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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 44-62, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007714

ABSTRACT

Cancer cachexia is a multi-organ syndrome and closely related to changes in signal communication between organs, which is mediated by cancer cachexia factors. Cancer cachexia factors, being the general name of inflammatory factors, circulating proteins, metabolites, and microRNA secreted by tumor or host cells, play a role in secretory or other organs and mediate complex signal communication between organs during cancer cachexia. Cancer cachexia factors are also a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment. The pathogenesis of cachexia is unclear and no clear effective treatment is available. Thus, the treatment of cancer cachexia from the perspective of the tumor ecosystem rather than from the perspective of a single molecule and a single organ is urgently needed. From the point of signal communication between organs mediated by cancer cachexia factors, finding a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer cachexia is of great significance to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment. This review begins with cancer cachexia factors released during the interaction between tumor and host cells, and provides a comprehensive summary of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment for cancer cachexia, along with a particular sight on multi-organ signal communication mediated by cancer cachexia factors. This summary aims to deepen medical community's understanding of cancer cachexia and may conduce to the discovery of new diagnostic and therapeutic targets for cancer cachexia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cachexia/pathology , Ecosystem , Neoplasms/metabolism , Syndrome , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 974-985, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Progressive lipid loss of adipose tissue is a major feature of cancer-associated cachexia. In addition to systemic immune/inflammatory effects in response to tumor progression, tumor-secreted cachectic ligands also play essential roles in tumor-induced lipid loss. However, the mechanisms of tumor-adipose tissue interaction in lipid homeostasis are not fully understood.@*METHODS@#The yki -gut tumors were induced in fruit flies. Lipid metabolic assays were performed to investigate the lipolysis level of different types of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) treated cells. Immunoblotting was used to display phenotypes of tumor cells and adipocytes. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was carried out to examine the gene expression levels such as Acc1 , Acly , and Fasn et al .@*RESULTS@#In this study, it was revealed that tumor-derived IGFBP-3 was an important ligand directly causing lipid loss in matured adipocytes. IGFBP-3, which is highly expressed in cachectic tumor cells, antagonized insulin/IGF-like signaling (IIS) and impaired the balance between lipolysis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conditioned medium from cachectic tumor cells, such as Capan-1 and C26 cells, contained excessive IGFBP-3 that potently induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Notably, neutralization of IGFBP-3 by neutralizing antibody in the conditioned medium of cachectic tumor cells significantly alleviated the lipolytic effect and restored lipid storage in adipocytes. Furthermore, cachectic tumor cells were resistant to IGFBP-3 inhibition of IIS, ensuring their escape from IGFBP-3-associated growth suppression. Finally, cachectic tumor-derived ImpL2, the IGFBP-3 homolog, also impaired lipid homeostasis of host cells in an established cancer-cachexia model in Drosophila . Most importantly, IGFBP-3 was highly expressed in cancer tissues in pancreatic and colorectal cancer patients, especially higher in the sera of cachectic cancer patients than non-cachexia cancer patients.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study demonstrates that tumor-derived IGFBP-3 plays a critical role in cachexia-associated lipid loss and could be a biomarker for diagnosis of cachexia in cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3/metabolism , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Cachexia/pathology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Somatomedins/metabolism , Insulins/metabolism , Lipids
3.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 69(2): e-083855, abr.-jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1452462

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Um desfecho clínico que pode afetar cerca de 80% dos pacientes com câncer é a caquexia, condição caracterizada pela perda de massa muscular ou de peso, anorexia e perda ou diminuição da força física. Uma estratégia para preservar a via de alimentação oral é a suplementação nutricional. Objetivo: Elaborar suplementos nutricionais artesanais orais cujos macronutrientes sejam similares aos industrializados e comparar as formulações propostas com suplementos industriais em relação à composição nutricional e aos aspectos econômicos. Método: A composição nutricional foi calculada a partir das fichas técnicas, com auxílio da tabela de composição química dos alimentos da Escola Paulista de Medicina e da Tabela Brasileira de Composição de Alimentos. O preço médio dos suplementos industriais foi calculado com base nos valores praticados no mês de dezembro de 2022, consultados na ferramenta Google Shopping. Os ingredientes usados nos suplementos artesanais foram adquiridos em Piracicaba, SP. Resultados: Foram desenvolvidas cinco formulações artesanais comparáveis às formulações industriais em densidade calórica, energética e proteica. Todas utilizam predominantemente lácteos como fonte de proteína e ácido graxo monoinsaturado oleico como fonte lipídica. Os suplementos caseiros priorizam carboidratos naturalmente contidos nos alimentos. Conclusão: Os suplementos alimentares artesanais são alternativas economicamente viáveis e de perfil macronutricional similar aos industriais


Introduction: A clinical outcome that can affect approximately 80% of cancer patients is cachexia, a condition characterized by loss of muscle mass or weight, anorexia and loss or decrease of physical strength. A strategy to preserve the oral feeding pathway is nutritional supplementation. Objective: To elaborate artisanal oral nutritional supplements whose macronutrients are similar to industrialized and compare the nutritional composition and economic aspects of the formulations proposed with industrial supplements. Method: The nutritional composition was calculated from the technical data sheets, supported by the table of chemical composition of foods from "Escola Paulista de Medicina" and the Brazilian Table of Food Composition. The average price of industrial supplements was referred to December 2022 through the Google Shopping tool. The ingredients used in artisanal supplements were purchased in Piracicaba, SP. Results: Five artisanal formulations were developed, comparable to industrial formulations in caloric, energy and protein density. Predominantly, all of them use dairy as source of protein and oleic monounsaturated fatty acid as lipid source. Homemade supplements prioritize carbohydrates naturally contained in food. Conclusion: Homemade food supplements are economically viable alternatives with similar macronutrient profile of industrial ones


