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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18891, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350242

ABSTRACT

In the present study, antidepressant-like activity of ethanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima was evaluated in Swiss young male albino mice. Stress was induced in mice by subjecting them to unpredictable mild stress for 21 successive days. Ethanol extract of the leaves (100, 200 and 400 mg/ kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered for 21 consecutive days to separate groups of unstressed and stressed mice. Ethanol extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) and fluoxetine significantly decreased immobility period of unstressed as well as stressed mice in tail suspension test (TST). However, the lowest dose (100 mg/kg) of the extract also significantly decreased immobility period of stressed mice in TST. The extract significantly restored reduced sucrose preference in stressed mice. There was no significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. Ethanol extract of the leaves significantly decreased plasma nitrite and corticosterone levels; brain MAO-A activity and MDA level; and increased brain reduced glutathione and catalase activity in unstressed as well as stressed mice as compared to their respective vehicle treated controls. Thus, ethanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima showed significant antidepressant-like activity in unstressed and stressed mice probably through inhibition of brain MAO-Aactivity, reduction of oxidative stress and plasma corticosterone levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Leaves/classification , Caesalpinia/adverse effects , Ethanol , Sucrose , Fluoxetine , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Dosage
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921677

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala in the Fabaceae family. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by chromatographies with silica gel, RP-C_(18), Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC, and their structures were determined based on the spectroscopic data and physicochemical properties, as well as relevant references. Three pairs of new dibenzoxocin derivatives were isolated from 70% ethanol extract of C. decapetala and identified as protosappanoside A(1 a), isoprotosappanoside A(1 b), protosappanoside B(2 a), isoprotosappanoside B(2 b), protosappanoside C(3 a), and isoprotosappanoside C(3 b), respectively.


Subject(s)
Caesalpinia , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Ethanol , Molecular Structure , Plant Extracts
3.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0942017, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-998421

ABSTRACT

Bemisia tabaci has been known in Brazil since 1923, in cotton, soybean, tomato and bean crops, and it leads to economic losses due to the transmission of different viruses. Studies focused on analyzing the incidence of this pest in forest environments remain scarce in the literature. Thus, the aims of the current study were to investigate the incidence of B. tabaci in four Atlantic forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, as well as to record its hosts in these environments. An area of approximately one hectare was delimited for each Atlantic forest fragment based on images provided by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Plants presenting whiteflies were tagged throughout monthly inspections conducted in each forest fragment in order to be checked during the following visits. Collection criteria were adopted to assure sampling standardization in each fragment. The mean number of whiteflies was analyzed through the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test, which was followed by Dunn's post-hoc test, both at 5% significance level. The total of 216 collections were conducted and 1,126 B. tabaci fourth-instar nymphs were collected in four Atlantic forest fragments over 24 months. The following hosts were recorded for the first time: Caesalpinia pluviosa Benth, Tradescantia zebrina Linn., Impatiens walleriana Linn., Cupania sp. and Talisia esculenta Klotzsch & O. Berg. The dry period (winter) enabled the increase of B. tabaci populations in the herein investigated forest fragments.(AU)


Bemisia tabaci é conhecida no Brasil desde 1923, relatada em cultivos de algodão, soja, tomate e feijoeiro, promovendo prejuízos econômicos por ser transmissora de viroses. São praticamente inexistentes os trabalhos que analisam sua ocorrência em ambiente florestal. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a ocorrência de B. tabaci em quatro fragmentos florestais de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, bem como registrar seus hospedeiros nesses ambientes. Em cada fragmento de Mata Atlântica foi demarcada uma área com cerca de um hectare, delimitada com o uso de imagens obtidas do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Ao longo das inspeções mensais nos fragmentos florestais, os vegetais que apresentavam moscas-brancas foram marcados e inspecionados a toda nova visita. Adotaram-se critérios de coleta para garantir padronização do esforço amostral em todos os fragmentos. A análise do número médio de moscas-brancas foi feita pelo teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis, com posterior aplicação do pós-teste de Dunn, ambos a 5% de significância. Foram realizadas 216 coletas e capturadas 1.126 ninfas de quarto instar de B. tabaci nos quatro fragmentos de Mata Atlântica ao longo dos 24 meses. Registraram-se, pela primeira vez, os hospedeiros: Caesalpinia pluviosa Benth, Tradescantia zebrina Linn., Impatiens walleriana Linn., Cupania sp. e Talisia esculenta Klotzsch & O. Berg. O período seco (inverno) promove estímulos para o aumento da população de B. tabaci em fragmentos florestais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Forests , Hemiptera , Impatiens , Caesalpinia , Tradescantia
4.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0672017, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1007013

