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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e250865, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285604

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major toxicants, which affects human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effects of morel mushrooms against Cd-induced reproductive damages in rats. For this purpose, 30 male rats were divided into 6 groups (n=5/group), the first group served as the control group, second group was treated with an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of 1 mg/kg/day of Cd. Third and fourth groups were co-treated with 1 mg/kg/day of Cd (i.p) and 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract (orally) respectively. The final 2 groups received oral gavage of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract alone. After treatment for 17 days, the animals were euthanized, and testes and epididymis were dissected out. One testis and epididymis of each animal were processed for histology, while the other testis and epididymis were used for daily sperm production (DSP) and comet assay. Our results showed that Cd and morel mushrooms have no effect on animal weight, but Cd significantly decreases the DSP count and damages the heritable DNA which is reversed in co-treatment groups. Similarly, the histopathological results of testes and epididymis show that morel mushrooms control the damage to these tissues. Whereas the morel mushroom extract alone could enhance the production of testosterone. These results conclude that morel mushrooms not only control the damage done by Cd, but it could also be used as a protection mechanism for heritable DNA damage.


Resumo O cádmio (Cd) é um dos principais tóxicos, que afeta a saúde humana por meio da exposição ocupacional e ambiental. No presente estudo, avaliamos os efeitos protetores dos cogumelos morel contra os danos reprodutivos induzidos pelo Cd em ratos. Para tanto, 30 ratos machos foram divididos em 6 grupos (n = 5 / grupo); o primeiro grupo serviu de controle, o segundo grupo foi tratado com injeção intraperitoneal (i.p) de 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd. O terceiro e o quarto grupos foram cotratados com 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd (i.p) e 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel (por via oral), respectivamente. Os dois grupos finais receberam gavagem oral de 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho. Após o tratamento por 17 dias, os animais foram sacrificados e os testículos e o epidídimo foram dissecados. Um testículo e epidídimo de cada animal foram processados ​​para histologia, enquanto o outro testículo e epidídimo foram usados ​​para produção diária de esperma (DSP) e ensaio cometa. Nossos resultados mostraram que os cogumelos Cd e morel não têm efeito sobre o peso do animal, mas o Cd diminui significativamente a contagem de DSP e danifica o DNA hereditário, que é revertido em grupos de cotratamento. Da mesma forma, os resultados histopatológicos dos testículos e do epidídimo mostram que os cogumelos morel controlam os danos a esses tecidos. Considerando que o extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho pode aumentar a produção de testosterona. Esses resultados concluem que os cogumelos morel não apenas controlam os danos causados pelo Cd, mas também podem ser usados ​​como um mecanismo de proteção para danos hereditários ao DNA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cadmium/toxicity , Agaricales , Ascomycota , Spermatozoa , Testis
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246979, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278466

ABSTRACT

Abstract The influence of pharmaceutical residues and heavy metals on living organisms has received global attention. The present study assessed the interactive effect of antibiotic residues and heavy metals in soil, as contaminated food with cadmium (Cd) and oxytetracycline (OTC) on the isopod Porcellio leavis. It was fed on fresh plant leaves contaminated with different concentrations of cadmium, Cd+OTC1000 ppm, Cd+OTC2000 ppm and Cd+OTC3000 ppm for 4 weeks. The changes in the feeding patterns, protein, lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase activity (CAT), and total free amino acids (TFAA) were recorded. There were significant differences in the obtained results where Cd reduced the egestion ratio (ER) however, OTC enhanced this ratio. Biochemical analysis illustrated that combination between OTC and Cd inhibits the toxic effects of Cd at low concentration (1000 ppm), while at high concentration (3000 ppm) raise the toxicity. Detailed studies are required for further understanding of the interaction between OTC and heavy metals, and also its impact on soil animals and for improving soil risk evaluation.


Resumo A influência de resíduos farmacêuticos e metais pesados ​​em organismos vivos tem recebido atenção global. O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de resíduos de antibióticos e metais pesados ​​no solo, como alimentos contaminados com cádmio (Cd) e oxitetraciclina (OTC), sobre o isópode Porcellio laevis, o qual foi alimentado com folhas frescas de plantas contaminadas com diferentes concentrações de cádmio, Cd + OTC1000 ppm, Cd + OTC2000 ppm e Cd + OTC3000 ppm, por quatro semanas. As mudanças nos padrões de alimentação, proteína, peroxidação lipídica (LPO), atividade da catalase (CAT) e aminoácidos livres totais (TFAA) foram registradas. Houve diferenças significativas nos resultados obtidos, em que o Cd reduziu a taxa de excreção (ER), no entanto o OTC aumentou essa proporção. A análise bioquímica mostrou que a combinação entre OTC e Cd inibe os efeitos tóxicos do Cd em baixa concentração (1.000 ppm), enquanto, em alta concentração (3.000 ppm), aumenta a toxicidade. Estudos detalhados são necessários para uma maior compreensão da interação entre OTC e metais pesados, e seu impacto sobre os animais do solo, bem como para melhorar a avaliação de risco do solo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxytetracycline/toxicity , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Isopoda , Soil , Cadmium/toxicity
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 398-405, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153348

