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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(6): 804-808, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357131

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study aims to evaluate the influence of hormonal levels of vitamin D, calcitonin, testosterone, estradiol, and parathyroid in patients with fractures attributed to osteoporosis when compared with young patients with fractures resulting from high-impact accidents. Methods Blood samples were collected from 30 elderly patients with osteoporosisattributed fractures (T-score ≤-2.5) (osteoporotic group), and from 30 young patients with fractures resulting from high-impact accidents (control group). Measurement of 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D (Kit Diasorin, Saluggia, Italy), calcitonin (Kit Siemens, Tarrytown, NY, USA), testosterone, estradiol, and parathyroid hormone (Kit Beckman Couter, Indianapolis, IN, United States) was performed using a chemiluminescence technique. Data were inserted into a Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Armonk, WA, USA) spreadsheet and analyzed using Statview statistical software. Results showing non-normal distribution were analyzed with nonparametric methods. The Mann-Whitney test was applied for group comparison, and a Spearman test correlated hormonal levels. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. All analyzes compared gender and subjects with and without osteoporosis. Results Women with osteoporosis had significantly lower levels of estradiol and vitamin D (p = 0.047 and p = 0.0275, respectively). Men with osteoporosis presented significantly higher levels of parathyroid hormone (p = 0.0065). There was no significant difference in testosterone and calcitonin levels. Conclusion Osteoporosis patients presented gender-related hormonal differences. Women had significantly lower levels of estradiol and vitamin D, whereas men had significantly higher parathyroid hormone levels, apparently impacting the disease.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a influência dos níveis hormonais de vitamina D, calcitonina, testosterona, estradiol e paratormônio em pacientes com fratura atribuída a osteoporose, quando comparados com pacientes jovens que tiveram fraturas decorrentes de acidente de alto impacto. Métodos Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 30 pacientes idosos com fratura atribuída a osteoporose (T-score ≤-2,5) (grupo com osteoporose) e 30 amostras de sangue de pacientes jovens que sofreram fraturas decorrentes de acidentes de alto impacto (grupo controle). Foram realizadas dosagem de 1,25-hidroxivitamina D (Kit Diasorin, Saluggia, Italy), calcitonina (Kit Siemens, Tarrytown, NY, USA), testosterona, estradiol e paratormônio (Kit Beckman Couter, Indianapolis, IN, United States) pela técnica de quimiluminescência. Os dados foram inseridos em uma planilha de dados no programa Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, EUA) e analisados pelo programa de estatística Statview. Os resultados que apresentaram distribuição não normal foram analisados com métodos não paramétricos. Para análise de variáveis comparando-se os dois grupos, aplicou-se o teste Mann-Whitney. Foi utilizado o teste de correlação de Spearman para a correlacionar os níveis hormonais. Um valor-p >0.05 foi considerado significante. Todas as análises foram feitas comparando gênero e grupos de pacientes come sem osteoporose. Resultados Mulheres com osteoporose apresentam níveis significativamente menores de estradiol e vitamina D (p = 0.047 e p = 0.0275), respectivamente. Homens com osteoporose demonstraram níveis significativamente maiores de paratormônio (p = 0.0065). Não houve diferença significativa nos níveis de testosterona e calcitonina. Conclusão Existem diferenças hormonais entre os gêneros na osteoporose. Em mulheres, níveis significativamente menores de estradiol e vitamina D e, nos homens, níveis significativamente maiores de paratormônio, parecem influenciar na doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoporosis , Parathyroid Hormone , Vitamin D , Calcitonin , Control Groups , Estradiol , Fractures, Bone , Gender Identity , Hormones
2.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1127-1134, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921021

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of moxibustion at "Zusanli" (ST 36) on distal, middle and proximal colonic mucosal injury and expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC) mice at different time points.@*METHODS@#A total of 51 C57BL/6N mice were randomized into a 7-day control group (@*RESULTS@#Mucosal injury can be observed in mice after modeling, displaying epithelial layer disappearance, abnormal crypt structure or crypt disappearance. Compared with the 7-day control group, colon length was shortened (@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion at "Zusanli" (ST 36) can reduce the expressions of positive nerve fibers of colonic mucosa and CGRP positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa, thus, improve the colonic mucosal injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcitonin , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Intestinal Mucosa , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Moxibustion , Nerve Fibers
3.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 139-143, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880941

