paulo, there was a need to apply social isolation policies associated with testing, covering all municipalities. The Clinical Analysis Laboratory of Centro Universitário FMABC was one of the first laboratories to receive certification and qualification to perform RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase reaction followed by polymerase chain reaction) tests in the metropolitan region of São Paulo OBJECTIVE: Aim to analyze the influence of adopting social isolation on the incidence of positivity in COVID-19 tests in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil METHODS: a descriptive study carried out from March to May 2020, epidemiological data were collected from each unit served and organized by the data controllership team of the Clinical Analysis Laboratory of FMABC. Epidemiological, demographic, and laboratory data were extracted from the Matrix® outpatient data management system. Clinically suspected cases and confirmed by laboratory tests (RT-PCR and serological tests) were entered. The tests were divided into serological tests using the RT-PCR molecular test, on samples of nasopharyngeal mucosal scrapings collected with sterile Swab RESULTS: It were evaluated PCR test and antibody presence (IgA, IgM and IgG) in blood samples of 16.297 patients. 22.718 tests were performed for the diagnosis of COVID-19, both RT-PCR (10.410 tests) and serological tests to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, IgA, IgM and IgG, a total of 16.297 patients were assessed, 63% women and 37% men. It was observed that the social isolation policies adopted during this period contained the massive expansion of contamination, at least while the social isolation rates were above 55% CONCLUSION: The data of this study demonstrated the effectiveness of social isolation in containing the positive contamination of SARS-CoV-2 in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, at least for the first three months


INTRODUÇÃO: com a chegada da pandemia de SARS-CoV-2 (Coronavirus 2 da síndrome respiratória aguda grave) ao Brasil, especialmente na cidade de São Paulo, houve a necessidade de aplicar medidas de distanciamento social associado a testagem, que abrangesse todos os municípios. A região metropolitana de São Paulo compreende 39 municípios e possui uma rede de laboratórios habilitados a realizar a testagem para a detecção do coronavírus, tanto testes sorológicos quanto moleculares. O Laboratório de Análises Clínicas do Centro Universitário ABC/FMABC foi um dos primeiros laboratórios a receber a certificação e habilitação para realizar os testes RT-PCR (reação da transcriptase reversa seguida pela reação em cadeia da polimerase) na região metropolitana de São Paulo OBJETIVO: analisar a influência da adoção do isolamento social na incidência de positividade nos testes de COVID-19 em região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil MÉTODO: estudo descritivo realizado no período de março a maio de 2020, os dados epidemiológicos foram coletados de cada unidade atendida e organizada pela equipe de controladoria de dados do Laboratório de Análises Clínicas da FMABC. Os dados epidemiológicos, demográficos e laboratoriais foram extraídos do sistema Matrix® de gerenciamento de dados ambulatoriais. Foram inseridos os casos clinicamente suspeitos e confirmados por testes de laboratório (RT-PCR e testes sorológicos). Os testes foram divididos em testes sorológicos no teste molecular RT-PCR, em amostras de raspado de mucosa nasofaríngea coletada com Swab estéril RESULTADOS: foram avaliados o teste de RT-PCR e a presença de anticorpos (IgA, IgM e IgG) em amostras de sangue de 16.297 pacientes. Foram realizados 22.718 testes para o diagnóstico de COVID-19, tanto RT-PCR (10.410 testes), quanto testes sorológicos para detecção de anticorpos anti-SARS-CoV-2, IgA, IgM e IgG, um total de 16.297 pacientes foram avaliados, 63% mulheres e 37% homens. Observou-se que as políticas de isolamento social adotadas nesse período continham a expansão massiva da contaminação, pelo menos enquanto as taxas de isolamento social eram superiores a 55% CONCLUSÃO: nossos dados demonstraram a efetividade do isolamento social na retenção da positividade da contaminação do SARS-CoV-2 nas cidades contempladas pelo serviço de testagem do Centro Universitário Saúde ABC, pelo menos nos três primeiros meses


Subject(s)
Social Isolation , Serologic Tests , Pandemics , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology
4.
Mali méd. (En ligne) ; 36(2): 51-56, 20210812. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1283943

ABSTRACT

Introduction : L'objectif de notre étude était d'établir le profil épidémiologique de la COVID-19 à Tombouctou. Matériel et méthodes : Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive des données de surveillance de la COVID-19 de la Région de Tombouctou du 3 avril au 1er octobre 2020. Nos variables d'intérêts ont été extraites de la base de données de surveillance et analysées sur Excel 2013. Les fréquences, taux et ratio ont été calculés. Résultats :Au total 1851 cas suspects en provenance de tous les districts de la région ont été testés à la RT-PCR dont 572 confirmés soit un taux de positivité de 30,90%. La tranche d'âge de 15-34 ans était la plus représentée avec une proportion de 48% de l'effectif des confirmés. Le sex ratio (homme/femme) des cas confirmés était de 2,67. La ville de Tombouctou était l'épicentre de la COVID-19. La région de Tombouctou avait un taux de dépistage d'environ 2‰ (1851/928.000) et a connu son pic entre les semaines 22 et 23 avec une létalité de 2,8%. Conclusion : Les jeunes et les hommes seraient les plus susceptibles d'être infectés par la COVID-19. Nous recommandons le renforcement de la sensibilisation pour le respect des mesures barrières


