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1.
San Salvador; MINSAL; 4 ed; ene. 17, 2022. 17 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1353600

ABSTRACT

Las directrices para el manejo y disposición final de cadáveres por COVID­2019, requieren de medidas de bioseguridad y precaución estándar encaminadas para este fin y lograr la prevención de esta infección en el personal responsable del manejo y disposición final de cadáveres. Los presentes lineamientos técnicos, contienen un desarrollo mejorado de las actividades que el personal de salud y los actores involucrados deben cumplir en el manejo de cadáveres por COVID-19, en los diferentes escenarios, a fin de proteger la salud de la población en general, y de aquellas personas que trabajan en tal manejo. Asimismo, se establecen las indicaciones para la inhumación ante el fallecimiento por caso confirmado o sospechoso de COVID-19. Todo lo anterior con el objetivo de proteger la salud de la población en general, fortaleciendo la prevención, evitando la transmisibilidad y tomando en cuenta el luto de los familiares


The guidelines for the handling and final disposal of corpses due to COVID-2019 require biosafety and standard precautionary measures aimed at this end and achieve the prevention of this infection in the personnel responsible for the handling and final disposal of corpses. These technical guidelines contain an improved development of the activities that health personnel and the actors involved must comply with in the management of corpses due to COVID-19, in the different scenarios, in order to protect the health of the population in general, and of those people who work in such management. Likewise, the indications for burial in the event of death due to a confirmed or suspected case of COVID-19 are established. All of the above with the aim of protecting the health of the population in general, strengthening prevention, avoiding transmission and taking into account the mourning of family members


Subject(s)
Cadaver , Health Personnel , Containment of Biohazards , COVID-19 , Population , Precaution , Death
2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(6): 777-783, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357133

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To study the anatomy of the medial coracoclavicular ligament and assess the contribution of the acromioclavicular, coracoclavicular and medial coracoclavicular ligaments to the stability of the acromioclavicular joint. Methods Twenty-six shoulders from 16 fresh cadavers were dissected after placement in dorsal recumbency with a 15-cm cushion between the shoulder blades. An extended deltopectoral approach was performed proximally and medially, followed by plane dissection and ligament identification. The acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular distances were measured using points previously marked with a millimeter caliper. Six of these specimens were submitted to a biomechanical study. The acromioclavicular ligament, the coracoclavicular ligament and the medial coracoclavicular ligament were sectioned sequentially, and a cephalic force of 20 N was applied to the lateral clavicle. The acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular distances were measured in each of the ligament section stages. Results The right medial coracoclavicular ligament presented, on average, 48.9 mm in length and 18.3 mm in width. On the left side, its mean length was 48.65 mm, with a mean width of 17.3 mm. Acromioclavicular, coracoclavicular and medial coracoclavicular ligament section resulted in a statistically significant increase in the coracoclavicular distance and posterior scapular displacement. Conclusion The medial coracoclavicular ligament is a true ligamentous structure found in all dissected shoulders. Our results showed that the scapular protraction relaxed the medial coracoclavicular ligament, while scapular retraction tensioned it; in addition, our findings demonstrate that this ligament contributes to the vertical and horizontal stability of the acromioclavicular joint.


Resumo Objetivo Estudar a anatomia do ligamento coracoclavicular medial e avaliar a contribuição do ligamento acromioclavicular, coracoclaviculares e coracoclavicular medial na estabilidade da articulação acromioclavicular. Métodos Foram dissecados 26 ombros de 16 cadáveres frescos, posicionados em decúbito dorso-horizontal, com um coxim de 15 cm de altura entre as escápulas. Realizou-se uma via deltopeitoral estendida proximal e medialmente. Realizou-se dissecção por planos e identificação dos ligamentos. Realizou a medida da distância acromio-clavicular e coracoclavicular usando pontos previamente demarcados com paquímetro milimetrado. Em seis dessas amostras foi realizado estudo biomecânico. Seccionando, nesta ordem, o ligamento acromioclavicular, os coracoclaviculares e o ligamento coracoclavicular medial com uma força cefálica de 20N foi aplicada na clavícula lateral. Foi medida a distância acromio-clavicular e coracoclavicular em cada uma das etapas de secção dos ligamentos. Resultados A média de comprimento do ligamento coracoclavicular medial foi de 48,9mm e a média de largura, de 18,3mm no lado direito. No esquerdo, a média de comprimento foi de 48,65mm e a média da largura, 17,3mm. Após a secção dos ligamentos acromioclaviculares, coracoclaviculares, com a secção do ligamento coracoclavicular medial houve aumento estatisticamente significativo da distância córaco-clavicular e um deslocamento posterior da escápula. Conclusão O ligamento coracoclavicular medial é uma estrutura ligamentar verdadeira, presente em todos os ombros dissecados. Nossos resultados demonstraram que o ligamento coracoclavicular medial encontra-se relaxado com a escápula em protração e tenso com a escápula em retração e segundo nossos resultados participa tanto da estabilidade vertical quanto da estabilidade horizontal da articulação acromioclavicular.


