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1.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 329-336, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345281

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There is limited research examining reasons causing refractory chronic constipation (RCC) in children. The effects of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposures on this condition have been even less clear. However, some related factors may contribute to evaluation of blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs). OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the relationship between Pb and Cd exposures and RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz, Khuzestan Province, in Southwestern Iran. METHODS: This study was performed on a total number of 48 children aged 2-13 years, including 36 medically-diagnosed RCC cases and 12 controls referring to a pediatric clinic in the city of Ahvaz. Their BLLs and BCLs were then determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data from the researcher-designed questionnaire were also recoded and the related risk factors were analyzed through Spearman's correlation and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The findings revealed that the geometric means of Pb and Cd in blood samples in the control group were 58.95 µg/dL and 0.45 µg/dL; respectively. These values in the case group were equally 45.26 µg/dL and 0.26 µg/dL; respectively. A significant difference was additionally observed between BCLs in the case and control groups (P<0.01). All children in both groups also had BLLs greater than the permissible limit endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) (≤10 µg/dL). On the other hand, 8.3% of the individuals in the case group and 33.3% of those in the control group had BCLs higher than the acceptable range mentioned by WHO (≤0.5 µg/dL). CONCLUSION: Pb and Cd exposures due to environmental pollution and susceptibility to heavy metals may not be associated with RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz. Although this research was the first one providing data on BLLs and BCLs in children with RCC, the findings could be useful for designing future epidemiologic studies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Há limitadas pesquisas que procuram razões que causem constipação crônica refratária (CCR) em crianças. Os efeitos das exposições de chumbo (Pb) e cádmio (Cd) nesta condição têm sido ainda menos claros. No entanto, alguns fatores relacionados podem contribuir para a avaliação dos níveis de Pb no sangue (NPbSs) e dos níveis de Cd no sangue (NCdSs). OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo examinar a relação entre as exposições de Pb e Cd e a CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz, província de Khuzestan, no Sudoeste do Irã. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi realizado em um número total de 48 crianças de 2 a 13 anos, incluindo 36 casos de CCR diagnosticados clinicamente, e 12 controles encaminhados a uma clínica pediátrica na cidade de Ahvaz. Seus NPbSs e NCdSs foram então determinados usando um espectrógrafo de absorção atômica do forno de grafite. Os dados do questionário projetado pelo pesquisador também foram recodificados, e os fatores de risco relacionados foram analisados por meio da análise de correlação e regressão logística de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Os achados revelaram que as médias geométricas de Pb e Cd em amostras de sangue no grupo controle foram de 58,95 μg/dL e 0,45 μg/dL; respectivamente. Esses valores no grupo constipação foram igualmente 45,26 μg/dL e 0,26 μg/dL; respectivamente. Observou-se diferença significativa entre os NCdSs nos grupos de caso e controle (P<0,01). Todas as crianças de ambos os grupos também apresentaram NPbSs maiores do que o limite permitido endossado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) (≤10 μg/dL). Por outro lado, 8,3% dos indivíduos no grupo de casos e 33,3% dos do grupo controle apresentaram NCdSs superiores à faixa aceitável mencionada pela OMS (≤0,5 μg/dL). CONCLUSÃO: As exposições de Pb e Cd por poluição ambiental e suscetibilidade a metais pesados podem não estar associadas à CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz. Embora esta pesquisa tenha sido a primeira a fornecer dados sobre NPbSs e NCdSs em crianças com CCR, os achados poderiam ser úteis para a concepção de futuros estudos epidemiológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cadmium/analysis , Lead/analysis , Risk Factors , Constipation/chemically induced , Iran/epidemiology
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(6): 2253-2270, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278691

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo objetivou revisar os estudos de biomonitoramento humano (BMH) que avaliaram a exposição a chumbo (Pb), cádmio (Cd), mercúrio (Hg), níquel (Ni), arsênio (As) e manganês (Mn) em adultos residentes próximo a áreas industriais. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática, sem limite de data inicial até dezembro de 2017, utilizando a base de dados da MEDLINE e a BVS. Foram incluídos estudos originais em inglês, português ou espanhol, com uso de sangue e/ou urina como biomarcador. Os artigos foram avaliados pelos critérios metodológicos, incluindo-se estudos com grupo de comparação e/ou amostragem probabilística. Dos 28 estudos incluídos, 54% foram realizados na Europa, 36% na Ásia, 7% na América do Norte e 4% na África. Fundições, metalúrgicas e siderúrgicas foram as indústrias mais estudadas. Urina e sangue foram usados em 82% e 50% dos estudos, respectivamente. Os elementos mais investigados foram Cd, Pb e As. Embora com metodologias heterogêneas, em geral, os estudos observaram maiores concentrações de metais em expostos, especialmente As e Hg, do que nos grupos de comparação. Esta revisão evidencia a necessidade de estudos de BMH com maior rigor metodológico, reforçando a importância da vigilância em saúde de populações expostas a metais tóxicos, sobretudo nos países em desenvolvimento.