Introduction: The objective of our study was to establish the epidemiological profile of COVID-19 in Tombouctou. Material and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of COVID-19 surveillance data from Tombouctou from April 3 to October 1, 2020. Our variables of interest were extracted from the surveillance database and analyzed with Excel 2013. The frequencies, rate, and ratio were computed. Results: Overall, 1851 suspects from all districts of the region were screened by RT-PCR, including 572 confirmed, which indicate a positivity rate of 30.90%. The 15-34 age group was the most represented with 48% of the confirmed cases. The sex ratio (male / female) of confirmed cases was 2.67. The city of Tombouctou was the epicenter of COVID-19. The Tombouctou region had a detection rate of around 2‰ (1851/928,000) and peaked between weeks 22 and 23 with a case fatality of 2.8%. Conclusion: Young people and men were most likely to be infected with COVID-19. We recommend increasing awareness of compliance with barrier measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing
5.
Med. infant ; 28(2): 105-109, Julio - Diciembre 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1355205

ABSTRACT

Desde el inicio de la pandemia de COVID-19, el Laboratorio de Virología del Hospital Garrahan, implementó el diagnóstico molecular de SARS-CoV-2 mediante RT-PCR para dar respuesta rápida y de calidad a la creciente demanda. Al diagnóstico pediátrico se sumó el diagnóstico de los padres / acompañantes y personal de salud con criterio de caso sospechoso. Al inicio del 2021 se incorporó el test rápido de detección de antígeno para pacientes sintomáticos. Hasta junio de 2021 se procesó un total de 58 000 muestras para estudios moleculares. (AU)


Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Virology Laboratory of Garrahan Hospital has implemented molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR in order to provide a rapid and high-quality response to the growing demand. In addition to the pediatric diagnosis, the diagnosis of parents/companions and healthcare personnel meeting the criteria of a suspected case was also added. At the beginning of 2021, the rapid antigen detection test for symptomatic patients was incorporated. Until June 2021, a total of 58,000 samples were analyzed by molecular studies. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Laboratories, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pandemics
6.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(2): 175-179, 20210630. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353773

ABSTRACT

Objective: COVID-19 is presently the most serious public health concern and diagnosis is a principal tool for controlling and monitoring the spread of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of direct RT-PCR (dRT-PCR) for detection of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Twenty-seven nasopharyngeal swabs from symptomatic individuals were evaluated. Standard RT-PCR was conducted, and for dRT-PCR the samples were preheated before amplification. Results: Positive agreement was 63.2% and negative agreement was 100%, being moderately in accord. Conclusion: dRT-PCR may be an alternative for screening symptomatic patients and a reliable option during an eventual shortage of viral RNA purification kits.


Objetivo: A COVID-19 é atualmente um sério problema de saúde pública e o diagnóstico é a principal ferramenta para controlar e monitorar a propagação da doença. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência da RT-PCR direta (dRT-PCR) para detecção do SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: Vinte e sete amostras de swab nasofaríngeo de indivíduos sintomáticos foram avaliados. A RT-PCR padrão foi realizada e para a dRT-PCR as amostras foram pré-aquecidas antes da amplificação. Resultados: A concordância positiva foi de 63,2% e a concordância negativa foi de 100%, sendo moderadamente concordante. Conclusão: A dRT-PCR pode ser uma alternativa para a triagem de pacientes sintomáticos e uma opção confiável durante uma eventual escassez de kits de purificação de RNA viral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Triage , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19
7.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(2): 45-38, may. 26, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1283238

ABSTRACT

En El Salvador a la fecha, la técnica utilizada por el sistema nacional de salud para la obtención de la muestra para realizar PCR para SARS-CoV-2 es hisopado nasofaríngeo, diferentes investigadores han descrito la muestra de saliva como una muestra biológica útil para la detección de SARS-Cov-2, por esta razón se observa la oportunidad de aplicarla como una alternativa disponible para el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad. Evaluar la autotoma de muestra de saliva y secreción nasofaríngea por pacientes no hospitalizados como una alternativa de menor riesgo biológico y de menor costo que los hisopados nasofaríngeos convencionales. Se procesaron las muestras de una mezcla de saliva y secreción faríngea obtenida por carraspeo autotomada por el paciente; la amplificación se realizó por RT-qPCR de los genes E y RdRp. Las muestras positivas se reevaluaron desde su extracción para confirmar la estabilidad de material genético de SARS-CoV-2 en la saliva y secreción nasofaríngea. Resultados. El promedio de resultados positivos fue de 7,05 por cada 100 pruebas COVID-19 realizadas con hisopado, este resultado es similar al 8 % de positividad durante el mismo período de estudio utilizando como muestra saliva y secreción faríngea autotomada por el paciente. Las ocho muestras positivas mantuvieron su reactividad para los genes E y RdRp al primer, tercer y quinto mes posdiagnóstico inicial para los dos protocolos utilizados. De igual forma, los eluidos de ARN positivos iniciales se mantuvieron positivos al primer, tercer y quinto mes. Conclusión. La muestra de saliva y secreción faríngea y su utilización para el diagnóstico de infección por SARSCoV-2 podría ser una alternativa de bajo costo, no invasiva, al menos de igual utilidad que el hisopado nasofaríngeo para el estudio de población sintomática ambulatoria o con exposición a nivel comunitario