ABSTRACT

The rationale for the antibiotic treatment of viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults was analyzed to develop a clinical reference standard for this condition. Clinical data from 166 patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia across 14 hospitals in Beijing from November 2010 to December 2017 were collected. The indications for medications were evaluated, and the rationale for the use of antibiotics was analyzed. A total of 163 (98.3%) patients with viral pneumonia were treated with antibiotics. A combination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) was used as markers to analyze the possible indications for antibiotic use. With threshold levels set at 0.25 µg/L for PCT and 20 mg/L for CRP, the rate of unreasonable use of antibiotics was 55.2%. By contrast, at a CRP level threshold of 60 mg/L, the rate of antibiotic misuse was 77.3%. A total of 39 of the 163 (23.9%) patients did not meet the guidelines for drug selection for viral CAP in adults. The unreasonable use of antibacterial drugs for the treatment of viral CAP in adults is a serious concern. Clinicians must reduce the unnecessary use of antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Calcitonin , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Protein Precursors
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical value of expression level of interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the fever patients with hematological malignancies.@*METHODS@#A total of 121 inpatients in the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from April 2018 to October 2019 were enrolled in this study. The patients were separated into infection group (61 cases) and non-infection group (60 cases). In the meantime, 40 healthy people without fever or infection in the hospital for physical examination were set as matched group. C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and cytokines were detected in all the patients with fever after admission and infection control. While, blood samples were taken from healthy people during physical examination.@*RESULTS@#The expression levels of IL-2R in infection group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.001), and the level of serum IL-2R in infection group was also higher than that in the non-infection group (P<0.05). Based on Spearman analysis, in patients with malignant hematologic disease, serum IL-2R level was positively correlated with CRP (r=0.557, P<0.001) and IL-8 (r=0.479, P<0.001), and IL-8 level was positively correlated with CRP (r=0.318, P<0.001). Compared with the non-infection group, the area under the curve (AUC) for the level of CRP, PCT, and IL-2R of the infection group was 0.714 (95%CI: 0.623-0.806), 0.765 (95%CI: 0.680-0.851), and 0.761 (95%CI: 0.686-0.836), the sensitivity was 0.705, 0.852, and 0.705, and the specificity was 0.717, 0.70, and 0.60, respectively. While, AUC of CRP+PCT, CRP+IL-2R, PCT+IL-2R, and CRP+PCT+IL-2R was 0.789 (95%CI: 0.712-0.866), 0.702 (95%CI: 0.623-0.782), 0.757 (95%CI: 0.677-0.838), and 0.789 (95%CI: 0.712-0.866), the sensitivity was 0.738, 0.934, 0.705, and 0.738, and the specificity was 0.840, 0.470, 0.810, and 0.840, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#CRP, PCT, IL-2R, and IL-8 are useful parameters for diagnosis of the infectious fever in patients with hematological malignancies, which provides the basis of initial diagnosis and rational use of antibioties for clinician.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Calcitonin , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Interleukin-8 , Protein Precursors , Receptors, Interleukin-2 , Sepsis
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the analgesic effect of manipulation loading on chronic low back pain (CLBP) model rats and the expression of inflammatory factors in psoas major muscle tissue, and to explore the improvement of manipulation on local inflammatory microenvironment.@*METHODS@#Thirty two SPF male SD rats weighing 340-360g were randomly divided into blank group, sham operation group, chronic low back pain model group and treatment group, with 8 rats in each group. In the model group, L@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in PWT and PWL between the blank group and the sham operation group after modeling (@*CONCLUSION@#Local massage loading has analgesic effect on CLBP rats, at the same time, it can inhibit the content of CGRP and NGF in psoas muscle tissue of CLBP rats, and improve the local inflammatory microenvironment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcitonin , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Low Back Pain/therapy , Male , Nerve Growth Factor/genetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
6.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 399-406, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827048

ABSTRACT

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide coded by the calcitonin gene and divided into α and β subtypes. CGRP is widely distributed throughout the human body and highly expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system. Studies have shown that CGRP plays a role in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological activities, such as the formation and transmission of nociceptive signal, as well as the regulation of cardiovascular function. Recently, more and more researches have shown that CGRP is involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, cognitive function and learning memory in the central nervous system. This paper reviews the role of CGRP in regulation of synaptic plasticity and process of emotional memory, hoping to provide a new molecular target and theoretical basis for clinical treatment of neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Calcitonin , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Central Nervous System , Humans , Memory , Neuronal Plasticity
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826363

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of ()infection on autonomic nervous function and calcitonin gene-related peptide in patients with functional dyspepsia(FD). Thirty-one patients with FD matching Rome Ⅳ criteria were included and divided into -positive group and -negative group.All patients were evaluated by Symptom Index of Dyspepsia(SID),Nepean Dyspepsia Index(NDI),and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale(HADS).Their heart rate variability(HRV)and calcitonin gene-related peptide(CGRP)level were also measured. There were no significant differences in SID(=-0.858, =0.858),NDI(=-1.464, =0.143),and Hospital Depression Scale score(=0.699, =0.485).However,the Hospital Anxiety Scale score was significantly higher in -positive group than the -negative group(=-2.470, =0.014).The level of CGRP in -positive group[(0.999±0.274)ng/ml]was significantly higher than that in the -negative group[(0.812±0.172)ng/ml;=2.238, =0.033].HRV data showed no significant difference between these two groups at very low frequency(=-1.210, =0.236),low frequency(LF)(=0.419, =0.678),high frequency(HF)(=0.612, =0.546),LF/HF(=-0.882, =0.399),and total power(=-0.963, =0.344). In FD patients,patients with -positive FD patients have higher depression and CGRP levels than those without infection,although their dyspepsia symptoms and HRV show no notable changes.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Calcitonin , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Dyspepsia , Helicobacter Infections , Helicobacter pylori , Humans
8.
Clinics ; 75: e1448, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055884