ABSTRACT

Studies that analyze the occurrence of whiteflies in forest environments are virtually non-existent, which is not justifiable given the ecological and agronomic importance of this insect group. The study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Aleyrodidae collected from May/2013 to May/2014 in three Atlantic forest fragments in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Of all, 1,212 puparia were collected, and five genera and seven species of whiteflies occurring in nine hosts were identified. Aleuropleurocelus cecropiae was the only aleyrodid registered simultaneously occurring in Cecropia hololeuca in the three environments, with lower records in the two fragments considered as less anthropized. For the first time, Aleurothrixus floccosus was registered on Handroanthus ochraceus and Mangifera indica. In addition, it was observed the first register of Bemisia tabaci on Commelina benghalensis and Caesalpinia pluviosa. Minutaleyrodes minuta on Syzygium cumini was also the register of a new occurrence.(AU)


São praticamente inexistentes os trabalhos que analisam a ocorrência de moscas-brancas em ambientes florestais, o que não é justificável, em vista da importância ecológica e agronômica desse grupo de insetos. Objetivou-se avaliar a ocorrência de Aleyrodidae em três fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, no período entre maio/2013 e maio/2014. Propõe-se chave taxonômica para cinco gêneros. Coletaram-se 1.212 pupários e identificaram-se cinco gêneros e sete espécies de moscas-brancas ocorrendo em nove hospedeiros. Aleuropleurocelus cecropiae foi o único aleirodídeo registrado simultaneamente, ocorrendo em Cecropia hololeuca, nos três ambientes avaliados, com registros inferiores nos dois fragmentos considerados menos antropizados. Ainda, registrou-se pela primeira vez Aleurothrixus floccosus em Handroanthus ochraceus e em Mangifera indica. Também se procedeu ao primeiro registro de Bemisia tabaci em Commelina benghalensis e Caesalpinia ­pluviosa. Minutaleyrodes minuta sobre Syzygium cumini é, igualmente, o registro de uma nova ocorrência.(AU)


Subject(s)
Forests , Cecropia Plant , Hemiptera , Tabebuia , Caesalpinia , Syzygium
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(7): 1259-1263, July 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976452

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to characterize the embryotoxic, teratogenic and abortifacient effect of Poincianella pyramidalis in goats. Twenty pregnant goats with 18 days of gestation were divided into five groups of four animals each. After collection, the leaves of P. pyramidalis were dried in the shade and crushed. The daily feed provided to the goats was equivalent to 3% of their body weight, being 1% concentrated feed and 2% roughage. In Group 1 (control), the provided roughage was Cynodon dactylon (Tifton) hay; in Groups 2, 3 and 4, 10%, 20% and 80% of the C. dactylon roughage was replaced by dry and ground P. pyramidalis, respectively. In Group 5, all the roughage was replaced by green P. pyramidalis ad libitum, collected daily. Ultrasonographic examination was performed twice a week throughout the pregnancy. Goats in Groups 1, 2 and 3, delivered normal kids. Two goats in Group 4 aborted at 127 and 90 days of gestation. In group 5, three goats showed embryonic death at 25, 30 and 31 days of gestation and the other goat aborted at 39 days of pregnancy. Malformations were not observed. It is suggested that P. pyramidalis, which is very common in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil, should be considered as an important cause of reproductive losses in this area. Due to its high palatability, it is important to avoid the ingestion of P. pyramidalis by pregnant and mating goats.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o potencial embriotóxico, abortivo e teratogênico da Poincianella pyramidalis em caprinos. Para tanto foram utilizadas 20 cabras prenhes com 18 dias de gestação, divididas em cinco grupos de quatro animais. Depois da coleta, as folhas de P. pyramidalis era secas a sombra e trituradas. A alimentação diária fornecida aos caprinos foi proporcional a 3% do seu peso vivo, sendo 1% de alimento concentrado e 2% de volumoso. No Grupo 1 (controle), o volumoso fornecido foi apenas feno de Cynodon dactylon (Tifton). Já nos Grupos 2, 3 e 4, 10%, 20% e 80% do volumoso foi substituído por folhas secas e trituradas de P. pyramidalis, respectivamente. No Grupo 5, todo o volumoso foi constituído por P. pyramidalis verde ad libitum, coletadas diariamente. Para o acompanhamento das gestações, exames ultrassonográficos foram realizados duas vezes por semana, durante toda a gestação. As cabras dos Grupos 1, 2 e 3 pariram cabritos normais. Duas cabras no Grupo 4 abortaram, sendo uma com 127 dias de gestação e outra com 90 dias. No grupo 5, três cabras apresentaram morte embrionária no 25º, 30º e 31º dia de gestação e uma cabra abortou no 39º dia de gestação. No presente estudo não foi observada nenhuma malformação. Com esses resultados e considerando a ampla difusão de P. pyramidalis na região semiárida do nordeste Brasileiro sugere-se que esta planta é uma importante causa de perdas reprodutivas na região. Devido a sua alta palatabilidade, recomenda-se evitar a permanência de cabras prenhes em áreas onde ocorre P. pyramidalis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Abortion, Induced/mortality , Caesalpinia/toxicity , Embryo, Mammalian , Plants, Toxic/embryology
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(6): 1051-1057, jun. 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955440

