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An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 283-288, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130886


Abstract Background: Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease that produces non-scarring hair loss around the body. Gene variants of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) gene, a negative regulator of T-cell response, have been associated with a predisposition to autoimmune diseases in different populations; however, the involvement of these genetic variants in the development of AA is controversial. Objective: The present study evaluated the potential association of two CTLA4 gene variants with alopecia areata in a Mexican population. Methods: We genotyped +49AG (rs231775) and CT60 (rs3087243) variants in 50 AA patients and 100 healthy control participants through PCR-RFLP. Results: No statistical difference was observed for either of the gene variants regarding allele or genotype frequencies between AA patients and the controls when the parameters of family/personal history of autoimmune diseases or gender were considered (p > 0.05). Study limitations: Small sample size of patients and the data were obtained from Northeast Mexico population. Conclusion: The genetic variants rs231775 and rs3087243 of the CTLA4 gene are not a risk factor for the development of alopecia areata in the analyzed Mexican population.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Genetic Variation/genetics , Alopecia Areata/genetics , CTLA-4 Antigen/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genetic Association Studies , Genotyping Techniques , Gene Frequency , Mexico , Middle Aged
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 969-978, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826879


Drugs targeting immune checkpoint are used for cancer treatment, but resistance to single drug may occur. Combination therapy blocking multiple checkpoints simultaneously can improve clinical outcome. Therefore, we designed a recombinant protein rPC to block multiple targets, which consists of extracellular domains of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4). The coding sequence was inserted into expression vector and stably transfected into HEK293 cells. The culture supernatant was collected and rPC was affinity-purified. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to evaluate the expression levels of ligands for PD-1 and CTLA-4 in several human cancer cell lines. The binding of rPC with cancer cells was examined by immunofluorescence cell staining, the influence of rPC on cancer cell growth was assayed by CCK-8. The results showed that rPC could be expressed and secreted by stably transfected HEK293 cells, the purified rPC could bind to lung cancer NCI-H226 cells which have high levels of ligands for PD-1 and CTLA-4, no direct impact on cancer cell growth could be observed by rPC treatment. The recombinant protein rPC can be functionally assayed further for developing novel immunotherapeutic drugs for cancer.

Animals , CTLA-4 Antigen , Genetics , Cell Proliferation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Metabolism , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Genetics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2444-2455, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877859


In recent years, the research of immune checkpoint inhibitors has made a great breakthrough in lung cancer treatment. Currently, a variety of immune checkpoint inhibitors have been applied into clinical practice, including antibodies targeting the programmed cell death-1, programmed cell death-ligand 1, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, and so on. However, not all patients can benefit from the treatment. Abnormal antigen presentation, functional gene mutation, tumor microenvironment, and other factors can lead to primary or secondary resistance. In this paper, we reviewed the molecular mechanism of immune checkpoint inhibitor resistance and various combination strategies to overcome resistance, in order to expand the beneficial population and enable precision medicine.

B7-H1 Antigen , CTLA-4 Antigen , Drug Resistance , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Tumor Microenvironment
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2456-2465, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877844


Immunotherapy has become the mainstay for lung cancer treatment, providing sustained therapeutic responses and improved prognosis compared with those obtained with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and targeted therapy. It has the potential for anti-tumor treatment and killing tumor cells by activating human immunity and has moved the targets of anti-cancer therapy from malignant tumor cells to immune cell subsets. Two kinds of immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), are the main targets of current immunotherapy in lung cancer. Despite the successful outcomes achieved by immune checkpoint inhibitors, a small portion of lung cancer patients remain unresponsive to checkpoint immunotherapy or may ultimately become resistant to these agents as a result of the complex immune modulatory network in the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, it is imperative to exploit novel immunotherapy targets to further expand the proportion of patients benefiting from immunotherapy. This review summarizes the molecular features, biological function, and clinical significance of several novel checkpoints that have important roles in lung cancer immune responses beyond the CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 axes, including the markers of co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory T lymphocyte pathways and inhibitory markers of macrophages and natural killer cells.