Subject(s)
Scapula , Shoulder , Acromioclavicular Joint/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Clavicle , Joint Dislocations , Dissection
3.
Gerais (Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora) ; 14(2): 1-22, maio-ago. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1286609

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo objetivou conhecer quais estratégias defensivas os necrotomistas desenvolvem para lidar com a morte em sua atividade profissional exercida no contexto do Departamento de Medicina Legal (DML), uma organização que tem a morte como fator disparador do processo de trabalho. Adotou-se como abordagem principal a Psicodinâmica do Trabalho, aliada ao conceito de trabalho sujo. Metodologicamente, combinaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas individuais e observações da atividade na sala de necropsias. Participaram do estudo os seis necrotomistas do DML de uma capital do Nordeste brasileiro. Os resultados indicaram as seguintes estratégias defensivas: coisificação dos cadáveres, uso de brincadeiras, valorização do sentimento religioso e tentativa de neutralizar interações entre os espaços privados e os de trabalho. Constatou-se que a experiência profissional ameniza o impacto das imagens, odores e contato manual com os cadáveres. Evidenciou-se, também, que a convivência com a morte parece induzir mudanças de perspectiva positiva em relação à vida pessoal.


This article aimed to know which defensive strategies the necrotomists develop to deal with death in their professional activity performed in the context of the Department of Legal Medicine (DML), an organization that has death as a triggering factor of the work process. The main approach was the Psychodynamics of Work, allied to the concept of dirty work. Methodologically, individual semi-structured interviews and observations of the activity in the necropsy room were combined. The six necrotomists of the DML from a Brazilian Northeast capital participated in the study. The results indicated the following defensive strategies: objectification of corpses, use of jokes, appreciation of religious feeling and attempt to neutralize interactions between private and working spaces. It was found that professional experience mitigates the impact of images, odors and manual contact with the corpses. It was also evident that the living with death seems to induce positive perspective changes in relation to personal life.


Subject(s)
Work , Emotions , Psychology , Cadaver , Death , Forensic Medicine , Occupational Groups
4.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(1): 47-51, 20210000. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1362208

ABSTRACT

Objective: The normal morphology of femoral anteversion is an essential factor which determines the clinical results of hip replacement to achieve the normal activity and the length of the replaced joint. No previous study has been documented regarding normal value of femoral anteversion in Indonesian population and how they are different with Western, India and African population. This study aimed on measurement of normal femoral anteversion values of Indonesian population and compare it with existing data of Western, African and India values. Method: This cross-sectional study by measuring the femoral neck anteversion angle in 120 samples of Indonesians's cadaveric femur. Comparisons were made between Western, African and India. Result: The result showed that the average values of femoral neck anteversion angle in men were 11.60 ± 4.83 and 12.96 ± 5.1 in the right and left parts respectively, while in women, the results were 14.83+-5.14 and 13.37+-5.66 in right and left parts. The p value of ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant. Conclusion: The mean femoral anteversion values of Indonesian population is 13.22. It is significantly different in comparison with Western, African, and Indian population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Population/genetics , Reference Values , Cadaver , Cross-Sectional Studies/statistics & numerical data , Femur , Femur Neck/growth & development , Bone Anteversion/pathology
5.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 62(1): 27-33, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342658

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Una de las complicaciones de la osteosíntesis retrógrada del escafoides es la protrusión del tornillo en la articulación radiocarpiana, dada la limitada visualización intraoperatoria del polo proximal del escafoides con las proyecciones tradicionales. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la capacidad de una nueva proyección radiológica, la proyección "tangencial del escafoides dorsal", o TED, para identificar tornillos prominentes radiocarpianos durante la osteosíntesis retrógrada del escafoides con tornillos canulados. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio cadavérico en muñecas frescas congeladas. Se introdujo en el escafoides un tornillo canulado con técnica retrógrada estándar. La proyección TED fue evaluada en 5 muñecas, con angulaciones del antebrazo de 15°, 30° y 45° para definir la mejor visualización del polo proximal del escafoides y del tornillo. Se comparó la capacidad para identificar la prominencia del tornillo en el polo proximal de la proyección TED de 30° con 5 proyecciones tradicionales de escafoides en 9 muñecas. El tornillo se posicionó a nivel de la superficie del escafoides, y luego se avanzó a intervalos de 0,5 mm bajo visualización directa por artrotomía dorsal. Tras cada intervalo, se repitieron todas las proyecciones para determinar su capacidad de detectar tornillos prominentes en el escafoides. RESULTADOS: La mejor visualización del polo proximal del escafoides se logró con la proyección TED de 30°. Al comparar la proyección TED de 30° y las tradicionales, con la TED se logró identificar tornillos prominentes a 0,8 mm promedio, seguida por la proyección posteroanterior con cubitalización y extensión a 1.3 mm (p » 0.014), con una alta precisión y correlación interobservador de estas proyecciones. CONCLUSIÓN: La proyección TED demostró ser la más sensible para detectar tornillos prominentes en la articulación radiocarpiana. Su uso rutinario podría evitar complicaciones durante la osteosíntesis.


INTRODUCTION: One of the complications of the retrograde percutaneous scaphoid fixation is the protrusion of the screw in the radiocarpal joint due to the limited intraoperative visualization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid with the traditional radiographic views. OBJETIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity of a novel radiographic view (the skyline scaphoid view, SSV) to detect screws protruding in the radiocarpal joint during the retrograde fixation of the scaphoid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied nine cadaverous fresh frozen wrists. A retrograde cannulated screw was inserted in the scaphoid. To validate the SSV, 5 wrists were studied, comparing 3 forearm angulations (15°, 30° and 45°) to get the best visualization of the proximal pole and screw. We compared the ability to identify the protrusion of the screw in the proximal pole of the 30° SSV with that of 5 standard scaphoid radiographic views in 9 wrists. The screw was positioned at the level of the surface of the scaphoid, and was sequentially protruded in 0.5 mm increments, with direct visualization of its tip through a dorsal capsulotomy. After each increment, all views were repeated to determine if they were able to detect screws projecting from the scaphoid. RESULTS: The best visualization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid was found with the 30° SSV. In the comparison of the 30° SSV and the standard views, with the SSV we were able to identify the protrusion of the screws at an average of 0.8 mm, followed by the posterior-anterior view with ulnar deviation and extension at 1.3 mm (p » 0.014), with high precision and interobserver agreement regarding these views. CONCLUSION: The SSV was the most sensitive view to detect protruding screws in the proximal pole of the scaphoid. Its routine use could avoid complications during osteosynthesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wrist Joint/diagnostic imaging , Bone Screws/adverse effects , Scaphoid Bone/diagnostic imaging , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Radiology/methods , Wrist Joint/surgery , Cadaver , Observer Variation , Scaphoid Bone/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal/instrumentation
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888312