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos de folhas da espécie arbórea Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul.) L.P. Queiroz como causa espontânea de abortos, malformações e falhas reprodutivas em rebanhos caprinos no semiárido brasileiro. Foram realizadas investigações epidemiológicas, avaliações clínicas de caprinos acometidos por malformações e necropsias de fetos abortados em 12 propriedades localizadas nos municípios de Gurjão e Soledade, na Paraíba, e no município de Pau dos Ferros, Rio Grande do Norte. O estudo considerou apenas as propriedades que tinham basicamente a presença de P. pyramidalis entre as plantas teratogênicas. Na propriedade localizada no município de Pau dos Ferros foi verificada a ocorrência de grande número de abortos e o nascimento de cabritos malformados, acometendo 90% das cabras gestantes. Nas 12 propriedades pertencentes aos municípios de Gurjão e Soledade na Paraíba os casos espontâneos de mortalidade embrionária, abortos e malformações acometeram 257 cabras (41,1% das cabras dos rebanhos). A artrogripose foi a principal malformação congênita observada. Exames de necropsia e histopatológico de quatro fetos acompanhados das placentas não constataram a presença de agentes infecciosos. Os casos de perda embrionária, abortos e malformações foram concentrados predominantemente nas épocas do ano em que a pastagem estava escassa, mas havia disponibilidade de P. pyramidalis nas propriedades, devido à ocorrência das chuvas da pré-estação, que não permitiu a germinação de pasto, mas a rebrotação de P. pyramidalis. Os achados desse estudo comprovam que esta planta interfere consideravelmente na eficiência reprodutiva dos rebanhos caprinos do Semiárido.(AU)


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the leaves of the tree Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul.) L.P. Queiroz as a spontaneous cause of abortion, malformation and reproductive failure in goat herds in the Brazilian semiarid region. Epidemiological investigations, clinical evaluation of goats affected by malformation and necropsy of aborted fetuses was carried out on 12 farms located in the municipalities of Gurjão and Soledade, state of Paraíba, and on a farm located at the municipality of Pau dos Ferros, state of Rio Grande do Norte. The study considered only the farms where occurred predominantly P. pyramidalis among teratogenic plants. On the farm located in the municipality of Pau dos Ferros the occurrence of frequent abortion and birth of malformed goats, affecting 90% of pregnant goats, was observed. On the 12 farms belonging to the municipalities of Gurjão and Soledade, spontaneous cases of embryonic mortality, abortion and malformation occurred in 257 goats (41.1% of goats). Arthrogryposis was the main congenital malformation observed. Necropsy and histopathological exams of four fetuses and their placentas did not detect the presence of infectious agents. The cases of embryonic mortality, abortion and malformation were predominantly concentrated during the seasons of the year when pasture was scarce, but P. pyramidalis was available, due to the occurrence of pre-seasonal rains, which did not allow the pasture to germinate but P. pyramidalis to regrowth. The findings of this study confirm that this plant significantly interferes in the reproductive efficiency of semi-arid goat herds.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Reproduction , Ruminants/abnormalities , Ruminants/embryology , Caesalpinia/toxicity , Abortion, Veterinary/diagnosis
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(2): 102-110, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND In a screen of extracts from plants and fungi to detect antileishmanial activity, we found that the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Nectria pseudotrichia, isolated from the tree Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood), is a promising source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to isolate and determine the chemical structures of the compounds responsible for the antileishmanial activity of the organic extract from N. pseudotrichia. METHODS Compounds were isolated by chromatographic fractionation using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were determined by analytical and spectral data and by comparison with published data. The antileishmanial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis expressing firefly luciferase as reporter gene, and cytotoxicity was determined in Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines by MTT assay. FINDINGS Fractionation of the extract yielded seven compounds: 10-acetyl trichoderonic acid A (1), 6′-acetoxy-piliformic acid (2), 5′,6′-dehydropiliformic acid (3), piliformic acid (4), hydroheptelidic acid (5), xylaric acid D (6), and cytochalasin D (7). Compounds 1, 2 and 3 are reported here for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 were more active, with IC50 values of 21.4, 28.3, and 24.8 µM, respectively, and showed low toxicity to Vero and THP-1 cells. MAIN CONCLUSIONS N. pseudotrichia produces secondary metabolites that are more toxic to intracellular amastigote forms of L. (V.) braziliensis than to mammalian cells.