Introducción: Un resultado clínico que puede afectar aproximadamente al 80% de los pacientes con cáncer es la caquexia, una condición caracterizada por la pérdida de masa muscular o peso, anorexia y la pérdida o disminución de la fuerza física. Una estrategia para preservar la vía de alimentación oral es la suplementación nutricional. Objetivo: Elaborar suplementos nutricionales orales artesanales cuyos macronutrientes sean similares a los industrializados y comparar las formulaciones propuestas con los suplementos industriales en relación a la composición nutricional y aspectos económicos. Método: La composición nutricional se calculó a partir de las fichas técnicas, con la ayuda de la tabla de composición química de los alimentos de la Escola Paulista de Medicina y la Tabla Brasileña de Composición de Alimentos. El precio promedio de los suplementos industriales se calculó con base en los valores cobrados en diciembre de 2022, consultados en la herramienta Google Shopping. Los ingredientes utilizados en los suplementos artesanales fueron adquiridos en Piracicaba-SP. Resultados: Se desarrollaron cinco formulaciones artesanales comparables a las formulaciones industriales en densidad calórica, energética y proteica. Todas utilizan predominantemente productos lácteos como fuente de proteínas y ácidos grasos monoinsaturados oleicos como fuente de lípidos. Los suplementos caseros priorizan los carbohidratos contenidos naturalmente en los alimentos. Conclusión: Los complementos alimenticios caseros son alternativas económicamente viables con un perfil macronutricional similar a los industriales


Subject(s)
Cachexia , Dietary Supplements , Nutrition Therapy , Neoplasms
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 3-11, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360121

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Problemas nutricionais são comuns em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC) e estão associados a um prognóstico ruim. É relevante mencionar que algumas populações de pacientes, como os com Doença de Chagas, são normalmente excluídas da maioria das análises. Objetivo Buscamos analisar a ocorrência de desnutrição e caquexia em pacientes com Doença de Chagas durante episódios de IC descompensada (ICD) em comparação a outras etiologias, e investigar a influência desses achados em desfechos hospitalares. Método Realizamos um estudo de série de casos consecutivos com pacientes hospitalizados com ICD. Os pacientes foram submetidos à Avaliação Nutricional Subjetiva Global (ASG), além de medidas antropométricas e laboratoriais, e foram avaliados para a ocorrência de caquexia, baixa massa muscular e força. Estudamos a ocorrência de morte e transplante cardíaco de urgência durante a internação. Resultados Ao todo, 131 pacientes foram analisados e 42 (32,1%) tinham Doença de Chagas. Pacientes com Doença de Chagas apresentavam índice de massa corporal (IMC) menor (22,4 kg/m2 [19,9-25,3] vs. 23,6 kg/m2 [20,8-27,3], p=0,03), maior frequência de desnutrição (76,2% vs 55,1%, p=0,015) e mais ocorrências de morte ou transplante (83,3% vs. 41,6%, p<0,001). Observamos que, dentre os pacientes com etiologia da Doença de Chagas, a ocorrência de morte ou transplante cardíaco esteve associada com desnutrição (3 [42,9%] pacientes com alta hospitalar vs. 29 [82,9%] pacientes que morreram ou receberam transplante cardíaco, P=0,043). Conclusões Ao todo, nossos resultados indicam que pacientes com Doença de Chagas internados com ICD costumam apresentar problemas nutricionais, principalmente desnutrição. É importante mencionar que este achado esteve associado à ocorrência de morte e transplante cardíaco durante a internação.


Abstract Background Nutritional disorders are common among patients with heart failure (HF) and associated with poor prognosis. Importantly, some populations of patients, like the ones with Chagas disease, are frequently excluded from most analyses. Objective We sought to study the occurrence of undernutrition and cachexia in patients with Chagas disease during episodes of decompensated HF (DHF) as compared to other etiologies, and to investigate the influence of these findings on hospital outcomes. Methods We performed a consecutive case series study with patients hospitalized with DHF. Patients underwent the Subjective Global Assessment of nutritional status (SGA), besides anthropometric and laboratorial measures, and were evaluated for the occurrence of cachexia, low muscle mass and strength. We studied the occurrence of death or urgent heart transplantation during hospitalization. Results Altogether, 131 patients were analyzed and 42 (32.1%) had Chagas disease. Patients with Chagas disease had lower Body Mass Index (BMI) (22.4 kg/m2[19.9-25.3] vs. 23.6 kg/m2 [20.8-27.3], p=0.03), higher frequency of undernutrition (76.2% vs 55.1%, p=0.015) and higher occurrence of death or transplant (83.3% vs. 41.6%, p<0.001). We found that, in patients with Chagas etiology, the occurrence of death or cardiac transplantation were associated with undernutrition (3 [42.9%] patients with hospital discharge vs 29 [82.9%] patients with death or heart transplant, p=0.043). Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that patients with Chagas disease hospitalized with DHF often present with nutritional disorders, especially undernutrition; importantly, this finding was associated with the occurrence of death and heart transplant during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/complications , Malnutrition/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , Cachexia/etiology , Hospitals
6.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 420-424, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939726

