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2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 18(1)jan.-mar. 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1553441

ABSTRACT

Considerando-se a crescente importância do YouTube como fonte para busca de informações em saúde, o objetivo deste trabalho é analisar os fatores associados a um maior número de visualizações de vídeos sobre vacinas contra a covid-19. Para isso, usaram-se técnicas de Processamento de Linguagem Natural e modelagem estatística com base em 13.619 vídeos, abrangendo três tipos de variáveis: métricas gerais, conteúdo textual dos títulos e informações sobre os participantes dos vídeos. Entre os resultados, destacam-se os vídeos de duração média ou longa, postados durante a madrugada e nos fins de semana, com tags, descrição e títulos curtos, além de elementos controversos e presença de figuras masculinas e brancas em miniaturas. Os achados contribuem para uma melhor compreensão dos possíveis fatores a serem considerados na produção de conteúdo de comunicação em saúde sobre vacinas no YouTube.


Considering the growing importance of YouTube as a source for health information search, the aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with a higher number of views in videos about covid-19 vaccines. For this purpose, Natural Language Processing techniques and statistical modeling were employed based on 13,619 videos, encompassing three types of variables: general metrics, textual content of titles, and information about the participants in the videos. Among the results, videos of medium or long duration, posted during late hours and on weekends, with tags, descriptions, and short titles, along with controversial elements and the presence of male and white figures in thumbnails stand out. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the potential factors to be considered in the production of health communication content about vaccines on YouTube.


Teniendo en cuenta la creciente importancia de YouTube como fuente de búsqueda de información en salud, el objetivo de este artículo es analizar los factores asociados a un mayor número de visualizaciones en videos sobre vacunas contra el covid-19. Para eso, se emplearon técnicas de Procesamiento del Lenguaje Natural y modelado estadístico basadas en 13,619 videos, que abarcan tres tipos de variables: métricas generales, contenido textual de títulos y información sobre los participantes en los videos. Entre los resultados, destacan los videos de duración media o larga, publicados durante altas horas de la noche y los fines de semana, con tags, descripciones y títulos cortos, junto con elementos controvertidos y la presencia de figuras masculinas y blancas en las miniaturas. Estos hallazgos contribuyen a una mejor comprensión de los posibles factores a tener en cuenta en la producción de contenido de comunicación de salud sobre vacunas en YouTube.


Subject(s)
Communications Media , Information Dissemination , Health Communication , Social Media , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Education , Access to Information , Disinformation , Mass Media
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 58: 07, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536770

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of vaccines developed against covid-19 in reducing mortality in people hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort that evaluated risk factors and the effectiveness of the two-dose vaccination schedule in reducing the mortality of people hospitalized for covid-19 in the state of Paraíba from February to November 2021. The explanatory variables were vaccination status, presence of comorbidities, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Descriptive analyses and bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were performed. RESULTS Most hospitalizations and deaths occurred until May 2021. The percentage of patients with a complete vaccination schedule was similar across patients admitted to public and private hospitals and higher in residents of less developed municipalities. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that women (OR = 0.896; 95%CI 0.830-0.967) and people admitted to private hospitals (OR = 0.756; 95%CI 0.679-0.842) were less likely to die. Presence of any comorbidity (OR = 1.627; 95%CI 1.500-1.765) and age ≥ 80 years (OR = 7.426; 95%CI 6.309-8.741) were risk factors for death. Patients with complete vaccination schedule at the time of admission were 41.7% less likely to die (OR = 0.583; 95% CI 0.501-0.679) from covid-19 in the adjusted analysis, as compared to unvaccinated patients. CONCLUSIONS The study reveals that immunization was effective in reducing the likelihood of death from covid-19. The results suggest that greater vaccination coverage in the first half of 2021 would prevent thousands of deaths in the country.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a efetividade das vacinas desenvolvidas contra a covid-19 na redução da mortalidade em pessoas internadas com síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SRAG) causada pelo SARS-CoV-2. MÉTODOS Trata-se de uma coorte retrospectiva que avaliou fatores de riscos e a efetividade do esquema vacinal com duas doses na redução da mortalidade de pessoas internadas por covid-19 no estado da Paraíba entre fevereiro e novembro de 2021. As variáveis explicativas foram situação vacinal, presença de comorbidades, características socioeconômicas e demográficas. Foram realizadas análises descritivas e regressão logística bivariada e multivariável. RESULTADOS A maior parte das internações e óbitos ocorreram até maio de 2021. O percentual de pacientes com esquema vacinal completo foi similar entre pacientes internados em hospitais públicos e privados e superior em residentes de municípios com menor desenvolvimento. A análise multivariável demonstrou que mulheres (OR = 0,896; IC95% 0,830-0,967) e pessoas internadas em hospitais privados (OR = 0,756; IC95% 0,679-0,842) apresentaram menor chance de morte. A presença de alguma comorbidade (OR = 1,627; IC95% 1,500-1,765) e idade ≥ 80 anos (OR = 7,426; IC95% 6,309-8,741) foram fatores de risco de óbito. Pacientes com esquema vacinal completo no momento da internação apresentaram uma chance 41,7% menor de morte (OR = 0,583; IC95% 0,501-0,679) por covid-19 na análise ajustada, quando comparados com pacientes não vacinados. CONCLUSÕES O estudo revela que a imunização foi efetiva na redução da chance de óbito por covid-19. Os resultados sugerem que uma maior cobertura vacinal no primeiro semestre de 2021 evitaria milhares de mortes no país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Cohort Studies , Mortality , Observational Studies as Topic , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19
5.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 47(NA)2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1531992