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the serum levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and the prognosis of pediatric patients with severe pneumonia. METHODS: Children diagnosed with severe pneumonia (n=76) were stratified into the survival (n=58) and non-survival groups (n=18) according to their 28-day survival status and into the non-risk (n=51), risk (n=17) and high-risk (n=8) categories based on the pediatric critical illness score (PCIS). Demographic data and laboratory results were collected. Serum CGRP levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to determine the cutoff score for high CGRP levels. RESULTS: Serum CGRP levels were significantly higher in the survival group than in the non-survival group and were significantly higher in the non-risk group than in the risk and high-risk groups. The ROC curve for the prognostic potential of CGRP yielded a significant area under the curve (AUC) value with considerable sensitivity and specificity. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that CGRP downregulation might be a diagnostic marker that predicts the prognosis and survival of children with severe pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Pneumonia/blood , Protein Precursors/blood , Vasodilator Agents/metabolism , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/genetics , Pneumonia/mortality , Prognosis , Calcitonin , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/metabolism , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/blood , Survival Analysis , ROC Curve , Critical Illness
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 594-604, nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057482

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Calcitonin is a polypeptide hormone regulating the metabolism of calcium in the body. For many years calcitonin has been used to maintain and improve bone mineral density and to reduce the fracture rate. Many studies showed that calcitonin had analgesic role in several painful circumstances. This pain-ameliorating effect is irrelevant to its osteoclastic inhibitory effect and mechanisms like altering Na+ channel and serotonin receptor expression or hypothesis including the endorphin-mediated mechanism were used to explain this effect. In this study we performed a thorough review on the role of calcitonin as an analgesic agent in different scenarios and investigated the fact that calcitonin can be a feasible medication to relieve pain. Method: Many studies focused on the analgesic effect of calcitonin in several painful circumstances, including acute pains related to vertebral fractures, metastasis, migraine and reflex sympathetic dystrophy as well as neuropathic pains related to spinal injuries or diabetes, and phantom pain. Also, calcitonin was showed to be a useful additive to local anesthesia in the case of controlling postoperative pain or trigeminal neuralgia more effectively. However we faced some contradictory data for conditions like lumbar canal stenosis, complex regional pain syndrome, phantom pain and malignancies. Conclusion: This study showed that calcitonin could be helpful analgesic agent in different painful situations. Calcitonin can be considered an eligible treatment for acute pains related to vertebral fractures and a feasible alternative for the treatment of the acute and chronic neuropathic pains where other medications might fail.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: A calcitonina é um hormônio polipeptídico que regula o metabolismo do cálcio no organismo. Por muitos anos a calcitonina tem sido usada para manter e melhorar a densidade mineral óssea e reduzir a incidência de fraturas. Muitos estudos mostraram que a calcitonina teve efeito analgésico em várias condições físicas de dor. Esse efeito de melhoria da dor é irrelevante diante de seu efeito inibidor osteoclástico e de mecanismos, tais como a alteração do canal de Na+ e da expressão do receptor de serotonina, inclusive a hipótese do mecanismo mediado pela endorfina, que foram usados para explicar esse efeito. Neste estudo, fizemos uma revisão completa sobre o papel da calcitonina como agente analgésico em diferentes cenários e investigamos o fato de que a calcitonina pode ser uma medicação viável para aliviar a dor. Método: Muitos estudos centraram no efeito analgésico da calcitonina em várias condições de dor, inclusive dores agudas relacionadas a fraturas vertebrais, metástases, enxaqueca e distrofia simpática reflexa, bem como dores neuropáticas relacionadas a lesões medulares ou ao diabetes e dor fantasma. Além disso, a calcitonina mostrou ser um aditivo útil à anestesia local para o controle mais efecaz da dor pós-operatória ou neuralgia do trigêmeo. Porém, nos deparamos com alguns dados contraditórios em condições como estenose do canal lombar, síndrome complexa da dor regional, dor fantasma e malignidades. Conclusão: Este estudo mostrou que a calcitonina pode ser um analgésico útil em diferentes condições de dor. A calcitonina pode ser considerada um tratamento elegível para as dores agudas relacionadas a fraturas vertebrais e uma opção viável para o tratamento das dores neuropáticas agudas e crônicas em que outros medicamentos podem falhar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Calcitonin/therapeutic use , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Calcitonin/pharmacology , Acute Pain/etiology , Acute Pain/physiopathology , Acute Pain/drug therapy , Chronic Pain/etiology , Chronic Pain/physiopathology , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics/pharmacology , Neuralgia/etiology , Neuralgia/physiopathology , Neuralgia/drug therapy
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(4): 271-275, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040520