Abstract This study aimed to review studies of human biomonitoring (HBM) that evaluated exposure to lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in adults living close to industrial areas. A systematic review of studies was selected, without initial date limit through to December 2017, from the MEDLINE and BVS databases. Original studies in English, Portuguese or Spanish conducted among the adult population using blood and/or urine as biomarkers were included. The articles were evaluated according to methodological criteria, including studies with comparison groups and/or probabilistic sampling. Of the 28 studies selected, 54% were conducted in Europe, 36% in Asia, 7% in North America and 4% in Africa. Foundries, metal works and steel mills were the most frequently studied. Urine and blood were used in 82% and 50% of studies, respectively. The elements most investigated were Cd, Pb and As. Despite using heterogeneous methodologies, the results revealed higher metal concentrations, especially from As and Hg in general, than in the comparison group. This review highlights the need for more rigorous methodological studies of HBM, stressing the importance of public health vigilance among populations exposed to toxic metals, especially in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Arsenic/analysis , Mercury/analysis , Cadmium/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Europe , Lead/analysis
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 29-37, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889196

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Increased environmental pollution has necessitated the need for eco-friendly clean-up strategies. Filamentous fungal species from gold and gemstone mine site soils were isolated, identified and assessed for their tolerance to varied heavy metal concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and iron (Fe). The identities of the fungal strains were determined based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS 1 and ITS 2) regions. Mycelia growth of the fungal strains were subjected to a range of (0-100 Cd), (0-1000 Cu), (0-400 Pb), (0-500 As) and (0-800 Fe) concentrations (mgkg-1) incorporated into malt extract agar (MEA) in triplicates. Fungal radial growths were recorded every three days over a 13-days' incubation period. Fungal strains were identified as Fomitopsis meliae, Trichoderma ghanense and Rhizopus microsporus. All test fungal exhibited tolerance to Cu, Pb, and Fe at all test concentrations (400-1000 mgkg-1), not differing significantly (p > 0.05) from the controls and with tolerance index >1. T. ghanense and R. microsporus demonstrated exceptional capacity for Cd and As concentrations, while showing no significant (p > 0.05) difference compared to the controls and with a tolerance index >1 at 25 mgkg-1 Cd and 125 mgkg-1 As. Remarkably, these fungal strains showed tolerance to metal concentrations exceeding globally permissible limits for contaminated soils. It is envisaged that this metal tolerance trait exhibited by these fungal strains may indicate their potentials as effective agents for bioremediative clean-up of heavy metal polluted environments.


Subject(s)
Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Cadmium/analysis , Cadmium/metabolism , Copper/analysis , Copper/metabolism , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Gold/analysis , Gold/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Mining , Phylogeny , Soil Pollutants/analysis
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 35(spe): 110-119, ago. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762723

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La exposición a contaminantes como plaguicidas y metales pesados, se asocia a problemas de salud. Diversos estudios revelan la presencia de estos contaminantes en Cali; sin embargo, no existe información sobre las rutas principales de esa exposición y su riesgo implícito. Objetivo. Estimar los riesgos asociados a la exposición a cadmio, plomo y mercurio, y a los plaguicidas ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético y diuron, debida al consumo de agua potable y alimentos en un grupo de población de Cali. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvieron datos ambientales e información sobre la población, y se valoró el riesgo empleando los modelos de la Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) de los Estados Unidos. Resultados. Las concentraciones de los contaminantes evaluados estuvieron por debajo de las permisibles establecidas por el Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial de Colombia (3 µg/L -1 de cadmio; 10 µg/L -1 de plomo; 1 µg/L -1 de mercurio; 1 µg/L - 1 de ácido 2,4 diclorofenoxiacético; 1 µg/L -1 de diuron). En las muestras de pescado "manteco" ( Peprilus snyderi ), se detectaron concentraciones de cadmio entre 20 y 80 µg/kg -1 por debajo del límite permisible establecido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (100 µg/kg -1 ). Los resultados de la valoración mostraron que el riesgo cancerígeno y no cancerígeno atribuible a la ingestión de alimentos y de agua potable con presencia de los contaminantes evaluados, estaba por debajo de los valores máximos admisibles según la EPA. Conclusiones. Se cree que los hallazgos sobre contaminantes en estudios anteriores, pueden deberse a eventos puntuales de contaminación y se recomienda vigilar la bocatoma de agua y emitir alertas tempranas. El reporte sobre la presencia de cadmio en las muestras de pescado, sugiere que el control de la calidad de los alimentos por parte de las entidades reguladoras debe mejorar.