ABSTRACT

Continuous occurrence of heavy metals is a major cause of environmental pollution due to its toxic effects. At minimum concentrations, these metals are highly reactive and can gather in the food chains and food web, causing major dangers to public health concerns. Soil samples were collected from Paharang drain, Faisalabad. Cadmium tolerant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Cd. The isolated bacterial strain GCFSD01 showed MIC value upto 30 mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Cd was selected for further study. Molecular characterization of bacterial isolate GCFSD01 was performed by 16S rRNA which confirmed it as Bacillus cereus. Optimum growth conditions of bacterial strain were also evaluated. Strain GCFSD01 showed optimum growth at pH 7 and 37 °C temperature. Our result revealed that B. cereus strain GCFSD01 reduced 61.3% Cd after 48 hrs. Multiple metal tolerance and Cd reduction by B. cereus indicate its potential for further use for decontamination of polluted soil.


A ocorrência contínua de metais pesados é uma das principais causas de poluição ambiental devido aos seus efeitos tóxicos. A contaminação por metais pesados representa um grande risco para todas as formas de vida encontradas no meio ambiente. Em concentrações mínimas, esses metais são altamente reativos e podem se acumular nas cadeias alimentares e na cadeia alimentar, causando grandes perigos às preocupações com a saúde pública. Amostras de solo foram coletadas no esgoto de Paharang, Faisalabad. Bactérias tolerantes ao cádmio foram isoladas da amostra coletada pelo método da placa de ágar. As colônias separadas individuais selecionadas foram avaliadas quanto às suas concentrações inibitórias mínimas contra Cd. A cepa bacteriana isolada GCFSD01 apresentou valores de CIM de 30 mM/L. A colônia bacteriana que apresentou maior resistência contra o Cd foi selecionada para identificação. Após seleção da maior colônia bacteriana resistente ao Cd, coloração de Gram e diferentes testes bioquímicos foram realizados para a caracterização da bactéria isolada. A caracterização molecular do isolado bacteriano GCFSD01 foi realizada por PCR 16S rRNA confirmando a presença de Bacillus cereus. Após a identificação molecular, as condições ótimas de crescimento da cepa bacteriana também foram verificadas. A cepa GCFSD01 apresentou crescimento ótimo em pH 7 e temperatura de 37 °C. Nosso resultado revelou que a cepa de B. cereus GCFSD01 reduziu 61,3% de Cd após 48 horas. A tolerância a múltiplos metais e a redução de Cd por B. cereus indicam seu potencial para uso posterior na descontaminação do solo poluído.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Bacillus cereus/genetics , Cadmium/toxicity , Industrial Effluents/adverse effects , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 242-252, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878558

ABSTRACT

To screen the available tomato pollution-safe cultivar varieties and reduce the potential food safety risks in Cd-polluted areas, the differences of Cd accumulation in different tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) varieties in southern China were studied by soil culture and hydroponic experiments. Firstly, the high and low accumulation varieties were selected from 25 tomato varieties under 2.94 mg/kg Cd stress by soil culture test, and then the responses of high and low accumulation tomato varieties to Cd stress were determined by hydroponic experiments. The results of soil culture test show that under 2.94 mg/kg Cd stress, there were significant differences in plant height, total biomass and yield among 25 tomato cultivars, and the Cd contents of fruits of all 25 tomato cultivars exceeded the highest limit value (0.05 mg/kg) of CAC (Codex alimentarius commission). Through cluster analysis, 7, 4 and 14 varieties accumulating relatively high, medium, and low concentrations of Cd in the fruits were screened, among which the highest, the lowest, and the average Cd contents in the fruits were 3.06 mg/kg DW, 1.47 mg/kg DW, and 2.21 mg/kg DW, respectively. The results of hydroponic experiment show that under the same concentration of Cd stress, Qiantangxuri F1, a high Cd accumulating variety, absorbed Cd faster, accumulated more Cd, used shorter oxidative stress response time and had stronger tolerance to Cd than Zhefen 3053, a low Cd accumulating variety. The typical high and low Cd accumulating varieties can provide a reference for agricultural production in heavy metal polluted areas and the development of molecular-assisted breeding methods of PSC. At present, cultivating low Cd accumulating PSC varieties and dynamic monitoring of Cd contents in tomato fruits are feasible methods in medium and light Cd-polluted areas.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Cadmium/toxicity , China , Lycopersicon esculentum , Plant Breeding , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil Pollutants/toxicity
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878337

