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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410

ABSTRACT

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oligochaeta , Soil Pollutants , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Cadmium , Cattle , Bioaccumulation
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e250865, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285604

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major toxicants, which affects human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effects of morel mushrooms against Cd-induced reproductive damages in rats. For this purpose, 30 male rats were divided into 6 groups (n=5/group), the first group served as the control group, second group was treated with an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of 1 mg/kg/day of Cd. Third and fourth groups were co-treated with 1 mg/kg/day of Cd (i.p) and 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract (orally) respectively. The final 2 groups received oral gavage of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract alone. After treatment for 17 days, the animals were euthanized, and testes and epididymis were dissected out. One testis and epididymis of each animal were processed for histology, while the other testis and epididymis were used for daily sperm production (DSP) and comet assay. Our results showed that Cd and morel mushrooms have no effect on animal weight, but Cd significantly decreases the DSP count and damages the heritable DNA which is reversed in co-treatment groups. Similarly, the histopathological results of testes and epididymis show that morel mushrooms control the damage to these tissues. Whereas the morel mushroom extract alone could enhance the production of testosterone. These results conclude that morel mushrooms not only control the damage done by Cd, but it could also be used as a protection mechanism for heritable DNA damage.


Resumo O cádmio (Cd) é um dos principais tóxicos, que afeta a saúde humana por meio da exposição ocupacional e ambiental. No presente estudo, avaliamos os efeitos protetores dos cogumelos morel contra os danos reprodutivos induzidos pelo Cd em ratos. Para tanto, 30 ratos machos foram divididos em 6 grupos (n = 5 / grupo); o primeiro grupo serviu de controle, o segundo grupo foi tratado com injeção intraperitoneal (i.p) de 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd. O terceiro e o quarto grupos foram cotratados com 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd (i.p) e 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel (por via oral), respectivamente. Os dois grupos finais receberam gavagem oral de 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho. Após o tratamento por 17 dias, os animais foram sacrificados e os testículos e o epidídimo foram dissecados. Um testículo e epidídimo de cada animal foram processados ​​para histologia, enquanto o outro testículo e epidídimo foram usados ​​para produção diária de esperma (DSP) e ensaio cometa. Nossos resultados mostraram que os cogumelos Cd e morel não têm efeito sobre o peso do animal, mas o Cd diminui significativamente a contagem de DSP e danifica o DNA hereditário, que é revertido em grupos de cotratamento. Da mesma forma, os resultados histopatológicos dos testículos e do epidídimo mostram que os cogumelos morel controlam os danos a esses tecidos. Considerando que o extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho pode aumentar a produção de testosterona. Esses resultados concluem que os cogumelos morel não apenas controlam os danos causados pelo Cd, mas também podem ser usados ​​como um mecanismo de proteção para danos hereditários ao DNA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cadmium/toxicity , Agaricales , Ascomycota , Spermatozoa , Testis
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246979, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278466

ABSTRACT

Abstract The influence of pharmaceutical residues and heavy metals on living organisms has received global attention. The present study assessed the interactive effect of antibiotic residues and heavy metals in soil, as contaminated food with cadmium (Cd) and oxytetracycline (OTC) on the isopod Porcellio leavis. It was fed on fresh plant leaves contaminated with different concentrations of cadmium, Cd+OTC1000 ppm, Cd+OTC2000 ppm and Cd+OTC3000 ppm for 4 weeks. The changes in the feeding patterns, protein, lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase activity (CAT), and total free amino acids (TFAA) were recorded. There were significant differences in the obtained results where Cd reduced the egestion ratio (ER) however, OTC enhanced this ratio. Biochemical analysis illustrated that combination between OTC and Cd inhibits the toxic effects of Cd at low concentration (1000 ppm), while at high concentration (3000 ppm) raise the toxicity. Detailed studies are required for further understanding of the interaction between OTC and heavy metals, and also its impact on soil animals and for improving soil risk evaluation.


Resumo A influência de resíduos farmacêuticos e metais pesados ​​em organismos vivos tem recebido atenção global. O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de resíduos de antibióticos e metais pesados ​​no solo, como alimentos contaminados com cádmio (Cd) e oxitetraciclina (OTC), sobre o isópode Porcellio laevis, o qual foi alimentado com folhas frescas de plantas contaminadas com diferentes concentrações de cádmio, Cd + OTC1000 ppm, Cd + OTC2000 ppm e Cd + OTC3000 ppm, por quatro semanas. As mudanças nos padrões de alimentação, proteína, peroxidação lipídica (LPO), atividade da catalase (CAT) e aminoácidos livres totais (TFAA) foram registradas. Houve diferenças significativas nos resultados obtidos, em que o Cd reduziu a taxa de excreção (ER), no entanto o OTC aumentou essa proporção. A análise bioquímica mostrou que a combinação entre OTC e Cd inibe os efeitos tóxicos do Cd em baixa concentração (1.000 ppm), enquanto, em alta concentração (3.000 ppm), aumenta a toxicidade. Estudos detalhados são necessários para uma maior compreensão da interação entre OTC e metais pesados, e seu impacto sobre os animais do solo, bem como para melhorar a avaliação de risco do solo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxytetracycline/toxicity , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Isopoda , Soil , Cadmium/toxicity
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 706-720, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355744