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare and analyze the mechanical differences between single-row suture anchor fixation for repairing rotator cuff injuries and double-row suture bridges for repairing rotator cuff injuries from a biomechanical perspective.@*METHODS@#The CT scan data of healthy adult shoulder joint were imported into Mimics, Geomagics and Hypermesh to carry out reverse reconstruction of two repair models, material assignment and mesh division, and the tearing of supraspinatus muscle was designed. After treatments, the load and boundary conditions were applied to the shoulder joint in ABAQUS software. The shoulder joint was fixed with four working conditions including flexion 15 °, flexion 30 °, internal rotation 15 ° and internal rotation 30 ° after anchor fixationand repair. The stress changes of the upper rotator cuff muscle and the anchor with thread were compared under these four conditions.@*RESULTS@#Under the two flexion conditions, the stress of the supraspinatus in the double row suture bridge fixation model was 8.3% and 12% less than that in the single-row suture anchor fixation, respectively. Under the two internal rotation conditions, the stress of supraspinatus in the double row suture bridge fixation model was 47% and 48% less than that in the single row fixation repair model, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The "load sharing" effect between the two rows of four anchors makes the stress distribution more dispersed, increases the contact area between the supraspinatus muscle and the humerus, reduces the stress of the anchor, avoids the serious stress concentration phenomenon, and explains the advantages of the fixation method of the double row suture bridge from the biomechanical angle.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biomechanical Phenomena , Cadaver , Humans , Rotator Cuff Injuries/surgery , Suture Anchors , Suture Techniques , Sutures
7.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021275, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249035

ABSTRACT

Introduction Cervical erector spinae plane block (ESPB) provides postoperative pain relief when administered at the level of first thoracic costotransverse junction (CTJ) for surgeries on the proximal shoulder and cervical spine. We propose to describe the spread of 20 ml radiocontrast - dye solution administered at this level from caudad to cephalad direction in a fresh frozen cadaveric model through imaging and cross-sections. Methods An observational study with four thoracic to cervical ESP blocks at the level of first thoracic CTJ level on two fresh cadavers (total 4 specimens) was conducted using 20 ml of radiocontrast- methylene blue combination (10 ml through the needle and 10 ml through the catheter). Both cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scan. An anatomist and radiologist, respectively, analyzed cross-sections of cadavers and CT contrasted images. Results The spread was assessed in axial, sagittal, and coronal at the levels of C4, C5, C6, C7and T1. The medial limit was articular processes in both cadavers. The lateral limits were the outer border of the middle scalene muscle in cadaver 1 and posterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle in cadaver 2. Contrast spread was visualized on the superior and anterior aspect of anterior scalene muscle in cadaver 2. An epidural spread was observed at the level of C5-6 and C6-7 in axial and coronal planes in cadaver 1. Conclusions The cervical ESPB administered at the first thoracic CTJ with injections directed cephalad has a consistent action on the dorsal spinal nerves of thoracic and cervical area, and spreads in the paravertebral space dorsal to the ventral cervical roots.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Nerve Block , Cadaver , Ultrasonography , Dissection
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To measure anatomical data of calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), relevant data of CFL attachment to provide an anatomical basis for CFL reconstruction.@*METHODS@#Twenty-seven adult ankle specimens were selected, including 11 males and 16 females, aged from 22 to 71 years old with an average of (41.6±17.2) years old;9 cases on the left side and 18 cases on the right side. The specimens reserved at least 20 cm above ankle joint and a complete foot, and exclude deformities, fractures, incomplete development and degenerative lesions. CFL was performed detailed anatomical observation, morphological parameters of CFL was measured, and coordinates of fibula side and calcaneal side of CFL in the coordinate axis were measured. The distance between fibula insertion of CFL and fibula tip, distance between calcaneal insertion of CFL and lateral calcaneal nodule, and Angle between CFL and long axis of fibula were also measured.@*RESULTS@#In these 27 specimens, CFL cases were all single bundles and the length of CFL was (32.83 ± 8.19) mm. The center point of fibula attachment in CFL was(2.87± 1.21) mm proximal with a coefficient of variation of 42.16% and (2.08±1.34) mm anteriorly with a coefficient of variation of 64.42%. The center point of calcaneal attachment region of CFL was located on coordinate axis on the distal end (15.32±5.33) mm, with a coefficient of variation of 34.79%, and the posterior part (6.38±2.15) mm, with a coefficient of variation of 33.86%. The distance between center point of fibula attachment and fibula tip was (4.81±0.82) mm. The distance between center point of calcaneal attachment area of CFL and lateral calcaneal nodules was(17.25±3.12) mm. Angle between CFL and fibula axis is (43 ±18)° .@*CONCLUSION@#According to anatomical studies, we could locate the fibula and calcaneal attachment of CFL by anatomical markers around ankle joint. However, the location of CFL attachment has a large variation, and the anatomical characteristics need to be considered in anatomical reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Ankle Joint/surgery , Cadaver , Calcaneus/surgery , Female , Fibula/surgery , Humans , Lateral Ligament, Ankle/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879260