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate involvement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in the immunomodulatory effects of cadmium (Cd).@*Methods@#The effect of Cd on AhR activation ( @*Results@#Cd increased @*Conclusion@#AhR signaling is involved in the lung leukocyte proinflammatory cytokine response to Cd. The relevance of the AhR to the cytokine response to Cd provides new insight into the mechanisms of Cd immunotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/immunology , Cadmium/toxicity , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/immunology , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Male , Rats , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/immunology
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 509-516, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951583

ABSTRACT

Abstract Typha domingensis (cattail) is a native macrophyte known by its capacity to tolerate several heavy metals effects and the potential use for phytoremediation. However, in despite that cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic pollutants; its effects in T. domingensis biology remain uninvestigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to study the tolerance of T. domingensis to cadmium contamination by evaluating its growth, Cd uptake, leaf anatomy and gas exchange. The experiment was designed using three cadmium concentrations (0, 10 and 50 µM) and ten replicates for 90 days. The cadmium uptake, growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and leaf anatomy were evaluated. Data was submitted to ANOVA and Scott-Knott test for P<0.05. Typha domingensis accumulates Cd proportionally to its concentration on the solution and the content of this metal was higher in roots as compared to shoots. Plants showed no significant modifications on growth parameters such as the biomass production, number of leaves, number of clones and the biomass allocation to organs. The photosynthesis, transpiration and chlorophyll content were not modified by Cd. Most anatomical traits evaluated were not modified by the metal but the stomatal density and the proportion of vascular tissues were reduced under 50 µM of Cd. In despite, the leaf anatomy showed no toxicity evidences for any Cd level. The absence of growth reduction and the stability of anatomical and physiological traits give insight about the Cd tolerance of this species. Therefore, T. domingensis is able to overcome Cd toxicity and shows potential for phytoremediation.


Resumo A espécie Typha domingensis (taboa) é uma macrófita nativa conhecida por sua tolerância a vários metais pesados e potencial uso na fitorremediação. Contudo, apesar de que o Cd é um dos poluentes mais tóxicos; Seus efeitos em T. domingensis ainda não foram investigados. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a tolerância de T. domingensis ao cádmio, avaliando o crescimento, absorção de Cd, anatomia foliar e trocas gasosas. O experimento foi conduzido utilizando três concentrações de Cd (0, 10 e 50 µM) e dez repetições por 90 dias.. O crescimento, trocas gasosas e o teor de clorofila e anatomia foliar foram avaliados. Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Scott-Knott para P<0,05. A absorção de cádmio, crescimento, trocas gasosas, teor de clorofila e anatomia foliar foram analisados. As plantas de T. domingensis podem acumular Cd proporcionalmente à sua concentração na solução e o teor deste metal foi maior nas raízes em comparação com a parte aérea. As plantas não apresentam modificações significativas nos parâmetros de crescimento como produção de biomassa, número de folhas, número de clones produzidos e alocação de biomassa nos órgãos. A fotossíntese, transpiração e conteúdo de clorofila não foram afetados de forma significativa pelo Cd. A maioria das características anatômicas avaliadas não apresentou diferenças, mas houve redução na densidade estomática e na proporção de tecidos vasculares na concentração de 50 µM de Cd. A anatomia foliar não mostrou evidências de toxicidade em nenhum dos níveis de Cd. A ausência de redução de crescimento e estabilidade das características anatômicas e fisiológicas caracteriza alta tolerância da espécie ao Cd. Portanto, T. domingensis é capaz de superar a toxicidade do Cd e demostra potencial para fitorremediação.


Subject(s)
Cadmium/metabolism , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Typhaceae/growth & development , Typhaceae/metabolism , Photosynthesis/physiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cadmium/toxicity , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Chlorophyll/chemistry , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Biomass , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
7.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(1): 1-11, mayo 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973611

ABSTRACT

El hombre ha cambiado el ambiente para sostener la demanda global de recursos naturales como el agua. La gestión de los cuerpos hídricos tiene que ser constante, con el propósito preventivo y correctivo, dependiendo del estado de antropización de cada sistema. El objetivo de este artículo fue analizar la toxicidad del sedimento y los metales Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd y Cu, en el reservorio Paiva Castro, que abastece la Region Metropolitana de São Paulo. Se realizaron 2 muestreos (Mayo 2011, estación seca y Enero de 2012, estación húmeda) y se analizaron 5 puntos próximos a la captación de agua por la Companhia de Saneamento Básico do Estado de São Paulo. Se realizaron ensayos de toxicidad aguda y crónica en sedimento, a través de ensayos biológicos con el cladócero Daphnia similis y el insecto Chironomus xanthus. El tratamiento de datos se realizó con el test de Fisher (mortalidad). El nivel de asociación entre las variables en sedimento y en los test ecotoxicológicos fueron evaluados por test no-paramétricos, a través del coeficiente de correlación de Spearman's. Los resultados del presente trabajo señalaron bajas concentracones de metales en el sedimento del área de estudio y ausencia de toxicidad en los organismos ensayados. Se puede concluir que área estudiada del reservorio Paiva Castro se encuentra poco impactada por los metales, sin efectos directos sobre la calidad de vida los organismos bentónicos: D. similis y C. xanthus.