Introduction: Exposure to pollutants such as pesticides and heavy metals has been linked to health problems. Several studies have revealed the presence of these contaminants in Cali; however, there is no information available about the main routes of exposure and risk of these contaminants. Objective: To estimate the risk associated with the intake of cadmium, lead and mercury, and pesticides 2,4-D and diuron through the consumption of water and food in a population in Cali. Materials and methods: Population and environmental data were obtained, and a risk assessment was performed using United States Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Results: The concentrations of the evaluated pollutants were below permissible levels as established by the Colombian Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial (3 µg/L -1 of cadmium; 10 µg/L -1 of lead; 1 µg/L -1 of mercury; 1 µg/L -1 of 2,4 D; 1 µg/L -1 of diuron). Salema butterfish ( Peprilus snyderi ) samples contained levels of cadmium between 20 and 80 µg/kg -1 , which are below the permissible limit set by the World Health Organization (100 µg/kg -1 ). The results of the risk assessment indicated that the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic attributable risk to population health from the intake of food contaminants was below the maximum level permitted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Conclusions: It is believed that the findings in previous studies on pollutants may have been due to specific contamination events; therefore, monitoring and early warning about water intake is recommended. Furthermore, the report of cadmium being found in fish consumed as food suggests the need for quality control by regulators.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Cadmium/analysis , Diuron/analysis , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Food Contamination/analysis , Mercury/analysis , /analogs & derivatives , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Colombia , Risk Assessment
5.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. 101 p. ilus, mapas, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782513

ABSTRACT

Esta pesquisa foi norteada pelo objetivo de determinar as concentrações dos níveis de cádmio (Cd) no solo e na água de consumo do município de Buriticupu-MA, comparando os teores de cádmio encontrado no solo e nas diferentes fontes de abastecimentos de água de consumo com os níveis estabelecidos pela legislação nacional e internacional. Buscou-se, também, analisar as concentrações de cádmio encontradas em áreas próximas à BR 222 e aos lixões da cidade. Foram coletadas 50 amostras de solo e 30 de água. As coletas ocorreram em março de 2015, sendo que os procedimentos de coleta do solo seguiram as recomendações protocoladas pela USEPA (1989 e 1991) e Byrnes (1994). As análises da água foram realizadas no Centro de Estudos da Saúde do Trabalhador e Ecologia Humana (CESTEH), da Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca (ENSP/Fiocruz), seguindo o protocolo já estabelecido pelo laboratório, que utilizou a espectrometria de absorção atômica eletrotérmica. Os procedimentos para a digestão de cádmio na água seguiram o método EPA 3020A. Os procedimentos para determinação de cádmio no solo, seguiram o método USEPA 3050B, da Agência de Proteção Ambiental dos EUA (USEPA, 1998a), no Laboratório de Solos da Universidade Estadual do Maranhão (UEMA), mediante espectrometria de emissão atômica com plasma acoplado indutivamente (ICP-OES). (...) Os resultados encontrados para os níveis de cádmio na água de consumo analisada, neste estudo, apresentaram níveis abaixo daqueles estabelecidos pela legislação nacional e internacional, não incorrendo, portanto, em riscos à saúde da população local. Contudo, para as concentrações de cádmio no solo, observou-se algumas áreas com a nítida perturbação antropogênica, sobretudo nas proximidades dos lixões...


The aim of this research was to determine the cadmium (Cd) levels in soil and drinking water in the city of Buriticupu located in the state of Maranhão, comparing the cadmium content found in the soil and different sources of water supply for consumption with levels established by national and international laws. This study also aimed to determine cadmium concentration in the surroundings areas of the Brazilian highway 222 and landfills of the cited city. Fifty soil samples and thirty of water were collected. The sampling occurred March of 2015, and the sampling procedures for soil followed recommendations of US EPA (1989 e 1991) and Byrnes (1994). The analysis of water was conducted in the Center for Studies on Workers’ Health and Human Ecology (CESTEH), from the National School of Public Health Sergio Arouca (ENSP/Fiocruz), following a protocol previously established by the laboratory, which used the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedures to digest cadmium in water followed the method EPA 3020A. The soil digestion followed the US EPA 3050B in the Soil Laboratory of the State University of Maranhão (UEMA), and cadmium was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). (...) A variation in cadmium levels was found between neighborhoods and within them as well as in the surroundings of the Brazilian highway 222 and landfills in the city. The results for cadmium levels in drinking water revealed levels below those set by national and international laws and shall not pose, therefore, a risk to the health of local people. However, related to cadmium concentrations in soil, there are some areas with distinct anthropogenic disturbance especially in the vicinity of landfills...


Subject(s)
Humans , Cadmium/analysis , Cadmium/toxicity , Drinking Water , Environmental Pollution , Soil , Environmental Biomarkers , Pollution Indicators , Water Pollution
6.
West Indian med. j ; 63(1): 26-28, Jan. 2014. map, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045782

ABSTRACT

Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 µg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04-1.18 µg of Cd and would contribute 0.1 - 0.3 µg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 µg Cd/kg body weight established by theWorld Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants.


Muestras de plantas jamaicanas utilizadas en las tisanas o tés herbales, fueron recogidas de los hogares en zonas de Jamaica central, donde el suelo presenta un alto contenido de cadmio (Cd). Las muestras fueron analizadas mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica con horno de grafito para investigar el contenido total de cadmio así como el cadmio extraíble con una infusión de agua caliente, al preparar infusiones para el consumo humano, y determinar su contribución a la exposición al cadmio dietético. Las concentraciones fluctuaron de < 0.03 a 6.85 µg/g para el Cd total, extrayéndose entre el 1 y el 15% de este con una infusión de agua caliente. Una taza (200 ml) de las tisanas examinadas contenía < 0,04 - 1.18 µg de Cd, lo cual contribuiría 0.1 - 0.3 µg de Cd al consumo dietético de una persona. Esta cantidad se halla significativamente por debajo de la "Ingesta semanal tolerable provisional" (PTWI por sus siglas en inglés) establecidas en 7 µg Cd/kg peso corporal por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Si bien esto sugiere que el consumo de tisanas no contribuye significativamente al PTWI, algunas de las infusiones examinadas exceden la recomendación de la OMS de menos de 0.3 mg/kg Cd para las plantas medicinales.