In El Salvador to date, the technique used by the national health system to obtain the sample to perform PCR for SARS-CoV-2 is nasopharyngeal swab, different researchers have described the saliva sample as a useful biological sample for the detection of SARS-Cov-2, for this reason the opportunity to apply it as an available alternative for the diagnosis of this disease is observed. To evaluate self-sampling of saliva and nasopharyngeal secretion by non-hospitalized patients as an alternative with lower biological risk and lower cost than conventional nasopharyngeal swabs. Samples of a mixture of saliva and pharyngeal secretion obtained by clearing the patient's throat were processed; amplification was carried out by RT-qPCR of the E and RdRp genes. Positive samples were re-evaluated from extraction to confirm the stability of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in saliva and nasopharyngeal secretion. Results. The average of positive results was 7.05 per 100 COVID-19 tests performed with swabs, this result is similar to the 8% positivity during the same study period using saliva and pharyngeal secretion self-collected by the patient as a sample. The eight positive samples maintained their reactivity for the E and RdRp genes at the first, third and fifth month after initial diagnosis for the two protocols used. Similarly, the initial positive RNA eluates remained positive at the first, third, and fifth months. Conclution. The sample of saliva and pharyngeal secretion and its use for the diagnosis of infection by SARSCoV-2 could be a low-cost, non-invasive alternative, at least as useful as the nasopharyngeal swab for the study of the outpatient symptomatic population or those with exposure to community level


Subject(s)
Saliva , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Outpatients , Diagnosis
8.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(supl.1): 299-304, Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155304

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to describe epidemiological characteristics and deaths in children with cancer and COVID-19 at a reference hospital in Recife, Brazil. Methods: cohort involving children under the age of 19 underwent cancer treatment during April to July 2020. During the pandemic, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS -CoV-2) in nasal / oropharyngeal swab were collected in symptomatic patients or before hospitalization. Those with detectable results were included in this cohort study. The outcomes were delayed on cancer treatment and death. Descriptive analysis was performed and presented in preliminary results. Results: 48 children participated in the cohort, mostly with hematological neoplasms (66.6%.),69% were male, median age was 5.5 years. The most frequent symptoms were fever (58.3%) and coughing (27.7%);72.9% required hospitalization, 20% had support in ICU and 10.5% on invasive ventilatory assistance.66.6% of the patients had their oncological treatment postponed, 16.6% died within 60 days after confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions: COVID-19 led a delay in the oncological treatment for children with cancer and a higher mortality frequency when compared to the historical series of the service. It would be important to analyze the risk factors to determine the survival impact.


Resumo Objetivos: descrever características epidemiológicas e óbitos em crianças com câncer e a doença do novo coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19), em hospital de referência do nordeste brasileiro. Métodos: coorte envolvendo menores de 19 anos em tratamento de câncer, durante abril a julho de 2020. Pacientes sintomáticos ou antes de hospitalização foram submetidos a pesquisa do vírus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), por meio de reação em cadeia da polimerase com transcrição reversa em tempo real (RT-PCR), em swab naso/orofaríngeo. Foram incluídos aqueles com resultado detectável. Os desfechos foram atraso no tratamento oncológico e óbito. Realizada análise descritiva e apresentado os resultados preliminares. Resultados: 48 crianças, maioria com neoplasia hematológica (66,6%), sexo masculino (69%), mediana de idade 5,5 anos. os sintomas mais observados foram febre (58,3%) e tosse (27,7%); 72,9% necessitou internamento hospitalar, 20% suporte em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) e 10,5 % assistência ventilatória invasiva. O tratamento oncológico foi adiado em 66,6% dos pacientes, 16,6 % evoluiu para óbito até 60 dias após confirmação da infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2. Conclusões: COVID-19 determinou atraso no tratamento oncológico das crianças com câncer e aumento da frequência de óbitos quando comparada à série histórica do serviço. Será importante analisar os fatores de risco para determinar o impacto na sobrevida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Risk Factors , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cohort Studies , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing
9.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 45(Especial 1): 187-203, 20210101.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178385