ABSTRACT

Cachexia is a common complication in patients with lung cancer. It aggravates the toxic and side effects of chemotherapy, hinders the treatment plan, weakens the responsiveness of chemotherapy, reduces the quality of life, increases complications and mortality, and seriously endangers the physical and mental health of patients with lung cancer. The causes and pathogenesis of tumor cachexia are extremely complex, which makes its treatment difficult and complex. Controlling cachexia in lung cancer patients requires many means such as anti-tumor therapy, inhibition of inflammatory response, nutritional support, physical exercise, and relief of symptoms to exert the synergistic effect of multimodal therapy against multiple mechanisms of tumor cachexia. To date, there has been a consensus within the discipline that no single therapy can control the development of cachexia. Some therapies have made some progress, but they need to be implemented in combination with multimodal therapy after fully assessing the individual characteristics of lung cancer patients. This article reviews the application of drug therapy and nutritional support in lung cancer patients, and looks forward to the research direction of cachexia control in lung cancer patients.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cachexia/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/complications , Nutritional Support/adverse effects , Quality of Life
7.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(2): 221-228, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248789

ABSTRACT

Resumen La insuficiencia cardiaca (IC) representa uno de los problemas mundiales de salud pública más importantes, ya que existe un aumento en su prevalencia y se estima que 23 millones de la población mundial viven con este problema. Esta entidad se define por la presencia de anormalidades estructurales y funcionales del músculo cardiaco que conducen a un deterioro en la capacidad del llenado y eyección ventricular. Múltiples comorbilidades se han asociado a un incremento en el riesgo de desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares. La hipertensión se ha reconocido como uno de los factores más importantes, sin embargo, la obesidad, el síndrome metabólico, así como la diabetes, también juegan un papel importante en la aparición de dicha enfermedad. Es frecuente encontrar en pacientes hospitalizados con IC deterioro en el estado nutricional caracterizado principalmente por la presencia de deficiencias nutricionales y sarcopenia, que, en ocasiones, puede progresar y manifestarse como caquexia. Por lo anterior, una evaluación adecuada mediante el uso correcto de herramientas para detección de riesgo nutricional es imperativa, se hace necesaria para prevenir los riesgos que esto implica. Existen múltiples parámetros antropométricos y bioquímicos para definir el estado nutricional de los pacientes hospitalizados, sin embargo, las alteraciones en el volumen sanguíneo presentes en pacientes con IC pueden alterar el resultado de dicha evaluación. Las modificaciones dietéticas en la prevención y tratamiento de diversas enfermedades cardiovasculares mediante un buen apego a patrones de alimentación tales como la dieta DASH (enfoques dietéticos para detener la hipertensión, por sus siglas en inglés) y la dieta mediterránea se han asociado inversamente con la incidencia de IC.


Abstract Heart failure (HF) is one of the most important global public health problems, as there is an increase in its prevalence and an estimated 23 million of the world's population live with this problem. HF is defined by the presence of structural and functional abnormalities of the cardiac muscle leading to an impairment of ventricular filling and ejection. Multiple comorbidities have been associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension has been recognized as one of the most important factors, however, obesity, metabolic syndrome, as well as diabetes also play an important role in the onset of the disease. It is common to find in decompensated heart failure hospitalized patients an impaired nutritional status characterized mainly by the presence of nutritional deficiencies and sarcopenia, which can sometimes progress to cachexia. Therefore, an adequate evaluation through the correct use of nutritional risk tools should be the cornerstone to the prevention of risks. Multiple anthropometric and biochemical parameters are available to establish the nutritional status of hospitalized patients, however, alterations in blood volume presented in patients with HF may alter the result of such assessment. The effectiveness of dietary modifications in the prevention and treatment of different cardiovascular diseases enhanced by appropriate adherence to eating patterns such as the DASH and Mediterranean diet have been inversely associated with the incidence of HF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cachexia , Malnutrition , Heart Failure/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases , Nutritional Status , Heart Disease Risk Factors
8.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 11(2): 282-286, Maio 2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253425

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar o efeito do treinamento resistido na sobrevida de camundongos C57BL/6 com caquexia associada ao melanoma cutâneo. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 64 (camundongos C57BL/6 fêmeas, com idade entre 10 e 12 semanas, com cerca de 50 ± 5 gramas de peso corporal. Os camundongos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatros grupos: i. camundongos controle, com indução de tumor, inativos fisicamente (Controle, n = 16); ii. camundongos submetidos ao treinamento resistido diário somente antes da indução tumoral (Treino 1, n = 16); iii. camundongos submetidos ao treinamento resistido diário antes e após da indução tumoral (Treino 2, n = 16); iv. camundongos submetidos ao treinamento resistido diário após a indução tumoral e apresentado quadro caquético (Treino 3, n = 16). No procedimento para treinamento resistido (TR) com choque, foi utilizada uma escada com 110 cm de altura, 18 cm de largura, 2 cm entre os degraus e 80 graus de inclinação. No procedimento para TR com choque, foi utilizada uma escada 110 cm de altura, 18 cm de largura, 2 cm entre os degraus e 80 graus de inclinação. O exercício resistido baseia-se na subida dos camundongos. Na plataforma de saída, aplicava-se um choque elétrico como estímulo para subir as escadas, nesta etapa era aplicada o choque nas quatro patas do animal com uma tensão elétrica de 20 volts a uma frequência de 45 Hertz durante seis séries de oito repetições, cada uma com noventa segundos de intervalo entre as séries. Os grupos de camundongos foram submetidos a acompanhamento por no máximo 15 dias após o diagnóstico da caquexia a fim de comparar a sobrevida geral relacionada ao câncer entre os grupos de estudo. As curvas de sobrevivência de KaplanMeier foram estimadas para cada evento e as curvas dos diferentes grupos foram comparadas usando o teste de Log-rank. O tempo de sobrevida proposta foi de 25 dias após inoculação. RESULTADOS: Os resultados apresentados nesse estudo mostraram que não houve diferença significativa (p <0,05) entre as propostas de treino. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença na sobrevida de animais com caquexia associada ao modelo tumoral singênico de melanoma cutâneo com intervenção de exercício resistido ou sedentários.