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is well known for its properties as an anticancer, antioxidant, and scavenger of free radicals. However, its benefits in enhancing spermatogenesis have not been well established. Objective: To study broccoli aqueous extract effects on sperm factors and the expression of genes Catsper1, Catsper2, Arl4a, Sox5, and Sox9 in sperm factors in mice. Materials and methods: Male mice were divided randomly into six groups: (1) Control; (2) cadmium (3 mg/kg of mouse body weight); (3) orally treated with 200 µl broccoli aqueous extract (1 g ml-1); (4) orally treated with 400 µl of broccoli aqueous extract; (5) orally treated with 200 broccoli aqueous extract plus cadmium, and (6) orally treated with 400 µl of broccoli aqueous extract plus cadmium. We analyzed the sperms factors and Catsper1, Catsper2, Arl4a, Sox5, and Sox9 gene expression. Results: An obvious improvement in sperm count and a slight enhancement in sperm motility were observed in mice treated with broccoli extract alone or with cadmium. Sperm viability was reduced by broccoli extract except for the 200 µl dose with cadmium, which significantly increased it. Interestingly, Arl4a gene expression increased in the 400 µl broccoli- treated group. Likewise, the Arl4a mRNA level in mice treated with cadmium and 200 µl of broccoli extract was higher than in the cadmium-treated mice. Furthermore, broccoli extract enhanced the mRNA level of Catsper2 and Sox5 genes in mice treated with 200 µl and 400 µl broccoli extract plus cadmium compared with the group treated solely with cadmium. Conclusion: The higher sperm count in broccoli-treated mice opens the way for the development of pharmaceutical products for infertile men.


Resumen | Introducción. El brócoli (Brassica oleracea) se conoce por sus propiedades como anticancerígeno, antioxidante y eliminador de radicales libres. Sin embargo, sus beneficios en la espermatogénesis aún no se han determinado suficientemente. Objetivo. Estudiar los efectos del extracto acuoso de brócoli sobre los factores espermáticos y la expresión de los genes Catsper1, Catsper2, Arl4a, Sox5 y Sox9 en ratones. Materiales y métodos. Los ratones machos se dividieron aleatoriamente en seis grupos: 1) control; 2) tratados con cadmio, 3 mg/kg de peso corporal; 3) tratados con 200 µl de extracto acuoso de brócoli (1 g ml-1); 4) tratados con 400 µl de extracto acuoso de brócoli; 5) tratados con 200 µl de extracto acuoso de brócoli más cadmio, y 6) tratados con 400 µl de extracto acuoso de brócoli más cadmio. El extracto acuoso de brócoli se administró por vía oral. Se analizaron los factores espermáticos y la expresión de los genes Catsper1, Catsper2, Arl4a, Sox5 y Sox9. Resultados. Se observó una mejoría obvia en el recuento y una ligera mejoría en la motilidad de los espermatozoides, en ratones tratados con extracto de brócoli solo o con cadmio. La viabilidad de los espermatozoides se redujo con el extracto de brócoli, excepto con la dosis de 200 µl más cadmio, la cual la aumentó significativamente. Curiosamente, la expresión del gen Arl4a aumentó en el grupo tratado con 400 µl del extracto. Asimismo, el ARNm del Arl4a en ratones tratados con cadmio y 200 µl del extracto, fue más abundante que en los ratones tratados solo con cadmio. Además, el extracto de brócoli aumentó la cantidad de ARNm de los genes Catsper2 y Sox5 en ratones tratados con 200 y 400 µl de extracto de brócoli más cadmio, en comparación con el grupo tratado únicamente con cadmio. Conclusión. El mayor número de espermatozoides en ratones tratados con brócoli abre el camino al desarrollo de productos farmacéuticos para hombres infértiles.


Subject(s)
Spermatogenesis , Brassica , Cadmium , Gene Expression , Mice
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 329-336, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345281