Subject(s)
Cadmium/analysis , Teas, Herbal/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Jamaica
7.
Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association [The]. 2014; 89 (2): 60-65
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-160261

ABSTRACT

Many people use bottled water instead of tap water for many reasons such as taste, ease of carrying, and thinking that it is safer than tap water. Irrespective of the reason, bottled water consumption has been steadily growing in the world for the past 30 years. In Egypt, this is still increasing to reach 3.8 l/person/day, despite its high price compared with tap water. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical quality of some bottled water brands and to compare the quality with that reported on manufacture's labeling, Egyptian, and International standards. Fourteen bottled water brands were selected from the local markets of Alexandria city. Three bottles from each brand were randomly sampled, making a total sample size of 42 bottles. Sampling occurred between July 2012 and September 2012. Each bottle was analyzed for its physicochemical parameter and the average was calculated for each brand. The results obtained were compared with the Egyptian standard for bottled water, Food and Drug Administration [FDA], and with bottled water labels. In all bottles in the study, pH values ranged between 7.21 and 8.23, conductivity ranged between 195 and 675 micro s/cm, and total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride were within the range specified by the FDA. Calcium concentrations ranged between 2.7373 and 29.2183 mg/l, magnesium concentrations ranged between 5.7886 and 17.6633 mg/l, sodium between 14.5 and 205.8 mg/l, and potassium between 6.5 and 29.8 mg/l. For heavy metals such as iron, zinc, copper, and manganese, all of them were in conformity with the Egyptian standards and FDA, but nickel concentration in 11 brands was higher than the Egyptian standards. Twelve brands were higher than the Egyptian standards in cadmium concentration, but on comparison with FDA there were only five brands exceeding limits. Lead concentrations were out of range for all brands. On comparison with the labeled values, the quality of bottled water was not complying with labeled values. Physicochemical parameters in all bottled water examined brands were consistent with the Egyptian Standard and FDA, except for total dissolved solids, nickel, cadmium, and lead. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference [P<0.05] in all parameters tested between different brands. Values on the bottled water labels were not in agreement with analytical results


Subject(s)
Drinking Water/chemistry , Chemical Phenomena , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Lead/analysis , Nickel/analysis , Cadmium/analysis
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 31(4): 1210-1215, Dec. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-702295

ABSTRACT

A toxic metal, cadmium (Cd), can accumulate in human organs. Placenta is usually used as indicator organ for Cd exposure. Therefore, we aim to investigate the different of placental morphology between the low- and high-Cd accumulated placentas. The samples were collected from 14 pregnant women who resided in low-Cd contaminated (L-Cd group) and high-Cd contaminated (H-Cd group) areas. The concentrations of Cd in blood (B-Cd), urine (U-Cd) and placentas (P-Cd) were measured by ICP-MS and AAS. The morphological appearance of placentas was examined by using routine paraffin section and H & E staining. The results showed that levels of B-Cd, U-Cd and P-Cd were significantly higher in H-Cd group than in L-Cd group (p= 0.001). Moreover, the B-Cd was positively correlated with U-Cd (rs= 0.823, p= 0.000) and P-Cd concentrations (rs= 0.854, p= 0.000). The appearances of syncytial knot (STK) and fibrinoid deposit (Fd) were obviously greater in H-Cd group than in L-Cd group (p= 0.007, p= 0.026). The STK was positively correlated with both Fd (rs= 0.572, p= 0.032) and P-Cd concentration (rs= 0.766, p= 0.001). Although the chorioamnitis and decidual inflammation features were found in both groups but the appearance in H-Cd group seems to be more severe than in L-Cd group. From these results, we suggested that high Cd level in placenta may be involved in morphological changes, especially STK and Fd increasing and probably disturb the connection between maternal and fetal circulation.