ABSTRACT

Existe mucha controversia sobre los beneficios de la medición de la calcitonina sérica (CT) durante la evaluación inicial de pacientes con nódulos tiroideos. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la identificación temprana del carcinoma medular de tiroides (CMT) a través de la medición rutinaria de CT sérica en una cohorte de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se estudiaron consecutivamente a los pacientes con enfermedad nodular de la tiroides (n=1017). La CT se midió por quimioluminiscencia (valor normal: hasta 18 pg/ml en hombres y 12 pg/ml en mujeres). En dos pacientes, la hipercalcitoninemia se confirmó en mediciones repetidas. La aspiración con aguja fina con medición de CT en el líquido obtenido identificó la presencia del CMT. El estudio genético fue positivo en uno (mutación exón 14, Val804Met, CMT familiar). El otro presentó un polimorfismo (heterocigoto exón 13 L769L - heterocigoto exón 15 S904S). En ambos casos, la CT se normalizó 3 meses después de la cirugía y se mantuvo en valores normales después de 6 años de seguimiento. La medición rutinaria de la CT en nódulos tiroideos fue útil para detectar dos casos de CMT, uno de ellos esporádico y el otro familiar en la cohorte seguida. La prevalencia de CMT fue de 0.2%.


There is much controversy about the benefits of the use of serum calcitonin (CT) in the initial evaluation of patients with thyroid nodules. The objective of the study was to early identify medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) through the routine measurement of CT in thyroid nodular pathology in a large cohort of patients from Buenos Aires, Argentina. Consecutive patients with nodular thyroid disease (n=1017) were studied. CT was measured by chemiluminescence, normal value: up to 18 pg/ml in men and 12 pg/ml in women. In two patients, hypercalcitoninemia was confirmed in repeated measurements. Fine needle aspiration with CT measurement in the needle wash fluid identified MTC in nodules with citology abnormalities. The genetic study was positive in one patient (mutation exon 14, Val804Met, MTC familiar). The other presented a polymorphism (exon 13 L769L heterozygous - exon 15 S904S heterozygous). In both cases, CT was normalized 3 months after surgery and remained normal after 6 years of follow-up. The routine measurement of CT in thyroid nodular pathology was useful to detect two cases of MTC, one of them sporadic and the other familiar in this cohort. The prevalence of MTC was 0.2%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Calcitonin/blood , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/blood , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/blood , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/pathology , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/blood , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Early Diagnosis , Luminescence
11.
Infectio ; 23(2): 133-142, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-989944

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La procalcitonina (PCT) es una prohormona de la calcitonina, producida por las células C de la glándula tiroides y convertida intracelularmente por enzimas proteolíticas en la hormona activa. La producción de PCT durante procesos inflamatorios, está ligada a endotoxinas bacterianas y a citoquinas inflamatorias. La mortalidad por sepsis, depende en gran medida de la detección precoz y del inicio de una terapia adecuada, incluyendo la administración de antibióticos apropiados, sin embargo, no está claro si el rendimiento diagnóstico de la PCT en el contexto de la nueva definición de sepsis en el tercer consenso es igual que con la definición previa. Métodos: Se incluyeron estudios que describieran el uso de PCT dentro de las primeras 24 horas de admisión, como prueba diagnóstica de sepsis. Se realizó la búsqueda en las bases de datos de Medline (Pubmed) y Embase. La calidad metodológica se evaluó según la Colaboración Cochrane en el desarrollo de Revisiones Sistemáticas sobre Test de Análisis para la herramienta QUADAS-II. El sesgo de publicación fue estudiado con el Test de Asimetría de Deeks. Se usó el módulo de MIDAS de STATA 14 para el análisis univariado y la construcción de la Curva de ROC. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 2076 registros (783 de Medline y 1293 de Embase). De los 12 estudios seleccionados, se incluyeron un total de 1353 pacientes, con una prevalencia en los estudios revisados entre el 9% y 88%, con un promedio del 47%. La Sensibilidad agrupada fue 0,83% (IC95% (0,74-0,89)) y la Especificidad fue 0,84% (IC95%(0,76-0,89)). El área bajo la Curva fue 0,90 (IC95%(0,87-0,92)). La heterogeneidad entre los estudios es importante I2 88% (IC95%(77-100)). Existe un sesgo de publicación según el test de Deek, con resultado P=0,04. En el análisis sobre la Probabilidad Post test según el nomograma de Fagan, es del 56%, teniendo en cuenta una probabilidad pretest del 20% según el LR positivo 5. Conclusión: La PCT es una prueba diagnóstica con buen rendimiento para sepsis o shock séptico, en pacientes adultos, no gestantes. Aunque hay sesgo de publicación y una gran heterogeneidad en los resultados, la prueba se considera adecuada para el escenario de sepsis según las nuevas definiciones.