ABSTRACT

Introduction: effective COVID-19 vaccines for the prevention of severe illness have been available for more than one year now. This study was carried out to ascertain vaccine hesitancy and its associations among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in Port Harcourt, a large cosmopolitan town in Nigeria. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional online survey over 2 months among consenting pregnant women receiving antenatal care in the 3 largest obstetric service centers in Port Harcourt to evaluate COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and its associations. Results: the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy was 669 (72.2%). Of the respondents, 27 (2.9%) had been infected or had a close family member infected with SARS-CoV-2, and 897 (96.8%) of them had heard of the COVID-19 vaccine; however, only 133 (14.4%) had been vaccinated against COVID-19. The safety of the mother in 260 (32.8%) and the safety of the unborn baby in 114 (14.4%) of the respondents were the reasons for vaccine hesitancy. A small proportion of women 7(0.9%) were hesitant on religious grounds. Tertiary education, use of childhood immunization for previous infants delivered, and availability of COVID-19 vaccine in the antenatal clinic at no cost to the women, were statistically significant predictors of vaccine uptake among the respondents. Conclusion: the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy among pregnant women in Port Harcourt was 72.2%. Higher academic achievement and availability of the COVID-19 vaccine in the antenatal clinic were predictors of vaccine uptake, while reasons for hesitancy were mostly due to safety concerns for the mother and unborn baby.


Subject(s)
Pregnant Women , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Vaccination Hesitancy , Therapeutics , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences ; 7(2): 213-221, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1552710

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel strain of coronavirus belonging to the genus Beta coronavirus named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged as a major pandemic worldwide. This contagious virus had spread in many different forms, and patients have demonstrated a wide range of symptoms, ranging from moderate to severe illness. This study aims to highlight the important associations between SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccination, and possible complications at the Libyan International Medical University, Benghazi. This crosssectional survey was conducted among students and their families at Libyan International Medical University in Benghazi, Libya. Among the 100 participants, 72% were between the ages of 18 and 39. Up to (59%) of participants were men. As for the infection with COVID-19, 77% of participants were infected. Most of the participants had no chronic diseases (69%); however, the most common chronic disease was diabetes mellitus (13%). 82% of participants were vaccinated; the most common types of vaccines administered were Sinopharm and Sputnik V (24%). Following vaccination, 71% of participants had no COVID-19 infection, while 29% did get the infection. Regarding this study, after COVID-19 infection, 66% of participants had no complications; however, 17% had pulmonary complications, which was the most common complication among the participants. As for the complications following the vaccination, 81% of participants had none, while there were pulmonary and neurological complications in 7­6%. The results of the study showed that the most frequent complications noticed among the participants following the COVID-19 infection and vaccination were pulmonary and neurological complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vaccination , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Diagnosis , Pandemics
7.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 482024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1556131