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There is limited research examining reasons causing refractory chronic constipation (RCC) in children. The effects of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposures on this condition have been even less clear. However, some related factors may contribute to evaluation of blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs). OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the relationship between Pb and Cd exposures and RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz, Khuzestan Province, in Southwestern Iran. METHODS: This study was performed on a total number of 48 children aged 2-13 years, including 36 medically-diagnosed RCC cases and 12 controls referring to a pediatric clinic in the city of Ahvaz. Their BLLs and BCLs were then determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data from the researcher-designed questionnaire were also recoded and the related risk factors were analyzed through Spearman's correlation and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The findings revealed that the geometric means of Pb and Cd in blood samples in the control group were 58.95 µg/dL and 0.45 µg/dL; respectively. These values in the case group were equally 45.26 µg/dL and 0.26 µg/dL; respectively. A significant difference was additionally observed between BCLs in the case and control groups (P<0.01). All children in both groups also had BLLs greater than the permissible limit endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) (≤10 µg/dL). On the other hand, 8.3% of the individuals in the case group and 33.3% of those in the control group had BCLs higher than the acceptable range mentioned by WHO (≤0.5 µg/dL). CONCLUSION: Pb and Cd exposures due to environmental pollution and susceptibility to heavy metals may not be associated with RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz. Although this research was the first one providing data on BLLs and BCLs in children with RCC, the findings could be useful for designing future epidemiologic studies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Há limitadas pesquisas que procuram razões que causem constipação crônica refratária (CCR) em crianças. Os efeitos das exposições de chumbo (Pb) e cádmio (Cd) nesta condição têm sido ainda menos claros. No entanto, alguns fatores relacionados podem contribuir para a avaliação dos níveis de Pb no sangue (NPbSs) e dos níveis de Cd no sangue (NCdSs). OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo examinar a relação entre as exposições de Pb e Cd e a CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz, província de Khuzestan, no Sudoeste do Irã. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi realizado em um número total de 48 crianças de 2 a 13 anos, incluindo 36 casos de CCR diagnosticados clinicamente, e 12 controles encaminhados a uma clínica pediátrica na cidade de Ahvaz. Seus NPbSs e NCdSs foram então determinados usando um espectrógrafo de absorção atômica do forno de grafite. Os dados do questionário projetado pelo pesquisador também foram recodificados, e os fatores de risco relacionados foram analisados por meio da análise de correlação e regressão logística de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Os achados revelaram que as médias geométricas de Pb e Cd em amostras de sangue no grupo controle foram de 58,95 μg/dL e 0,45 μg/dL; respectivamente. Esses valores no grupo constipação foram igualmente 45,26 μg/dL e 0,26 μg/dL; respectivamente. Observou-se diferença significativa entre os NCdSs nos grupos de caso e controle (P<0,01). Todas as crianças de ambos os grupos também apresentaram NPbSs maiores do que o limite permitido endossado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) (≤10 μg/dL). Por outro lado, 8,3% dos indivíduos no grupo de casos e 33,3% dos do grupo controle apresentaram NCdSs superiores à faixa aceitável mencionada pela OMS (≤0,5 μg/dL). CONCLUSÃO: As exposições de Pb e Cd por poluição ambiental e suscetibilidade a metais pesados podem não estar associadas à CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz. Embora esta pesquisa tenha sido a primeira a fornecer dados sobre NPbSs e NCdSs em crianças com CCR, os achados poderiam ser úteis para a concepção de futuros estudos epidemiológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cadmium/analysis , Lead/analysis , Risk Factors , Constipation/chemically induced , Iran/epidemiology
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(6): 2253-2270, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278691

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo objetivou revisar os estudos de biomonitoramento humano (BMH) que avaliaram a exposição a chumbo (Pb), cádmio (Cd), mercúrio (Hg), níquel (Ni), arsênio (As) e manganês (Mn) em adultos residentes próximo a áreas industriais. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática, sem limite de data inicial até dezembro de 2017, utilizando a base de dados da MEDLINE e a BVS. Foram incluídos estudos originais em inglês, português ou espanhol, com uso de sangue e/ou urina como biomarcador. Os artigos foram avaliados pelos critérios metodológicos, incluindo-se estudos com grupo de comparação e/ou amostragem probabilística. Dos 28 estudos incluídos, 54% foram realizados na Europa, 36% na Ásia, 7% na América do Norte e 4% na África. Fundições, metalúrgicas e siderúrgicas foram as indústrias mais estudadas. Urina e sangue foram usados em 82% e 50% dos estudos, respectivamente. Os elementos mais investigados foram Cd, Pb e As. Embora com metodologias heterogêneas, em geral, os estudos observaram maiores concentrações de metais em expostos, especialmente As e Hg, do que nos grupos de comparação. Esta revisão evidencia a necessidade de estudos de BMH com maior rigor metodológico, reforçando a importância da vigilância em saúde de populações expostas a metais tóxicos, sobretudo nos países em desenvolvimento.


Abstract This study aimed to review studies of human biomonitoring (HBM) that evaluated exposure to lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in adults living close to industrial areas. A systematic review of studies was selected, without initial date limit through to December 2017, from the MEDLINE and BVS databases. Original studies in English, Portuguese or Spanish conducted among the adult population using blood and/or urine as biomarkers were included. The articles were evaluated according to methodological criteria, including studies with comparison groups and/or probabilistic sampling. Of the 28 studies selected, 54% were conducted in Europe, 36% in Asia, 7% in North America and 4% in Africa. Foundries, metal works and steel mills were the most frequently studied. Urine and blood were used in 82% and 50% of studies, respectively. The elements most investigated were Cd, Pb and As. Despite using heterogeneous methodologies, the results revealed higher metal concentrations, especially from As and Hg in general, than in the comparison group. This review highlights the need for more rigorous methodological studies of HBM, stressing the importance of public health vigilance among populations exposed to toxic metals, especially in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Arsenic/analysis , Mercury/analysis , Cadmium/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Europe , Lead/analysis
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 398-405, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153348

ABSTRACT

Continuous occurrence of heavy metals is a major cause of environmental pollution due to its toxic effects. At minimum concentrations, these metals are highly reactive and can gather in the food chains and food web, causing major dangers to public health concerns. Soil samples were collected from Paharang drain, Faisalabad. Cadmium tolerant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Cd. The isolated bacterial strain GCFSD01 showed MIC value upto 30 mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Cd was selected for further study. Molecular characterization of bacterial isolate GCFSD01 was performed by 16S rRNA which confirmed it as Bacillus cereus. Optimum growth conditions of bacterial strain were also evaluated. Strain GCFSD01 showed optimum growth at pH 7 and 37 °C temperature. Our result revealed that B. cereus strain GCFSD01 reduced 61.3% Cd after 48 hrs. Multiple metal tolerance and Cd reduction by B. cereus indicate its potential for further use for decontamination of polluted soil.