Man had changed the natural environment in an attempt trying to supply the global demand for resources. The management of the hydric bodies has to be constant, with preventive and corrective purpose, depending on the eutrophization state of each one. The objective of this article was to analyze the sediment toxicity and the metals Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cu, in the Paiva Castro reservoir, that supply the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. It was made 2 collections (May 2011, dry season and January 2012, wet season). It was analyzed 5 points next to the water captation station by the Companhia de Saneamento Básico do Estado de São Paulo. The sediment was analyzed as for acute and chronic toxicity through bioassays with the cladocerans Daphnia similis and the insect Chironomus xanthus. Data treatment was done with Fisher Exact Test (mortality). The association level between the variables in sediment and ecotoxicological tests was available in non-parametric tests, through the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Oriented on the results presented in this work, pointing low concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments presented in the collect local, and the absence of toxicity, we can say that at this reservoir, at least in the collect area, it's low impacted, not implicating in direct interferences in the quality of life of benthonic organisms.


Subject(s)
Zinc/toxicity , Cadmium/toxicity , Water Reservoirs/prevention & control , Sediments/analysis , Copper/toxicity , Lead/toxicity , Manganese/toxicity , Nickel/toxicity , Brazil , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Acute Toxicity/analysis , Acute Toxicity/methods , Chronic Toxicity/analysis , Chronic Toxicity/methods
9.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-14, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heavy metals can cause great harm to Siberian tigers in the natural environment. Cadmium (Cd2+) is an environmental contaminant that affects multiple cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It has been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cell types and tissues. RESULTS: We investigated the apoptotic effects of Cd2+ on Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro. Our research revealed the typical signs of apoptosis after Cd²+ exposure. Apoptosis was dose- (0-4.8 µM) and duration-dependent (12-48 h), and proliferation was strongly inhibited. Cd²+ increased the activity of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and disrupted calcium homeostasis by causing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. It also increased K+ efflux and altered the mRNA levels of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-8, Fas, and p53. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Cd2+ triggers the apoptosis of Siberian tiger fibroblasts by disturbing intracellular homeostasis. These results will aid in our understanding of the effects of Cd2+ on Siberian tigers and in developing interventions to treat and prevent cadmium poisoning.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cadmium/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Intracellular Space/drug effects , Tigers , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Homeostasis/drug effects , Siberia , DNA Damage , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Apoptosis/genetics , Caspases/analysis , Caspases/drug effects , Comet Assay/veterinary , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Reverse Transcription , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Fibroblasts/physiology , Homeostasis/physiology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110764

ABSTRACT

Gap junctions mediate direct communication between cells; however, toxicological cascade triggered by nonessential metals can abrogate cellular signaling mediated by gap junctions. Although cadmium (Cd) is known to induce apoptosis in organs and tissues, the mechanisms that underlie gap junction activity in Cd-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A rat liver cells has yet to be established. In this study, we showed that Cd treatment decreased the cell index (a measure of cellular electrical impedance) in BRL 3A cells. Mechanistically, we found that Cd exposure decreased expression of connexin 43 (Cx43), increased expression of p-Cx43 and elevated intracellular free Ca2+ concentration, corresponding to a decrease in gap junctional intercellular communication. Gap junction blockage pretreatment with 18β-glycyrrhizic acid (GA) promoted Cd-induced apoptosis, involving changes in expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and the mitochondrial transmembrane electrical potential (Δψm). Additionally, GA was found to enhance ERK and p38 activation during Cd-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, but had no significant effect on JNK activation. Our results indicated the apoptosis-related proteins and the ERK and p38 signaling pathways may participate in gap junction blockage promoting Cd-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cadmium/toxicity , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Communication/drug effects , Connexin 43/genetics , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Gap Junctions/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hepatocytes/cytology , Rats , Signal Transduction/drug effects
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4): 886-893, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768188