ABSTRACT

A Covid-19 é uma doença infecciosa causada pelo novo coronavírus, denominado SARS-CoV-2, que causou um surto de pneumonia viral incomum em pacientes em Wuhan, na China, no final do ano de 2019. O vírus se disseminou pelo mundo em grandes proporções, atingindo o status epidemiológico de pandemia. Diante desse cenário, que afetou toda a Federação brasileira, o Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública Professor Gonçalo Moniz (Lacen-BA) tem exercido papel fundamental no diagnóstico da Covid-19 e na vigilância genômica do SARS-CoV-2. Nesse sentido, este estudo tem como objetivo descrever as estratégias implementadas pelo Lacen-BA para ampliar a capacidade diagnóstica e atender a demanda da rede SUS-BA no contexto da pandemia da Covid-19. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo-observacional, orientado por um modelo lógico sustentado em quatro dimensões: parque tecnológico, metodologias analíticas, descentralização do exame e monitoramento de indicadores de resultados. As iniciativas de gestão possibilitaram ampliação da capacidade instalada e operacional, mediante modernização da estrutura física, renovação do parque tecnológico, reorganização dos fluxos e processos de trabalho, aporte de novas tecnologias analíticas e estruturação de dashboard para monitorar indicadores e subsidiar o processo decisório. O Lacen-BA, enquanto coordenador da Rede Estadual de Laboratórios de Saúde Pública e sistema de apoio da Rede de Atenção à Saúde (RAS), constitui-se então em estruturas policêntricas essenciais para o diagnóstico descentralizado e regionalizado da Covid-19, contribuindo para a integração sistêmica das ações e serviços no contexto da regionalização da saúde, de modo a garantir a universalidade do acesso e integralidade dos cuidados aos usuários do SUS.


Covid-19 is an infectious disease caused by the new coronavirus, called SARS-CoV-2, which caused an outbreak of unusual viral pneumonia in patients in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019 and spread across the world, in large proportions, reaching the epidemiological status of a pandemic. Considering this epidemiological scenario that affected the entire Brazilian Federation, the Central Laboratory of Public Health Professor Gonçalo Moniz (Lacen-BA) has played a fundamental role in the diagnosis of Covid-19 and the genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2. In this sense, this study aims at describing the strategies implemented by Lacen-BA to expand the diagnostic capacity to meet the demand of the SUS-BA network, in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. This is a descriptive-observational study, guided by a logical model based on four dimensions: technological park, analytical methodologies, decentralization of the exam and monitoring of result indicators. The management initiatives enabled the expansion of the installed and operational capacity by modernizing the physical structure, renewing the technological park, reorganizing workflows and processes, providing new analytical technologies, structuring the dashboard to monitor indicators and support the decision-making process. The Lacen-BA, as coordinator of the State Public Health Laboratory Network and support system of the Health Care Network (RAS), constitutes essential polycentric structures for the decentralized and regionalized diagnosis of Covid-19, which can contribute to the systemic integration of actions and services in the context of regionalization of health to guarantee the universality of access and comprehensive care to SUS users.


El covid-19 es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el nuevo coronavirus, llamado SARS-CoV-2, que provocó un brote de neumonía viral inusual en pacientes en Wuhan, China, a fines de 2019, y que se extendió por el mundo, en grandes proporciones hasta alcanzar el estado epidemiológico de pandemia. Ante este escenario epidemiológico que afectó a Brasil, el Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública Profesor Gonçalo Moniz (Lacen-BA) ha jugado un papel fundamental en el diagnóstico del covid-19 y la vigilancia genómica del SARS-CoV-2. En este sentido, este estudio tiene como objetivo describir las estrategias implementadas por Lacen-BA para ampliar la capacidad de diagnóstico y atender la demanda de la red SUS-BA, en el contexto de la pandemia del Covid-19. Este estudio es descriptivo-observacional, guiado por un modelo lógico con base en cuatro dimensiones: parque tecnológico, metodologías analíticas, descentralización del examen y seguimiento de indicadores de resultado. Las iniciativas de gestión permitieron ampliar la capacidad instalada y operativa al modernizar la estructura física, renovar el parque tecnológico, reorganizar los flujos y procesos de trabajo, brindar nuevas tecnologías analíticas y estructuración del cuadro de mando para monitorear indicadores, y apoyar la toma de decisiones. Lacen-BA, como coordinador de la Red Estadual de Laboratorios de Salud Pública y sistema de apoyo de la Red de Atención a la Salud (RAS), constituye estructuras policéntricas imprescindibles para el diagnóstico descentralizado y regionalizado del Covid-19, que pueden contribuir a la integración sistémica de acciones y servicios en el contexto de la regionalización de la salud, a fin de garantizar la universalidad del acceso y la atención integral a los usuarios del SUS.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Laboratories , Genome, Viral , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 45(Especial 1): 158-167, 20210101.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178381

ABSTRACT

A pandemia da Covid-19 tem se apresentado como um dos maiores desafios sanitários desse século. Em dezembro de 2019, na China, o agente etiológico foi identificado como um novo coronavírus, nomeado SARS-CoV-2. No Brasil, o primeiro caso confirmado da Covid-19 ocorreu em fevereiro de 2020 e, no mês seguinte, a Secretaria da Saúde do Estado da Bahia (Sesab) confirmou o primeiro caso na Bahia.O Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública Prof. Gonçalo Moniz (Lacen-BA) centralizou o diagnóstico laboratorial para confirmação dos casos suspeitos de Covid-19 dos 417 municípios baianos, utilizando a técnica de RT-PCR. Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar e analisar as não conformidades das amostras suspeitas de Covid-19 encaminhadas ao Lacen-BA. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, cujos dados foram obtidos por meio de consulta aos relatórios de amostras e exames em desacordo, disponíveis no sistema Gerenciador de Ambiente Laboratorial (GAL), gerados mensalmente, no período de abril a outubro de 2020. Para garantir a qualidade das amostras recebidas, foram definidos critérios de aceitação/rejeição de amostras e criado o formulário de notificação de não conformidades, assegurando a rastreabilidade das amostras de Covid-19. Através de relatórios diários do sistema GAL, selecionou-se os nove principais motivos de não conformidades, sendo o mais frequente "requisição cancelada pela gerência do GAL devido à expiração do prazo de triagem", com 72,8% dos registros. A inserção da padronização de processos na etapa pré-analítica permite trabalhar com segurança, garantindo a qualidade da amostra a ser processada e, consequentemente, um resultado fidedigno, dentro do prazo acordado.