ABSTRACT

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction mostly relies on the experience of surgeons. To improve the effectiveness and adaptability of the tension after ACL reconstruction in knee joint rehabilitation, this paper establishes a lateral force measurement model with relaxation characteristics and designs an on-line stiffness measurement system of ACL. In this paper, we selected 20 sheep knee joints as experimental material for the knee joint stability test before the ACL reconstruction operation, which were divided into two groups for a comparative test of single-bundle ACL reconstruction through the anterolateral approach. The first group of surgeons carried out intraoperative detection with routine procedures. The second group used ACL on-line stiffness measurement system for intraoperative detection. After that, the above two groups were tested for postoperative stability. The study results show that the tension accuracy is (- 2.3 ± 0.04)%, and the displacement error is (1.5 ± 1.8)%. The forward stability, internal rotation stability, and external rotation stability of the two groups were better than those before operation (


Subject(s)
Animals , Anterior Cruciate Ligament/surgery , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries/surgery , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction , Biomechanical Phenomena , Cadaver , Joint Instability/surgery , Knee Joint/surgery , Range of Motion, Articular , Rotation , Sheep
10.
Artrosc. (B. Aires) ; 28(1): 87-91, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1252456

ABSTRACT

Las transferencias tendinosas son consideradas para mejorar la función de la escápula y restablecer la biomecánica de la cintura escapular en aquellos pacientes con escápula alada que tienen alteración en la funcionalidad y que no han progresado con tratamiento conservador. Existen diferentes técnicas de transferencias tendinosas como parte del tratamiento. En este artículo realizamos una revisión narrativa, además, ilustramos con videos las siguientes técnicas: la triple transferencia tendinosa en parálisis del trapecio y la transferencia del pectoral mayor hacia la escápula en disfunción del serrato anterior


Tendon transfers are used in management of winged scapula refractory to conservative treatment to improve scapula function and reestablish adequate shoulder biomechanics. There are different techniques described for these tendon transfers. In this article we reviewed these techniques, in addition, we illustrate with videos on cadavers the following techniques: triple tendon transfer for trapezius paralysis and pectoralis mayor tendon transfer to scapula for serratus anterior disfunction


Subject(s)
Scapula , Shoulder Joint/pathology , Tendon Transfer , Cadaver
11.
In. Machado Rodríguez, Fernando; Cluzet, Óscar; Liñares Divenuto, Norberto Jorge; Gorrasi Delgado, José Antonio. La pandemia por COVID-19: una mirada integral desde la emergencia del hospital universitario. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.215-224.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1344088
12.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1284616

ABSTRACT

Introducción: aproximadamente 600 personas urgen de trasplante de córnea en Honduras. La mayor dificultad para este procedimiento es que no se cuenta con banco de ojo en el país. Además, los estudios de conocimiento sobre donación y trasplante, son escasos. Objetivo: conocer las actitudes y prácticas de la población rural versus la urbana sobre la donación y trasplante de córnea, según conocimientos y factores sociodemográficos, con el fin de diseñar un plan de acción para concientizar la importancia de una conducta donante positiva para el beneficio del paciente con ceguera corneal. Metodología: estudio descriptivo realizado entre mayo y septiembre del 2019 en Comayagua, Intibucá y Francisco Morazán. Con una muestra de 350 personas por departamento, para un total de 1050 participantes mayores de 18 años y de ambos sexos. Se realizó entrevista por investigadores, bajo la escala de Likert, previamente validado. Variables agrupadas en demográficas, socio personales, laborales, conocimiento, creencias y aptitudes. Se analizaron los datos mediante razón de probabilidades y productos cruzados. Los resultados se expresaron en porcentajes, frecuencias y odd ratio. Resultados: 74.86% manifestó una actitud donante positiva, el 67.55% donaría a cualquier persona que lo necesitase, 48% conocía acerca de las características requeridas para el donante y. menos del 10% sabía qué es la córnea. Los factores negativos para la donación son la procedencia rural, la parentela y el desempleo en Intibucá y motivos religiosos en el área rural de Comayagua y población urbana de Francisco Morazán. Conclusiones: Es importante superar las limitaciones impuestas por la desinformación, para ello es necesario impulsar una cultura de donación a través de la creación de estrategias comunicativas de educación, con el fin de mejorar la salud visual y la demanda poblacional...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Corneal Transplantation/methods , Tissue Donors , Cadaver , Cornea , Directed Tissue Donation
13.
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 5(3): 54-60, Dec. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1343272

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Dentistry imaging is responsible for providing paramount support for forensic odontologists in cases of cadaveric identification. Nevertheless, in some cases, this assistance becomes essential, as in cases in which all the crowns have proven to be in perfect health standards, and when the dentist is able to identify loss of crown structural integrity, which can occur due to intense thermal action. Objective: To report a case in which forensic odontologists identified acadaver through radiographic comparisons. Case report: In 2018, a carbonized bodyfound inside an incinerated vehicle was referred to an examination aim ingits identification. The comparative analysis used different types of bidimensional images: antemortem panoramic radiograph and postmortem periapical radiographs. There was a total agreement of the dental radiographic anatomy, with emphasis on the root angulation, morphology of root canals, furcation regions, root apexes, the shape of pulp chambers and regions of alveolar trabecular related to both arches, as well as a cavity located in the occlusal surface of the lower right first molar. Conclusion: The compatibility of dental anatomy analyzed through the radiographs was fundamental for a positive result of the dentistry identification process.