Abstract Background: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a prohormone of calcitonin, produced by cells C of the thyroid gland and intracellurarly cleaved by proteolytic enzymes into the active hormone. The production of PCT during inflammatory process, is linked with a bacterial endotoxin and with inflammatory cytokines. Mortality due to sepsis, depends to a large extent on a early detection and early start of adecuade therapy, that includes giving appropriate antibiotics. It´s no clear if the PTC diagnostic performance is the same in the context of the definition of the third consensus as in the previous definition. Methods: Studies describing the use of PCT within the frst 24 hours of admission as a diagnostic test for sepsis were included. We searched the Medline (Pubmed) and Embase databases. The methodological quality was evaluated according to the Cochrane Collaboration in the development of Systematic Reviews on Analysis Test for the QUADAS-II tool. The publication bias was studied with the Deeks Asymmetry Test. The MIDAS module of STATA 14 was used for the univariate analysis and the construction of the ROC Curve. Results: 2076 records were obtained (783 from Medline and 1293 from Embase). Of the 12 selected studies, a total of 1353 patients were included, with a prevalence in the studies reviewed between 9% and 88%, with an average of 47%. The pooled sensitivity was 0.83% (CI 95% (0.74-0.89)) and the Specificity was 0.84% (CI 95% (0.76-0.89)). The area under the Curve was 0.90 (CI 95% (0.87-0.92)). Heterogeneity between the studies is important I2 88% (CI 95%(77-100)). There is a publication bias according to the Deek test, with a result of P = 0.04. In the analysis on the post test Probability according to the Fagan nomogram, it is 56%, taking into account a pretest probability of 20% according to the positive LR 5. Conclusions: PCT is a diagnostic test with good performance for sepsis or septic shock, in adult patients, not pregnant. Although there is publication bias and great heterogeneity in the results, the test is considered adequate for the sepsis setting according to the new definitions.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adult , Shock, Septic , Sepsis , Procalcitonin , Peptide Hydrolases , Thyroid Gland , Calcitonin , Cytokines , Nomograms , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Endotoxins , Hormones , Anti-Bacterial Agents
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(2): 137-141, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001220

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Because serum calcitonin (CT) is a reliable marker of the presence, volume, and extent of disease in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), both the ATA and NCCN guidelines use the 2-3 month post-operative CT value as the primary response to therapy variable that determines the type and intensity of follow up evaluations. We hypothesized that the calcitonin would nadir to undetectable levels within 1 month of a curative surgical procedure. Subjects and methods: This retrospective review identified 105 patients with hereditary and sporadic MTC who had at least two serial basal CT measurements done in the first three months after primary surgery. Results: When evaluated one year after initial surgery, 42 patients (42/105, 40%) achieved an undetectable basal calcitonin level without additional therapies and 56 patients (56/84, 67%) demonstrated a CEA within the normal reference range. In patients destined to have an undetectable CT as the best response to initial therapy, the calcitonin was undetectable by 1 month after surgery in 97% (41/42 patients). Similarly, in patients destined to have a normalize their CEA, the CEA was within the reference range by 1 month post-operatively in 63% and by 6 months in 98%. By 6 months after curative initial surgery, 100% of patients had achieved a nadir undetectable calcitonin, 98% had reached the CEA nadir, and 97% had achieved normalization of both the calcitonin and CEA. Conclusion: The 1 month CT value is a reliable marker of response to therapy that allows earlier risk stratification than the currently recommended 2-3 month CT measurement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Calcitonin/blood , Thyroid Neoplasms/blood , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/blood , Postoperative Period , Thyroidectomy , Time Factors , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/surgery
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish the efficacy and safety of procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic discontinuation in critically ill patients with sepsis in a country with a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and a national health insurance system. METHODS: In a multi-center randomized controlled trial, patients were randomly assigned to a PCT group (stopping antibiotics based on a predefined cut-off range of PCT) or a control group. The primary end-point was antibiotic duration. We also performed a cost-minimization analysis of PCT-guided antibiotic discontinuation. RESULTS: The two groups (23 in the PCT group and 29 in the control group) had similar demographic and clinical characteristics except for need for renal replacement therapy on ICU admission (46% vs. 14%; P = 0.010). In the per-protocol analysis, the median duration of antibiotic treatment for sepsis was 4 days shorter in the PCT group than the control group (8 days; interquartile range [IQR], 6–10 days vs. 14 days; IQR, 12–21 days; P = 0.001). However, main secondary outcomes, such as clinical cure, 28-day mortality, hospital mortality, and ICU and hospital stays were not different between the two groups. In cost evaluation, PCT-guided therapy decreased antibiotic costs by USD 30 (USD 241 in the PCT group vs. USD 270 in the control group). The results of the intention-to-treat analysis were similar to those obtained for the per-protocol analysis. CONCLUSION: PCT-guided antibiotic discontinuation in critically ill patients with sepsis could reduce the duration of antibiotic use and its costs with no apparent adverse outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02202941


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biomarkers , Calcitonin , Costs and Cost Analysis , Critical Illness , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Mortality , National Health Programs , Prevalence , Renal Replacement Therapy , Sepsis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719654