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the potential for using toxicity assays with sediment samples for the detection of water pollution caused by the discharge of tannery effluents into water bodies and its application to environmental forensic investigation. The study included ecotoxicological evaluation of sediments, survey of benthic organisms in the field, as well as chromium, cadmium and lead dosage which provided data for a sediment quality triad evaluation. The sediment samples showed acute and chronic toxicity to the bioindicators, low biodiversity of benthic macrofauna and high chromium concentration, reaching up to 4365 mg.Kg–1. A close relationship was observed between the separate results of ecotoxicological sediment evaluation and the sediment quality triad. The sediment ecotoxicological assessment proved to be applicable to tracking sources of contamination related to tanneries and similar activities in environmental forensics.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o potencial de aplicação de ensaios de toxicidade com amostras de sedimento para constatação de poluição aquática causada por lançamentos de efluentes de curtumes em cursos d’água e seu emprego na perícia criminal ambiental. O estudo incluiu avaliação ecotoxicológica de sedimentos, avaliação da fauna bentônica local e dosagem de cromo, cádmio e chumbo que forneceram dados para avaliação da tríade de qualidade dos sedimentos. As amostras de sedimentos mostraram efeito de toxicidade aguda e crônica aos bioindicadores, baixa biodiversidade da macrofauna bentônica e altas concentrações de cromo que chegaram a 4365 mg.Kg–1. Houve uma estreita relação entre os resultados isolados da avaliação ecotoxicológica e a tríade de qualidade de sedimentos. A avaliação ecotoxicológica demonstrou ser aplicável na identificação de fontes de contaminação relacionadas a curtumes e atividades similares em perícias ambientais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Forensic Toxicology/methods , Geologic Sediments/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Arthropods/drug effects , Brazil , Cadmium/toxicity , Chromium/toxicity , Environmental Monitoring , Gastropoda/drug effects , Lead/toxicity , Oligochaeta/drug effects , Rivers
12.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-7, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) is well known as one of the most toxic metals affecting the environment and can severely restrict plant growth and development. In this study, Cd toxicities were studied in strawberry cv. Camarosa using pot experiment. Chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and mineral nutrient concentrations were investigated in both roots and leaves of strawberry plant after exposure Cd. RESULTS: Cd content in both roots and leaves was increased with the application of increasing concentrations of Cd. We found higher Cd concentration in roots rather than in leaves. Chlorophyll a and b was decreased in leaves but MDA significantly increased under increased Cd concentration treatments in both roots and leaves. SOD and CAT activities was also increased with the increase Cd concentrations. K, Mn and Mg concentrations were found higher in leaves than roots under Cd stress. In general, increased Cd treatments increased K, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cu and Zn concentration in both roots and leaves. Excessive Cd treatments reduced chlorophyll contents, increased antioxidant enzyme activities and changes in plant nutrition concentrations in both roots and leaves. CONCLUSION: The results presented in this work suggested that Cd treatments have negative effect on chlorophyll content and nearly decreased 30% of plant growth in strawberry. Strawberry roots accumulated higher Cd than leaves. We found that MDA and antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD and APX) contents may have considered a good indicator in determining Cd tolerance in strawberry plant.


Subject(s)
Cadmium/toxicity , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Micronutrients/metabolism , Fragaria/drug effects , Antioxidants/metabolism , Potassium/analysis , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Catalase/analysis , Chlorophyll/analysis , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Fragaria/metabolism , Ascorbate Peroxidases/analysis , Chlorophyll A , Magnesium/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Manganese/analysis
13.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. 98 p. ilus, mapas, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782427

ABSTRACT

Este estudo determinou a concentração de vários metais no solo e na água da microbacia do distrito industrial do Pequiá, Açailândia-MA, e investigou a variação das concentrações dos metais no solo em função da distância às indústrias. Os metais investigados os metais foram Arsênio (As), Cádmio (Cd), Manganês (Mn), Mercúrio (Hg), Chumbo (Pb) e Níquel (Ni), que podem acarretar diversos agravos na saúde em virtude da sua toxicidade em diferentes alvos biológicos. O distrito industrial do Pequiá é caracterizado por indústrias siderúrgicas e rodovias com intenso tráfego de veículos a combustão, o que desperta a necessidade de se conhecer as concentrações ambientais desses metais. Metodologia: Foram coletadas 44 amostras de solo do entorno das indústrias nos período seco e chuvoso, respectivamente, e água de três pontos do córrego Pequiá no período chuvoso. A determinação da concentração de metais em solo foi realizada por Espectrometria de Emissão Atômica por Plasma Acoplado Indutivamente (ICP-OES), e em água por meio de Espectrometria de Massa com Plasma Acoplado Indutivamente (ICP-MS). (...) O único metal detectado em todas as amostras no período seco foi o Hg. A análise de correlação entre as concentrações no solo em cada período revelou correlação positiva estatisticamente significativa entre Pb e Mn no período chuvoso e correlação negativa com significância limítrofe entre Mn e Hg. Em relação ao gradiente de concentração, se observou diminuição apenas da concentração de Pb ao longo da linha reta entre as indústrias e o bairro Pequiá. A diminuição da concentração de Pb com a distância foi estatisticamente significativa, tanto no período chuvoso quanto no seco. Conclusão: Os metais Mn e Pb foram os mais frequentemente encontrados e com as concentrações mais elevadas tanto no solo quanto na água, muito provavelmente devido ao processo de fabricação do ferro gusa e ao intenso tráfego de veículos...