ABSTRACT

Introduction: la vaccination est l'une des stratégies recommandées par l'organisation mondiale de la santé pour réduire le poids de la COVID-19. Cependant, de nombreux pays africains comme le Cameroun présentent de faibles couvertures vaccinales anti-COVID19. Cette étude avait pour objectif d'étudier les raisons de refus de la population de la ville de Douala vis-à-vis de la vaccination contre la COVID-19. Méthodes: l'étude était transversale et analytique et conduite dans la ville de Douala du 10 Février au 31 Mai 2022. Les participants étaient âgés d'au moins 21 ans résidant dans la ville de Douala étaient interviewés. Les mesures d'association entre les variables d'intérêt ont été effectuées à l'aide des tests de Chi-deux et de Fisher avec un intervalle de confiance 95%. Résultats: au total, 1555 personnes avaient été inclues dans l'étude. Seulement 168 (11%) étaient vaccinées. La proportion de refus vaccinal était importante 711 (45,7%), 640 participants soit 41,1% hésitaient alors que 204 personnes soit 13,2% étaient favorable à la vaccination anti-COVID-19. Les raisons principales de refus de vaccination anti-COVID-19 étaient la crainte des effets indésirables 406 (44,8%), le manque d'information sur les vaccins 331 (36.5%) et le manque de confiance 302 (33,3%). Les facteurs associés au refus vaccinal étaient la religion (p=0,026) et le niveau d'étude (p=0,002). Conclusion: cette étude avait révélé la faible couverture vaccinale anti-COVID-19 à Douala avec une proportion importante de refus et hésitation vaccinale. Les stratégies de communications devraient tenir compte des raisons et facteurs associés au refus.


Introduction: vaccination is one of the strategies the World Health Organization recommends to reduce the burden of COVID-19. However, many African countries like Cameroon have low COVID-19 vaccination coverage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons for the refusal of the population of the city of Douala to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in Douala from February 10 to May 31, 2022. Participants, aged at least 21 years and residing in the city of Douala, were interviewed. Associations between the variables of interest were measured using Chi-square and Fisher tests, with a 95% confidence interval. Results: a total of 1555 people were included in the study. Only 168 (11%) had been vaccinated. The proportion of vaccine refusal was high, with 711 (45.7%) refusing, 640 participants (41.1%) hesitating, and 204 people (13.2%) being in favor of COVID-19 vaccination. The main reasons for refusing anti-COVID-19 vaccination were fear of adverse effects (406; 44.8%), lack of information about vaccines (331; 36.5%), and lack of confidence (302; 33.3%). Factors associated with vaccine refusal were religion (p=0.026) and level of education (p=0.002). Conclusion: this study revealed low COVID-19 vaccination coverage in Douala, with a significant proportion of refusal and hesitation towards vaccination. Communication strategies should take into account the reasons and factors associated with refusal.


Subject(s)
Therapeutics , Prevalence , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19
8.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1-10, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007392

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is one of the critical tools to prevent infections among individuals with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), ultimately improving the quality of life and reducing mortality. The incorporation of vaccination strategies into clinical decision-making processes has been recognized as pivotal. However, the absence of clinical guidelines and consensus on vaccination for ARDs patients still persists in China. Drawing from existing clinical evidence, this expert consensus encompasses eight prevalent vaccines: Influenza vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, COVID-19 vaccine, herpes zoster vaccine, human papillomavirus vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, and rabies virus vaccine. This initiative aims to furnish highly practical technical directives for vaccination personnel and rheumatologists, thereby fostering standardized vaccination practices to combat infectious diseases among adult ARDs patients in China.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Consensus , Quality of Life , Vaccination , Influenza Vaccines , Rheumatic Diseases , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn
11.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1560609

ABSTRACT

La vacunación es una forma de contribuir a la protección de la población al reducir el riesgo de efectos graves de la enfermedad COVID-19. Para marzo de 2021, en tiempo récord, la industria biotecnológica cubana contaba con cinco candidatos vacunales. Se realizó una intervención sanitaria con un esquema heterólogo: dos dosis de SOBERANA®02 más una dosis de SOBERANA®Plus, en trabajadores durante el período de marzo a junio de 2021, en el Instituto Finlay de Vacunas, en La Habana, Cuba. Se evaluaron los efectos directos e indirectos de la vacunación con SOBERANA®02 y SOBERANA®Plus en una cohorte de riesgo de infección, enfermedad y diseminación de la COVID-19. La cohorte se estableció en marzo de 2021 en trabajadores con alta exposición al coronavirus de tipo 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo, en el área de consulta médica de Instituto Finlay de Vacunas, establecida como sitio clínico. Entre el 22 de marzo de 2021 y el 11 de junio de 2021, se inscribieron un total de 1.776 participantes; de ellos, 1.719 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión con un porcentaje de 96,79 por ciento para la primera dosis, 1.675 recibieron la segunda dosis y 1.653 se vacunaron SOBERANA®Plus como tercera dosis para un 97,87por ciento. Mil cuatrocientos cincuenta y siete tenían entre 19 y 59 años, con predominio del sexo femenino. De los participantes, 175 tuvieron acontecimientos adversos y se observaron, predominantemente, una hora después de la administración de cada dosis. La reacción local más referida fue el dolor en el lugar de la inyección. Se registraron pocos acontecimientos adversos no solicitados. No se notificó ningún evento adverso grave o severo asociado a la vacuna. La distribución de casos de COVID-19 fue de 30, 16 y 6 posterior a cada dosis recibida. No se notificaron muertes asociadas a COVID-19. Las vacunas SOBERANA®02 y SOBERANA®Plus tuvieron un buen perfil de seguridad y fueron capaces de reducir la enfermedad grave por COVID-19 y la muerte, ayudando a revertir la situación epidemiológica causada por el coronavirus de tipo 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo en Cuba(AU)