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify the effect of resistance training on the survival of C57BL / 6 mice with cachexia associated with cutaneous melanoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 64 (female C57BL/6 mice, aged between 10 and 12 weeks, with approximately 50 ± 5 grams of body weight. The mice were randomly distributed into four groups: i. control mice, with tumor induction, physically inactive (Control, n = 16); ii. mice submitted to daily resistance training only before tumor induction (Training 1, n = 16); iii. Mice submitted to daily resistance training before and after tumor induction (Training 2, n = 16); iv. Mice submitted to daily resistance training after tumor induction and presented a cachectic condition (Training 3, n = 16). In the resistance training procedure (RT) with shock, a 110 cm high, 18 cm wide, 2 cm between the steps, and 80 degrees inclination ladder was used. In the procedure for shock resistance training (TR), a ladder 110 cm high, 18 cm wide, 2 cm between the rungs, and 80 degrees of inclination was used. The resisted exercise is based on the climbing of the mice. On the exit platform, an electric shock was applied as a stimulus to climb the stairs. In this step, the shock was applied to the four legs of the animal with an electric voltage of 20 volts at a frequency of 45 Hertz during six series of eight repetitions, each with ninety-seconds intervals between the series. The mice groups underwent follow-up for no more than 15 days after diagnosis of cachexia to compare overall cancer-related survival between the study groups. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were estimated for each event, and the curves of the different groups were compared using the Log-rank test. The proposed survival time was 25 days after inoculation. RESULTS: The results presented in this study showed no significant difference (p <0.05) between the training proposals. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in animals' survival with cachexia associated with the syngeneic melanoma skin tumor model with either resistance exercise or sedentary intervention.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Survival , Cachexia
9.
Diaeta (B. Aires) ; 39(174): 45-58, mayo 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1339814

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades crónicas degenerativas han ganado gran interés e importancia en el ámbito de la salud debido a la alta carga mundial de morbilidad y la gran tasa de discapacidad que las mismas generan. A su vez, la prevalencia de desnutrición afecta un 40-60% de los pacientes hospitalizados, lo que supone un aumento de los costos sanitarios, mayor morbimortalidad y aumento de las tasas de discapacidad. Diversos conceptos surgen en la literatura relacionando la pérdida de masa muscular, la enfermedad y la desnutrición. El objetivo del presente artículo es definir los conceptos de desnutrición, fragilidad, caquexia y sarcopenia. Se buscó describir su prevalencia, diferenciar los mecanismos que generan cada situación y su impacto en la composición corporal(AU)


Abstract Chronic degenerative diseases have won great interest and value in the field of health due to the high global burden of morbidity and the high rate of disability that they generate. At the same time, the prevalence of malnutrition affects 40-60% of hospitalized patients, which implies an increase in health costs, greater morbi mortality and an increase in disability rates. Various concepts emerge in the literature in which the loss of muscle mass, disease and malnutrition are related. The objective of this article is to define the concepts of malnutrition, frailty, cachexia and sarcopenia. The aim was to describe its prevalence, to differentiate the mechanisms that generate each situation and its impact on body composition(AU)


Subject(s)
Muscular Atrophy , Malnutrition , Cachexia , Sarcopenia , Muscles
10.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363580

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer é uma das principais causas de morte no mundo, podendo ser motivado tanto por fatores externos como internos. A recusa alimentar está frequentemente associada à desnutrição em pacientes oncológicos e, muitas vezes, à caquexia, levando ao aumento da mortalidade. Objetivo: Apresentar evidências científicas, com base em uma revisão integrativa, para avaliar o impacto da recusa alimentar em pacientes oncológicos. Método: Para a seleção dos estudos, foi utilizada uma combinação de termos indexados no Medical Subject Heading Terms (MeSH). Foram utilizadas as bases de dados MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS, SciELO, Scopus, Web of Science, Microsoft Academic Search, Cochrane, RCAAP e BIREME para a seleção de manuscritos, sem restrição de idioma, período de publicação e localização geográfica. A escala utilizada para avaliar os estudos foi o protocolo para pontuação qualitativa. Resultados: Foram recuperados dez artigos com potencial de inclusão, sendo que três responderam à pergunta norteadora que consistiu em verificar o impacto da recusa alimentar em indivíduos com câncer. Os estudos selecionados obtiveram pontuação maior do que seis no protocolo para avaliação da sua qualidade. Conclusão: Os estudos relataram indicadores frequentes de recusa alimentar em pacientes oncológicos associada à desnutrição, ao medo de se alimentar e ao apetite limitado