This study determined the concentration of heavy metals in soil and surface water in the industrial district of Pequiá, Açailândia-MA, as well as investigated the variation in concentration of metals in soil with the distance to the industries. Metals investigated were Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Manganese (Mn), Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb) and Niquel (Ni), which may cause several health effects. The Pequiá industrial district is composed by several steel plants and roads with heavy vehicle traffic. Methods: Soil samples were collected from 44 points around the industrial district in the dry and rainy season, respectively, and water samples were collected at three points of the Pequiá stream during the rainy season. Concentrations of metals in soil were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). (...) Hg was the only metal detected in all soil samples in the dry season. Correlation analysis between concentrations of metals in soil showed a statistically significant positive correlation between Pb e Mn in the rainy season. Pb was the only metal showing a reduction in concentration across the straight line between the industries and Pequiá neighborhood. Reduction in Pb concentration with increasing distance was statistically significant in both seasons. Conclusions: Mn e Pb were the metals most frequently found and those presenting the highest concentrations in soil and water, suggesting that the main sources of these metals in the study area may be iron manufacturing process and motor vehicle traffic...


Subject(s)
Humans , Metals/toxicity , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Surface Waters , Soil/chemistry , Arsenic/toxicity , Cadmium/toxicity , Lead/toxicity , Manganese/toxicity , Mercury/toxicity , Nickel/toxicity , Environmental Pollution
14.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. 110 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782449

ABSTRACT

O biomonitoramento humano é considerado o padrão ouro nos modelos de estimativa de exposição a poluentes. A determinação de substâncias químicas fornecem estimativas diretas da concentração de exógenos ou dos seus metabólitos em: sangue, soro, urina,cabelo, dentina, hemoglobina, entre outros. E estimativas indiretas da concentração em tecidos e órgãos. A aplicação do biomonitoramento contínuo permite identificar as tendências e mudanças da exposição à substâncias químicas e poluentes em determinadas populações. Deste modo, poderão ser subsidiadas ações de vigilância cada vez mais efetivas, tendo em vista a possibilidade de identificação de prioridades quanto às substâncias frequentemente encontradas e quanto às características das populações submetidas a tais exposições. Este estudo tem como objetivos avaliar o nível da exposição humana à substâncias químicas de interesse à Saúde Pública, cádmio e chumbo, e a identificação das populações sob risco de exposição aumentada. Para tanto, foram analisados sangue e cabelo jovens do sexo masculino que se apresentaram para o serviço militar. Estes indivíduos representam um grupo diferenciado da população, quanto ao“status” de saúde: jovens de 18 anos, em geral, saudáveis. Além da distribuição geográfica dos postos de recrutamento possibilita à obtenção de uma amostra formada por indivíduos de vários locais do município do Rio de Janeiro. O valor de referência,para as matrizes sangue e cabelo, foi calculado através da metodologia proposta pelo IFCC, baseado no Percentil 95. Para chumbo sanguíneo o valor foi de 44,45 unidades de Micrograma por litro e, para cabelo 3,94 unidades de Grama em Micrograma. Já para o cádmio os valores foram de 0,62 unidades de Micrograma por litro e 0,16 unidades de Grama em Micrograma para sangue e cabelo respectivamente. Esses valores são compatíveis com outros estudos de biomonitoramento mundiais...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adolescent Health , Chemical Compound Exposure , Cadmium/toxicity , Lead/toxicity , Environmental Monitoring , Urban Population
15.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. 101 p. ilus, mapas, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782513