Introdução: Os exames de imagem odontológicos fornecem um importante auxílio para os odontolegistas em casos de identificação cadavérica. Porém, em alguns casos, tal auxílio se torna essencial, como nos casos em que todas as coroas dentárias se encontram hígidas e quando ocorre perda da estrutura coronária, podendo ser devido à ação térmica. Objetivo: Relatar um caso em que odontolegistas identificaram um cadáver através de comparações radiográficas. Relato do caso: Em 2018, um cadáver carbonizado no interior de um veículo incinerado foi encaminhado para exame visando sua identificação. A análise comparativa utilizou diferentes tipos de exames bidimensionais: uma radiografia panorâmica antemortem e radiografias periapicais postmortem. Houve total concordância da anatomia dentária radiográfica, destacando-se a angulação das raízes, morfologia dos condutos radiculares, regiões de furca, ápices radiculares, forma das câmaras pulpares e regiões do trabeculado alveolar relativos a ambas as arcadas, além de uma cavidade localizada na face oclusal do primeiro molar inferior direito. Conclusão: A compatibilidade da anatomia dentária observada através das radiografias foi primordial para um resultado positivo do processo de identificação odontológica.


Subject(s)
Forensic Dentistry , Cadaver , Radiography, Dental , Radiography, Panoramic , Forensic Anthropology , Victims Identification
14.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 764-770, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156206

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the anatomical variations of the motor branches of the radial nerve in the elbow region. The origin, course, length, branches, motor points and relationships with neighboring structures were evaluated. Materials and Methods Thirty limbs from15 adult cadavers were dissected and prepared by intra-arterial injection of a 10% glycerin and formaldehyde solution. Results The first branch of the radial nerve in the forearm went to the brachioradialis muscle (BR), originating proximally to the division of the radial nerve into superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) and posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) in all limbs. The branches to the extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (ECRL) detached from the proximal radial nerve to its division into 26 limbs, in 2, at the dividing points, in other 2, from the PIN. In six limbs, the branches to the BR and ECRL muscles originated from a common trunk. We identified the origin of the branch to the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (ECRB) in the PIN in 14 limbs, in the SBRN in 12, and in the radial nerve in only 4. The branch to the supinator muscle originated from the PIN in all limbs. Conclusion Knowledge of the anatomy of the motor branches of the radial nerve is important when performing surgical procedures in the region (such as the approach of the proximal third and the head of the radius, release of compressive syndromes of the posterior interosseous nerve and radial tunnel, and distal nerve transfers) in order to understand the order of recovery of muscle function after a nerve injury.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar as variações anatômicas dos ramos motores do nervo radial na região do cotovelo. Foram avaliadas a origem, curso, comprimento, ramificações, pontos motores e relações com estruturas vizinhas. Materiais e Métodos Foram dissecados 30 membros de 15 cadáveres adultos, preparados por injeção intra-arterial de uma solução de glicerina e formol a 10%. Resultados O primeiro ramo do nervo radial no antebraço foi para o músculo braquiorradial (BR), que se origina proximalmente à divisão do nervo radial em ramo superficial do nervo radial (RSNR) e nervo interósseo posterior (NIP) em todos os membros. Os ramos para o músculo extensor radial longo do carpo (ERLC) se desprenderam do nervo radial proximalmente à sua divisão em 26 membros, em 2, nos pontos de divisão, em outros 2, do NIP. Em seis, os ramos para os músculos BR e ERLC originavam-se de um tronco comum. Identificamos a origem do ramo para o músculo extensor radial curto do carpo (ERCC) no NIP em 14 membros, no RSNR em 12, e no nervo radial em apenas 4. O ramo para o músculo supinador originou-se do NIP em todos os membros. Conclusão O conhecimento da anatomia dos ramos motores do nervo radial é importante quando se realizam procedimentos cirúrgicos na região, como a abordagem do terço proximal e da cabeça do rádio, a liberação das síndromes compressivas do nervo interósseo posterior e do túnel radial, as transferências nervosas distais, e para entender a ordem de recuperação da função muscular após uma lesão nervosa.


Subject(s)
Radial Nerve , Radius , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Wrist , Cadaver , Nerve Transfer , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Elbow , Extremities , Forearm , Forearm Injuries , Glycerol , Head , Anatomy , Injections, Intra-Arterial
15.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 18(3): 121-132, dic. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289157

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el cerebro es un órgano altamente irrigado, y esta irrigación es suministrada por el círculo arterial cerebral: una red arterial anastomótica con frecuentes variaciones anatómicas, algunas asociadas con patologías. El objetivo es describir las características antropométricas y variaciones anatómicas del círculo arterial cerebral en una muestra de especímenes cadavéricos humanos. Materiales y métodos: se revisaron 50 encéfalos, de los cuales 24 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Se realizaron medidas de diámetro y longitud y también se describieron variaciones anatómicas y variaciones morfométricas. Resultados: siete especímenes evidenciaron variaciones anatómicas (29.1 %); 3 (12.5 %), arteria cerebral anterior (ACA) ácigos; uno (4.1 %), doble ACA en el segmento A1; uno (4.1 %), triple ACA en el segmento A2 y doble arteria comunicante anterior (AcomA); uno (4.1 %), agenesia de la arteria comunicante posterior (AComP) derecha; uno (4.1 %), de la AComP izquierda. El 29.1 % presentó variaciones antropométricas; el 12.5 %, hipoplasia de la AComP derecha; el 12.5 %>, de la AComP izquierda, y el 4.1 %>, hipoplasia bilateral de la AComP. Conclusión: la presencia de variaciones anatómicas fue inferior a la hallada en otros estudios, con predominio de variantes de la circulación anterior. Se describe la presencia de triple ACA en el segmento A2 y doble arteria comunicante anterior.