Un metal tóxico, el cadmio (Cd), se puede acumular en órganos humanos. La placenta se utiliza, por lo general, como órgano indicador de la exposición a Cd. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar la diferente morfología placentaria entre las placentas con baja y alta acumulación de Cd. Las muestras fueron recolectadas de 14 mujeres embarazadas que residían áreas con alta (grupo H-Cd) y baja contaminación por Cd (grupo L-Cd). Las concentraciones de Cd en la sangre (B- Cd), orina (U-Cd) y placentas (P-Cd) se midieron por ICP-MS y AAS. La apariencia morfológica de las placentas fue examinada usando cortes histológicos teñidos con H-E. Los resultados mostraron que los niveles de B-Cd, U-Cd y P-Cd fueron significativamente mayores en el grupo H-Cd (p= 0,001). Por otra parte, el B-Cd se correlacionó positivamente con las concentraciones de U-Cd (rs= 0,854, p = 0,000 ) y P-Cd (rs= 0,823, p = 0,000). Las apariciones de nodos sinciciales (NS) y depósitos fibrinoides (Fd) fueron mayores en el grupo H-Cd (rs= 0,007, p= 0,026). Los ND se correlacionaron positivamente con los Fd (rs= 0,572, p= 0,032) y la concentración de P-Cd (rs= 0,766, p = 0,001). Aunque características de corioamnitis e inflamación de la decidua se encontraron en ambos grupos, su aparición en el grupo H-Cd pareció ser más grave que en el grupo L-Cd. A partir de estos resultados, sugerimos que el nivel alto de Cd en la placenta puede estar involucrado en los cambios morfológicos, especialmente el aumento de NS y Fd, los que probablemente alteran la relación entre la circulación materna y fetal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cadmium/analysis , Cadmium/toxicity , Fibrin , Placenta/pathology
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(2): 821-828, Jun. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-675469

ABSTRACT

Concentration of Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr and As in liver Carcharhinus limbatus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) captured in Veracruz, Mexico. Pollution by heavy metals in marine ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico is one of the hardest conservation issues to solve. Sharks as top predators are bioindicators of the marine ecosystem health, since they tend to bioaccumulate and biomagnify contaminants; they also represent a food source for local consumption. Thus, the objective of this study was to study the possible presence of heavy metals and a metalloid in livers of Carcharhinus limbatus. For this, a total of 19 shark livers were taken from animals captured nearby Tamihua, Veracruz, Mexico from December 2007 to April 2008. 12 out of the 19 captured sharks were males, one was an adult female, three were juvenile males, and three juvenile females. Four heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr) and one metaloid (As) were analyzed in shark livers using an atomic absorption spectrophotometry with flame and hydride generator. Our results showed that the maximum concentrations found were: Hg=0.69mg/kg, Cd=0.43mg/kg, As=27.37mg/kg, Cr=0.70mg/kg. The minimum concentrations found were: As=14.91mg/kg, Cr=0.35mg/kg. The Pb could not be determined because the samples did not have the spectrophotometer minimum detectable amount (0.1mg/kg). None of the 19 samples analyzed showed above the permissible limits established by Mexican and American laws. There was a correlation between shark size and Cr and As concentration (Pearson test). The concentration of Cr and As was observed to be higher in bigger animals. There was not a significant difference in heavy metals concentration between juveniles and adults; however, there was a difference between males and females. A higher Cr concentration was found in females when compared to males. None of the samples exceed the maximum limit established by the laws of Mexico and the United States of America. Much longer studies are needed with C. limbatus and other species caught in the region, in order to determine the degree of contaminants exposure in aquatic ecosystems and to identify potential health risks to consumers.


La contaminación de los ecosistemas marinos y costeros por metales pesados en el Golfo de México es uno de los problemas que afectan a los recursos naturales del medio acuático. Los tiburones por situarse en niveles tróficos superiores de la red alimenticia acumulan y magnifican cantidades considerables de contaminantes. Por esta razón, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la concentración de cuatro metales pesados (Hg, Cd, Pb y Cr) y un metaloide (As) en el tiburón punta negra (Carcharhinus limbatus) por medio de espectrofotometría de absorción atómica con flama y generador de hidruros. Se muestrearon 19 hígados de tiburones capturados cerca de Tamiahua, Veracruz entre noviembre 2007 y marzo 2008, de los cuales 12 fueron machos adultos, una hembra adulta, tres machos jóvenes y tres hembras jóvenes. Las concentraciones máximas registradas para cada metal fueron: Hg=0.69mg/ kg, Cd=0.43mg/kg, As=27.37mg/kg, Cr=0.35mg/kg. El Pb no fue detectado, no al menos la cantidad mínima de detección requerida por el espectrofotómetro de absorción atómica (0.1mg/kg). Ninguna de las muestras analizadas rebasó los límites máximos permisibles por las leyes mexicanas y americanas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Liver/chemistry , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Sharks , Arsenic/analysis , Cadmium/analysis , Chromium/analysis , Lead/analysis , Mexico , Mercury/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
10.
Journal of Advanced Research. 2013; 4 (1): 35-41
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-150823

ABSTRACT

A simple and rapid vortex assisted ionic liquid based liquid-liquid microextraction technique [VALLME] was proposed for preconcentration of trace levels of cadmium. According to this method, the extraction solvent was dispersed into the aqueous samples by the assistance of vortex agitator. Cadmium preconcentration was mediated by chelation with the 8-hydroxyquinoline; [oxine] reagent and an IL, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [[Omim][PF[6]] was chosen as the extraction solvent to extract the hydrophobic complex. Several variables such as sample pH, concentration of oxine, volume of [Omim][PF[6]] and extraction time were investigated in details and optimum conditions were selected. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection [LOD] was 2.9 microg L[-1] for Cd [] and relative standard deviation [RSD%] for five replicate determinations of 125 microg L[-1] was 4.1%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cadmium in tap water, apple and rice samples