ABSTRACT

Thyroid disorders are common, affecting more than 10% of people in the US, and laboratory tests are integral in the management of these conditions. The repertoire of thyroid tests includes blood tests for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb), and calcitonin. TSH and free thyroid hormone tests are frequently used to assess the functional status of the thyroid. TPO-Ab and TRAb tests are used to diagnose Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease, respectively. Tg and calcitonin are important tumor markers used in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), respectively. Procalcitonin may replace calcitonin as a biomarker for MTC. Apart from understanding normal thyroid physiology, it is important to be familiar with the possible pitfalls and caveats in the use of these tests so that they can be interpreted properly and accurately. When results are discordant, clinicians and laboratorians should be mindful of possible assay interferences and/or the effects of concurrent medications. In addition, thyroid function may appear abnormal in the absence of actual thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and in critical illness. Hence, it is important to consider the clinical context when interpreting results. This review aims to describe the above-mentioned blood tests used in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, as well as the pitfalls in their interpretation. With due knowledge and care, clinicians and laboratorians will be able to fully appreciate the clinical utility of these important laboratory tests.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Biomarkers, Tumor , Calcitonin , Critical Illness , Diagnosis , Graves Disease , Hematologic Tests , Iodide Peroxidase , Physiology , Pregnancy , Receptors, Thyrotropin , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroiditis , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759997

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The laboratory biomarkers used to diagnose spinal infection include white blood cell (WBC) counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Recently, procalcitonin (PCT) has been used as a biomarker to distinguish between bacterial infection and non-bacterial infection. We aimed to compare the changes of conventional biomarker and PCT in patients with spinal infection before and after antibiotic treatment. METHODS: ESR, CRP, WBC counts, and PCT were measured in 29 patients diagnosed with pyogenic spinal infection at our hospital between May 2016 and December 2018 prior to antibiotic administration. After antibiotic administration, the values were followed up for 4 weeks at 1-week intervals. RESULTS: A total of 29 patients were enrolled, with a mean age of 67.8 years, consisting of 16 men and 13 women. Twenty-five patients had lumbar infections, and 2 each had cervical and thoracic infections. The mean ESR, CRP, PCT, and WBCs decreased at week 4 of antibiotic treatment compared to their baseline values. CRP and WBCs were significantly decreased after 4 weeks of treatment compared to before treatment. The mean ESR and PCT was not statistically significant compared to pretreatment and after antibiotic treatment (p-value>0.05). CONCLUSION: Among several biomarker, CRP and WBCs are biomarkers that can aid early evaluation of the effects of antibiotic treatment in pyogenic spondylitis. Although PCT did not have statistical significance, it can be used as a biomarker that reflects the effect of antibiotic and severity of infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Calcitonin , Erythrocyte Count , Female , Humans , Leukocytes , Male , Spondylitis
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypercalcemia is an important metabolic emergency condition in cancer patients. Bisphosphonate is the treatment of choice for hypercalcemia, whereas calcitonin and hydration with furosemide are recommended for acute supportive therapy. However, data regarding real-world treatment patterns and outcomes of pharmacological treatments are limited. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the treatment patterns and clinical outcomes of hypercalcemia treatment in solid tumor patients. METHODS: Electronic medical records of 123 adults with solid cancers and albumin-corrected calcium levels >10.5 mg/dL or ionized calcium levels >1.35 mmol/L were reviewed. We retrospectively analyzed the pharmacological treatment and recovery rate according to the severity of hypercalcemia. RESULTS: A total of 177 cases were identified, of which 49 were not treated and 30 were treated with hydration only. In moderate-to-severe cases, 86.5% received pharmacological treatment. Thirty-four cases (19.2%) were treated with bisphosphonate alone and 58 cases (32.8%) were treated with bisphosphonate and calcitonin. In mild hypercalcemia cases, the recovery rate was higher for those receiving hydration only or pharmacological treatment (79.7%) than for those receiving no treatment (61.4%, p = 0.041). Most moderate-to-severe cases were treated with medication and of those treated, 56.3% recovered. The recovery rate was lower in those treated with bisphosphonate alone (38.2%) than in those who underwent calcitonin combination treatment (73.7%, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Bisphosphonate combined with calcitonin was found to be more effective than bisphosphonate alone for the treatment of moderate-to-severe hypercalcemia. Considering the current shortage of calcitonin, further efforts are required to ensure its stable supply.


Subject(s)
Adult , Calcitonin , Calcium , Electronic Health Records , Emergencies , Furosemide , Humans , Hypercalcemia , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776123