Subject(s)
Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Toxicity Tests , Caesalpinia/microbiology , Cell Survival , Chlorocebus aethiops , Inhibitory Concentration 50
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773622

ABSTRACT

Caesalpinia sappan L., belonging to the family Leguminosae, is a medicinal plant that is distributed in Southeast Asia. The dried heartwood of this plant is used as a traditional ingredient of food, red dyes, and folk medicines in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, tuberculosis, skin infections, and inflammation. Brazilin is the major active compound, which has exhibited various pharmacological effects, including anti-platelet activity, anti-hepatotoxicity, induction of immunological tolerance, and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes of C. sappan L. extract and its major compound, brazilin, in human epidermal keratinocytes exposed to UVA irradiation. Our results indicated that C. sappan L. extract reduced UVA-induced HO production via GPX7 activation. Moreover, brazilin exhibited antioxidant effects that were similar to those of C. sappan L. via glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPX7), suggesting that C. sappan L. extract and its natural compound represent potential treatments for oxidative stress-induced photoaging of skin.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Benzopyrans , Pharmacology , Caesalpinia , Chemistry , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Toxicity , Keratinocytes , Cell Biology , Radiation Effects , Oxidative Stress , Radiation Effects , Peroxidases , Genetics , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Ultraviolet Rays
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812412

ABSTRACT

Caesalpinia sappan L., belonging to the family Leguminosae, is a medicinal plant that is distributed in Southeast Asia. The dried heartwood of this plant is used as a traditional ingredient of food, red dyes, and folk medicines in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, tuberculosis, skin infections, and inflammation. Brazilin is the major active compound, which has exhibited various pharmacological effects, including anti-platelet activity, anti-hepatotoxicity, induction of immunological tolerance, and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes of C. sappan L. extract and its major compound, brazilin, in human epidermal keratinocytes exposed to UVA irradiation. Our results indicated that C. sappan L. extract reduced UVA-induced HO production via GPX7 activation. Moreover, brazilin exhibited antioxidant effects that were similar to those of C. sappan L. via glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPX7), suggesting that C. sappan L. extract and its natural compound represent potential treatments for oxidative stress-induced photoaging of skin.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Benzopyrans , Pharmacology , Caesalpinia , Chemistry , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Toxicity , Keratinocytes , Cell Biology , Radiation Effects , Oxidative Stress , Radiation Effects , Peroxidases , Genetics , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Ultraviolet Rays
10.
Bogotá; s.n; 2018. 57 p. graf.
Thesis in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-911726

ABSTRACT

Las leucemias agudas tanto mieloides como linfoides, pueden tener diversas alteraciones metabólicas como la producción de radicales libres de oxígeno (ROS) y genéticas que impactan en la biología, agresividad, resistencia y persistencia tumoral. Actualmente el tratamiento de elección para las leucemias se fundamenta principalmente en la quimioterapia con el uso de múltiples drogas dirigidas contra distintos blancos celulares, pero su eficacia se ve afectada por las propiedades biológicas intrínsecas de los tumores, las características del microambiente tumoral y en relación al tratamiento con la alta toxicidad y por la generación de mecanismos de resistencia a las drogas por parte de las células tumorales. El grupo de Inmunobiología y Biología Celular de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana ha venido trabajando por más de 10 años con los extractos de las plantas Petiveria alliacea y Caesalpinia spinosa, como alternativa terapéutica prometedora contra el cáncer. Los extractos derivados de estas plantas que son usadas en la medicina tradicional, tienen propiedades anti-tumorales, inmunomoduladoras y pueden tener un efecto sobre los ROS en las células tumorales, incluyendo células de origen leucémico. Estos antecedentes son de gran relevancia puesto que las células leucémicas pueden ser resistentes a los tratamientos convencionales y esta resistencia puede estar o no relacionada con la producción de ROS. En el presente trabajo experimental evaluó la relación existente entre la producción de ROS intracelular y la respuesta in vitro, al tratamiento con Doxorrubicina y con los extractos de Petiveria alliacea y Caesalpinia spinosa, utilizando las líneas celulares K562 y U937.