Subject(s)
Cadmium/analysis , Oxyquinoline/analysis , Ionic Liquids/chemistry , Liquid Phase Microextraction/methods
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71539

ABSTRACT

Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between intrauterine exposure to cadmium and the presence of atopic dermatitis in infants 6 months of age, adjusted for covariates including exposure to other heavy metals. The present research is a component of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project conducted in Korea. Study subjects were restricted to pregnant women in whom cadmium and lead levels were measured at delivery and whose infants were assessed for the presence of atopic disease at 6 months of age. The odds ratio (OR) for the presence of atopic dermatitis in 6-month-old infants whose cord blood had elevated cadmium levels, after adjustment for other covariates, was 2.350 (95% CI, 1.126-4.906). The OR for the presence of atopic dermatitis in infants whose cord blood had elevated lead levels was not significant. In the present study, the cord blood cadmium level was significantly associated with the presence of atopic dermatitis in 6-month-old infants; this was not true of the cord blood lead level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective study to show a relationship between prenatal exposure to cadmium and atopic dermatitis in infancy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cadmium/analysis , Cadmium Poisoning/complications , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic/diagnosis , Female , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Lead/analysis , Male , Odds Ratio , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
12.
Medisan ; 16(11): 1731-1735, nov. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-660125

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar niveles de proteínas totales y el factor de bioconcentración por exposición a metales en la Gambusia punctata. La especie fue muestreada en el ecosistema Filé y luego trasladada hacia condiciones de laboratorio, donde fueron diseñados 3 tratamientos a 2 réplicas con 25 ejemplares. Se determinó la concentración letal media (CL-50) como parámetro de toxicidad durante 48 horas de bioensayo. Los metales analizados fueron plomo y cadmio, cuantificados por espectroscopia de plasma inductivamente acoplados con vista axial. Transcurrido el experimento, la CL-50 correspondió a 0,1, ensayándose las concentraciones 0,06 y 5,78 mg/L, además del control negativo. Posteriormente se cuantificó el nivel de proteínas totales y los metales en agua, tejido y su relación mediante el factor de bioconcentración. El menor valor de proteínas fue ante la exposición al cadmio, con 43,9 por ciento de inhibición (p< 0,05) en comparación con el control; en el caso del plomo se determinó 2,5 por ciento de estimulación. Las mayores concentraciones en agua y tejido correspondieron a este último, no así para el factor de bioconcentración. Se concluyó que los resultados mostraron sensibilidad en la respuesta del contenido de proteínas totales y alta capacidad bioacumulativa para ambos metales.


The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of total proteins and the bioconcentration factor by metal exposure in Gambusia punctata. The species was sampled in the ecosystem Filé and then transferred to the laboratory, where 3 treatments in 2 replications with 25 copies were designed. Mean lethal concentration (CL-50) was determined as a toxicity parameter for 48 hours of bioassay. The analyzed metals were lead and cadmium, quantified by plasma spectroscopy inductively coupled with axial view. After the experiment, the CL-50 corresponded to 0.1 and concentrations of 0.06 and 5.78 mg/L and the negative control were tested. Then the level of total proteins and metals in water, tissue and its relationship by means of the bioconcentration factor were quantified. The lower value of proteins was by exposure to cadmium with 43.9 percent of inhibition (p <0.05) compared with the control; for lead 2.5 percent of stimulation was determined. The highest concentrations in water and tissue corresponded to the latter, but not for the bioconcentration factor. It was concluded that the results showed sensitivity in the response of total protein content and a high bioaccumulative capacity for both metals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bioaccumulation , Cyprinodontiformes , Cadmium/analysis , Environmental Exposure , Ictalurivirus/pathogenicity , Metalloproteins , Poecilia , Lead/analysis , River Pollution
13.
Assiut University Bulletin For Environmental Researches. 2011; 14 (1): 31-39
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110746

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the residues of lead [Pb] cadmium [Cd] and mercury [Hg] in the muscles of the freshwater fish, 40 random samples [20 from Oreochromis niloticus and [20 from Labeo niloticul] were used and collected from different markets In Assiut City, Egypt. They were analyzed by using Ph meter Orion 920 research electrode. The results revealed that levels of Pb, Cd and Hg in the Oreochromis niloticus samples were 0.125 [0.046-1.126], 0.976 [0.198-1.938] ppm and 4.875 [3.686-7.220] micro g/kg, respectively. While the concentration of Pb, Cd and Hg were 0.119 [0.021-0.721], 0.621 [0.379-1.032] ppm and 4.039 [3.687. 5.620] micro g/kg. In the Laheo niloticus sample respectively. The results of this study indicate that the Pb, Cd concentrations in all examined samples were lowed than the Egyptian Organization of Standardizatian and Quality Control [EOSQC, 1993]. The consumption of these contaminated fish regularly even in a small amounts for long time may lead to health troubles. Public health importance and the hazardous toxic effects of the examined heavy metals as well as the suggestive recommendation to reduce or control the sources of pollution to the fresh water fish with these metals were discussed