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of anti-osteoporosis drugs on the curative effect of femoral head replacement in the elderly patients with proximal humerus fracture.@*METHODS@#From November 2012 to June 2016, 38 patients with proximal humeral fractures received humeral head replacement were divided into the treatment group and the control group according to whether the anti-osteoporosis drugs were used after the operation. The treatment group included 19 cases, of which 11 cases were three part fractures, 18 cases were four part fractures, and bone density was(0.58±0.14) g/cm²; the control group involved 19 cases, of which 10 cases were the three part fractures, 9 cases were four part fractures, and bone density was(0.58±0.11) g/cm². Periprosthetic bone mineral density(BMD) was measured at 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 weeks after operation, and visual analogue scale(VAS) was used to evaluate the pain and Neer score was used to evaluate the function of the shoulder joint.@*RESULTS@#The incisions of all patients were healed with grade A and no complications occurred. Thirty-five patients were followed up for 1 year. The bone density around the prosthesis of treatment group was higher than that of control group, the difference was statistically significant(0.05). The total score and functional score of Neer in the treatment group were better than those in the control group, the difference was statistically significant(0.05). According to the Neer score, the results of treatment group was excellent in 10 cases, good in 5 cases, fair in 3 cases;in the control group, 3 cases were excellent, 9 cases were good, and 5 cases were fair;the difference between the two groups was statistically significant(<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Artificial humeral head replacement combined with anti-osteoporosis drugs in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients can effectively improve the bone density around the prosthesis and restore shoulder function. The early clinical effect is satisfactory.


Subject(s)
Aged , Calcitonin , Therapeutic Uses , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humans , Humeral Head , Postoperative Period , Shoulder Fractures , Shoulder Joint , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recombinant amelogenin protein (RAP) was reported to induce soft-tissue regeneration in canine infected endodontically treated permanent teeth with open apices. To characterize identities of the cells found in the RAP regenerated tissues compared to authentic pulp by identifying: 1) stem cells by their expression of Sox2; 2) nerve fibers by distribution of the axonal marker peripherin; 3) axons by their expression of calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP); 4) the presence of astrocytes expressing glial fibrillary acidic proteins (GFAP).METHODS: A total of 240 open-apex root canals in dogs were used. After establishment of oral contamination to the pulp, the canals were cleaned, irrigated, and 120 canals filled with RAP, and the other 120 with calcium hydroxide.RESULTS: After 1, 3, and 6 months, teeth were recovered for immune-detection of protein markers associated with native pulp tissues. Regenerated pulp and apical papilla of RAP group revealed an abundance of stem cells showing intense immunoreactivity to Sox2 antibody, immunoreactivity of peripherin mainly in the A-fibers of the odontoblast layer and immunoreactivity to CGRP fibers in the central pulp region indicative of C-fibres. GFAP immunoreactivity was observed near the odontoblastic, cell-rich regions and throughout the regenerated pulp.CONCLUSIONS: RAP induces pulp regeneration following regenerative endodontic procedures with cells identity by gene expression demonstrating a distribution pattern similar to the authentic pulp innervation. A- and C-fibers, as well as GFAP specific to astrocytic differentiation, are recognized. The origin of the regenerated neural networks may be derived from the Sox2 identified stem cells within the apical papilla.


Subject(s)
Amelogenin , Animals , Astrocytes , Axons , Calcitonin , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Calcium Hydroxide , Dental Pulp Cavity , Dental Pulp Necrosis , Dogs , Gene Expression , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Nerve Fibers , Odontoblasts , Periapical Periodontitis , Regeneration , Stem Cells , Tooth
19.
Actual. osteol ; 14(2): 125-147, Mayo - Ago. 2018. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116310

ABSTRACT

En consonancia con la orientación tradicional de nuestras investigaciones, la Osteología está incorporando progresivamente el análisis estructural-biomecánico óseo y las interacciones músculo-esqueléticas. En este artículo se sintetizan los aportes originales del CEMFoC a la Osteología moderna en el terreno biomecánico en forma didáctica, para que el lector aprecie sus posibles aplicaciones clínicas. Los hallazgos aportaron evidencias sucesivas en apoyo de dos proposiciones fundamentales: a) los huesos deben interpretarse como estructuras resistivas, biológicamente servocontroladas ("Los huesos tienden siempre a mantener un factor de seguridad que permite al cuerpo trabajar normalmente sin fracturarse" ­ Paradigma de Utah) y b) los huesos interactúan con su entorno mecánico, determinado principalmente por las contracciones musculares, en forma subordinada al entorno metabólico ("Los huesos son lo que los músculos quieren que sean, siempre que las hormonas lo permitan"). Los avances producidos se refieren, tanto cronológica como didácticamente, al conocimiento osteológico en general y al desarrollo de recursos novedosos para el diagnóstico no invasivo de fragilidad ósea, para distinguir entre osteopenias y osteoporosis, y para discriminar entre sus etiologías 'mecánica' y 'sistémica'. Finalmente, el nuevo conocimiento se integra en la proposición de un algoritmo diagnóstico para osteopenias y osteoporosis. El espíritu general de la presentación destaca que la evaluación osteomuscular dinámicamente integrada genera un nuevo espacio de análisis personalizado de los pacientes para la atención de cualquier osteopatía fragilizante con criterio biomecánico. (AU)


