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Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 41: [13], 01/01/2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128583


Aim: Since other species of the Bignoniaceae Family presented of antispasmodic activity, it was decided, by chemotaxonomic criterion, to determine the antispasmodic activity of the leaves of Arrabidaea brachypoda. Methodology: the segments of the rat jejunum were suspended in glass vats containing specific saline solution, at an appropriate temperature, and after stabilization period, were stimulated by a contractile agent to observe the inhibitory or relaxing effect of EH-FAB. Results: EH-FAB showed the presence of 10 compounds, mainly rutin and it has an antispasmodic activity as it inhibits the phasic component and relaxes the tonic component of the contraction in isolated rat jejunum. To assess the mechanism of antispasmodic action, cumulative curves to the CCh were performed in which a non-competitive antagonism was observed, due to a displacement of the control curve to the right and reduction of the maximum contraction effect (Emax). Afterward, the participation of the calcium and/or potassium channels was evaluated by increasing the extracellular potassium, and it was observed that the EH-FAB relaxed the rat jejunum, suggesting the participation of the Ca2+ channels. To corroborate that hypothesis, the EH-FAB was tested against cumulative curves to Ca2+ in a free depolarizing solution of Ca2+, and it was observed that there was a shift of the curve to the right with a reduction in Emax. Conclusions: EH-FAB presents antispasmodic activity in isolated rat jejunum and it is suggested to block the influx of Ca2+ through voltage-gated calcium channels, signaling the therapeutic potential for the treatment of colic and/or diarrhea.(AU)

Animals , Male , Rats , Parasympatholytics/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Bignoniaceae/chemistry , Potassium , Jejunum
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(2): 204-222, mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007819


To explore the mechanistic basis behind smooth muscle relaxant prospective of Bismarckia nobilis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular ailments. The methanolic extract of B. nobilis and sub-fractions have been evaluated in vitro rabbit isolated tissues, in vivo castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and charcoal meal activity in mice. The B. nobilis extract relaxed spontaneous and K+(80 mM)- induced contractions in rabbit isolated jejunum preparations, CCh (1 µM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in tracheal and bladder preparations, PE (1 µM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced concentrations in aorta preparations, likewise verapamil. Spasmolytic activity of dichloromethane fraction is stronger as compared to aqueous fraction. In vivo castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and charcoal meal activity in mice further supported spasmolytic activity. B. nobilis extract possess anti-spasmodic, anti-diarrheal, airway relaxant and vasodilator activities possible mediated through calcium channel blocking mechanism, justifying therapeutic utility of B. nobilis in diarrhea, asthma and hypertension.

El objetivo de trabajo fue explorar el mecanismo de acción relacionado con el efecto relajante del músculo liso inducido por Bismarckia nobilis (B. nobilis) en enfermedades gastrointestinales, respiratorias y cardiovasculares. El extracto metanólico de B. nobilis y subfracciones fue evaluado in vitro en tejidos aislados de conejos. Además se evaluó diarrea in vivo inducida con aceite de ricino en ratas y la actividad de harina de carbón vegetal en ratones. El extracto de B. nobilis relajó tanto las contracciones espontáneas como las inducidas por K+(80 mM) en preparaciones de yeyuno aisladas de conejos, las contracciones inducidas por PE (1 µM) y K+(80 mM) inducidas en preparaciones de aorta; de manera similar a verapamilo. La actividad espasmolítica de la fracción de diclorometano es más potente en comparación con la fracción acuosa. La diarrea inducida in vivo por el aceite de ricino en ratas y la actividad de la harina de carbón vegetal en ratones apoyaron aún más la actividad espasmolítica. El extracto de B. nobilis posee actividades antiespasmódicas, antidiarreicas, relajantes de las vías respiratorias y vasodilatadoras, posibles a través del mecanismo de bloqueo de los canales de calcio, lo que justifica la utilidad terapéutica de B. nobilis en la diarrea, el asma y la hipertensión.

Animals , Rabbits , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/pharmacology , Arecaceae , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Aorta/drug effects , Asthma/metabolism , Trachea/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Diarrhea/metabolism , Methanol , Hypotension/metabolism , Jejunum/drug effects , Muscle Relaxation/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects
In. Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira. Tratado de Cardiologia: SOCESP / Cardiology Treaty: SOCESP. São Paulo, Manole, 4ª; 2019. p.506-517.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009121
Biol. Res ; 51: 38, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038781


BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide has been shown to improve the quality of oocytes destined for in vitro fertilization. Although hydrogen sulfide is capable of modulating ion channel activity in somatic cells, the role of hydrogen sulfide in gametes and embryos remains unknown. Our observations confirmed the hypothesis that the KATP and L-type Ca2+ ion channels play roles in porcine oocyte ageing and revealed a plausible contribution of hydrogen sulfide to the modulation of ion channel activity. RESULTS: We confirmed the benefits of the activation and suppression of the KATP and L-type Ca2+ ion channels, respectively, for the preservation of oocyte quality. CONCLUSIONS: Our experiments identified hydrogen sulfide as promoting the desired ion channel activity, with the capacity to protect porcine oocytes against cell death. Further experiments are needed to determine the exact mechanism of hydrogen sulfide in gametes and embryos.