Abstract Introduction: The brain is a highly irrigated organ; this irrigation is supplied by the cerebral arterial circle: an anastomotic arterial network with frequent anatomical variations, some of which are associated with pathologies. This study aimed to describe the anthropometric characteristics and anatomical variations of the cerebral arterial circle in a sample of human cadaveric specimens. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 brains were examined, 24 of which met the inclusion criteria. Diameter and length measurements were obtained, and anatomical and morphometric variations were described. Results: Seven specimens (29.1%) had anatomical variations: 3 (12.5%) had azygos anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 1 (4.1%) had double ACA in segment A1, 1 (4.1%) had triple ACA in segment A2 and double anterior communicating artery (AcomA), 1 (4.1%) had right posterior communicating artery (AComP) agenesis, and 1 (4.1%) had left AComP agenesis. Seven specimens (29.1%) had anthropometric variations: 3 (12.5%) had hypoplasia of right AComP and 3 (12.5%) of left AComP and 1 (4.1%) had bilateral hypoplasia of AComP. Conclusion: The presence of ana-tomical variations was lower than that reported in other studies, with a predominance of variations of the anterior circulation. The presence of triple ACA in segment A2 and double AcomA was described.


Resumo Introdução: o cérebro é um órgão altamente irrigado; esta irrigação é fornecida pelo círculo arterial cerebral: uma rede arterial anastomótica com frequentes variações anatómicas, algumas associadas a patologias. O objetivo é escrever as características antropométricas e variações anatômicas do círculo arterial cerebral em uma amostra de espécimenes cadavéricos humanos. Materiais e métodos: se revisaram 50 encéfalos dos quais 24 cumpriram os critérios de inclusão; realizaram-se medidas de diâmetro e longitude, descreveram-se variações anatômicas e variações morfométricas. Resultados: o 29,1% dos espécimenes apresentaram variações anatómicas (n = 7 ), 3 (12,5%) apresentaram artéria cerebral anterior (ACA) ázigos, um (4,1%) apresentou dupla ACA no segmento A1, um (4,1%) apresentou triple ACA no segmento A2 e dupla artéria comunicante anterior (AcomA), um (4,1%) apresentou agenesia da artéria comunicante posterior (AComP) direita, um (4,1%) da AComP esquerda. 29,1% apresentaram variações antropométricas, três (12,5%) apresentaram hipoplasia de AComP direita, três (12,5%) da AComP esquerda e um (4,1%) hipoplasia bilateral da AComP. Conclusão: a presença de variações anatómicas foi inferior à reportada em outros estudos, com predomínio de variantes da circulação anterior, se descreve a presença de triple ACA no segmento A2 e dupla artéria comunicante anterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Circle of Willis , Cadaver , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Anthropometry
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1549-1554, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134476

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Hip joint chronic pain can severely compromise patients' life quality. Peripheral nerve blocks play an important role as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The aim of this work is to study the anatomy of the nerve to quadratus femoris (NQF) in view of the possibility of its percutaneous selective block. Forty-three gluteal cadaveric regions fixed in formaldehyde solution were dissected. The quadratus femoris, the obturator internus and superior and inferior gemellus were freed from their lateral insertion, exposing thus the posterior aspect of the hip joint. The NQF was identified, and the horizontal distance to the posterior edge of the greater trochanter at its upper, middle and lower thirds was registered. The number of the articular branches of the NQF was identified. Likewise, the horizontal distance to the posterior edge of the greater trochanter and the longitudinal distance to the line through the distal end of the posterior edge of the greater trochanter were measured. The distance between the NQF and the greater trochanter posterior edge at upper, middle and lower thirds was 46 mm, 41 mm and 35 mm, respectively. In most cases (85 %) the NQF presented one or two articular branches. The longitudinal distances between the line through the distal end of the posterior edge of the greater trochanter and the origin of the first, second and third articular branches of the NQF were 14.7 mm (-19.4 - 40), 16.4 mm (-9.3-42) and 27 mm (0-46), respectively. The distances to the posterior edge of the greater trochanter were 43.1 mm (16.3-66), 37.7 mm (6.5-53) and 39.8 mm (26-52), for the first, second and third articular branches, respectively. In conclusion, the articular branches of the nerve to quadratus femoris have a constant and predictable distribution. Our findings allow for generating a coordinate system for the selective block of the NQF by way of percutaneous techniques.