A ocorrência contínua de metais pesados é uma das principais causas de poluição ambiental devido aos seus efeitos tóxicos. A contaminação por metais pesados representa um grande risco para todas as formas de vida encontradas no meio ambiente. Em concentrações mínimas, esses metais são altamente reativos e podem se acumular nas cadeias alimentares e na cadeia alimentar, causando grandes perigos às preocupações com a saúde pública. Amostras de solo foram coletadas no esgoto de Paharang, Faisalabad. Bactérias tolerantes ao cádmio foram isoladas da amostra coletada pelo método da placa de ágar. As colônias separadas individuais selecionadas foram avaliadas quanto às suas concentrações inibitórias mínimas contra Cd. A cepa bacteriana isolada GCFSD01 apresentou valores de CIM de 30 mM/L. A colônia bacteriana que apresentou maior resistência contra o Cd foi selecionada para identificação. Após seleção da maior colônia bacteriana resistente ao Cd, coloração de Gram e diferentes testes bioquímicos foram realizados para a caracterização da bactéria isolada. A caracterização molecular do isolado bacteriano GCFSD01 foi realizada por PCR 16S rRNA confirmando a presença de Bacillus cereus. Após a identificação molecular, as condições ótimas de crescimento da cepa bacteriana também foram verificadas. A cepa GCFSD01 apresentou crescimento ótimo em pH 7 e temperatura de 37 °C. Nosso resultado revelou que a cepa de B. cereus GCFSD01 reduziu 61,3% de Cd após 48 horas. A tolerância a múltiplos metais e a redução de Cd por B. cereus indicam seu potencial para uso posterior na descontaminação do solo poluído.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Bacillus cereus/genetics , Cadmium/toxicity , Industrial Effluents/adverse effects , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2463-2473, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887812

ABSTRACT

The hydroponic culture test method was used to study the physiological and biochemical responses of Paulownia fortunei seedlings under Zn stress, Cd stress, and combined Zn and Cd stress as well as changes in the enrichment and transfer characteristics of heavy metals. Under single and combined heavy metal stress, the biomass, plant height, and peroxidase (POD) activity of P. fortunei decreased as the treatment concentration increased. Combined Zn and Cd affected adversely plant height and biomass. As the concentration of Zn increased when applied alone, the chlorophyll content and catalase (CAT) activity of P. fortunei first increased and then decreased, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased, and the aboveground malondialdehyde (MDA) content first decreased and then increased. As the concentration of Cd increased when applied alone, chlorophyll content and CAT activity increased, and SOD activity and aboveground MDA content first increased and then decreased. Under both Cd and Zn, the physiological response was more complex. Cd in the seedlings of P. fortunei was concentrated in the root. In contrast, Zn was concentrated in the upper part of the ground, and its transfer coefficient was greater than 1.00. Thus, the addition of Zn promotes the transfer of heavy metals to the above-ground portions of plants. Generally, P. fortunei can effectively promote ecological restoration under complex forms of heavy metal pollution.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Chlorophyll , Metals, Heavy , Plant Roots/chemistry , Seedlings , Soil Pollutants , Stress, Physiological , Superoxide Dismutase , Zinc
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Previous studies have suggested that exposures to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and selenium) may be associated with differences in blood pressure. However, the findings of these studies have been inconsistent. This study was performed to examine the associations between urinary heavy metal concentrations and blood pressure among residents of four Asian countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, and Vietnam).@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study examined 1899 adults in four Asian countries. Urinary concentrations of heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A questionnaire survey was administered regarding individual characteristics. Anthropometric measurements (height and weight) were performed. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured after a short rest. Multiple linear regression models were applied to investigate associations between urinary heavy metal concentrations and blood pressure after adjustments for age, sex, and body mass index.@*RESULTS@#The geometric means of the urinary concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and selenium were 84.6, 0.885, 2.09, and 16.5 μg/g creatinine, respectively. The urinary arsenic concentrations were slightly higher than those typically reported in non-polluted populations, while urinary cadmium, lead, and selenium concentrations were equivalent or slightly lower. The urinary lead concentrations were positively associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but urinary selenium concentrations were negatively associated with them.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Variations in the urinary concentrations of lead and selenium were associated with blood pressure at low levels of exposure/intake.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arsenic/urine , Bangladesh , Blood Pressure , Cadmium/urine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Exposure , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Lead/urine , Linear Models , Male , Metals, Heavy/urine , Middle Aged , Nepal , Selenium/urine , Vietnam
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 242-252, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878558