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Cichlids , Lead/analysis , Cadmium/analysis , /analysis , Fresh Water/chemistry
14.
Iranian Journal of Health and Environment. 2011; 4 (1): 77-84
in English, Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-122803

ABSTRACT

Heavy metal pollution has always been a major cause contamination of environment and considered as a major concern for food health. Rice is the most popular food among Iranians and presence of heavy metals in trace level in rice has received special attention because they are directly related to health. The aim of this research was to investigate the concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni in rice prevalent in the market of Iran. 20 of the most widely consumed brands of Iranian rice were purchased from local market in Iran. 3 samples of each brand were collected and certain volumes of each sample were digested with acid. Heavy metal contents in the digested samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that mean concentration Pb, Cr, Ni in rice samples respectively was 0.387, 0.683, 0.019 [mg/kg]. Notably the Ni and Cr content in the rice samples was found to be below the food sanitary standards in India rice. In the other hand 50% samples content Pb was found to be upper the food sanitary [Pb: 0.3 mg/kg]. The result indicated that weekly intake of heavy metal by rice was below the provisional tolerable weekly intake recommended by WHO/FAO. However, risk assessments needs considerable attention and better prevention this low pollution


Subject(s)
Lead/analysis , Cadmium/analysis , Chromium/analysis , Nickel/analysis
15.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 32(7): 340-345, jul. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-567967

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: relacionar a concentração de cádmio do colostro materno com o estilo de vida das puérperas. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, realizado em Goiânia, Goiás (região Centro-Oeste do Brasil). Participaram da pesquisa 80 mulheres, de acordo com critérios de inclusão, entrevistadas sobre características socioeconômicas e estilo de vida. Elas responderam a um questionário de frequência de consumo alimentar (QFCA). As amostras de colostro coletadas foram analisadas por espectrometria de absorção atômica por chama para quantificar os níveis de cádmio. Na análise estatística, além de medidas de tendência central, foram realizados os testes de Mann-Whitney e de Kruskal-Wallis, correlação e regressão. RESULTADOS: a média da concentração de cádmio foi de 2,3 μg/L, e a mediana de 0,9 μg/L. Variáveis como idade e paridade resultaram em correlação positiva não significativa com os níveis de cádmio no colostro. O hábito de fumar não se relacionou significativamente com o cádmio. CONCLUSÕES: a alimentação da puérpera influencia o nível de cádmio do colostro, especialmente o originado de alimentos vegetais, como cereais.


PURPOSE: to relate the cadmium concentration of colostrum with the lifestyle of women in the puerperium period. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was conducted in Goiânia, Goiás (Mid-western Region of Brazil). Eighty women, according to inclusion criteria, were interviewed about their socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle. They answered a questionnaire about food frequency consumption (FFQ). The colostrum samples collected were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to quantify cadmium levels. For statistical analysis, central tendency measures were obtained, and the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed, as well as correlation and regression tests. RESULTS: the average cadmium concentration was 2.3 µg/L and the median was 0.9 µg/L. Variables such as age and parity showed a nonsignificant positive correlation with cadmium. Smoking habit was not significantly associated with cadmium. CONCLUSIONS: postpartum food intake influences the level of cadmium in colostrum, especially vegetables such as cereals.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Cadmium/analysis , Colostrum/chemistry , Life Style , Cross-Sectional Studies , Milk, Human/chemistry , Postpartum Period , Socioeconomic Factors
16.
Scientific and Research Journal of Army University of Medical Sciences-JAUMS. 2010; 8 (2): 118-125
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-146316

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, human milk is a very important bioindex for biomonitoring of pollutants that its give much useful information about heavy metal concentrated in human body and amount of infant exposed with these pollutants. The aim of this study was to determine concentration of cadmium and zinc in the colostrums human milk from women living in the vicinity of a metal smelter and control area. In this research 63 numbers of human's milk Lenjan and 17 numbers of human's milk control area collected of this area hospitals four days after postpartum. The means of cadmium and zinc level in colostrums samples of Lenjan and control area region after four days after postpartum were 2.31, 0.772 micro g/l and 11.32, 5.568 mg/l, respectively. The estimate weekly intake of cadmium and daily intake zinc of breastfed infant in this study were in some case higher than provisional tolerance weekly intake [PTWI] recommended by FAO/WHO. The results of this study showed a significant mean difference in the average level of cadmium and zinc in breast milk of mothers of different groups living place of residence, but no significant differences in the different maternal age and weight groups were observed. Considering the parameters of the study questionnaire, the possibility that you can use rice Lenjan significantly increased zinc in breast milk has been


Subject(s)
Humans , Cadmium/analysis , Zinc/analysis , Industry , Environmental Pollution , Colostrum
17.
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2010; 7 (1): 119-126
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-93103