In consonance with the traditional spirit of our studies, skeletal research is being progressively focused on the structural-biomechanical analysis of bone and the muscle-bone interactions. In this article, the CEMFoC's members summarize their original findings in bone biomechanics and their potential clinical applications. These findings provided evidence supporting two fundamental hypotheses, namely, A. bones constitute resistive structures, which are biologically servo-controlled ('Bones tend to maintain a safety factor which allows the body to function normally avoiding fractures' ­ the 'Utah paradigm'), and B. the interactions of bones with their mechanical environment mainly are determined by the contraction of local muscles - 'bone-muscle units'), and are subordinated to the control of the metabolic environment ('Bones are what muscles wish them to be, provided that hormones allow for it'). The achievements in the field are presented in a chronological and didactical sequence concerning the general knowledge in Osteology and the development of novel resources for non-invasive diagnosis of bone fragility, aiming to distinguish between osteopenias and osteoporosis and the 'mechanical' and 'metabolic' etiology of these conditions. Finally, the integrated new knowledge is presented as supporting for a proposed diagnostic algorithm for osteopenias and osteoporosis. In general terms, the article highlights the dynamic evaluation of the musculoskeletal system as a whole, opening a new diagnostic field for a personalized evaluation of the patients affected by a boneweakening disease, based on functional and biomechanical criteria. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging , Osteology/trends , Musculoskeletal System/diagnostic imaging , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/diagnostic imaging , Osteoporosis/etiology , Osteoporosis/diagnostic imaging , Parathyroid Hormone/administration & dosage , Parathyroid Hormone/therapeutic use , Biomechanical Phenomena , Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnostic imaging , Algorithms , Calcitonin/therapeutic use , Cholecalciferol/pharmacology , Human Growth Hormone/therapeutic use , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Musculoskeletal System/anatomy & histology , Musculoskeletal System/metabolism
20.
Actual. osteol ; 14(1): 36-43, Ene - Abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116899

ABSTRACT

La hipofosfatasia (HP) es una enfermedad congénita, causada por mutaciones con pérdida de función en el gen ALPL que codifica la isoenzima no específica de tejido de la fosfatasa alcalina (TNSALP). Su expresión clínica es muy variable, desde casos de muerte intraútero por alteración grave de la mineralización ósea, hasta casos solo con caída prematura de la dentición. Se presenta el caso clínico de un varón al que se le diagnosticó odontohipofosfatasia a los 30 meses por pérdida temprana de piezas dentarias y niveles anormalmente bajos de fosfatasa alcalina, sin signos de raquitismo ni deformidades óseas. Durante su seguimiento, hasta los 13 años, presentó síntomas compatibles con HP infantil leve, como cansancio al caminar, incoordinación en la marcha y dolor en miembros inferiores que aumentaban con la actividad física. Ante la aparición de edema bimaleolar y poca respuesta al tratamiento con calcitonina y antiinflamatorios, se descartaron patologías infecciosas o reumáticas o ambas y se diagnosticó, por biopsia de tibia y peroné, periostitis sin detección de cristales de pirofosfato. Los controles radiológicos durante su evolución mostraron ensanchamiento metafisario en muñeca, falta de remodelado de metacarpianos, hojaldrado perióstico en tibia y peroné e hipomineralización en metáfisis tibiales, con "lenguas radiolúcidas" características de HP. Como conclusión, la hipofosfatasia debe considerarse como una entidad clínica para descartar en niños que presentan pérdida temprana de dientes. La presencia de este cuadro clínico es en general suficiente para realizar el diagnóstico de HP de la niñez. (AU)


Hypophosphatasia (HP) is a congenital disease, caused by mutations with loss of function in the gene ALPL that encodes the non-specific tissue isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). Its clinical expression displays considerable variability, from cases of intrauterine death due to severe alteration of bone mineralization, to cases with only early loss of teeth. We report the case of a male, diagnosed as odontohypophosphatasia at 30 months of age due to early loss of teeth and abnormally low levels of alkaline phosphatase, without signs of rickets or bone deformities. During follow-up, up to 13 years of age, he presented symptoms consistent with mild infantile HP such as tiredness when walking, lack of gait coordination, and pain in lower limbs, especially after physical activity. Due to the appearance of bimalleolar edema and poor response to treatment with calcitonin and anti-inflammatory drugs, infectious and / or rheumatic pathologies were ruled out. Periostitis without pyrophosphate crystal detection was diagnosed by tibial and fibular biopsy. Radiological controls during follow up showed metaphyseal wrist enlargement, lack of remodeling of metacarpals, periosteal flaking in the tibia and fibula and hypomineralization in the tibial metaphysis, with "radiolucent tongues"; characteristic of HP. In conclusion, hypophosphatasia should be considered as a clinical entity in children who present early loss of teeth. The presentation of this clinical case is generally sufficient to make the diagnosis of childhood HP. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Alkaline Phosphatase/genetics , Hypophosphatasia/diagnosis , Periostitis/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Sodium Fluoride/administration & dosage , Tibia/diagnostic imaging , Tooth Abnormalities/genetics , Vitamin B Complex/therapeutic use , Calcitonin/administration & dosage , Carbamazepine/therapeutic use , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Fibula/diagnostic imaging , Hydroxycholecalciferols/adverse effects , Hypophosphatasia/pathology , Hypophosphatasia/blood , Hypophosphatasia/therapy , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
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