ABSTRACT

To screen the available tomato pollution-safe cultivar varieties and reduce the potential food safety risks in Cd-polluted areas, the differences of Cd accumulation in different tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) varieties in southern China were studied by soil culture and hydroponic experiments. Firstly, the high and low accumulation varieties were selected from 25 tomato varieties under 2.94 mg/kg Cd stress by soil culture test, and then the responses of high and low accumulation tomato varieties to Cd stress were determined by hydroponic experiments. The results of soil culture test show that under 2.94 mg/kg Cd stress, there were significant differences in plant height, total biomass and yield among 25 tomato cultivars, and the Cd contents of fruits of all 25 tomato cultivars exceeded the highest limit value (0.05 mg/kg) of CAC (Codex alimentarius commission). Through cluster analysis, 7, 4 and 14 varieties accumulating relatively high, medium, and low concentrations of Cd in the fruits were screened, among which the highest, the lowest, and the average Cd contents in the fruits were 3.06 mg/kg DW, 1.47 mg/kg DW, and 2.21 mg/kg DW, respectively. The results of hydroponic experiment show that under the same concentration of Cd stress, Qiantangxuri F1, a high Cd accumulating variety, absorbed Cd faster, accumulated more Cd, used shorter oxidative stress response time and had stronger tolerance to Cd than Zhefen 3053, a low Cd accumulating variety. The typical high and low Cd accumulating varieties can provide a reference for agricultural production in heavy metal polluted areas and the development of molecular-assisted breeding methods of PSC. At present, cultivating low Cd accumulating PSC varieties and dynamic monitoring of Cd contents in tomato fruits are feasible methods in medium and light Cd-polluted areas.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Cadmium/toxicity , China , Lycopersicon esculentum , Plant Breeding , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil Pollutants/toxicity
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878337

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate involvement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in the immunomodulatory effects of cadmium (Cd).@*Methods@#The effect of Cd on AhR activation ( @*Results@#Cd increased @*Conclusion@#AhR signaling is involved in the lung leukocyte proinflammatory cytokine response to Cd. The relevance of the AhR to the cytokine response to Cd provides new insight into the mechanisms of Cd immunotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/immunology , Cadmium/toxicity , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/immunology , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Male , Rats , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/immunology
12.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 43(2): 143-146, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249995

ABSTRACT

El cadmio es un metal pesado presente en desechos mineros y otros, y tiene efectos deletéreos en la salud humana especialmente en el riñón en el que destruye células tubulares. En una investigación de la calidad del lecho de los ríos que reciben aguas residuales en el norte de Potosí, Bolivia, se reportó presencia de cadmio en papas regadas con esa agua en Quila-quila, una población rural de la zona. OBJETIVO: de este trabajo fue el de identificar posibles daños del cadmio en la salud de los pobladores de Quila-quila. MÉTODOS: para ello se realizó revisión clínica y análisis laboratorial clínico y químico de sangre y orina de los pobladores de Quila-quila, y se calculó la tasa de filtración glomerular (TFG) y se correlacionó ésta con indicadores de lesión glomerular. RESULTADOS: se encontraron niveles elevados de cadmio en sangre en algunas personas, y una correlación de la TFG con la concentración de cadmio en sangre y con indicadores de lesión de membrana glomerular. CONCLUSIONES: en conclusión, los pobladores de Quila-quila estuvieron contaminados por cadmio, el cual produjo lesión renal leve.


Cadmium is a heavy metal present in mining and other wastes, and has deleterious effects on human health especially in the kidney in which it destroys tubular cells. In an investigation of the quality of the river beds that receive wastewater in the north of Potosí, Bolivia, the presence of cadmium was reported in potatoes watered with these water in Quila-quila, a rural town in the area. OBJECTIVE: of this work was to identify possible damage from cadmium to the health of the inhabitants of Quila-quila. METHODS: for this, clinical review and clinical and chemical laboratory analysis of blood and urine from the inhabitants of Quila-quila, and the filtration rate was calculated glomerular (GFR) and this was correlated with indicators of glomerular injury. RESULTS: elevated levels of cadmium were found in the blood in some people, and a correlation of GFR with blood cadmium concentration and indicators of membrane injury glomerular. CONCLUSIONS: in conclusion, the inhabitants of Quila-quila were contaminated by cadmium, which caused mild kidney damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Cadmium , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Environmental Pollution , Filtration , Membranes
13.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 7(1): 69-77, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179284

ABSTRACT

According to data from studies, antioxidant herbal compounds are, likely to have a useful role in reducing the harmful effects of environmental pollutants and toxic chemicals that most people are exposed to. Cadmium is one of the toxic elements that accumulate in many organs, especially in kidneys. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of crocin on the expression of PKHD1 and KLLN genes in cadmium-treated rats.In this experimental study, 40 adults male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into the following groups: control group received normal saline, cadmium group (15mg/kg), crocin group (20mg/kg) and cadmium group daily fed with crocin at a dose of 20 mg/kg.After eight weeks of treatment, rats were dissected, and kidney tissues were removed for evaluation of PKHD1 and KLLN gene expression by real time method. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and significant difference between groups was P<0.05.Our results showed an increase in PKHD1 gene expression and a decrease in KLLN gene expression in kidney tissue in the cadmium group compared to the control group (P <0.001).Also, a significant decrease in PKHD1 gene expression (P <0.001) and an increase in KLLN gene expression P <0.05) were observed in the tissues of all cadmium-treated rats compared to cadmium.Crocin consumption can have a protective effect against the impaired expression of PKHD1 and KLLN cadmium-induced apoptotic pathway.