CTLA-4 Antigen , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Microenvironment
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2595-2598, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877820


With the increasing use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) including anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) in cancers, ICI-induced type 1 diabetes has been reported throughout the world. In this review, we aim to summarize the characteristics of this disease and discuss the mechanism of it. As an immune-related adverse event, type 1 diabetes developed after the administration of anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in the combination with or without anti-CTLA-4. It usually presented with acute onset, and 62.1% of the reported cases had diabetic ketoacidosis. Only a third of them had positive autoantibodies associated with type 1 diabetes. Susceptible HLA genotypes might be associated. T-cell-stimulation by blocking of the interaction of PD-1 and PD-L1 in pancreatic β cells was the main mechanism involved in the pathology. Insulin was the only effective treatment of ICI-induced type 1 diabetes. In conclusions, ICI-induced type 1 diabetes is a potentially life-threating adverse event after the immunotherapy of cancers. Screening and early recognition is important. Further investigation of the mechanism may help to better understand the pathology of type 1 diabetes.

CTLA-4 Antigen , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/chemically induced , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Neoplasms/drug therapy
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(4): 146-148, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099838


Los anticuerpos monoclonales que inhiben los puntos de control PD-1 y CTLA-4 se usan actualmente en el tratamiento del melanoma y cáncer metastásico de pulmón de células no pequeñas, entre otros. Se refiere el caso de una paciente con cáncer de pulmón en tratamiento con pembrolizumab. La paciente se presentó con edema facial y parálisis facial periférica. En el laboratorio se observó la hormona tirotrofina (TSH) elevada y se llegó al diagnóstico de hipotiroidismo por pembrolizumab. Inició tratamiento con levotiroxina con mejoría clínica. Se presenta este caso por el importante papel del dermatólogo en el manejo multidisciplinario del paciente oncológico. (AU)

Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit PD-1 and CTLA-4 control points are currently used in the treatment of melanoma and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, among others. The case of a patient, with lung cancer being treated with Pembrolizumab. The patient was presented with facial edema and peripheral facial paralysis and in the laboratory the elevated hormone Tyrotrophin (TSH) was observed, the diagnosis of pembrolizumab hypothyroidism was reached. She started treatment with levothyroxine with clinical improvement. This case is presented by the important role of the dermatologist in the multidisciplinary management of the cancer patient. (AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/complications , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Thyrotropin/analysis , Carboplatin/administration & dosage , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/drug effects , Dermatology , Facial Injuries , Facial Paralysis , CTLA-4 Antigen/drug effects , CTLA-4 Antigen/physiology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/drug effects , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/physiology , Pemetrexed/administration & dosage , Melanoma/complications , Melanoma/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781648


Bladder urothelial carcinoma(BUC)is a common malignant tumor in the urinary system.Pt-based chemotherapy has long been a standard therapeutic method for resectable or metastatic BUC,but with poor outcomes.Immune checkpoint inhibitors specific to programmed death 1(PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1(PD-L1)and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4(CTLA-4)pathways have shown significant antitumor activities,safety,and enduring reactivity in clinical trials,thus creating a new epoch for the treatment of advanced-stage BUC.This article reviews the relationships of BUC with PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 pathways,as demonstrated in clinical trials.In particular,the authors elucidate the clinical studies on the application of immune checkpoint inhibitors in different BUC stages and their optimal combining strategies,with an attempt to improve the clinical use of immune inhibitors for BUC treatment.

Apoptosis , B7-H1 Antigen , CTLA-4 Antigen , Immunotherapy , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Signal Transduction
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766195


Recent studies on T cell immunology have been instrumental in developing therapies to overcome cancer immune escape, and immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as one of the most promising therapeutic tools in advanced cancer patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) are monoclonal antibodies that modulate the effects of immune checkpoints. These include cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 and programmed cell death protein 1, which are co-inhibitory signals responsible for immune suppression. Despite their clinical benefits, ICPIs behave as general immune activators, exerting to several toxic effects called immune-related adverse events attributed to organ-specific inflammation. Here, we review ICPI toxicities, highlighting the importance of their early identification and proper management.

Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Allergy and Immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Cell Death , CTLA-4 Antigen , Humans , Inflammation , United Nations
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785842


Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a promising therapy for a wide variety of tumors. Immune checkpoint inhibitors including anti cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibodies have proven to be especially effective in various advanced cancers. However, cancer the immunotherapy disturbs the immune system and may also cause immune related side effects (IRAE) distinguished from cytotoxic chemotherapy toxicity. Among them, endocrine IRAE has been reported with a higher incidence than other organ IRAE. We focus on the most relevant and new aspects related to endocrine IRAE due to cancer immunotherapy in this review.

Antibodies, Monoclonal , CTLA-4 Antigen , Drug Therapy , Immune System , Immunotherapy , Incidence
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772938


The activation mechanism of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells may differ substantially from T cells carrying native T cell receptor, but this difference remains poorly understood. We present the first comprehensive portrait of single-cell level transcriptional and cytokine signatures of anti-CD19/4-1BB/CD28/CD3ζ CAR-T cells upon antigen-specific stimulation. Both CD4 helper T (T) cells and CD8 cytotoxic CAR-T cells are equally effective in directly killing target tumor cells and their cytotoxic activity is associated with the elevation of a range of T1 and T2 signature cytokines, e.g., interferon γ, tumor necrotic factor α, interleukin 5 (IL5), and IL13, as confirmed by the expression of master transcription factor genes TBX21 and GATA3. However, rather than conforming to stringent T1 or T2 subtypes, single-cell analysis reveals that the predominant response is a highly mixed T1/T2 function in the same cell. The regulatory T cell activity, although observed in a small fraction of activated cells, emerges from this hybrid T1/T2 population. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is produced from the majority of cells regardless of the polarization states, further contrasting CAR-T to classic T cells. Surprisingly, the cytokine response is minimally associated with differentiation status, although all major differentiation subsets such as naïve, central memory, effector memory, and effector are detected. All these suggest that the activation of CAR-engineered T cells is a canonical process that leads to a highly mixed response combining both type 1 and type 2 cytokines together with GM-CSF, supporting the notion that polyfunctional CAR-T cells correlate with objective response of patients in clinical trials. This work provides new insights into the mechanism of CAR activation and implies the necessity for cellular function assays to characterize the quality of CAR-T infusion products and monitor therapeutic responses in patients.

Antigens , Metabolism , CTLA-4 Antigen , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line , Cytokines , Metabolism , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Pharmacology , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Allergy and Immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets , Metabolism , Phenotype , Proteomics , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Methods , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Metabolism , Th1 Cells , Cell Biology , Th2 Cells , Cell Biology , Transcription, Genetic , Up-Regulation
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(5): 336-348, oct. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976122


La activación del sistema inmunológico en pacientes con cáncer ha sido un objetivo histórico en el campo de la oncología. En las últimas décadas, nuestro entendimiento de la respuesta inmunológica antitumoral ha promovido el desarrollo de novedosas estrategias terapéuticas dando como resultado un cambio de paradigma en el tratamiento del cáncer. La utilización de agentes bloqueantes de puntos de chequeo del sistema inmunológico como PD-1/PD-L1 y CTLA-4, de agonistas de moléculas co-estimuladoras como CD137 y OX-40 y la transferencia adoptiva de células T antitumorales modificadas genéticamente han generado importantes beneficios clínicos, reflejados en respuestas objetivas y durader as, en enfermos sin tratamientos convencionales disponibles. Sin embargo, un gran número de pacientes no responde a dichas terapias generando resistencia o sufriendo recaídas de la enfermedad debido a la aparición de circuitos inhibitorios o compensatorios. La combinación racional de estrategias terapéuticas permite eliminar mecanismos de resistencia, mientras que la identificación de biomarcadores predictivos facilita la selección de pacientes respondedores a dichos tratamientos. Recientes ensayos clínicos y estudios pre-clínicos permiten vislumbrar un escenario optimista con importantes desafíos en la implementación de estrategias de inmunoterapia en cáncer.