Vaccination is a way to help protect people by reducing the risk of serious effects from COVID-19 illness. By March of 2021, in record time, Cuba's biotech industry had five vaccine candidates. A sanitary intervention with a heterologous scheme, two doses of SOBERANA®02 and one dose of SOBERANA®Plus, was carried out in workers during the period of March to June 2021 at Finlay Vaccine Institute, in Havana, Cuba. We evaluated the direct and indirect effects of vaccination with SOBERANA®02 and SOBERANA®Plus, in a cohort at risk of infection, disease and spread of the epidemic COVID-19. The cohort was established in March 2021, among workers with high exposure to SARS-CoV-2, at the area of medical consultation at Finlay Vaccine Institute, established as clinical site. Between March 22, 2021 and June 11, 2021, were enrolled a total of 1,776 participants and, of them, 1,719 met the inclusion criteria with a percentage of 96.79percent for first dose, of which 1,675 received the second dose and 1,653 received SOBERANA®Plus as third dose for 97.87percent. The majority of participants were aged 19-59 years (1,457), being female, the predominant sex. Among the participants, 175 had adverse events, predominantly observed one hour after the administration of each dose. The most common local reaction was injection site pain. Few unsolicited adverse events were recorded. No vaccine-associated severe or serious adverse events were reported. The distribution of COVID-19 case was 30 post first dose, 16 post second dose and 6 post last dose. No deaths associated with COVID-19 were reported. SOBERANA®02 and SOBERANA®Plus vaccines had a good safety profile and were capable of a reduction of severe COVID-19 illness and death helping to reverse the epidemiological situation caused by the SARS-COV-2 in Cuba(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupational Groups
12.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1551094

ABSTRACT

La urgente necesidad de desarrollar y producir vacunas seguras y efectivas para garantizar la reducción de la propagación del coronavirus de tipo 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo, hizo que el Centro de Inmunología Molecular y el Instituto Finlay de Vacunas, desarrollaran dos vacunas y un candidato vacunal contra la COVID-19, que tienen como componente la molécula del dominio de unión al receptor (aa 319-541) del virus. Para establecer el proceso productivo, se realizaron experimentos en los posibles pasos del proceso de purificación de la molécula del dominio de unión al receptor (aa 319-541), con vistas a su posterior transferencia tecnológica a escala industrial. Dicha molécula está fusionada con una etiqueta de hexahistidina en su extremo C-terminal y presenta nueve residuos de cisteína en su secuencia que forman cuatro enlaces disulfuros intramoleculares, quedando una cisteína libre que permite obtener dos moléculas: dimérica y monomérica, antígenos que forman parte de las vacunas SOBERANA®02 y SOBERANA®Plus y el candidato vacunal SOBERANA 01. Se determinaron las mejores condiciones de adsorción de las matrices cromatográficas de afinidad por quelatos metálicos, intercambio catiónico y exclusión molecular. Se evaluó el desempeño del proceso a escala piloto y se caracterizó la molécula de acuerdo a sus propiedades físico-químicas y biológicas. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron un 60,02 ± 5,15por ciento de recuperación total de la proteína de interés, con más del 98% de pureza en ambas moléculas, una eficiente remoción de contaminantes y una antigenicidad mayor del 90por ciento referido al monómero control del dominio de unión al receptor con 99 por ciento de pureza, lo que demuestra que el proceso establecido es eficiente en la obtención de un producto con la calidad requerida(AU)