Subject(s)
Caesalpinia , Doxorubicin , Petiveria tetrandra , Plants, Medicinal , Colombia , In Vitro Techniques , Medicine, Traditional
11.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1189-1203, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886706

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Currently, there is a lack of studies on the correct utilization of continuous distributions for dry tropical forests. Therefore, this work aims to investigate the diameter structure of a brazilian tropical dry forest and to select suitable continuous distributions by means of statistic tools for the stand and the main species. Two subsets were randomly selected from 40 plots. Diameter at base height was obtained. The following functions were tested: log-normal; gamma; Weibull 2P and Burr. The best fits were selected by Akaike's information validation criterion. Overall, the diameter distribution of the dry tropical forest was better described by negative exponential curves and positive skewness. The forest studied showed diameter distributions with decreasing probability for larger trees. This behavior was observed for both the main species and the stand. The generalization of the function fitted for the main species show that the development of individual models is needed. The Burr function showed good flexibility to describe the diameter structure of the stand and the behavior of Mimosa ophthalmocentra and Bauhinia cheilantha species. For Poincianella bracteosa, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Myracrodum urundeuva better fitting was obtained with the log-normal function.


Subject(s)
Trees/growth & development , Tropical Climate , Forests , Plant Dispersal/physiology , Reference Values , Trees/classification , Brazil , Statistics, Nonparametric , Anacardiaceae/growth & development , Aspidosperma/growth & development , Caesalpinia/growth & development , Bauhinia/growth & development , Mimosa/growth & development , Biodiversity , Geographic Mapping
12.
Huánuco; s.n; 2017. 81 p. ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-912235

ABSTRACT

La tara es una planta oriunda del Perú, la cual es más usada en la industria paletera o en la producción de goma de tara. Esta planta tiene amplia utilización empírica, por sus propiedades curativas, en: infecciones bronquiales, como antiinflamatorio, casos de sinusitis; infecciones vaginales y micóticas, heridas crónicas y piezas dentales con caries dental. Tiene escasos estudios científicos que lo comprueben. Por lo tanto el uso empírico de la tara en el tratamiento de amigdalitis nos permite deducir que esta planta tiene efecto antiinflamatorio. Teniendo en cuenta que nuestra población necesita alternativas de costo reducido y alto beneficio para el tratamiento de lesiones que lo haría accesible a las clases más populares. Se ha realizado una investigación dirigida a comprobar la efectividad antiinflamatoria de la tara. En concordancia con lo mencionado anteriormente, este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la existencia del efectividad antiinflamatoria del extracto etanólico de la Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" sobre gingivitis crónica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Plants, Medicinal , Caesalpinia , Gingivitis/therapy , Peru , Plant Extracts , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 341-351, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781398

ABSTRACT

Abstract The semiarid region of northeastern Brazil, the Caatinga, is extremely important due to its biodiversity and endemism. Measurements of plant physiology are crucial to the calibration of Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) that are currently used to simulate the responses of vegetation in face of global changes. In a field work realized in an area of preserved Caatinga forest located in Petrolina, Pernambuco, measurements of carbon assimilation (in response to light and CO2) were performed on 11 individuals of Poincianella microphylla, a native species that is abundant in this region. These data were used to calibrate the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vcmax) used in the INLAND model. The calibration techniques used were Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), and data mining techniques as the Classification And Regression Tree (CART) and K-MEANS. The results were compared to the UNCALIBRATED model. It was found that simulated Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) reached 72% of observed GPP when using the calibrated Vcmax values, whereas the UNCALIBRATED approach accounted for 42% of observed GPP. Thus, this work shows the benefits of calibrating DGVMs using field ecophysiological measurements, especially in areas where field data is scarce or non-existent, such as in the Caatinga.