Recent under-standing of the mechanisms that control immune system homeostasis and orchestrate antitumor responses has prompted the development of novel immunotherapeutic modalities. These include antibodies that target immune checkpoints such as PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4, agonistic antibodies of costimulatory molecules such as CD137 and OX-40 and the adoptive transfer of genetically-modified antitumor T cells. However, a large number of patients do not respond to these therapies and develop resistance as a result of activation of compensatory circuits. Rational combination of immunotherapeutic modalities will help overcome resistance and will increase the number of patients who will benefit from these treatments. Moreover, identification of predictive biomarkers will allow selection of patients responding to these treatments. Emerging clinical trials and pre-clinical studies have shown exciting results anticipating new horizons in the design and implementation of cancer immunotherapeutic modalities.

Humans , Immunotherapy/trends , Neoplasms/therapy , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology , CTLA-4 Antigen , Immunotherapy/methods , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690950


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effects of blocking TCR-CD3 and B7-CD28 signals on immune function of mice with chronic GVHD by using TJU103 and CTLA4-Ig.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>On the basis of foregoing murine model of chronic GVHD, according to interference modes after infusion 6×10 spleen cells of donor mice, the recipients were divided into 5 groups: blank control, cGVHD, TJU103 interference, CTLA4-Ig interference and TJU103+CTLA4-Ig interference groups. The score of clinical manifestation and tissue histopathology were used to evaluate the effects of all the interferences on chronic GVHD.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>TJU103 and CTLA4-Ig could not influence the formation of the mouse chimera. The analysis of Kaplan survival curve of mice with chronic GVHD showed that the CTLA4-Ig and TJU103+CTLA4-Ig reduced the incidence of chronic GVHD, the TJU103 could delay the occurrence of chronic GVHD, but all the interference factors could not change the severity of chronic GVHD.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TJU103 can delay the onset time of chronic GVHD, and the CTLA4-Ig can reduce the incidences of cGVHD, the combining use of TJU103 and CTLA4-Ig can significantly reduce the incidence of chronic GVHD, but can not change the severity of chronic GVHD.</p>

Abatacept , Animals , Antigen-Presenting Cells , Antigens, CD , Antigens, Differentiation , CTLA-4 Antigen , Chronic Disease , Graft vs Host Disease , Immunoconjugates , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , T-Lymphocytes
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715546


PURPOSE: Little is known about the clinical value of peripheral blood immune profiling. Here, we aimed to identify colorectal cancer (CRC)-related peripheral blood immune cells and develop liquid biopsy-based immune profiling models for CRC diagnosis. METHODS: Peripheral blood from 131 preoperative patients with CRC and 174 healthy controls was analyzed by flow cytometry and automated hematology. CRC-related immune factors were identified by comparing the mean values of immune cell percentages and counts. Subsequently, CRC diagnostic algorithms were constructed using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed in percentages and counts of white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, regulatory T cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) of patients and controls. The neutrophil/lymphocyte and Th1/Th2 ratios were also significantly different. Likewise, the percentages and counts of peripheral blood programed death 1, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4, B-and T-lymphocyte attenuator, and lymphocyte activation gene-3 were higher in patients with CRC. The binary logistic regression model included 12 variables, age, CD3+%, NK%, CD4+CD279+%, CD4+CD25+%, CD4+CD152+%, CD3+CD366+%, CD3+CD272+%, CD3+CD223+%, CD158b−CD314+CD3−CD56+%, Th2%, and MDSCs cells/µL, for the prediction of cancer. Results of retrospective and prospective evaluation of the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.980 and 0.940, 91.53% and 85.80%, and 93.50% and 86.20%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Peripheral blood immune profiling may be valuable in evaluating the immunity of CRC patients. Our liquid biopsy-based immune diagnostic method and its algorithms may serve as a novel tool for CRC diagnosis. Future largescale studies are needed for better characterization of its diagnostic value and potential for clinical application.