ABSTRACT

Tubifex tubifex has been shown to survive in organic polluted environments, however, not much has been done on its inorganic pollution tolerance. Samples of T. tubifex and their respective sewage sludge were taken from Soche wastewater treatment plant in Blantyre City, Malawi during July 2007 to November 2008. The total number of sludge samples taken was fifty one which was made into seventeen composite samples. A total of seventeen T. Tubifex samples were also collected. The samples were analyzed for copper, lead, manganese, zinc and cadmium using standard methods from American Public Health Association and Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The concentrations of metals in sewage sludge and T tubifex were on dry weight basis and the metals determined were acid extractable. In general, heavy metals concentration was lower in T. tubifex than in sewage sludge. The range of heavy metals concentrations were [in sludge and [T tubifex]: zinc 275.3-361.5 mg/kg [45.0-82.2 mg/kg], manganese 293.7-230.1 mg/kg [1.21 -3.69 mg/kg], copper 86.5 - 120.1 mg/kg [1.6-4.7 mg/kg], lead 11.2-22.4 mg/kg [Below detection limit 0.95] and cadmium 1.12 - 2.31 mg/kg [1.08 - 2.18 mg/kg]. The results showed significant differences between the concentrations of manganese, copper, lead and zinc in sewage sludge and T. tubifex [p < 0.05]. However there was no significant difference between the concentrations of cadmium in sewage sludge and T. tubifex [p >0.05]. T. tubifex did not show the ability to accumulate heavy metals [attributed to its high defecation and metabolic rate] except for cadmium hence cannot be used as a bioindicator for heavy metal pollution in sludge


Subject(s)
Sewage , Lead/analysis , Cadmium/analysis , Copper/analysis , Manganese/analysis , Zinc/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
18.
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2009; 6 (4): 671-676
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-100280

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to determine cadmium and lead concentrations in the breast milk of healthy lactating women who were living in Zarrinshahr, an industrial area of Iran and to investigate the effect of mother's age, parity and smoking habits in families living in the vicinity of areas contaminated with heavy metals. Cadmium and lead concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry in 44 milk samples from healthy lactating women collected on first to sixth postpartum week. Accuracy of the analysis was checked by various methods including the use of reference material. The mean + standard deviation of cadmium and lead concentrations in human milk were 2.44 +/- 1.47 micro g/L [range 0.62 -6.32 micro g/L] and 10.39 +/- 4.72 micro g/L [range 3.18-24.67 micro g/L], respectively. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of lead in milk samples and mother's age and parity [P < 0.05]. Also the concentration of cadmium in breast milk significantly increased [P < 0.05] in mothers who were actively and/or passively exposed to smoking. The results of this study showed that lead and cadmium concentrations in milk samples from lactating women in Zarrinshahr were high. This can be a major public health hazard for the inhabitants living in this industrial region of Iran


Subject(s)
Humans , Cadmium/analysis , Lead/analysis , Metals, Heavy , Industry , Environmental Pollution , Trace Elements
19.
J Environ Biol ; 2008 Sep; 29(5): 683-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113779

ABSTRACT

Metals Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were surveyed at 14 sampling sites by using moss Hypnum cupressiforme through active monitoring technique. Samples were transplanted in all four directions of Mussoorie city and were harvested after exposure of four months (representing each season) to analyze metal precipitation and its trend at different sites during 2005. Bioaccumulation ability for metals was evaluated seasonally exhibiting maximum in summer followed by winter and minimum in rainy season. However, at some places Cu shows highly significant values in rainy season in comparison to winter. In case of Zn and Pb significantly different (p < or = 0.05) values were observed between summerand rainy season. Baseline concentration of Cu, Pb and Zn was significantly different at 5% in comparison to other transplant sites. Result indicates Dhanaulti as most polluted location might be due to higher tourist activity and vehicular load, whereas, same was found low at Chamba might be due to place was free from pollution sources or away from in proximity to road and have low human interference. The present study allows us to determine the extent of the area affected by metal precipitation load in different rural and urban areas and abundance of metals in order of Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd.


Subject(s)
Bryopsida/chemistry , Cadmium/analysis , Copper/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , India , Lead/analysis , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Seasons , Zinc/analysis
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114182

ABSTRACT

Trace metal levels in selected medicinal plant leaves from Western Ghats, Karnataka, India were studied A method for the determination of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium simultaneously in the pH of 4.5 in citrate buffer, and Cobalt and Nickel simultaneously in the pH 9.2 in ammonia buffer medium has been optimized. Electrochemical method, Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV) has been used for quantification. The optimized procedure has been successfully applied for the determination of the above-mentioned metal ions in some medicinally important plant leaves from Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. The concentrations of trace metals in the medicinal plant samples were found to be in the ranges: 15.61-20.71 mg g(-1) for copper, 0.056-0.10 mg g(-1) for cadmium, 0.91-1.81 mg g(-1) for lead, 0.42-0.96 mg g(-1) for nickel, 1.21-1.97 mg g(-1) for cobalt and 23.29-32.52 mg g(-1) for zinc. The effect of pH, deposition time and potential has been studied and optimized. The study reveals that all the trace metals are well within the maximum permissible limits, therefore, medicinal plants of this region are very much suitable for medicinal use. The results are compared with the data obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.


Subject(s)
Ammonia/chemistry , Cadmium/analysis , Cobalt/analysis , Copper/analysis , Electrochemistry/methods , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , India , Ions , Metals/analysis , Nickel/analysis , Plant Leaves , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Trace Elements/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Zinc/analysis
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