The Covid-19 pandemic is one of the greatest health challenges of this century. In December 2019, in China, the etiologic agent was identified as a new coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2. In Brazil, the first case of Covid-19 was confirmed in February 2020 and, in the following month, the Department of Health of the State of Bahia (Sesab) confirms the first case in the state. The Central Public Health Laboratory Prof. Gonçalo Moniz (Lacen/BA) centralized the laboratory diagnosis to confirm the suspected cases of Covid-19 of the 417 municipalities of the state, using the RT-PCR technique. This study aims at identifying and analyzing the non-conformities of the suspected samples of Covid-19 sent to Lacen-BA. This is a descriptive study whose data were obtained by consulting there reports of samples and exams in disagreement, available in the Laboratory Environment Manager (GAL) system, generated monthly, from April to October,2020. To guarantee the quality of the samples received, acceptance / rejection criteria for the samples were defined and a form for the notification of non-conformities was created, ensuring the traceability of the Covid-19 samples. Daily reports from the Laboratory Environment Manager system based the selection of nine main reasons for non-conformities, among which "requisition canceled by the management of the GAL due to the expiration of the screening period" was present in 72.8% of the records. Process standardization, in the pre-analytical stage, allows working with security, guaranteeing the quality of the sample to be processed and a reliable result within the established period.


La pandemia del Covid-19 se ha presentado como uno de los desafíos de salud más grandes de este siglo. En diciembre de 2019, China identificó el agente etiológico del nuevo coronavirus llamado SARS-CoV-2. En Brasil, se notificó el primer caso del Covid-19 en febrero de 2020 y, al mes siguiente, la Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Bahía (Sesab) confirmaba el primer caso en Bahía. El Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública Prof. Gonçalo Moniz (Lacen/BA) centralizó el diagnóstico de laboratorio para confirmar los casos sospechosos del coronavirus de los 417 municipios de Bahía, mediante la técnica de RT-PCR. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar y analizar las no conformidades de las muestras sospechosas del Covid-19 enviadas al Lacen/BA. Este es un estudio descriptivo cuyos datos se obtuvieron consultando los informes de muestras y pruebas en desacuerdo disponibles en el sistema Laboratory Environment Manager (GAL), generados mensualmente, de abril a octubre/2020. Con el fin de garantizar la calidad de las muestras recibidas, se definieron criterios de aceptación/rechazo de las muestras y se elaboró un formulario para la notificación de no conformidades, asegurando la trazabilidad de las muestras. Por medio de informes diarios del sistema Laboratory Environment Manager, se seleccionaron nueve principales causas de no conformidades, de las cuales la más frecuente fue "requisición cancelada por la gerencia del GAL por vencimiento del período de cribado" con el 72,8% de los registros. La inserción de la estandarización de procesos en la etapa preanalítica permite trabajar con seguridad, garantizando la calidad de la muestra que procesar y, en consecuencia, un resultado confiable dentro del plazo acordado.


Subject(s)
Quality Management , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Laboratories , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200147, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285565

ABSTRACT

Abstract With the COVID-19 pandemic, many diagnostic tests (molecular or immunological) were rapidly standardised, given the urgency of the situation, many are still in the process of being validated. The main objective of this study was to review the aspects of the diagnostic kits approved in Brazil and their application in the different federative units to gather epidemiological information. In order to achieve these objectives, a survey was carried out on the data available at the regulatory agency (ANVISA) and in the literature. The main countries that have registered products in Brazil are China (51.4%), Brazil (16.6%), South Korea (9.2%), USA (8.8%) and Germany (3.6%). The methodologies of these products are based on the detection of nucleic-acid (15.8%), antigen (13%) and antibody (71.2%). In the immunological tests, it was verified that the sensitivity ranged from 55 to 100% and the specificity from 80 to 100%. The percentage of cases in the samples tested in Brazil is elevated in almost all federative units since eight states showed 40% of positive cases in tested samples, while 18 states displayed between 20 and 40%. In conclusion, this review showed that Brazil is dependent on external technology to respond to pandemics, epidemics and endemics disease and needs to improve its biotechnological scheme to solve further diseases outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunologic Tests/instrumentation , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Chromatography, Affinity/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods
12.
Repert. med. cir ; 30(suplemento): 16-20, 2021. graf.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1255473