ABSTRACT

Esta pesquisa foi norteada pelo objetivo de determinar as concentrações dos níveis de cádmio (Cd) no solo e na água de consumo do município de Buriticupu-MA, comparando os teores de cádmio encontrado no solo e nas diferentes fontes de abastecimentos de água de consumo com os níveis estabelecidos pela legislação nacional e internacional. Buscou-se, também, analisar as concentrações de cádmio encontradas em áreas próximas à BR 222 e aos lixões da cidade. Foram coletadas 50 amostras de solo e 30 de água. As coletas ocorreram em março de 2015, sendo que os procedimentos de coleta do solo seguiram as recomendações protocoladas pela USEPA (1989 e 1991) e Byrnes (1994). As análises da água foram realizadas no Centro de Estudos da Saúde do Trabalhador e Ecologia Humana (CESTEH), da Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca (ENSP/Fiocruz), seguindo o protocolo já estabelecido pelo laboratório, que utilizou a espectrometria de absorção atômica eletrotérmica. Os procedimentos para a digestão de cádmio na água seguiram o método EPA 3020A. Os procedimentos para determinação de cádmio no solo, seguiram o método USEPA 3050B, da Agência de Proteção Ambiental dos EUA (USEPA, 1998a), no Laboratório de Solos da Universidade Estadual do Maranhão (UEMA), mediante espectrometria de emissão atômica com plasma acoplado indutivamente (ICP-OES). (...) Os resultados encontrados para os níveis de cádmio na água de consumo analisada, neste estudo, apresentaram níveis abaixo daqueles estabelecidos pela legislação nacional e internacional, não incorrendo, portanto, em riscos à saúde da população local. Contudo, para as concentrações de cádmio no solo, observou-se algumas áreas com a nítida perturbação antropogênica, sobretudo nas proximidades dos lixões...


The aim of this research was to determine the cadmium (Cd) levels in soil and drinking water in the city of Buriticupu located in the state of Maranhão, comparing the cadmium content found in the soil and different sources of water supply for consumption with levels established by national and international laws. This study also aimed to determine cadmium concentration in the surroundings areas of the Brazilian highway 222 and landfills of the cited city. Fifty soil samples and thirty of water were collected. The sampling occurred March of 2015, and the sampling procedures for soil followed recommendations of US EPA (1989 e 1991) and Byrnes (1994). The analysis of water was conducted in the Center for Studies on Workers’ Health and Human Ecology (CESTEH), from the National School of Public Health Sergio Arouca (ENSP/Fiocruz), following a protocol previously established by the laboratory, which used the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedures to digest cadmium in water followed the method EPA 3020A. The soil digestion followed the US EPA 3050B in the Soil Laboratory of the State University of Maranhão (UEMA), and cadmium was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). (...) A variation in cadmium levels was found between neighborhoods and within them as well as in the surroundings of the Brazilian highway 222 and landfills in the city. The results for cadmium levels in drinking water revealed levels below those set by national and international laws and shall not pose, therefore, a risk to the health of local people. However, related to cadmium concentrations in soil, there are some areas with distinct anthropogenic disturbance especially in the vicinity of landfills...


Subject(s)
Humans , Cadmium/analysis , Cadmium/toxicity , Drinking Water , Environmental Pollution , Soil , Environmental Biomarkers , Pollution Indicators , Water Pollution
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66456

ABSTRACT

Exposure to cadmium (Cd) induces apoptosis in osteoblasts (OBs); however, little information is available regarding the specific mechanisms of Cd-induced primary rat OB apoptosis. In this study, Cd reduced cell viability, damaged cell membranes and induced apoptosis in OBs. We observed decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potentials, ultrastructure collapse, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and increased concentrations of cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 following Cd treatment. Cd also increased the phosphorylation of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in OBs. Pretreatment with the caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone, ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126), p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and JNK inhibitor (SP600125) abrogated Cd-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, Cd-treated OBs exhibited signs of oxidative stress protection, including increased antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase levels and decreased formation of reactive oxygen species. Taken together, the results of our study clarified that Cd has direct cytotoxic effects on OBs, which are mediated by caspase- and MAPK pathways in Cd-induced apoptosis of OBs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cadmium/toxicity , Caspases/metabolism , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
17.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 67(6): 913-919, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-732813

ABSTRACT

A qualidade de vida (QV) nos idosos é determinada em grande parte pelo seu estado funcional e condições de saúde. Com o objectivo de avaliar o nível de QV, os factores que a influenciam e identificar o grau de dependência dos idosos foi realizado um estudo observacional transversal do tipo exploratório-descritivo, englobando 93 idosos. Na recolha de dados utilizouse o índice de Barthel e MOS-SF 36. Na identificação dos níveis de dependência os resultados indicam-nos que 40,0% são independentes e 18,0% são dependentes mínimos, sendo 12,0% dependentes totais. No que diz respeito à QV 88,0% dos sujeitos refere uma pontuação inferior a 50,0%, em média reportam uma QV de 39±10,0%. Verificou-se que existe uma correlação positiva entre o grau de dependência e o índice de QV, sobretudo na componente física. Assim, importa promover um envelhecimento saudável procurando-se privilegiar a preservação da autonomia e capacidade funcional dos idosos.