The urgent need to develop and produce safe and effective vaccines to guarantee the reduction of the spread of the type 2 coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome, led the Center for Molecular Immunology and the Finlay Vaccine Institute to develop two vaccines and one candidate vaccine to combat the 2019 coronavirus pandemic. As part of the establishment of the production process, experiments were carried out on the possible steps of the purification process of the receptor binding domain molecule (aa 319-541) with a view to its subsequent technological transfer on an industrial scale. This molecule is fused with a hexahistidine tag at its C-terminal end and has nine cysteine residues in its sequence that form four intramolecular disulfide bonds; leaving a free cysteine that allows two molecules to be obtained: dimeric and monomeric, which constitute the antigens of the SOBERANA®02 and SOBERANA®Plus vaccines and the SOBERANA 01 vaccine candidate. The best adsorption conditions of the chromatographic matrices of affinity for metal chelates, cationic exchange and molecular exclusion were determined. The performance of the process was evaluated on a pilot scale and the molecule was characterized according to its physical-chemical and biological properties. The results obtained showed a 60.02 ± 5.15percent total recovery of the protein of interest with more than 98% purity in both molecules, an efficient removal of contaminants and an antigenicity greater than 90percent referred to the control monomer of the domain receptor binding with 99% purity; which demonstrates that the established process is efficient in obtaining a product with the required quality(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Adsorption/drug effects
13.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(5): 308-323, oct. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530019

ABSTRACT

La creación de una vacuna para enfrentar la pandemia de COVID-19 conllevó un vacío de información sobre las posibles alteraciones del ciclo menstrual. El objetivo fue verificar las posibles alteraciones que se pudiesen haber generado en el ciclo menstrual de las mujeres posterior a la inoculación de la vacuna contra la COVID-19. Se realizó una revisión sistemática en las bases bibliografías Medline, Medline Complete, LILACS, CINAHL y ScIELO, utilizando los descriptores “Women”, “Woman”, “Fertile period”, “Vaccination”, “Mass vaccination”, “Immunization”, “COVID-19 vaccines”, “SARS-CoV-2 infection”, “COVID-19”, “Menstrual cycle”, “Menstruation”, “Endometrial cycle”, “Dysmenorrhea” y “Menstruation disturbances”. Mediante la utilización del protocolo PRISMA, de los 319 artículos localizados, 17 fueron incluidos en el análisis. La mayoría de los estudios incluyeron, principalmente, las vacunas Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca y Johnson&Johnson/Janssen con una a tres dosis administradas. El porcentaje de ciclos menstruales alterados fue del 8,0% al 77,8%, y la alteración con mayor frecuencia referida fue la duración del ciclo menstrual, que fue desde 0,3 hasta 12 días de retraso de la menstruación. Todos los estudios refieren cambios en el ciclo menstrual con diversas prevalencias, con y sin significación estadística; sin embargo, también concluyen que estas alteraciones son reversibles y en un corto periodo de tiempo.


The creation of a vaccine to face the COVID-19 pandemic, led to an information gap on possible alterations of the menstrual cycle. The objective was to verify the possible alterations that could have been generated in the menstrual cycle of women, after the inoculation of the vaccine against COVID-19. A systematic review was carried out in the Medline, Medline Complete, LILACS, CINAHL and ScIELO bibliographic databases, using the descriptors “Women”, “Woman”, “Fertile period”, “Vaccination”, “Mass vaccination”, “Immunization”, “COVID-19 vaccines”, “SARS-CoV-2 infection”, “COVID-19”, “Menstrual cycle”, “Menstruation”, “Endometrial cycle”, “Dysmenorrhea” and “Menstruation disturbances”. Using the PRISMA protocol, of the 319 articles located, 17 were included in the analysis. Most of the studies mainly included the Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca and Johnson&Johnson/Janssen vaccines with one to three doses administered. The percentage of altered menstrual cycles ranged from 8.0% to 77.8%, and the most frequently reported alteration was the length of the menstrual cycle, which occurred from 0.3 to 12 days late in menstruation. All the studies refer to changes in the menstrual cycle with different prevalences, with and without statistical significance; however, the same studies also conclude that these alterations are reversible and in a short period of time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Menstruation , Menstrual Cycle
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(5): 472-480, oct. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521873