Blood Cells , Colorectal Neoplasms , CTLA-4 Antigen , Diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Flow Cytometry , Hematology , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Leukocytes , Logistic Models , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocytes , Methods , Neutrophils , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , T-Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(6): 830-835, Nov.-Dec. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887132


Abstract: The stimulation of the immune system, in order to generate an attack against cancer cells, similarly to that which occurs in infectious disease, has long been matter of interest in oncology; however, only limited success has been achieved, with different treatment strategies tested in recent years. The development of new immune checkpoint inhibitors is currently changing this scenario, and immunotherapy is becoming a real choice among traditional cytotoxic treatments to fight cancer. Recent reports have shown efficacy and safety with the use of pembrolizumab, nivolumab, and ipilimumab for the treatment of different neoplasms, especially melanoma. In this article, we propose a review of the mechanisms of action involved in cancer immunology, the response evaluation of immunotherapies, and its toxicity profile, as well as a summary of the main clinical trials that led to the adoption of these new drugs for melanoma treatment.

Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Melanoma/immunology , Melanoma/drug therapy , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Treatment Outcome , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , CTLA-4 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Ipilimumab/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(12): 1090-1099, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896334


Summary Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of the CD25 marker on the surface of naturally occurring T cells (Tregs) of mice, which have a self-reactive cellular profile. Recently, expression of other markers that aid in the identification of these cells has been detected in lymphocyte subtypes of individuals suffering of autoimmune and idiopathic diseases, including: CD25, CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4), HLA-DR (human leukocyte antigen) and Interleukin 10 (IL-10), opening new perspectives for a better understanding of an association between such receptors present on the cell surface and the prognosis of autoimmune diseases. The role of these molecules has already been described in the literature for the modulation of the inflammatory response in infectious and parasitic diseases. Thus, the function, phenotype and frequency of expression of the a-chain receptor of IL-2 (CD25) and IL-10 in lymphocyte subtypes were investigated. Murine models have been used to demonstrate a possible correlation between the expression of the CD25 marker (on the surface of CD4 lymphocytes) and the control of self-tolerance mechanisms. These studies provided support for the presentation of a review of the role of cells expressing IL-2, IL-10, HLA-DR and CTLA-4 receptors in the monitoring of immunosuppression in diseases classified as autoimmune, providing perspectives for understanding peripheral regulation mechanisms and the pathophysiology of these diseases in humans. In addition, a therapeutic approach based on the manipulation of the phenotype of these cells and ways of scintigraphically monitoring the manifestations of these diseases by labeling their receptors is discussed as a perspective. In this paper, we have included the description of experiments in ex vivo regulation of IL-10 and synthesis of thio-sugars and poly-sugars to produce radiopharmaceuticals for monitoring inflammation. These experiments may yield benefits for the treatment and prognosis of autoimmune diseases.

Resumo Estudos anteriores já haviam demonstrado a expressão do marcador CD25 na superfície de células T de ocorrência natural (Tregs) de camundongos, que apresentam perfil celular autorreativo. Recentemente, foi detectada, em subtipos de linfócitos de indivíduos acometidos por doenças autoimunes e de causa idiopática, a expressão de outros marcadores, que auxiliam na identificação dessas células, entre os quais: CD25, CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4), HLA-DR (human leucocyte antigen) e Interleucina 10 (IL-10), abrindo novas perspectivas para a melhor compreensão de uma associação entre esses receptores presentes na superfície celular e o prognóstico de doenças autoimunes. O papel dessas moléculas já havia sido descrito na literatura na modulação da resposta inflamatória em doenças infectoparasitárias. Dessa forma, foram investigados a função, o fenótipo e a frequência de expressão, do receptor de cadeia a da IL-2 (CD25) e de IL-10 em subtipos de linfócitos. O modelo murino tem sido utilizado para demonstrar uma possível correlação entre a expressão do marcador CD25 (na superfície de linfócitos CD4) e o controle dos mecanismos de autotolerância. Essas pesquisas forneceram suporte para apresentação de uma revisão sobre o papel das células que expressam os receptores de IL-2, IL-10, HLA-DR e CTLA-4 no monitoramento da imunossupressão, em doenças de classificação autoimune, abrindo perspectivas para o entendimento dos mecanismos de regulação periférica e sobre a fisiopatologia dessas doenças no ser humano. Além disso, é discutida como perspectiva uma abordagem terapêutica fundamentada na manipulação do fenótipo dessas células, bem como de modos de monitoramento cintilográfico das manifestações dessas doenças, por meio da marcação de seus receptores. Nestes, foram incluídas descrições das experiências em regulação ex-vivo de IL-10; de síntese de tioaçúcares e de poliaçúcares para produção de radiofármacos para monitoramento de inflamações. Essas experiências podem trazer benefícios na terapia e no prognóstico de doenças autoimunes.