ABSTRACT

Introducción: : El síndrome respiratorio agudo severo por coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), el virus que origina la enfermedad 2019 (COVID-19) se ha diseminado con rapidez por todo el mundo desde que surgió en Wuhan, China, a finales de 2019. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento de positividad de muestras tomadas para SARS-CoV-2. Metodología: esta investigación se centró en las muestras de PCR y antígeno procesadas para COVID-19, con la información proveniente del Instituto Nacional de Salud en el periodo comprendido entre el 1 de enero a 31 de marzo 2021. Resultados: para la prueba de PCR en cada uno de los meses de enero a marzo 2021 en Colombia, se detalló que los días con mayor porcentaje de casos positivos fueron 12 de enero 56,3%, 7 de enero 44,9%, 6 de enero 45,1%, 5 de enero 43,7%, 2 de enero 38,1%, 24 de marzo 35,2%, y 26 de marzo con 31,3%. Para la prueba de antígeno en cada uno de los meses de enero a marzo 2021 en Colombia, se anota que los días con mayor porcentaje de casos positivos fueron 11 de enero 32,7%, 4 de enero 31,0%, 15 de enero 28,9%, 18 de enero 22,4%, 22 de marzo 21,1%, 28 de marzo 20,7%, y 17 de febrero 20,1%. Conclusión: hay que continuar la búsqueda activa de contagiados a través de la práctica de mayor número de pruebas de PCR, antígeno viral y molecular, la última con un alto nivel de precisión por parte de las EPS, y que a su vez aceleren el proceso de entrega de resultados.


Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world since it emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019. Objective: to describe the positivity rates of samples tested for SARS-CoV-2. Methodology: the research focused on PCR and antigen tests processed for COVID-19, using the information released by the National Institute of Health between January 1 and March 31 2021. Results: the highest positivity rate for PCR testing for each month between January to March 2021 in Colombia was found on the following days: January 12: 56.3%, January 7: 44.9%, January 6: 45.1%, January 5: 43.7%, January 2: 38.1%, March 24: 35.2% and March 26: (31.3%. The days with the highest percentage of positive cases found by antigen testing for each month from January to March 2021 in Colombia, were January 11: 32.7%, January 4: 31.0%, January 15: 28.9%, January 18: 22.4%, March 22: 21.1%, March 28: 20.7% and February 17: 20.1%. Conclusion: an active search of infected people must be continued through the practice of a greater number of PCR and viral antigen and molecular tests. The latter has been reported by the EPS to show very high accuracy, which accelerates the result delivery process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Correlation of Data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Analysis of Variance , Colombia , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/transmission
13.
Repert. med. cir ; 30(suplemento): 35-40, 2021. Ilus., tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1255476

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en diciembre de 2019, en la ciudad de Wuhan, provincia de Hubei en China, se produjo un brote de casos de neumonía de origen desconocido, enfermedad denominada, al presente, COVID-19. El SARS-CoV-2 se trasfiere por contacto persona a persona y a través de secreciones de personas infectadas, principalmente gotitas respiratorias. Objetivo: mostrar si hay alguna correlación de las pruebas PCR y antígeno para COVID-19 y los contagios por COVID-19 entre el periodo comprendido entre 1 de enero a 22 de abril 2021. Metodología: esta investigación se centró en las muestras de PCR y antígeno procesadas para COVID-19 y el número de contagios con la información proveniente del Instituto Nacional de Salud. Resultados: el p-valor de las pruebas, para las variables muestras de PCR y antígeno, y contagios por COVID-19 que es de 0,000, es menor a α=0.01, de esta manera se acepta Ha, es decir la prueba de correlación de Pearson nos indica que existe relación entre las pruebas PCR y antígeno para COVID-19 y el número de contagios por COVID-19. Conclusión: el uso de pruebas PCR y antígeno se relacionan con el número de contagios por COVID-19, es decir, que en la medida que aumentan los valores de pruebas PCR y antígeno también aumentan los casos de contagio por COVID-19 y viceversa.


Introduction: On December 2019, there was an outbreak of cases of unknown origin pneumonia, detected in Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, currently known as COVID-19 disease. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted from person to person contact and through secretions of infected persons, mainly respiratory droplets. Objective: to show if there is any correlation of PCR and antigen testing for COVID-19 and COVID-19 infections between January 1 and April 22 2021. Methodology: this research focused on the PCR and antigen samples processed for COVID-19 and the number of infections, using the data released by the National Institute of Health. Results: the p-value of the tests for variables PCR and antigen samples, and COVID-19 infections, which is 0.000, is less than α=0.01, thus the hypothesis (Ha) is accepted, that is Pearson ́s correlation indicates there is a relationship between PCR and antigen tests for COVID-19 and the number of COVID-19 infections. Conclusion: the use of PCR and antigen tests is related with the number of COVID-19 infections, that is, as the values of PCR and antigen tests increase, the number of COVID-19 infections also increase and vice versa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Correlation of Data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Colombia , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
14.
Alger. J. health sci. (Online. Oran) ; 3(3): 88-94, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1292605