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La introducción progresiva de vacunas contra SARS-CoV-2 a partir de 2021, priorizando grupos de mayor edad, podría implicar un cambio en el perfil de pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19 en el tiempo. OBJETIVO: Comparar las características y evolución de pacientes adultos hospitalizados por COVID-19 en un período anterior en 2020 (PER1) y otro posterior al inicio de la vacunación masiva contra SARS-CoV-2 (PER2). PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Se registró edad, género, comorbilidades, complicaciones y evolución de los pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19 en una clínica privada, en Santiago, Chile. Se calculó el puntaje de gravedad y riesgo nutricional. RESULTADOS: En PER2, los pacientes fueron de menor edad, pero con comorbilidades similares al PER1, excepto por mayor malnutrición por exceso. Los pacientes del PER2 no vacunados requirieron más ventilación mecánica (38,9 vs. 14,3%, p = 0,03) y evolucionaron más gravemente (puntaje 6) que aquellos adecuadamente inmunizados (puntaje 5, p = 0,048). Las variables que más predijeron mortalidad fueron edad > 60 años (OR 28.995) y presencia de riesgo nutricional (OR 5.246). DISCUSIÓN: El cambio en el perfil y evolución de los pacientes hospitalizados con COVID-19 está asociado con la secuencia de priorización de vacunas contra SARS-CoV-2, cuyo efecto redujo las hospitalizaciones y gravedad de COVID-19 en adultos mayores.


BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the early prioritization of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for older adults may have affected the characteristics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients over time. AIM: To compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of adult patients admitted for COVID-19 before (PER1) and after (PER2) the initiation of mass vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Data on age, gender, comorbidities, complications, and outcomes of adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in a private clinic of Santiago, Chile, were collected. Scores for COVID-19 severity and nutritional risk were calculated. RESULTS: In PER2, patients were younger but had similar comorbidities, except for a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity compared to PER1. Unvaccinated COVID-19 patients in PER2 required more invasive ventilatory support (38.9% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.03) and had a higher severity score (six) than vaccinated patients (five, p = 0.048). The variables that best predicted mortality were age > 60 years (OR 28,995) and the presence of nutritional risk (OR 5,246). DISCUSSION: Changes in the profile and outcomes of hospitalized patients during the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with the prioritization of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and their protective effect in reducing hospitalizations and disease severity in older adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Severity of Illness Index , Comorbidity , Clinical Evolution , Nutritional Status , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
15.
Rev. ADM ; 80(5): 255-258, sept.-oct. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1531084

ABSTRACT

Introducción: se vive una crisis de confianza en la ciencia y una época de menosprecio a los conocimientos y evidencias. Las opiniones de los líderes políticos y otras figuras públicas ajenas a los problemas de salud tienen una mayor consideración y peso que los juicios emitidos por los expertos. Una evidencia que demuestra la debilidad de México en el campo de la salud son dos hechos en los cuales las autoridades del país son los culpables que son: la desaparición del Seguro Popular y la pobre respuesta a la pandemia de COVID-19. Conclusiones: la pandemia no termina por decreto, se logrará con cuidados y prevención realizada por el gobierno, instituciones y personal de salud y la sociedad (AU)


Introduction: we are living through a crisis of confidence in science and an era of disregard for knowledge and evidence. The opinions of political leaders and other public figures who are not involved in health problems are given greater consideration and weight than the judgments made by experts. Evidence that demonstrates Mexico's weakness in the field of health are two facts in which the country's authorities are to blame: the disappearance of Seguro Popular and the poor response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: the pandemic does not end by decree, it will be achieved with care and prevention carried out by the government, health institutions and personnel and society (AU)


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , World Health Organization , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Endemic Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Policy/trends , Mexico/epidemiology
16.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530145

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ciencia mediante la innovación de los servicios y la tecnología brinda importantes beneficios en función de la sociedad. Objetivo: Proporcionar información sistematizada sobre el impacto social de la ciencia y la tecnología cubana en el enfrentamiento a la COVID-19. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos Scopus, SciELO, ScienceDirect y MEDLINE/PubMed. Para ello, se utilizaron los descriptores o palabras relacionadas con la temática (ciencia, tecnología, COVID-19). Se consultaron artículos de revisión, de posición, y metaanálisis de los años 2020, 2021 y 2022, de la búsqueda solo 30 artículos cumplieron con los criterios de selección. Resultados: En la etapa pandémica, Cuba depositó toda la confianza en sus científicos y sacó provecho a la industria biotecnológica en la búsqueda de salvaguardar la población. Gracias a la satisfactoria gestión del gobierno se obtuvieron resultados positivos en las investigaciones, a partir de la inventiva de los productos como jusvinza, nasalferon, biomodulina T, entre otros. Se inventó un ventilador pulmonar asistido de alta gama para el tratamiento de los adultos, de este modo se fortaleció el trabajo interinstitucional e intersectorial. Conclusiones: La ciencia, la tecnología y las innovaciones han sido cruciales para el manejo de la crisis sanitaria generada por la COVID-19. En Cuba, se obtuvieron valiosos resultados en diferentes niveles para el beneficio de la sociedad; como las vacunas soberana y Abdala(AU)