Introduction: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world and can be provoked by both external and internal factors. Food refusal is often associated with malnutrition in cancer patients and is often associated with cachexia, which can lead to increased mortality. Objective: To present scientific evidence, based on an integrative review, to assess the impact of food refusal on cancer patients. Method: For the selection of studies, a combination of terms indexed in the Medical Subject Heading Terms (MeSH) was used. The databases MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS, SciELO, Scopus, Web of Science, Microsoft Academic Search, Cochrane, RCAAP and BIREME were utilized for the selection of manuscripts, without restriction of language, period of publication and geographical location. The scale that was used to evaluate the studies was the protocol of qualitative score. Results: 10 articles with potential for inclusion were retrieved, and 3 articles responded the guiding question that consisted in verifying the impact of food refusal in individuals with cancer. The selected studies scored higher than six in the protocol for assessing their quality. Conclusion: Studies have reported frequent indicators of food refusal in cancer patients, associated with malnutrition, fear of eating and limited appetite


Introducción: El cáncer es una de las principales causas de muerte en el mundo y puede ser causado tanto por factores externos como internos. El rechazo de alimentos a menudo está relacionado con la desnutrición en pacientes con cáncer y, a menudo, también se asocia con la caquexia, que puede conducir a un aumento de la mortalidad. Objetivo: Presentar evidencia científica, basada en una revisión integradora, para evaluar el impacto del rechazo de alimentos en pacientes con cáncer. Método: Para la selección de estudios se utilizó una combinación de términos indexados en Medical Subject Heading Terms (MeSH). Para la selección de manuscritos se utilizaron las bases de datos MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS, SciELO, Scopus, Web of Science, Microsoft Academic Search, Cochrane, RCAAP y BIREME, sin restricción de idioma, período de publicación y ubicación geográfica. La escala que se utilizó para evaluar los estudios fue el protocolo de puntuación cualitativa. Resultados: Se recuperaron diez artículos con potencial de inclusión y tres artículos respondieron a la pregunta orientadora que consistía en verificar el impacto del rechazo de alimentos en individuos con cáncer. Los estudios seleccionados obtuvieron una puntuación superior a seis en el protocolo para evaluar su calidad. Conclusión: Los estudios han reportado indicadores frecuentes de rechazo de alimentos en pacientes con cáncer, asociados con desnutrición, miedo a comer y apetito limitado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cachexia , Anorexia , Malnutrition , Diet , Neoplasms
11.
Rev. bras. geriatr. gerontol. (Online) ; 24(2): e200339, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288544

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Investigar o comprometimento do apetite em pessoas idosas hospitalizadas com câncer e sua associação com estado nutricional e presença de caquexia. Métodos Estudo transversal realizado com pessoas idosas de ambos os sexos, diagnosticadas com neoplasia maligna, de julho de 2017 a março de 2019 em um hospital universitário. A amostra final foi composta por 90 pacientes. O comprometimento do apetite foi identificado pelo Questionário de Apetite e Sintomas para Pacientes com Câncer (CASQ) e o estado nutricional pela Avaliação Subjetiva Global Produzida pelo Próprio Paciente (ASG-PPP). A presença de caquexia foi avaliada pela perda de peso >5% nos últimos 6 meses; ou índice de massa corporal (IMC) <20 kg/m2 e perda de peso >2%; ou índice de músculo esquelético apendicular consistente com sarcopenia e perda de peso >2%. Resultados Houve predomínio de indivíduos do sexo masculino (56,7%), autodeclarados não brancos (56,7%), com tumores localizados no trato gastrointestinal (75,6%) e mediana de idade de 67 anos. 75,6% dos indivíduos apresentaram comprometimento do apetite, 57,8% suspeita de desnutrição ou desnutrição de algum grau, 54,4% caquexia e 92,2% necessidade de intervenção nutricional. Houve associação entre as categorias do CASQ com estado nutricional (p=0,001) e presença de caquexia (p=0,050). Após análise de regressão logística, a desnutrição permaneceu associada ao comprometimento do apetite [OR: 4,68 (IC 95%: 1,50-14,56), p=0,008]. Conclusão A presença de desnutrição aumentou as chances de comprometimento do apetite, o que reforça a necessidade da triagem e intervenção nutricional precoces, a fim de reduzir e/ou evitar os agravos nutricionais.


Abstract Objective To investigate appetite impairment in older adults hospitalized with cancer and its association with nutritional status and cachexia. Method A cross-sectional study, conducted with older adults men and women diagnosed with malignant neoplasia from July 2017 to March 2019 at a university hospital. The final sample consisted of 90 patients. Appetite was evaluated using the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ) and nutritional status was determined using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). Presence of cachexia was assessed by weight loss >5% in the last 6 months; or body mass index (BMI) <20 kg/m2 and weight loss >2%; or appendicular skeletal muscle index consistent with sarcopenia and weight loss >2%. Results There was a predominance of male (56.7%) self-declared non-white individuals (56.7%), with tumors in the gastrointestinal tract (75.6%) and median age of 67.0 years. 75.6% of the individuals have impaired appetite, 57.8% suspected malnutrition or malnutrition of some degree, 54.4% cachexia and 92.2% needed nutritional intervention. There was significant association between CASQ categories with nutritional status (p= 0.001) and presence of cachexia (p=0.050). After logistic regression analysis, malnutrition remained associated with impaired appetite assessed by CASQ score [OR: 4.68 (CI 95%: 1.50-14.56), p=0.008] Conclusion The presence of malnutrition increased the chances of appetite impairment, which reinforces the need for early nutritional screening and intervention, in order to reduce and/or avoid nutritional problems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Appetite , Cachexia/etiology , Nutritional Status , Malnutrition/etiology , Neoplasms/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 10(4): 642-647, Nov. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224431