ABSTRACT

L'expansion planétaire du covid19 représente une crise sans précèdent ; cette pandémie a fait plus d'un million de mort en une année. En plus de l'atteinte pulmonaire, le virus a des implications majeures sur le système cardiovasculaire : les maladies cardiovasculaires pré existantes représentent un facteur de risque d'infection sévère avec augmentation de la mortalité, d'autre part l'infection entraine des complications cardiovasculaires qui aggravent le pronostic. Le lien entre le Covid19 et le système cardiovasculaire découle principalement de la voie d'entrée cellulaire du virus qui est assurée par sa liaison à une protéine membranaire l'enzyme de conversion de l'angiotensine (ECA), qui joue un rôle clé dans la régulation neurohumorale ; cette protéine est très présente au niveau du cœur et du poumon, d'où le tropisme du virus qui entraine la dysrégulation de cette voie cellulaire avec des répercussion sur la fonction cardiaque et respiratoire. Une polémique a déferlé concernant les traitements anti hypertenseurs et notamment les inhibiteurs du système rénine angiotensine aldostérone mais après évaluation des données actuelles, il est de consensus de ne pas arrêter ou changer les traitements anti hypertenseurs. L'augmentation des troponines cardiaques est un facteur de mauvais pronostic qui aggrave le tableau. La myocardite est définie par une inflammation myocardique, Les tableaux cliniques sont variables de la forme légère à la forme grave ; les biomarqueurs myocardiques restent un test incontournable en cas de suspicion clinique, le pronostic est incertain avec des formes fulminantes qui peuvent régresser et enfin pour le traitement les corticoïdes semblent être efficaces. Une autre complication du virus sont les accidents thrombo-emboliques et le dilemme occasionné par le risque accru aux thromboses et la thrombopénie induite par l'utilisation de l'héparine (TIH). On note une augmentation de l'incidence des syndromes coronaires aigus chez les sujets atteints du covid19.


The global expansion of covid19 represents a global crisis; this pandemic killed more than a million people in one year. In addition to pulmonary involvement, the virus has major implications on the cardiovascular system: pre-existing cardiovascular diseases represent a risk factor for severe infection with increased mortality, on the other hand the infection causes cardiovascular complications which worsen the prognosis. The link between the Covid19 and the cardiovascular system stems primarily from the virus's cellular entry pathway, which is provided by its binding to a membrane protein, the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) wich plays a key role in neurohumoral regulation; this protein is very present in the heart and lungs, hence the tropism of the virus which causes the dysregulation of this cellular pathway with repercussions on cardiac and respiratory function. A controversy broke out concerning the antihypertensive treatments and in particular the inhibitors of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system but after evaluation of the current data, there is a consensus not to withhold or change the treatments. The increase in cardiac troponins is a factor of poor prognosis which worsens the picture. Myocarditis is defined by myocardial inflammation, its clinical form ranges from the mild form to the severe one; the myocardial biomarkers remain an essential when the clinical suspicion rise, the prognosis is uncertain with fulminant forms which can regress; for treatment corticosteroids seem to be effective. Another complication of the virus are thromboembolic events and the dilemma caused by the increased risk of thrombosis and thrombocytopenia induced by the use of heparin (TIH), and there is an increase in the incidence of acute coronary syndromes in patients affected by covid19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Cardiovascular System , Algeria , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Myocarditis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888245

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo describe the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and prognoses of COVID-19 confirmed patients in a single center in Beijing, China. Methods The study retrospectively included 19 patients with nucleic acid-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at our hospital from January 20 to March 5, 2020. The final follow-up date was March 14, 2020. The epidemiologic and clinical information was obtained through direct communication with the patients or their family members. Laboratory results retrieved from medical records and radiological images were analyzed both qualitatively by two senior chest radiologists as well as quantitatively via an artificial intelligence software. Results We identified 5 family clusters (13/19, 68.4%) from the study cohort. All cases had good clinical prognoses and were either mild (3/19) or moderate (16/19) clinical types. Fever (15/19, 78.9%) and dry cough (11/19, 57.9%) were common symptoms. Two patients received negative results for more than three consecutive viral nucleic acid tests. The longest interval between an initial CT abnormal finding and a confirmed diagnosis was 30 days. One patient's nucleic acid test turned positive on the follow-up examination after discharge. The presence of radiological abnormalities was non-specific for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Conclusions COVID-19 patients with mild or no clinical symptoms are common in Beijing, China. Radiological abnormalities are mostly non-specific and massive CT examinations for COVID-19 screening should be avoided. Analyses of the contact histories of diagnosed cases in combination with clinical, radiological and laboratory findings are crucial for the early detection of COVID-19. Close monitoring after discharge is also recommended.