Humans , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Autoimmunity/physiology , Interleukin-10/physiology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/physiology , Prognosis , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , HLA-DR Antigens , Radionuclide Imaging , CD4 Antigens/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology , Models, Animal , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/immunology , CTLA-4 Antigen , Immune Tolerance , Mice
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(2): 156-166, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838050


Abstract: In the recent past years, many discoveries in the tumor microenvironment have led to changes in the management of melanoma and it is rising up hopes, specially, to those in advanced stages. FDA approved seven new drugs from 2011 to 2014. They are: Vemurafenib, Dabrafenib and Trametinib, kinases inhibitors used for patients that have BRAFV600E mutation; Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA4), Pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1) and Nivolumab (anti-PD-1), monoclonal antibodies that stimulate the immune system; and Peginterferon alfa-2b, an anti-proliferative cytokine used as adjuvant therapy. In this article, we will review the molecular bases for these new metastatic melanoma therapeutic agents cited above and also analyze new molecular discoveries in melanoma study, as Cancer-Testis antigens (CT). They are capable of induce humoral and cellular immune responses in cancer patients and because of this immunogenicity and their restrict expression in normal tissues, they are considered an ideal candidate for vaccine development against cancer. Among CT antigens, NY-ESO-1 is the best characterized in terms of expression patterns and immunogenicity. It is expressed in 20-40% of all melanomas, more in metastatic lesions than in primary ones, and it is very heterogeneous inter and intratumoral. Breslow index is associate with NY-ESO-1 expression in primary cutaneous melanomas, but its relation to patient survival remains controversial.

Humans , Male , Female , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Melanoma/genetics , Melanoma/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Tumor Microenvironment , CTLA-4 Antigen , Ipilimumab , Immunotherapy
Journal of Childhood Studies. 2017; 20 (74): 1-6
in English, Arabic | IMEMR | ID: emr-187506


Background: Type- 1 diabetes mellitus [T1DM] is an autoimmune disease in which combinations of environmental and genetic factors contribute to T-cell mediated destruction of insulin- secreting p- cells of the pancreas. The [CTLA- 4] encodes of the T-cell receptor involved in the control of T-cell proliferation

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CTLA- 4 gene exon 1 49 A/G polymorphism with T1DM in children and its relation to diabetic complications

Subjects and methods: A total of 100 subjects were included in this cross sectional, case- control study. Fifty children with T1DM aged [ID-18] years [12.5+/- 2.0] years, and fifty children as a control group. All candidates were subjected to full clinical evaluation and anthropometric measurements. All the patients had the following laboratory investigation been done [RBG, average HbAlc, Quantitative determination of urinary microalbumin]. CTLA- 4 gene polymorphism PCR- RFLP was done for all the subjects

Results: CTLA- 4 genotyping among the diabetic group was: the mutant homozygous genotype GG in 15 [30%], the mutant heterozygous genotype AG in 29 [58%] and wild homozygous genotype AA in 6 [12%]. However, among the control group: it was 3 [6%] with GG genotype, 19 [38%] with AG genotype and 28 [56%] with AA genotype with P value <0.001 which denoting a higher prevalence of AG and GG genotype in diabetic group with highly statistical significance. There was a significant association between CTLA- 4 mutant genotypes and patients with younger age of onset of diabetes [P= 0.011] and higher dose of insulin [P= 0.002]. CTLA- 4 +49 mutant genes did not have any impact on complications of type 1 diabetes