ABSTRACT

A caquexia associada ao câncer (CAC) é uma síndrome paraneoplásica que ocorre com indivíduos com câncer que é caracterizada pela diminuição gradual de tecidos muscular esquelética e de tecido adiposo, promovendo um quadro de consumação física do indivíduo. A ocorrência de CAC determina de forma significativa a uma pior qualidade de vida e de sobrevida de indivíduos com câncer. A CAC não pode ser revertida pelo amparo nutricional convencional. Tratamentos não-farmacológicos empregados para a CAC tem reportado a realização de atividade física para possibilitar adaptações neurais e de hipertrofia muscular em indivíduos com a síndrome. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos da atividade física em ambiente enriquecido na histomorfometria da musculatura esquelética de camundongos C57BL/6 submetidos ao modelo tumoral murino de caquexia associada ao câncer (CAC). MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 38 camundongos C57BL/6 fêmeas, distribuídos aleatoriamente nos grupos de estudo. Todos os animais foram submetidos ao modelo tumoral murino singênico de Melanoma Cutâneo (MTMSMC) com a inoculação subcutânea de células B16F10. Os grupos de estudo são animais do experimento diagnostico CRC (n = 12), animais sedentários (n = 11) e animais submetidos à prática de atividade física em ambiente enriquecido (n = 15). O seguimento do estudo ocorreu por um período de dez dias. Após esse momento, todos os animais foram sacrificados e amostras de tecido muscular esquelético do gastrocnêmio foram submetidas às análises histomorfométricas. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da análise inferencial do peso absoluto e relativo muscular esquelético não diferiram entre os grupos do estudo. Todas as comparações das variáveis apresentaram tamanho do efeito pequeno. A análise histomorfométrica muscular revelou que a área da fibra muscular não diferiu entre os grupos do estudo. Contudo, essa área muscular, apresentou tamanho do efeito pequeno. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados apresentados mostraram que a realização de atividade física no ambiente enriquecido não influenciou na área da fibra do músculo do gastrocnêmio de camundongos C57BL/6 submetidos ao MTMSMC, associada à CAC.


Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a paraneoplastic syndrome that occurs in individuals with cancer, which is characterized by the gradual decrease in skeletal muscle and fat tissue, promoting an individual's physical consumption. The occurrence of CAC significantly determines a worse quality of life and survival for individuals with cancer. CAC cannot be reversed by conventional nutritional support. Non-pharmacological treatments used for CAC have reported physical activity to enable neural adaptations and muscle hypertrophy in individuals with the syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of physical activity in an enriched environment on the histomorphometry of skeletal musculature of C57BL/6 mice submitted to the murine tumor model of cancer-associated cachexia (CAC). METHODS: 38 female C57BL/6 mice were used, randomly distributed in groups of study. All animals were subjected to the cutaneous murine tumor model of Cutaneous Melanoma (MTMSMC) with subcutaneous inoculation of B16F10 cells. The study groups are CRC diagnostic experiment animals (n = 12), sedentary animals (n = 11) and animals submitted to physical activity in an enriched environment (n = 15). The study was followed up for a period of ten days. After that moment, all animals were sacrificed and samples of skeletal muscle tissue from the gastrocnemius were submitted to histomorphometric analyzes. RESULTS: The results of inferential analysis of absolute and relative skeletal muscle weight did not differ between the study groups. All comparisons of the variables showed a small effect size. Muscle histomorphometric analysis revealed that the muscle fiber area did differ between the study groups. However, this muscular area had a small effect size. CONCLUSION: The results presented showed that physical activity in the enriched environment did not influence the fiber area of the gastrocnemius muscle of C57BL/6 mice submitted to MTMSMC, associated with CAC.


Subject(s)
Motor Activity , Cachexia , Sarcopenia
13.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(4): e20190420, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134882