RESUMEN: El dolor crónico de la articulación coxal puede comprometer severamente la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Los bloqueos nerviosos periféricos juegan un papel importante como procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la anatomía del nervio del músculo cuadrado femoral (NCF) en vista de la posibilidad de su bloqueo selectivo percutáneo. Se utilizaron 22 cadáveres fijados en solución de formaldehído. Fueron disecadas en total 43 regiones glúteas. Los músculos cuadrado femoral, obturador interno y los gemelos superior e inferior fueron liberados de su inserción lateral, exponiendo así la cara posterior de la articulación coxal. Se identificó el NCF y se registró la distancia horizontal al margen posterior del trocánter mayor en sus tercios superior, medio e inferior. Se identificó el número de ramas articulares del NQF. Asimismo, se midió la distancia horizontal al margen posterior del trocánter mayor y la distancia longitudinal a la línea que pasa por el extremo distal del margen posterior del trocánter mayor. La distancia entre el NCF y el margen posterior del trocánter mayor en los tercios superior, medio e inferior fue de 46 mm, 41 mm y 35 mm, respectivamente. En la mayoría de los casos (85 %) el NCF presentó una o dos ramas articulares. Las distancias longitudinales entre la línea que pasa por el extremo distal del margen posterior del trocánter mayor y el origen de la primera, segunda y tercera ramas articulares del NQF fueron 14,7 mm (-19,4 - 40), 16,4 mm (-9,3-42) y 27 mm (0-46), respectivamente. Las distancias al margen posterior del trocánter mayor fueron 43,1 mm (16,3-66), 37,7 mm (6,5-53) y 39,8 mm (26-52), para la primera, segunda y tercera ramas articulares, respectivamente. En conclusión, las ramas articulares del nervio al cuadrado femoral tienen una distribución constante y predecible. Nuestros hallazgos permiten generar un sistema de coordenadas para el bloqueo selectivo del NCF por medio de técnicas percutáneas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Peripheral Nerves/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Hip Joint/innervation , Nerve Block/methods , Cadaver
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1555-1559, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134477

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: During routine dissection of a left upper limb of a 68-year-old male human cadaver, an unusual muscle was observed originating from the radius and flexor retinaculum, and continued in the hypothenar region with the muscle belly of the abductor digiti minimi. We checked that it was an accessory abductor digiti minimi (ADM). Its muscular belly was in close relation to the median and ulnar nerves. We review the literature regarding such muscle variations and discuss the potential for compression of the median and ulnar nerves. Although the accessory ADM is usually asymptomatic and only rarely results in nerve compression, it should be taken into account by surgeons when establishing a differential diagnosis in the compression neuropathies of the median and ulnar nerves. An ultrasound scanning can help establish the differential diagnosis.


RESUMEN: Durante la disección de rutina de un miembro superior izquierdo de un cadáver humano masculino de 68 años, se observó un músculo inusual que se originaba en el radio y el retináculo flexor del carpo, y continuuaba en la región hipotenar con el vientre muscular del abductor digiti minimi manus. Verificamos que se trataba del músculo abductor digiti minimi accessorius (ADMA). Su vientre muscular se encontraba en estrecha relación con los nervios mediano y ulnar. Revisamos la literatura sobre variaciones musculares y discutimos la potencial compresión de los nervios mediano y ulnar. Aunque el ADMA suele ser asintomático y rara vez produce compresión nerviosa, los cirujanos deben tenerlo en cuenta al establecer un diagnóstico diferencial en las neuropatías de compresión de los nervios mediano y ulnar. Una ecografía puede ayudar a establecer el diagnóstico diferencial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/abnormalities , Nerve Compression Syndromes/etiology , Ulnar Nerve , Cadaver , Risk Factors , Ulnar Nerve Compression Syndromes/etiology , Median Neuropathy/etiology , Median Nerve
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1566-1570, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134479

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Since the asymmetry is generally accepted entity which can be detected on human skulls, the goal of this study was to evaluate the presence and degree of skull base asymmetry and analyze it in relation to sex. The study included 60 skulls. Gender identification was estimated according to the external occipital protuberance, mastoid process, supraorbital margin and glabella. The asymmetry was assessed by analyzing the distance from the bilateral foramina (foramen ovale, foramen spinosum, carotid canal, foramen stylomastoideum) to the pharyngeal tubercle. Digital data were processed in the ImageJ software. The skull base asymmetry was found in all samples. Significant difference between the sides was found for the foramen ovale (p=.01). There was no significant difference in the skull base asymmetry with respect to sex. The highest index of asymmetry (7.38 %) was found in carotid canal and the lowest (5.22%) was detected in relation to the foramen stylomastoideum. By comparing the index of asymmetry between the genders significant difference occurs for the carotid canal (p=.02). Skull base asymmetry was confirmed in our study. Oval foramen showed a significant degree of asymmetry. Knowledge of the variability of the skull base is the basis for an clinical and radiological evaluation of its changes.


RESUMEN: Debido a que la asimetría detectada en cráneos humanos es aceptada generalmente, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la presencia y el grado de asimetría de la base del cráneo y analizarla en relación con el sexo. En este estudio fueron incluidos 60 cráneos. El sexo fue determinado de acuerdo con la protuberancia occipital externa, el proceso mastoideo, el margen supraorbital y la glabela. La asimetría se evaluó analizando la distancia desde los forámenes bilaterales (foramen oval, foramen espinoso, canal carotídeo, foramen estilomastoideo) hasta el tubérculo faríngeo. Los datos digitales fueron procesados en software ImageJ. La asimetría de la base de cráneo se observó en todas las muestras. Se encontró una diferencia significativa entre los lados para el foramen oval (p = ,01). No hubo diferencias significativas en la asimetría de la base de cráneo con respecto al sexo. El índice más alto de asimetría (7,38%) se encontró en el canal carotídeo y el más bajo (5,22 %) se detectó en relación con el foramen estilomastoideo. Al comparar el índice de asimetría entre los sexos, se produce una diferencia significativa en el canal carotídeo (p = 0,02). La asimetría de la base de cráneo se confirmó en nuestro estudio. El foramen oval mostró un grado significativo de asimetría. El conocimiento de la variabilidad de la base del cráneo es importante durante la evaluación clínica y radiológica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skull Base/anatomy & histology , Facial Asymmetry , Cadaver , Sex Factors , Sex Characteristics , Foramen Ovale
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1657-1661, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134494