Conclusion: The results of the present study shows that the CTLA- 4 A/G +49 polymorphism was associated with type 1 diabetes in Egyptian children with a significant association between CTLA- 4 mutant genotypes and patients with younger age of onset of diabetes and higher dose of insulin

Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , CTLA-4 Antigen , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetic Association Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Case-Control Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17922


In recent years, progress in our understanding of immune-modulatory signaling pathways in immune cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) has led to rejuvenated interest in cancer immunotherapy. In particular, immunotherapy targeting the immune checkpoint receptors such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell-death 1 (PD-1), and programmed cell-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) have demonstrated clinical activity in a wide variety of tumors, including gynecological cancers. This review will focus on the emerging clinical data on the therapeutic role of immune checkpoint inhibitors, and potential strategies to enhance the efficacy of this class of compounds, in the context of gynecological cancers. It is anticipated that future biomarker-directed clinical trials will provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying response and resistance to immunotherapy, and help guide our approach to designing therapeutic combinations that have the potential to enhance the benefit of immunotherapy in patients with gynecologic cancers.

Biomarkers , CTLA-4 Antigen , Humans , Immunotherapy , Tumor Microenvironment
Immune Network ; : 378-391, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102688


Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. There are 2 major subtypes of lung cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Studies show that NSCLC is the more prevalent type of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 80%–85% of cases. Although, various treatment methods, such as chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy have been used to treat lung cancer patients, there is an emergent need to develop more effective approaches to deal with advanced stages of tumors. Recently, immunotherapy has emerged as a new approach to combat with such tumors. The development and success of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/program death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blockades in treating metastatic cancers opens a new pavement for the future research. The current mini review discusses the significance of immune checkpoint inhibitors in promoting the death of tumor cells. Additionally, this review also addresses the importance of tumor-specific antigens (neoantigens) in the development of cancer vaccines and major challenges associated with this therapy. Immunotherapy can be a promising approach to treat NSCLC because it stimulates host's own immune system to recognize cancer cells. Therefore, future research should focus on the development of new methodologies to identify novel checkpoint inhibitors and potential neoantigens.

Cancer Vaccines , Cause of Death , Cell Death , CTLA-4 Antigen , Drug Therapy , Humans , Immune System , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms , Lung
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351357


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the association between CTLA-4 gene polymorphism and Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) in children.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty children who were diagnosed with HSP were enrolled as the case group, consisting of 33 males and 27 females. Thirty healthy children were enrolled as the control group. The patients were further divided into HSP nephritis (HSPN) and non-HSPN groups (n=30 each) according to the presence or absence of nephritis. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to analyze the genotype and allele frequencies at +49 and -1722 loci.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>AA, AG, and GG genotypes were detected at +49; neither genotype nor allele frequencies showed significant differences between the case and control groups, between the HSPN and non-HSPN groups, and between male and female patients (P>0.05). TT, TC, and CC genotypes were detected at -1722; neither genotype nor allele frequencies showed significant differences between the case and control groups and between male and female patients (P>0.05). There were significant differences in CC genotype frequency and T and C allele frequencies between the HSPN and non-HSPN groups (P<0.05). Combinational analysis of +49 A/G and -1722 T/C showed no significant differences in the genotype frequency between the case and control groups and between male and female patients (P>0.05). GG-CC combination showed a significant difference between the HSPN and non-HSPN groups (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>CTLA-4 +49 A/G polymorphism is not associated with HSP. CC genotype and C allele of CTLA-4 -1722 and the combination of GG at +49 A/G and CC at -1722 T/C may be risk factors for HSPN.</p>

CTLA-4 Antigen , Genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Polymorphism, Genetic , Purpura, Schoenlein-Henoch , Genetics