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of anorexia and weight loss at diagnosis (pre-treatment), to identify the factors associated with pre-treatment weight loss, and to determine the prognostic role of anorexia and weight loss in the overall survival of patients with stage IV lung cancer. Methods: This was a retrospective observational cohort study. The patients were stratified by the presence/absence of anorexia and of pre-treatment weight loss, which generated a measure composed of four categories, which were the independent variables. Results: Among the 552 patients included in the study, anorexia and pre-treatment weight loss were present in 39.1% and 70.1%, respectively. After adjusting for age, male gender, and Karnofsky performance status, we found that anorexia and tumor size were significantly associated with pre-treatment weight loss. In a Cox multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, male gender and low Karnofsky performance status were found to be independent predictors of worse survival, as was concomitance of anorexia and weight loss. Conclusions: Anorexia and pre-treatment weight loss appear to be relevant problems in the follow-up of patients with advanced (stage IV) lung cancer Specific interventions are of crucial importance in individualized treatment plans, even within the context of palliative care.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de anorexia e perda de peso ao diagnóstico (pré-tratamento), os fatores associados à perda de peso pré-tratamento e o papel prognóstico da anorexia e da perda de peso na sobrevida global de pacientes com câncer de pulmão em estádio IV. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo observacional. Os pacientes foram estratificados, dependendo da presença/ausência de anorexia e da presença/ausência de perda de peso pré-tratamento, o que gerou uma medida composta de anorexia e perda de peso de quatro níveis, que foi a variável independente. Resultados: Entre os 552 pacientes incluídos no estudo, as prevalências de anorexia e de perda de peso pré-tratamento foram de 39,1% e 70,1%, respectivamente. Após ajustar para idade, sexo masculino e índice de Karnofsky, a presença de anorexia e o tamanho do tumor foram significativamente associados à perda de peso pré-tratamento. Na análise multivariada de Cox, após ajustar para a idade, as variáveis sexo masculino, presença concomitante de anorexia e perda de peso e índice de Karnofsky reduzido foram preditores independentes de pior probabilidade de sobrevida. Conclusões: O presente estudo demonstrou que a presença de anorexia e de perda de peso pré-tratamento são problemas relevantes no seguimento de pacientes com câncer de pulmão avançado (estádio IV). Intervenções específicas são de crucial importância no plano de assistência individualizada, mesmo dentro da proposta de cuidados paliativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Weight Loss , Anorexia/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Prognosis , Cachexia/diagnosis , Cachexia/etiology , Cachexia/mortality , Anorexia/etiology , Prevalence , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Karnofsky Performance Status , Lung Neoplasms
14.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(2): 143-151, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-988184

ABSTRACT

Background: Anabolic/catabolic disorder in heart failure (HF) favors cardiac cachexia, implying a reduction in HF survival. Objectives: To assess the accuracy and concordance of the diagnosis of protein malnutrition and excess fat among the anthropometric and body composition methods in individuals with HF. Method: A study of accuracy that included 60 individuals with HF. Body mass index (BMI), arm circumference (AC), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), adductor pollicis muscle thickness (APMT), arm muscle circumference (AMC) and corrected arm muscle area (cAMA). Fat free mass index (FFMI) and body fat percentage (BF%), obtained by electrical bioimpedance (EBI), were used to compare the diagnosis of protein malnutrition and excess fat. Accuracy was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. The concordance of the EBI diagnosis and other methods was performed by the chi-square test and kappa (k) statistic, where p<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Higher frequencies of protein malnutrition were identified by cAMA and AMC, and excess fat by BF%. BMI presented low sensitivity (43%) and accuracy (38.5%), with moderate concordance (0.50). AMC sensitivity was 86%, accuracy 66.4%, and acceptable concordance (0.36) compared to FFMI. Similar percentages of moderate sensitivity and low accuracy were observed for TST and BMI.Conclusion: AMC may be useful to identify protein malnutrition and TST has not been adequate to diagnose adiposity. BMI was not sensitive to assess muscle and adipose reserve. EBI was more accurate


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Body Mass Index , Nutrition Assessment , Anthropometry/methods , Heart Failure , Stroke Volume , Cachexia , Adipose Tissue , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Heart Ventricles , Obesity/complications
15.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 87-94, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761537

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is the ninth common malignancy in South Korea. It has a dismal prognosis with a 5-year overall survival rate of less than 10%, and pancreatic cancer is associated with cancer cachexia, which is defined as the loss of muscle mass that is not reversible by conventional nutritional support. Cachexia is noted in over 85% of all pancreatic cancer patients and it is strongly related with the disease’s mortality. Nearly 30% of pancreatic cancer deaths are due to cachexia rather than being due to the tumor burden. Therefore, it is crucial to discover the mechanisms behind the development of muscle wasting in pancreatic cancer patients and find novel therapeutics for targeting cachexia. This review deals with the current understanding about the development of cachexia and nutritional support in those patients suffering with pancreatic cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cachexia , Korea , Mortality , Nutritional Support , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Tumor Burden
16.
Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition ; : 242-248, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741840

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is an important public health problem which contributes to significant number of under five deaths. Protocol based management significantly decreases risk of deaths in children with medical complications. METHODS: Outcome of children aged 2 months–5 years admitted and fulfilling definition of SAM having diarrhea (group A) was compared to children with SAM having medical complications other than diarrhea (group B). Both groups were managed according to standard recommended protocols and monitored and followed up for 12 weeks after discharge. RESULTS: The average weight gain, defaulter rate, primary failure, secondary relapse rate and readmission rate were similar in both groups. Length of stay in group A was three days longer (p-value=0.039). Discharge rate was comparable with overall 68% of children successfully discharged and 50% of children reaching weight/height >−2 standard deviation at follow-up of 12 weeks. CONCLUSION: The current management protocol is equally effective for managing children with SAM having diarrhea. Good adherence to management protocol of dehydration and timely modification of therapeutic feeds in children with persistent diarrhea results in satisfactory weight gain.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Cachexia , Cohort Studies , Dehydration , Diarrhea , Follow-Up Studies , Length of Stay , Malnutrition , Public Health , Recurrence , Severe Acute Malnutrition , Weight Gain
17.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 9-22, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010439