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The auriculotemporal nerve (ATN) is an important structure lying within a limited area of an infratemporal region (ITR). The ATN is originated from the posterior branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V3). The ATN conveys somatosensory, secretomotor, and parasympathetic fibres of the V3 and gustatory nerve (CN IX). In literature, the most common pattern of the ATN is composed of 2 roots that encloses the middle meningeal artery (MMA). However, in many studies, it has been reported that there are many variations in ATN pattern formation. To study the variation of ATN pattern formation in Thai cadavers, 73 hemifaces from 39 Thai embalmed cadavers were dissected and the relations of the ATN to the MMA were recorded. This study concluded that there were 4 patterns observed in Thai cadavers. The common pattern is 2 roots (67.1 %), 3 roots (15.1 %), 1 root (9.6 %), and 4 roots (8.2 %). Knowledge of this variation in the ATN may be useful in understanding the symptoms of temporo-orofacial pain, paresthesia of temporomandibular joint (TMJ), possible side effects from the TMJ surgery and the efficiency of auriculotemporal nerve block for regional anesthesia of the temporomandibular joint in Thai people.


RESUMEN: El nervio auriculotemporal (NAT) es una estructura importante que se encuentra dentro de la región infratemporal (ITR). El NAT se origina en la rama posterior de la división mandibular del nervio trigémino (V3), y transmite fibras somato sensoriales, secreto motoras y parasimpáticas del V3 y del nervio gustativo (CN IX). En la literatura, se reporta que el patrón más común de NAT está compuesto por 2 raíces que contienen la arteria meníngea media (AMM). Sin embargo, en diversos estudios, se ha informado que existen múltiples variaciones en la for- mación de patrones NAT. Con el objetivo de estudiar la variación de la formación del patrón NAT en cadáveres tailandeses, se disecaron 73 estructuras hemi faciales de 39 cadáveres tailandeses y se registraron las relaciones del NAT con el AMM. En conclusión, se observaron 4 patrones en los cadáveres tailandeses. El patrón común de 2 raíces (67,1 %), 3 raíces (15,1 %), 1 raíz (9,6 %) y 4 raíces (8,2 %). El conocimiento de esta variación en el NAT puede ser útil para comprender los síntomas de dolor temporo-orofacial, parestesia de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM), posibles efectos secundarios de la cirugía de ATM y la eficacia del bloqueo del nervio auriculo-temporal para la anestesia regional de la articulación temporomandibular en Tailandeses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anatomic Variation , Mandibular Nerve/anatomy & histology , Temporomandibular Joint , Thailand , Cadaver , Meningeal Arteries
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1686-1692, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134499

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The emergence of the digital society in the 21st century due to great advances in information and communication technologies (ICT) has allowed the development of research, communication, and collaboration activities related to knowledge and information. ICTs have influenced many aspects of society, especially educational work, and many educational establishments have adopted these technologies in a bid to enhance their teaching methods. One of the most representative cases is the global expansion of e-learning platforms. Until now, the traditional method of study of human anatomy, a key component of any study plan in the health education area, has been mainly based on classic texts. However, different types of software made an appearance in this century such as the three-dimensional (3D) atlases consisting of digital illustrations of the human body. However, there might be a high cost of investment involved when purchasing these kind of software. This research aimed to study the perception of human anatomy students regarding the use of models of 3D-scanned real cadaveric samples available at http://anatomiahumana3d.com, as a complementary educational resource to conventional study. A satisfaction survey was designed which consisted of four items. The survey was answered by 134 students. The format of the models, functionality of the resource, content and teaching of the resource, and finally the general evaluation, reached 96.8%, 84.05%, 81.14%, and 89.4% of perception of satisfaction, respectively. The results show that the new generations of students are immersed in a technological environment, therefore, both general and anatomy teaching could benefit from the use of new technologies.


RESUMEN: El comienzo de la sociedad digital en el siglo XXI debido a los grandes avances en las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC) ha permitido el desarrollo de actividades de investigación, comunicación y colaboración relacionadas con el conocimiento y la información. Las TIC han influido en muchos aspectos de la sociedad, especialmente en el trabajo educativo, y muchos establecimientos educativos han adoptado estas tecnologías en un intento por mejorar sus métodos de enseñanza. Uno de los casos más representativos es la expansión global de las plataformas de e-learning. Hasta ahora, el método tradicional de estudio de la anatomía humana, componente clave de cualquier plan de estudios en el área de educación para la salud, se ha basado principalmente en textos clásicos. Sin embargo, en este siglo aparecieron diferentes tipos de software, como los atlas tridimensionales (3D) que consisten en ilustraciones digitales del cuerpo humano. Sin embargo, puede haber un alto costo de inversión involucrado al adquirir este tipo de software. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo estudiar la percepción de los estudiantes de anatomía humana sobre el uso de modelos de muestras de cadáveres reales escaneados en 3D disponibles en http://anatomiahumana3d.com, como recurso educativo complementario al estudio convencional. Se diseñó una encuesta de satisfacción que constaba de cuatro ítems. La encuesta fue respondida por 134 estudiantes. El formato de los modelos, funcionalidad del recurso, contenido y didáctica del recurso, y finalmente la evaluación general, alcanzaron el 96,8%, 84,05%, 81,14% y 89,4% de percepción de satisfacción, respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que las nuevas generaciones de estudiantes se encuentran inmersas en un entorno tecnológico, por lo que tanto la enseñanza general como la de anatomía podrían beneficiarse del uso de las nuevas tecnologías.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Anatomy/education , Models, Anatomic , Personal Satisfaction , Cadaver , Surveys and Questionnaires , Human Body , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Educational Measurement , Information Technology
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