The quality of life (QoL) in older adults is largely determined by their functional status and health conditions. With the purpose of investigate the QoL and the factors affecting it, and identify the degree of dependency of the elderly was carried out an observational cross-sectional exploratory and descriptive, involving 93 elderly. In collecting data we used the Barthel Index and MOS SF-36. In the identification of levels of dependency results indicate us that 40.0% are independent and 18.0% are dependents, minimum being 12.0% total-dependent. The results show us that, 88.0% of the subjects reported a score below 50.0% on average reported a QoL of 39±10.0%. Checking that are a positive correlation between the degree of dependence and the index of QoL, especially in the physical component. It is therefore important to promote healthy aging in an attempt to favor the preservation of autonomy and functional capacity of the elderly.


La calidad de vida (CV) en los adultos mayores es en gran parte determinado por su estado funcional y las condiciones de salud. Con el fin de evaluar el nivel de CV y los factores que influyen en ella y determinar el grado de dependencia de los ancianos se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional transversal, exploratorio y descriptivo, que involucró a 93 personas mayores. En la recopilación de datos se utilizó el Índice de Barthel y el MOS SF-36. En la identificación de los nivele de dependiencia los resultados nos indican que 40,0% son independientes, 18,0% são dependentes mínimos y 12,0% dependientes totales. En lo que respeicta a la CV, 88,0% de los sujetos reportaron una puntuación inferior a 50,0% en promedio reportó una CV de 39±10,0%. Tomando nota de que existe una correlación positiva entre el grado de dependencia y el índice de calidad de vida, especialmente en el componente físico. Por tanto, es importante promover un envejecimiento saludable, en un intento de favorecer la preservación de la autonomía y la capacidad funcional de los ancianos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cadmium/toxicity , Molybdenum/pharmacology , Body Weight/drug effects , Cadmium Chloride , Electrolytes/metabolism , Liver/analysis , Liver/drug effects , Metallothionein/metabolism , Rats, Inbred Strains
18.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-4, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals (gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper) to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. RESULTS: The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at 24.0 ± 0.5°C. Data of individual metal obtained from acute toxicity tests were determined using probit analysis method. The median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper for M. nipponense were estimated as 2.7742, 1.9626, 6.8938, 0.0539, and 0.0313 mg/L, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. nipponense with other species which exposed to these metals, it is obviously that the M. nipponense is more sensitive than that of various other aquatic animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimony/toxicity , Cadmium/toxicity , Copper/toxicity , Gallium/toxicity , Indium/toxicity , Palaemonidae/drug effects , Ecosystem , Fresh Water , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Water Pollution , Water Quality
19.
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences [AJVS]. 2014; 40: 29-42
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-160053

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate the possibility of cadmium [Cd] to induce oxidative stress and biochemical perturbations in Nile tilapia liver and gills and the role of Vitamin C [Vit. C] in alleviating its toxic effects. Nile tilapia fish were randomly divided into four groups of thirteen each, group one served as control without any treatment, group two exposed to Cd [5mg/liter water], group three supplemented with vitamin C [Vit.C] [500mg/kg diet], and group four exposed to Cd plus Vit. C. The exposure to Cd caused increase in Liver aminotransferases [AST and ALT], elevation in lipid peroxidation [LPO], activity of catalase [CAT] enzyme, and the activity of glutathione S-transferase [GST]. The urea and creatinine levels were not affected. However, reduction in the activity of glutathione peroxidase [GPx] was observed. An increase in reduced glutathione [GSH] content was also observed and in gills there were no significant changes in LPO, antioxidant enzymes activity and GSH level. Vit.C supplementation in Cd-induced oxidative stress of Nile tilapia maintained Liver AST and ALT near normal level and modulated LPO, CAT, GST, GPx and GSH level in liver. It is concluded that Vit.C scavenges reactive oxygen species and render a protective effect against Cd toxicity


Subject(s)
Animals , Cadmium/toxicity , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Biomarkers
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24552

ABSTRACT

Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known hepatotoxic environmental pollutant. We used rat hepatocytes as a model to study oxidative damage induced by Cd, effects on the antioxidant systems, and the role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in protecting cells against Cd toxicity. Hepatocytes were incubated for 12 and 24 h with Cd (2.5, 5, 10 microM). Results showed that Cd can induce cytotoxicity: 10 microM resulted in 36.2% mortality after 12 h and 47.8% after 24 h. Lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities increased. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation increased in Cd-treated hepatocytes along with malondialdehyde levels. Glutathione concentrations significantly decreased after treatment with Cd for 12 h but increased after 24 h of Cd exposure. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase activity significantly increased after treatment with Cd for 12 h but decreased after 24 h. superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased at 12 h and 24 h. glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities decreased, but not significantly. Rat hepatocytes incubated with NAC and Cd simultaneously had significantly increased viability and decreased Cd-induced ROS generation. Our results suggested that Cd induces ROS generation that leads to oxidative stress. Moreover, NAC protects rat hepatocytes from cytotoxicity associated with Cd.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine/metabolism , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Cadmium/toxicity , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
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