Resumo A região semiárida do nordeste do Brasil, a Caatinga, é extremamente importante devido à sua biodiversidade e endemismo. Medidas de fisiologia vegetal são cruciais para a calibração de Modelos de Vegetação Globais Dinâmicos (DGVMs) que são atualmente usados para simular as respostas da vegetação diante das mudanças globais. Em um trabalho de campo realizado em uma área de floresta preservada na Caatinga localizada em Petrolina, Pernambuco, medidas de assimilação de carbono (em resposta à luz e ao CO2) foram realizadas em 11 indivíduos de Poincianella microphylla, uma espécie nativa que é abundante nesta região. Estes dados foram utilizados para calibrar a velocidade máxima de carboxilação (Vcmax) usada no modelo INLAND. As técnicas de calibração utilizadas foram Regressão Linear Múltipla (MLR) e técnicas de mineração de dados como Classification And Regression Tree (CART) e K-MEANS. Os resultados foram comparados com o modelo INLAND não calibrado. Verificou-se que a Produtividade Primária Bruta (PPB) simulada atingiu 72% da PPB observada ao usar os valores de Vcmax calibrado, enquanto que o modelo não calibrado obteve-se 42% da PPB observada. Assim, este trabalho mostra os benefícios de calibrar DGVMs usando medidas ecofisiológicas de campo, especialmente em áreas onde os dados de campo são escassos ou inexistentes, como na Caatinga.


Subject(s)
Trees/classification , Forests , Caesalpinia/growth & development , Caesalpinia/physiology , Brazil , Calibration , Linear Models , Biodiversity , Ecological and Environmental Phenomena , Global Warming , Data Mining/methods , Models, Biological
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812612

ABSTRACT

Brazilein is an active small molecular compound extracted from Caesalpinia sappan L. with favorable pharmacological properties on immune system, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. C. sappan has been used as a traditional medicine in China for hundreds of years for various diseases. However, the general reproductive toxicity of brazilein is still unknown. The purpose of the present study was to thoroughly evaluate the general reproductive toxicity of brazilein in ICR mice to support the future drug development and modernization of this potent traditional Chinese medicine. The results showed that, although no apparent toxicity on the reproducibility of the male was observed, brazilein might cause considerable risks to the fetuses and females as indicated by the ratios of dead fetuses and reabsorptions. In conclusion, our results from the present study provided some useful insights about the safety profile of brazilein, suggesting that brazilein should be used with caution in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzopyrans , Toxicity , Caesalpinia , Toxicity , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Toxicity , Female , Indenes , Toxicity , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Pregnancy , Reproduction
15.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 52(1): 34-40, abr. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-786782

ABSTRACT

Libidibia ferrea é uma planta muito utilizada popularmente para fins terapêuticos, inclusive para acelerar processos de cicatrização de feridas cutâneas. O presente trabalho pesquisou a composição química e avaliou o potencial cicatrizante do extrato etanólico dos frutos de L. ferrea (Mart. ex Tul.) em ratos. Foram utilizados 24 ratos Wistar divididos em quatro grupos. De todos os animais, foi retirado um fragmento de pele do dorso e cada grupo recebeu um tratamento diferente: solução de NaCl 0,9%, digliconato de clorexidina 1%, extrato etanólico dos frutos de Libidibia ferrea 12,5% e 50%. O processo de cicatrização foi avaliado macro e microscopicamente. Para a cicatrização de pele em ratos o extrato etanólico dos frutos de L. ferrea a 12,5% é significativamente mais eficiente do que a 50%. Saponinas, ácidos orgânicos, açúcares redutores, fenóis e taninos, sesquiterpenolactonas e outras lactonas, e antraquinonas foram encontrados no extrato.