Diversos estudios sugieren que compuestos antioxidantes de hierbas tienen un papel útil en la reducción de los efectos nocivos de los contaminantes ambientales y los químicos tóxicos a los que está expuesta la mayoría de las personas. El cadmio es uno de los elementos tóxicos que se acumulan en muchos órganos, especialmente en los riñones. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el efecto de la crocina en la expresión de los genes PKHD1 y KLLN en ratas tratadas con cadmio.En este estudio experimental, 40 ratas Wistar macho adultas (200-250 g) se dividieron aleatoriamente en los siguientes grupos: el grupo de control recibió solución salina normal, el grupo de cadmio (15 mg / kg), el grupo de crocina (20 mg / kg) y el grupo de cadmio alimentado diariamente con crocina a una dosis de 20 mg / kg.Después de ocho semanas de tratamiento, se disecaron las ratas y se extrajeron los tejidos renales para evaluar la expresión de los genes PKHD1 y KLLN mediante un método en tiempo real. Los datos se analizaron mediante ANOVA de una vía y la diferencia significativa entre los grupos fue P <0,05.Nuestros resultados mostraron un aumento en la expresión del gen PKHD1 y una disminución en la expresión del gen KLLN en el tejido renal en el grupo de cadmio en comparación con el grupo de control (P <0,001).Además, se observó una disminución significativa en la expresión del gen PKHD1 (P <0,001) y un aumento en la expresión del gen KLLN P <0,05) en los tejidos de todas las ratas tratadas con cadmio en comparación con el cadmio.El consumo de crocina puede tener un efecto protector contra la expresión alterada de la vía apoptótica inducida por cadmio PKHD1 y KLLN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cadmium/therapeutic use , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics , Rats, Wistar , Kidney Neoplasms/drug therapy
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 619-627, 01-03-2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146430

ABSTRACT

In this study E. coli recombinant clones that express the EC20 synthetic phytochelatin intracellularly were constructed. The increasement of Cd2+ biosorption capacity, and, also, the increasement of resistance to this toxic metal were analyzed. A gene that encodes the synthetic phytochelatin EC20 wassynthesized in vitro. The EC20 synthetic gene was amplified by PCR, inserted into the DNA cloning vectors pBluescript®KS+ and pGEM®-TEasy, and also into the expression vectors pTE [pET-28(a)® derivative] and pGEX-T4-2®. The obtained recombinant plasmids were employed for genetic transformation of E. coli: pBsKS-EC20 and pGEM-EC20, they were introduced into DH10B and DH5α strains, similarly to pTE-EC20 and pGEX-EC20 that were introduced into BL21 strain. The EC20 expression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The recombinant clones' resistances to Cd2+ were determined by MIC analyses. The MIC for Cd2+ of DH10B/pBKS-EC20 and DH10B/pGEM-EC20 were 2.5 mM (EC20 induced), and 0.312 mM (EC20 repressed);respectively, 16 and 2 times higher than the control DH10B/pBsKS (0.156 mM). The MIC for Cd2+of BL21/pTE-EC20 was 10.0 mM (EC20 induced) and 2.5 mM (EC20 repressed), compared with the control BL21/pTE which was only 1.25 mM. Analysis of ICP-AES showed that BL21/pGEX-EC20, after growth on the condition of EC20 expression, absorbed 37.5% of Cd2+, and even when cultured into the non-induction condition of EC20 expression, it absorbed 11.5%.These results allow the conclusion thatrecombinant E. coli clonesexpressing the synthetic phytochelatin EC20 show increased capacity for Cd2+ biosorption and enhanced resistance to this toxic ion.


Foram construídos clones recombinantes de E. coli que expressam intracelularmente a fitoquelatina sintética EC20. Foi analisado o aumento na capacidade de biossorção de Cd2+ e o aumento da resistência a este metal tóxico.Foi sintetizado in vitro um gene codificante da fitoquelatina sintética EC20. O gene EC20 sintético foi amplificado por PCR, inserido nos vetores de clonagem pBluescript®KS+ e pGEM®-TEasy, e nos vetores de expressão pTE [derivado de pET-28(a)®] e pGEX-T4-2®. Os plasmídeos recombinantes foram empregados na transformação genética de E. coli: pBsKS-EC20 e pGEM-EC20 foram introduzidos nas linhagens DH10B e DH5α; e, pTE-EC20 e pGEX-EC20 na linhagem BL21-DE3. A expressão EC20 foi analisada por SDS-PAGE. As resistências a Cd2+ dos clones recombinantes foram determinadas por análises de MIC.A MIC para Cd2+ de DH10B/pBsKS-EC20 e de DH10B/pGEM-EC20 foi 2,5 mM (EC20induzido) e 0,312 mM (EC20 reprimido); respectivamente, 16 e 2 vezes superiores às do controle DH10B/pBsKS (0,156 mM). A MIC para Cd2+ de BL21/pTE-EC20 foi 10,0 mM (EC20 induzido) e 2,5 mM (EC20 reprimido), comparado a do controle BL21/pTE que foi apenas 1,25 mM. A análise de ICP-AES mostrou que BL21/pGEX-EC20, após crescimento na condição de expressão de EC20, absorveu 37,5% de Cd2+e, mesmo quando cultivado na condição de não-indução de expressão EC20, absorveu 11,5% de Cd2+. Estes resultados permitem a conclusão de que os clones recombinantes de E. coli que expressam a fitoquelatina sintética EC20 apresentam aumento da capacidade de biossorção de Cd2+ e de resistência a este íon tóxico.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Escherichia coli , Phytochelatins , Biodegradation, Environmental , Clone Cells , Genetics
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1365-1377, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826840