Introduction: Both science and technology justify their existence through the innovation of services and technologies for the benefit of society. Objective: To provide systematized information on the social impact of Cuban science and technology in the fight against COVID-19. Methods: A bibliographic search was carried out in Scopus, SciELO, ScienceDirect and MEDLINE/PubMed databases. Descriptors or words related to the theme (science, technology, COVID-19) were used. Review articles, position articles, and meta-analyses from 2020, 2021, and 2022 were consulted. Only 30 articles met the selection criteria. Results: In the pandemic stage, Cuba placed all its trust in its scientists and took advantage of the biotechnology industry in the search for the safeguarding of the population. Thanks to the satisfactory management of the government, good results were obtained in the investigations with the inventiveness of products such as Jusvinza, nasalferon, biomodulin T, among others. A high-end assisted lung ventilator was invented for treating adults, in the same way that inter-institutional and intersectoral work was strengthened. Conclusions: Science, technology, and innovations have been crucial in managing the health crisis caused by COVID-19. In Cuba, relevant results have been obtained at different levels for the benefit of society, among which Soberana and Abdala vaccines stand out(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Social Change , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cuba
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(3): 220-227, jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515127

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La vacunación durante el embarazo ha demostrado ser una medida segura y efectiva que protege a la mujer gestante y al feto contra enfermedades inmunoprevenibles. OBJETIVO: Determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de mujeres gestantes respecto a la vacunación en el marco de la pandemia por el virus SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional de corte transversal realizado en Instituciones Prestadoras de Servicios de Salud Públicas de los 19 municipios de Casanare, Colombia, entre enero y marzo de 2022. Los datos se recolectaron mediante un instrumento de medición documentado que incluyó 22 ítems agrupados en cuatro secciones: datos sociodemográficos, conocimiento, actitudes y prácticas sobre vacunación. RESULTADOS: La media de puntuación de conocimientos fue 5,9 (DE 1,9) de un máximo de 10. El 93,7% cree que la vacunación es realmente necesaria durante el embarazo. Los factores asociados al nivel adecuado de conocimiento incluyeron el grupo de edad entre 26-30 años (OR: 2,27; IC 95%: 1,21-4,25; p = 0,011), estar en el tercer trimestre de embarazo (OR: 2,37; IC 95%: 1,12-5,01; p = 0,024) y contar con un nivel educativo básico, medio o superior (OR: 10,45; IC 95%: 2,37-46,03; p = 0,002). CONCLUSIÓN: Es esencial fortalecer las estrategias de información, educación y comunicación, para promover la vacunación segura durante el embarazo.


BACKGROUND: Vaccination during pregnancy has proven to be a safe and effective measure that protects pregnant woman and the fetus against immuno-preventable diseases. AIM: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant women regarding vaccination in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at public health care institutions in the 19 municipalities of Casanare, Colombia, from January to March 2022. Data were collected using a documented measurement instrument that included 22 items grouped into four sections: sociodemographic data, knowledge, attitudes and practices about vaccination. RESULTS: The mean knowledge score was 5.9 (SD: 1.9) of a maximun of 10; 93.7% believed that vaccination was really necessary during pregnancy. Factors associated with adequate level of knowledge included age group 26-30 years (OR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.21-4.25; p = 0.011), being in the third trimester of pregnancy (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.12-5.01; p = 0.024) and having basic, intermediate or higher education (OR: 10.45; 95% CI: 2.37-46.03; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to strengthen information, education and communication strategies to promote safe vaccination during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Influenza Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Colombia , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Sociodemographic Factors
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(3): 228-235, jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515128

ABSTRACT

Los pacientes con malignidades hematológicas tienen un riesgo más alto de hospitalización, admisión a cuidado crítico y muerte cuando contraen COVID-19. En este grupo se ha propuesto la vacunación y los refuerzos para disminuir el riesgo de complicaciones. Sin embargo, es posible ver una pobre respuesta humoral y celular a las vacunas. En esta revisión se presenta la evidencia sobre la respuesta a la vacunación, poniendo de presente algunas patologías y tratamientos que pueden disminuirla de forma significativa. Los pacientes con neoplasias hematológicas se deben considerar en riesgo de complicaciones, incluso después de haber sido vacunados de forma completa y haber recibido los refuerzos. Se debe mantener la vigilancia de forma estrecha después de haber sido vacunados y evaluar la posibilidad de otras estrategias (medicamentos, anticuerpos monoclonales) para la prevención o el manejo de COVID-19.