Libidibia ferrea is a plant popularly used for therapeutic purposes, including processes to accelerate wound healing. The present investigation analyzed the chemical composition and the healing potential of ethanolic extract of the fruits of L. ferrea (Mart. ex Tul.) in rats. This study used 24 Wistar rats divided into four groups. In all animals a piece of skin on the back was removed and each group received a different treatment: NaCl 0.9%, Chlorhexidine digluconate 1%, ethanol extract of the fruits of Libidibia ferrea 12.5% and 50%. The healing process was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The ethanolic extract of the fruits of L. ferrea 12.5% was significantly more efficient than the 50% healing in rat skin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caesalpinia/chemistry , Wound Healing , Rats, Wistar/injuries , Regeneration , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy/veterinary
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 142-144, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741622

ABSTRACT

Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) (98.8%), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.8%), Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf) (0.3%) and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León) (0.1%). Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most frequently trapped species. This is the first record of its remarkable ability to adapt to urban green areas. The three other species trapped represent new records of geographic distribution for the study region. These results indicate the need to establish measures for reducing both human contact with this vector and the risk of possible sites of infection.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Caesalpinia/chemistry , Food Preservatives/isolation & purification , Fruit/chemistry , Models, Chemical , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Emulsions , Ethanol/chemistry , Food Storage , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Food Preservatives/analysis , Food Preservatives/chemistry , Gallic Acid/analysis , Gallic Acid/chemistry , Gallic Acid/isolation & purification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oxidation-Reduction , Peru , Principal Component Analysis , Phenols/analysis , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Spain , Solvents/chemistry , Ultrasonics/methods , Water/chemistry
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330212

ABSTRACT

Fifteen cassaen-type diterpenes were isolated from the 95% ethanolic extract of the seeds of C. minax through various chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data as pulcherralpin (1), caesalpinin ML (2), chamaetexane C (3), chamaetexane D (4), 6β, 18-diacetoxycassan-13, 15-diene (5), neocaesalpin K (6), neocaesalpin MP (7), neocaesalpin M (8), neocaesalpin Q (9), neocaesalpin P (10), neocaesalpin R (11), caesaldekarin D (12), caesaldekarin A (13), caesaldekarin b (14), 3β,6α-diacetoxyvouacapane (15). Among them, compounds 14, 9-11 were isolated from this plant for the first time.


Subject(s)
Caesalpinia , Chemistry , Diterpenes , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure , Seeds , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
18.
Ayacucho; s.n; 2015. 46 p.
Thesis in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-916072

ABSTRACT

El presente trabajo de investigación se ejecutó en los Laboratorios de la Escuela Profesional de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Nacional de San Cristóbal de Huamanga, en el Centro de Desarrollo, Análisis y Control de Calidad de Medicamentos y Fito medicamentos y se realizó con el objetivo de desarrollar una formulación de una crema a base del extracto atomizado .de Caesalpinia spinosa Malina Kuntze "Tara". Las muestras fueron recolectadas del distrito de Luricocha, provincia de Huanta del departamento de Ayacucho. Se desarrolló tres formulaciones de crema a base de extracto atomizado al 3%. Se realizó estudios de pre-estabilidad y estudio de estabilidad a largo y corto plazo durante un mes, durante eil cual se evaluó sus características organolépticas y fisicoquímicas, así como el porcentaje de ácido tánico por el método de Folin Ciocalteau. El extracto atomizado tuvo un olor característico, sabor amargo, es de colorbeige claro y tiene un aspecto de polvo fino homogéneo. Es muy soluble en agua, con pH es iguala 3,5 ± 0,06; con una humedad de 9,7%; cenizas 3,2%; un rendimiento de 11 ,89% y con un porcentaje de taninos de 79,84 ± 0,06%. La crema al 3%, elegida para el estudio estabilidad presentó un aspecto homogéneo, de color beis claro, astringente y sabor dulce, pH de 6.0. Del estudio de pre-estabilidad, la fórmula no presentó variación de sus características organolépticas después de su exposición a temperatura ambiente y a la luz, se mantuvo estable hasta los 30 días, a la exposición de temperatura de 30°C y 50°C, al cabo de este tiempo se observa la liberación de un líquido pardo. El pH varió de 5.86 a 5.80. Del estudio de estabilidad, durante un mes, no hubo variación estadísticamente significativa de los parámetros organolépticos, fisicoquímicos, ni en los porcentajes de ácido tánico. Del control de calidad microbiológico, la crema es estable. Por lo cual concluimos que la crema al 3% tiene buenos atributos de estabilidad.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Caesalpinia , Peru , Phytochemicals
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(3): 623-631, 8/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723872

ABSTRACT

Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) is a tree species found in Brazilian tropical dry forests that retain their leaves during the dry season. That being, we addressed the following question: i) How do insect diversity (sap-sucking and chewing), leaf herbivory and defensive traits (tannin and leaf sclerophylly) vary on the evergreen tree species G. marginata between seasons? The abundance of sap-sucking insects was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, we did not verify any difference in the species richness and abundance of chewing insects between seasons. Leaf herbivory was higher in the rainy season, whereas leaf sclerophylly was higher in the dry season. However, herbivory was not related to sclerophylly. Insect herbivores likely decrease their folivory activity during the dry season due to life history patterns or changes in behaviour, possibly entering diapause or inactivity during this period. Therefore, G. marginata acts as a likely keystone species, serving as a moist refuge for the insect fauna during the dry season in tropical dry forest, and the presence of this evergreen species is crucial to conservation strategies of this threatened ecosystem.


Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) é uma árvore encontrada em florestas tropicais secas do Brasil que mantém as suas folhas durante a estação seca. Baseado neste fato, nós levantamos a seguinte questão: i) como a diversidade de insetos herbívoros (sugadores e mastigadores), herbivoria foliar e características defensivas (taninos e esclerofilia foliar) variam em G. marginata entre as estações seca e chuvosa. A abundância de insetos sugadores foi maior na estação seca, entretanto, a riqueza e abundância de insetos mastigadores não diferiram entre as estações. A herbivoria foliar foi maior na estação chuvosa, enquanto a esclerofilia foliar foi maior na estação seca. Não foi observado efeito significativo da esclerofilia sobre os níveis de herbivoria foliar. Insetos herbívoros reduzem a sua atividade de consumo foliar durante a estação seca, fato este devido à sua história natural e/ou mudança comportamental, provavelmente, entrando em diapausa durante este período. Nossos resultados demonstram que G. marginata atua como refúgio para fauna de insetos durante a estação seca, e que a presença desta espécie merece relevante destaque em estratégias de conservação deste ameaçado ecossistema.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caesalpinia/parasitology , Ecosystem , Herbivory/physiology , Insecta/physiology , Brazil , Caesalpinia/classification , Forests , Insecta/classification , Seasons
20.
An. Fac. Med. (Perú) ; 75(2): 177-180, abr. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-717347

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Comprobar la actividad antimicrobiana de tres biovariedades de tara frente a cepas de Staphylococcus aureus sensibles y resistentes a oxacilina. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, analítico. Institución: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Daniel A. Carrión, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Tres biovariedades de tara y cepas de Staphylococcus aureus. Intervenciones: Se evaluó 31 cepas de S. aureus oxacilina sensibles y 29 resistentes, aislados de muestras clínicas, frente a tres cocimientos de tara de las zonas de Huamanga, Huarochirí y Tarma. Se preparó el cocimiento de tara y se impregnó discos en blanco para utilizarlos como un antibiograma por disco difusión. Principales medidas de resultados: Diámetro de los halos de inhibición. Resultados: Los tres cocimientos presentaron actividad antimicrobiana frente a las cepas de Staphylococcus aureus; el cocimiento de Huamanga presentó mayor halo de inhibición frente a cepas sensibles y resistentes. El cocimiento de Huarochirí mostró mayor halo de inhibición en cepas oxacilino resistentes que sensibles; la diferencia fue significativa. El cocimiento de Huarochirí tuvo una actividad menor y fue significativa, frente a los cocimientos de Huamanga y Tarma. Conclusiones: El cocimiento de Huarochirí presentó menor actividad que los de Huamanga y de Tarma...


Objectives: To determine three taraÆs biovarieties antimicrobial activity against oxacillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Design: Descriptive, prospective, analytical study. Setting: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Daniel A. Carrion, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Biologic material: Three tara biovarieties and Staphylococcus aureus strains. Interventions: Thirty-one S. aureus oxacillin-sensitive strains and 29 oxacillin-resistant strains isolated from clinical samples were studied against three tara varieties obtained in Huamanga, Huarochiri and Tarma. TaraÆs poaching was prepared and blank discs were soaked in to use as antibiogram by disc difussion. Main outcome measures: Inhibition halos diameter. Results: All three poachings showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains; HuamangaÆs poaching displayed larger inhibition halo against sensitive and resistant strains. HuarichiriÆs poaching showed significant larger inhibition halo in oxacillin-resistant strains than in sensitive ones. HuarochiriÆs poaching had less significant activity as compared with Huamanga and Tarma poachings. Conclusions: HuarochiriÆs poaching exhibited less activity compared with those from Huamanga and Tarma...


Subject(s)
Humans , Caesalpinia/classification , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Oxacillin , Plant Preparations , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Staphylococcus aureus , Prospective Studies
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