ABSTRACT

With the expanded application of heavy metal cadmium, soil cadmium pollution is more and more serious. In this study, using Salix matsudana as a phytoremediation candidate, we observed changes of gene expression and metabolic pathway after 1, 7 and 30 days under 2.5 mg/L and 50 mg/L cadmium stress. The result of transcriptome sequencing showed that we obtained 102 595 Unigenes; 26 623 and 32 154 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in the same concentration and different stress time; 8 550, 3 444 and 11 428 DEG with different concentrations at the same time; 25 genes closely related to cadmium stress response were screened. The changes of genes expression (such as metallothionein, ABC transporter, zinc and manganese transporter) depended on both concentration of cadmium and exposure time. The expression of several genes was obviously up-regulated after cadmium stress, for example 3,6-deoxyinosinone ketolase (ROT3) in brassinolide synthesis pathway and flavonoid synthase (FLS), flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H) in the synthesis pathway of brassinolide. In addition, GO analysis shows that GO entries were mainly enriched in metabolic processes including cellular processes, membranes, membrane fractions, cells, cellular fractions, catalytic activation and binding proteins in response to cadmium stress, whose number would increase along with cadmium concentration and exposure time. The reliability of transcriptome information was verified by qPCR and physiological experimental data. Response mechanisms of S. matsudana after cadmium stress were analyzed by transcriptome sequencing, which provided theoretical guidance for remediation of cadmium pollution in soil by S. matsudana.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Cadmium , Toxicity , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Salix , Genetics , Stress, Physiological , Genetics , Transcriptome
17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(8): e00072119, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124329

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Approximately 600,000 people work as recycling material collectors in Brazil and few studies evaluate the health risks involved in this occupation. The objective was to evaluate the blood levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) among workers from recycling sorting facilities (RSF) in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, compare the results with a non-occupationally exposed population, and identify factors associated with higher blood metal levels. Four RSF were selected and 226 collectors were examined for their blood metal levels and associated factors. The mean concentration of Cd (arithmetic mean - AM: 0.47µgL-1; geometric mean - GM: 0.34µgL-1) was almost four times higher than those found in a reference study. The generalized linear model (GLM) indicated that the "RSF where the collectors work", "work in another occupation", and "smoking" were statistically significant predictors of blood Cd levels. The Pb mean concentration (AM: 39.13µgL-1; GM: 34.11µgL-1) was also higher than the observed in the reference study (about 1.4 times) and its associated factors in the GLM were "the RSF where the collectors work", "sex", "smoking", "age" and "meat consumption". The Hg mean concentration (AM: 1.46µgL-1; GM: 0.94µgL-1) was not significantly higher than the reference population and its associated factors were "previous work in other RSF", "fish consumption" and "years of work in the current RSF". This study indicates that recycling material collectors have higher blood Cd and Pb levels compared to the general population.


Resumo: Cerca de 600 mil brasileiros trabalham na coleta e separação de materiais recicláveis, mas há poucos estudos que avaliam os riscos de saúde envolvidos nessa ocupação. O estudo teve como objetivos avaliar os níveis sanguíneos de cádmio (Cd), chumbo (Pb) e mercúrio (Hg) em trabalhadores de centros de reciclagem na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, além de comparar os resultados com uma população sem exposição ocupacional e identificar fatores associados com níveis elevados desses metais pesados no sangue. Foram selecionados quatro centros de reciclagem, e 226 trabalhadores foram testados para os níveis sanguíneos dos metais e fatores associados. As concentrações médias de Cd (média aritmética - MA: 0,47µgL-1; média geométrica - MG: 0,34µgL-1) eram quase quatro vezes mais altas que aquelas encontradas em um estudo de referência. De acordo como o modelo linear generalizado (MLG), os fatores "centro de reciclagem onde o indivíduo trabalha", "trabalho em outra ocupação" e "tabagismo" apareceram como preditores estatisticamente significativos de níveis mais altos de Cd. As concentrações médias de Pb (MA: 39,13µgL-1; MG: 34,11µgL-1) também eram mais altas (cerca de 1,4 vezes) que no estudo de referência e os fatores associados no MLG eram "centro de reciclagem onde o indivíduo trabalha", "sexo", "tabagismo", "idade" e "consumo de carne". As concentrações médias de Hg (MA: 1,46µgL-1; MG: 0,94µgL-1) não eram significativamente mais altas que na população de referência, e os fatores associados eram "trabalho prévio em outro centro de reciclagem", "consumo de peixe" e "anos de trabalho no centro de reciclagem atual". O estudo indica que os trabalhadores de reciclagem apresentam níveis sanguíneos mais elevados de Cd e Pb, comparado com os níveis na população geral.