Subject(s)
Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , China , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 35(1): 8-10, oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366362

ABSTRACT

The infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, recently described in Wuhan, China, has put numerous health systems around the world in check. Given its high contagiousness and the exponential growth of cases, it was declared a pandemic by the world health organization. Although the majority of those infected will present mild symptoms, a smaller percentage will present severe manifestations of the disease, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, requiring ventilator support measures and stays in intensive care units. The main symptoms described in SARS-CoV-2 infection are fever, fatigue, dry cough and myalgia. Despite this, there is a not insignificant number of patients who present with atypical symptoms of the disease, some described are anosmia, ageusia, gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea, dermatological manifestations, among others. In these patients it is particularly where the diagnosis is made late, delaying isolation and prevention measures, thus increasing the risk of contagion within the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Quarantine , Ageusia , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Anosmia , Olfaction Disorders/complications
17.
Medisan ; 24(4)jul.-ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1125133

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La nueva especie de coronavirus (COVID-19), ha generado escenarios de emergencia sanitaria en muchos países de todos los continentes. Objetivo: Caracterizar la variabilidad de los resultados de la PCR evolutiva en pacientes con la COVID-19. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo longitudinal y prospectivo de 68 pacientes con la COVID-19 (niños y adultos de ambos sexos) ingresados en el Hospital Militar Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany de Santiago de Cuba, desde el 12 de marzo hasta el 30 de abril de 2020. Para la colecta de la muestra virológica se realizó el hisopado faríngeo y nasal, cuyo análisis de la PCR-RT se procesó en el centro de referencia territorial. Se incluyeron variables sociodemográficas, epidemiológicas y de gestión, entre otras. Resultados: En la serie predominó el sexo femenino (52,9 %). Al total de los pacientes se le realizaron 2 pruebas de PCR-RT; evolutivamente, 40,0 % de los niños y 10,0 % de los adultos mayores requirieron una tercera muestra virológica. En el segundo y tercer tercios del período de observación clínica y epidemiológica, la comunicación del resultado promedió 1,5 días (DE±0,6) y 3,2 días (DE±1,6), respectivamente. A los 15 días de tratamiento en todos los grupos poblacionales hubo casos positivos activos; asimismo, 60,0 % de los que permanecieron con carga viral entre 16-20 días fueron asintomáticos, al igual que 66,7 % de aquellos con más de 20 días de medicación. Conclusiones: Independientemente de la edad y la duración del tratamiento médico, algunos individuos se mantuvieron con carga viral detectable. No es aconsejable el egreso de pacientes sin que la PCR-RT resulte negativa, sobre todo para los casos asintomáticos, en quienes el seguimiento evolutivo ha sido menos favorable.


Introduction: The new coronavirus specimen (COVID-19), has generated scenarios of sanitary emergencies in many countries from all continents. Objective: To characterize the variability of the PCR evolutionary results in patients with COVID-19. Methods: An observational, descriptive, prospective and cross-sectional study was carried out in 68 patients with COVID-19 (children and adults from both sexes) admitted in Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany Military Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from March 12th to April 30th, 2020. To collect the virological, the nasal and pharyngeal use of isotope was carried out, which analysis of PCR-RT was processed in the territorial reference center. Management, social, demographic and epidemiological variables were included, among others. Results: Female sex prevailed in the series (52.9 %). Two PCR-RT fast tests were made to all the patients, through their clinical course, 40.0 % of the children and 10.0 % of the aged patients requiered a third virological test. In the second and third third of the clinical and epidemiological observation period, the report of the result averaged 1.5 days (SD ± 0.6) and 3.2 days (SD±1.6), respectively. After 15 days of treatment there were active positive cases in all populational groups; likewise 60.0 % of those with viral charge between 16-20 days were asymptomatic, as the 66.7 % of those with more than 20 days under medication. Conclusions: Independently from the age and duration of the medical treatment, some patients remained with detectable viral charge. It is not adviced to discharge patients without a negative PCR-RT, above all for asympthomatic cases, in whom the evolutionary clinical course has been less favorable.


Subject(s)
Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Viral Load , COVID-19/diagnosis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877687

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Pregnant women are reported to be at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to underlying immunosuppression during pregnancy. However, the clinical course of COVID-19 in pregnancy and risk of vertical and horizontal transmission remain relatively unknown. We aim to describe and evaluate outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 in Singapore.@*METHODS@#Prospective observational study of 16 pregnant patients admitted for COVID-19 to 4 tertiary hospitals in Singapore. Outcomes included severe disease, pregnancy loss, and vertical and horizontal transmission.@*RESULTS@#Of the 16 patients, 37.5%, 43.8% and 18.7% were infected in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. Two gravidas aged ≥35 years (12.5%) developed severe pneumonia; one patient (body mass index 32.9kg/m2) required transfer to intensive care. The median duration of acute infection was 19 days; one patient remained reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive >11 weeks from diagnosis. There were no maternal mortalities. Five pregnancies produced term live-births while 2 spontaneous miscarriages occurred at 11 and 23 weeks. RT-PCR of breast milk and maternal and neonatal samples taken at birth were negative; placenta and cord histology showed non-specific inflammation; and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific immunoglobulins were elevated in paired maternal and umbilical cord blood (n=5).@*CONCLUSION@#The majority of COVID-19 infected pregnant women had mild disease and only 2 women with risk factors (obesity, older age) had severe infection; this represents a slightly higher incidence than observed in age-matched non-pregnant women. Among the women who delivered, there was no definitive evidence of mother-to-child transmission via breast milk or placenta.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cohort Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Live Birth/epidemiology , Maternal Age , Milk, Human/virology , Obesity, Maternal/epidemiology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Singapore/epidemiology , Umbilical Cord/pathology , Young Adult
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