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The aim of this study is to summarize preclinical studies on herbal medicines used to treat cancer cachexia and its underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#We searched four representing databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, and the Web of Science up to December 2016. Randomized animal studies were included if the effects of any herbal medicine were tested on cancer cachexia. The methodological quality was evaluated by the Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies (CAMARADE) checklist.@*RESULTS@#A total of fourteen herbal medicines and their compounds were identified, including Coptidis Rhizoma, berberine, Bing De Ling, curcumin, Qing-Shu-Yi-Qi-Tang, Scutellaria baicalensis, Hochuekkito, Rikkunshito, hesperidin, atractylodin, Sipjeondaebo-tang, Sosiho-tang, Anemarrhena Rhizoma, and Phellodendri Cortex. All the herbal medicines, except curcumin, have been shown to ameliorate the symptoms of cancer cachexia through anti-inflammation, regulation of the neuroendocrine pathway, and modulation of the ubiquitin proteasome system or protein synthesis.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study showed that herbal medicines might be a useful approach for treating cancer cachexia. However, more detailed experimental studies on the molecular mechanisms and active compounds are needed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cachexia/etiology , Herbal Medicine/trends , Medicine, East Asian Traditional/trends , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Phytotherapy/trends
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1612-1619, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763200

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Malnutrition and a loss of muscle mass are frequent in cancer patients and have a negative effect on clinical outcome. Nutrition risk screening aims to increase awareness and allow early recognition and treatment of cancer cachexia. Therefore, screenings should be brief, inexpensive, highly sensitive, and have good specificity. Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) is a simple screening tool including four questions, and validated to predict weight loss within 6 months in community-dwelling adults and nursing home residents. Our study aimed to translate the SNAQ into Korean, and to assess the validity and reliability of the translated screening tool in advanced cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SNAQ was translated into Korean according to linguistic validation. The internal consistency of the SNAQ was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Concurrent validity was evaluated by measuring the Pearson's correlation coefficient between the SNAQ and Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). RESULTS: In the 194 patients included in full analysis set, cancer stage was predominantly metastatic (98.5%), the mean age was 60 years (range, 23 to 81 years), and the mean body mass index was 24 kg/m² (range, 15.6 to 39.6 kg/m²). According to MNA score ≤ 11, 57 patients (29.4%) were malnourished. The mean score (±standard deviation) of the Korean version of the SNAQ was 13.8±2.5 with a range of 6-19. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.737, and intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.869. The SNAQ was moderately correlated with MNA (r=0.404, p 5% of the original bodyweightwithin 6 months occurred in 46 of the 186 patients (24.7%). SNAQ score ≤ 14 predicted > 5% weight loss with a sensitivity of 56.5% and a specificity of 44.3%. CONCLUSION: The Korean version of the SNAQ had high validity and reliability. SNAQ is useful for the screening tool for advanced cancer patients. The SNAQ had a limitation to predict impending weight loss in advanced cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Appetite , Body Mass Index , Cachexia , Linguistics , Longitudinal Studies , Malnutrition , Mass Screening , Nursing Homes , Nutrition Assessment , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Weight Loss
19.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 194-198, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759793

ABSTRACT

Profound weight loss with painful symmetrical peripheral neuropathy in diabetic patients was first described as diabetic neuropathic cachexia more than 4 decades ago. It is a distinct type of diabetic peripheral neuropathy that occurs in the absence of other microvascular and autonomic complications of diabetes. The mechanism and precipitating cause are unknown. It was reported to have good prognosis with spontaneous recovery within months to 2 years. However, it was frequently missed by clinicians because the profound weight loss is the most outstanding complaint, rather than the pain, numbness, or weakness. This often leads to extensive investigation to exclude more sinister causes of weight loss, particularly malignancy. We report a case of a young woman with well-controlled diabetes who presented with profound unintentional weight loss (26 kg), symmetrical debilitating thigh pain, and clinical signs of peripheral neuropathy. As the disease entity may mimic an inflammatory demyelinating cause of neuropathy, she was treated with a trial of intravenous immunoglobulin, which failed to give any significant benefit. However, she recovered after 6 months without any specific treatment, other than an antidepressant for the neuropathic pain and ongoing rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Cachexia , Diabetic Neuropathies , Hypesthesia , Immunoglobulins , Neuralgia , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Prognosis , Rehabilitation , Thigh , Weight Loss
20.
Intestinal Research ; : 455-462, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785870

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a catabolic inflammatory disease that causes patients to often experience weight loss, or even cachexia in severe cases. Undernourishment in patients with cancer impairs the quality of life and therapeutic response, further leading to poor prognosis. Active and frequent nutritional screening and assessment using valid tools are important for fast and appropriate nutritional intervention. Additionally, a suitable individualized nutritional intervention strategy should be established based on the nutritional assessment result. In general, nutritional intervention begins with nutritional counseling of patients diagnosed with cancer, and a well-planned nutritional counseling improves the treatment adherence and nutritional status. When planning nutritional supplementation for cancer patients, specific nutrients, including amino acids and fatty acids, should be considered. However, there has been no consistent result showing that any particular nutrient significantly improves the prognosis of cancer patients. Hence, continuous attention from clinical physicians is needed to plan nutritional improvement in patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amino Acids , Cachexia , Counseling , Fatty Acids , Mass Screening , Nutrition Assessment , Nutrition Therapy , Nutritional Status , Prognosis , Quality of Life , Weight Loss
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