Resumen: Alrededor de 600.000 personas trabajan como recolectores de materiales para reciclar en Brasil, además de existir pocos estudios que evalúen los riesgos de salud implicados en esta ocupación. El objetivo fue evaluar los niveles de cadmio en sangre (Cd), plomo (Pb) y mercurio (Hg) entre los trabajadores de plantas de reciclaje (RSF por sus siglas en inglés), en la región metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, comparando los resultados con la población no expuesta ocupacionalmente, e identificando los factores asociados con niveles más altos de metal en la sangre. Se seleccionaron 4 plantas de reciclaje y se examinaron a 226 recolectores para analizar los niveles de metales en sangre y sus factores asociados. La concentración media de Cd (media aritmética - MA: 0,47µgL-1; media geométrica - MG: 0,34µgL-1) fue casi cuatro veces mayor que la que se encontró en el estudio de referencia. El modelo lineal generalizado (GLM) indicó que las "las RSF donde trabajan los recolectores", "trabajo en otra ocupación", y "fumador" fueron predictores significativos estadísticamente de los niveles de Cd en sangre. La concentración media de Pb (MA: 39,13µgL-1; MG: 34,11µgL-1) también fue mayor que la observada en el estudio de referencia (sobre 1,4 veces) y los factores asociados en el GLM fueron: "las RSF donde trabajan los recolectores", "sexo", "fumador", "edad" y "consumo de carne". La concentración media de Hg (MA: 1,46µgL-1; MG: 0,94µgL-1) no fue significativamente mayor que en la población de referencia y los factores asociados fueron "trabajo previo en otra RSF", "consumo de pescado" y "años de trabajo en la actual RSF". Este estudio indica que los recolectores de material reciclable tienen niveles más altos en sangre de Cd y Pb, si se comparan con la población general.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cadmium , Mercury , Brazil , Smoking , Diagnostic Tests, Routine
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 37: 56-60, Jan. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051261

ABSTRACT

Heavy metals are natural elements in the Earth's crust that can enter human food through industrial or agricultural processing, in the form of fertilizers and pesticides. These elements are not biodegradable. Some heavy metals are known as pollutants and are toxic, and their bioaccumulation in plant and animal tissues can cause undesirable effects for humans; therefore, their amount in water and food should always be under control. The aim of this study is to investigate the conditions for the bioremediation of heavy metals in foods. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been used to reduce the heavy metal content in the environment. During the last decades, bioremediation methods using plants and microorganisms have created interest to researchers for their advantages such as being more specific and environmentally friendly. The main pollutant elements in foods and beverages are lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury, which have their own permissible limits. Among the microorganisms that are capable of bioremediation of heavy metals, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an interesting choice for its special characteristics and being safe for humans, which make it quite common and useful in the food industry. Its mass production as the byproduct of the fermentation industry and the low cost of culture media are the other advantages. The ability of this yeast to remove an individual separated element has also been widely investigated. In countries with high heavy metal pollution in wheat, the use of S. cerevisiae is a native solution for overcoming the problem of solution. This article summarizes the main conditions for heavy metal absorption by S. cerevisiae.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Food Industry , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Arsenic , Yeasts , Cadmium , Contaminant Removal , Absorption , Bioaccumulation , Lead , Mercury
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#In health examinations for local inhabitants in cadmium-polluted areas, only healthy people are investigated, suggesting that patients with severe cadmium nephropathy or itai-itai disease may be overlooked. Therefore, we performed hospital-based screening to detect patients with cadmium nephropathy in two core medical institutes in cadmium-polluted areas in Akita prefecture, Japan.@*METHODS@#Subjects for this screening were selected from patients aged 60 years or older with elevated serum creatinine levels and no definite renal diseases. We enrolled 35 subjects from a hospital in Odate city and 22 from a clinic in Kosaka town. Urinary ß-microglobulin and blood and urinary cadmium levels were measured.@*RESULTS@#The criteria for renal tubular dysfunction and the over-accumulation of cadmium were set as a urinary ß-microglobulin level higher than 10,000 μg/g cr. and a blood cadmium level higher than 6 μg/L or urinary cadmium level higher than 10 μg/g cr., respectively. Subjects who fulfilled both criteria were diagnosed with cadmium nephropathy. Six out of 57 patients (10.5% of all subjects) had cadmium nephropathy.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This hospital-based screening is a very effective strategy for detecting patients with cadmium nephropathy in cadmium-polluted areas, playing a complementary role in health examinations for local inhabitants.@*REGISTRATION NUMBER@#No. 6, date of registration: 6 June, 2010 (Akita Rosai Hospital), and No. 1117, date of registration: 26 December, 2013 (Akita University).


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cadmium , Urine , Cadmium Poisoning , Blood , Urine , Creatinine , Urine , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Monitoring , Environmental Pollutants , Urine , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Japan , Kidney Diseases , Urine , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Distribution
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777513

ABSTRACT

The Cd stress of Chrysanthemum indicum was treated by different concentrations of Cd Cl2 solution in the culture substrate. The content of Cd in different parts of Ch. indicum and the content of buddleoside and the total flavonoids in Ch. indicum were determined. The absorption characteristics of Cd elements in Ch. indicum were analyzed. And the influence of Cd elements on the quality of the herbs. The results showed that the application of soil Cd in the range of 0-100 mg·kg~(-1) had no significant effect on the biomass of Ch. indicum,and the root-shoot ratio showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing trend. The content of Cd in different parts of Ch. indicum was significantly different,and the content of aboveground part was higher than that of underground part. The enrichment factors of Cd elements in different parts of Ch. indicum are different. The enrichment coefficient of aboveground parts is larger than that of underground parts. The whole parts and plants show an increase first and then decrease,and the overall enrichment factor is greater than1. The transfer coefficient of the aerial part/underground part of Ch. indicum showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing-increasing trend with the increase of the amount of Cd applied in the soil,and the transfer coefficient was higher than 1. The contents of buddleoside and total flavonoids in Ch. indicum after Cd stress treatment were lower than the control,and the overall performance was lower and then increased,but it was still significantly lower than the control,indicating that Cd pollution directly led to the decrease of chemical quality of Ch. indicum.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Chrysanthemum , Flavonoids , Soil , Soil Pollutants
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