Patients with hematological malignancies have a higher risk of hospital admission, critical care and death when they suffer from COVID-19. In this group of patients, vaccination and boosters have been proposed to mitigate the risk of complications. However, it is possible to observe a diminished rate of humoral and cellular response. In this review, evidence is shown about the response to COVID-19 vaccination, considering some specific pathologies and treatments that can affect such response in a significant account. Patients with malignant neoplasm must be considered at risk of COVID-19 complications, even after a complete vaccine schedule and boosters. Surveillance must be maintained after vaccination over these patients and other strategies must be considered (drugs, monoclonal antibodies) for prevention and management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunocompromised Host , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(3): 236-244, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515129

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Existe controversia con respecto a los factores que determinan un mayor riesgo de gravedad y complicaciones por COVID-19 en personas que viven con VIH (PVVIH). Asimismo, hay datos limitados sobre el impacto de la vacunación contra SARS-CoV-2 en la hospitalización en esta población. OBJETIVOS: Describir las características clínicas y evolutivas de COVID-19 en PVVIH; Evaluar factores de riesgo para hospitalización; Evaluar el impacto de la vacunación en la hospitalización. Pacientes y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional, prospectivo, multicéntrico (septiembre de 2020 a junio de 2022). Se registraron variables clínicas, inmunovirológicas, tratamiento antirretroviral (TARV), vacunación contra SARS-CoV-2 y hospitalización en PVVIH con COVID-19. Se realizaron análisis uni y multivariados examinando factores asociados a hospitalización utilizando dos modelos: primer modelo (sin vacunación) y segundo modelo (vacunación, mínimo una dosis). RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 1.201 PVVIH. La mediana de edad fue 45 años. El 65,3% fueron hombres; el 38,7% presentó comorbilidades. Recibía TARV el 92,8% y presentó carga viral (CV) indetectable el 83,1%. La mediana de linfocitos T CD4+ fue de 600 céls/mm3. El 95,7% presentó síntomas. Las tasas de hospitalización, ingreso a UCI, requerimiento de oxígeno y muerte fueron 17,8%, 2,8%, 10,7% y 1,39%, respectivamente. De acuerdo con el análisis multivariado para el primer modelo, la edad > 60 años y las comorbilidades se asociaron a mayor riesgo de hospitalización, mientras que el sexo femenino y un recuento de linfocitos T CD4+ > 500 céls/mm3 tuvieron un efecto protector. En el segundo modelo sólo las comorbilidades se relacionaron con un mayor riesgo de hospitalización mientras que la vacunación y células CD4+ > 500 céls/mm3 la redujeron. CONCLUSIONES: En PVVIH las comorbilidades se asociaron con mayor tasa de hospitalización, mientras que tener linfocitos T CD4+ elevados y estar vacunado tuvieron un efecto protector. El TARV y la CV no tuvieron impacto en modelo alguno mientras que la edad y el sexo solo influyeron cuando no se consideró la vacunación.


BACKGROUND: There is controversy regarding the factors that determine a greater risk of severity and complications from COVID-19 in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Likewise, there are limited data on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination on hospitalization in this population. AIMS: To describe clinical characteristics and outcome of COVID-19 in PLHIV; To assess risk factors for hospitalization; To evaluate the impact of vaccination on hospitalization. METHODS: Multicenter, prospective, observational study (September 2020 to June 2022). Clinical and immunovirological variables, antiretroviral treatment (ART), SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and hospitalization in PLHIV with COVID-19 were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed examining factors associated with hospitalization using two models: first model (without vaccination) and second model (vaccination, minimum one dose). RESULTS: 1,201 PLHIV were included. The median age was 45 years. 65.3% were men; 38.7% presented comorbidities. 92.8% received ART and 83.1% presented undetectable viral load (VL). The median CD4+ T-cell count was 600/mm3. 95.7% presented symptoms. The rates of hospitalization, ICU admission, oxygen requirement, and death were 17.8 %, 2.8%, 10.7% and 1.39%, respectively. According to the multivariate analysis for the first model, age > 60 years and comorbidities were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization, while female sex and CD4+ > 500/mm3 had a protective effect. In the second model, only the comorbidities were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization, while vaccination and CD4+ > 500/mm3 reduced it. CONCLUSIONS: in PLHIV, comorbidities were associated with a higher hospitalization rate, while having elevated CD4+ T-cell counts and being vaccinated had a protective effect. ART and VL had no impact in any model, while age and sex only had an influence when vaccination was not considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Argentina/epidemiology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Multicenter Study , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control
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