Animals , Female , Oocytes/drug effects , Calcium Channels/physiology , Cellular Senescence/physiology , Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated/physiology , Hydrogen Sulfide/pharmacology , Oocytes/metabolism , Phenotype , Swine , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Adenosine Triphosphate , Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated/drug effects , Minoxidil/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(4): e5520, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839279


This study investigated the influence of antihypertensive drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs), voltage-gated L-type calcium channel blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), on the effects of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] on aorta and coronary arteries from pressure-overloaded rats. Pressure overload was induced by abdominal aortic banding (AB). To evaluate the role of antihypertensive drugs on the effect of Ang-(1-7), AB male Wistar rats weighing 250–300 g were treated with vehicle or low doses (5 mg·kg-1·day-1, gavage) of losartan, captopril, amlodipine, or spironolactone. Isolated aortic rings and isolated perfused hearts under constant flow were used to evaluate the effect of Ang-(1-7) in thoracic aorta and coronary arteries, respectively. Ang-(1-7) induced a significant relaxation in the aorta of sham animals, but this effect was reduced in the aortas of AB rats. Chronic treatments with losartan, captopril or amlodipine, but not with spironolactone, restored the Ang-(1-7)-induced aorta relaxation in AB rats. The coronary vasodilatation evoked by Ang-(1-7) in sham rats was blunted in hypertrophic rats. Only the treatment with losartan restored the coronary vasodilatory effect of Ang-(1-7) in AB rat hearts. These data support a beneficial vascular effect of an association of Ang-(1-7) and some antihypertensive drugs. Thus, this association may have potential as a new therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases.

Animals , Male , Angiotensin I/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Aorta, Abdominal/drug effects , Coronary Vessels/drug effects , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , Amlodipine/pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Captopril/pharmacology , Losartan/pharmacology , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Spironolactone/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(3): 223-229, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796033


Abstract Background: Despite the important biological effects of jabuticaba, its actions on the cardiovascular system have not been clarified. Objectives: To determine the effects of jabuticaba hydroalcoholic extract (JHE) on vascular smooth muscle (VSM) of isolated arteries. Methods: Endothelium-denuded aortic rings of rats were mounted in isolated organ bath to record isometric tension. The relaxant effect of JHE and the influence of K+ channels and Ca2+ intra- and extracellular sources on JHE-stimulated response were assessed. Results: Arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine showed concentration-dependent relaxation (0.380 to 1.92 mg/mL). Treatment with K+ channel blockers (tetraethyl-ammonium, glibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine) hindered relaxation due to JHE. In addition, phenylephrine-stimulated contraction was hindered by previous treatment with JHE. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase did not change relaxation due to JHE. In addition, JHE inhibited the contraction caused by Ca2+ influx stimulated by phenylephrine and KCl (75 mM). Conclusion: JHE induces endothelium-independent vasodilation. Activation of K+ channels and inhibition of Ca2+ influx through the membrane are involved in the JHE relaxant effect.

Resumo Fundamentos: Embora a jabuticaba apresente importantes efeitos biológicos, suas ações sobre o sistema cardiovascular ainda não foram esclarecidas. Objetivos: Determinar os efeitos do extrato de jabuticaba (EHJ) sobre o músculo liso vascular (MLV) em artérias isoladas. Métodos: Aortas (sem endotélio) de ratos foram montadas em banho de órgãos isolados para registro de tensão isométrica. Foram verificados o efeito relaxante, a influência dos canais de K+ e das fontes de Ca2+ intra- e extracelular sob a resposta estimulada pelo EHJ. Resultados: Artérias pré-contraídas com fenilefrina apresentaram relaxamento concentração-dependente (0,380 a 1,92 mg/mL). O tratamento com bloqueadores de canais de K+ (tetraetilamônio, glibenclamida, 4-aminopiridina) prejudicaram o relaxamento pelo EHJ. A contração estimulada com fenilefrina também foi prejudicada pelo tratamento prévio com EHJ. A inibição da Ca2+ATPase do reticulo sarcoplasmático não alterou o relaxamento pelo EHJ. Além disso, o EHJ inibiu a contração causada pelo influxo de Ca2+ estimulado por fenilefrina e KCl (75 mM). Conclusão: O EHJ induz vasodilatação independente do endotélio. Ativação dos canais de K+ e inibição do influxo de Ca2+ através da membrana estão envolvidas no efeito relaxante do EHJ.

Animals , Male , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(2): e4800, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766979


β-Citronellol is an alcoholic monoterpene found in essential oils such Cymbopogon citratus (a plant with antihypertensive properties). β-Citronellol can act against pathogenic microorganisms that affect airways and, in virtue of the popular use of β-citronellol-enriched essential oils in aromatherapy, we assessed its pharmacologic effects on the contractility of rat trachea. Contractions of isolated tracheal rings were recorded isometrically through a force transducer connected to a data-acquisition device. β-Citronellol relaxed sustained contractions induced by acetylcholine or high extracellular potassium, but half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for K+-elicited stimuli were smaller than those for cholinergic contractions. It also inhibited contractions induced by electrical field stimulation or sodium orthovanadate with pharmacologic potency equivalent to that seen against acetylcholine-induced contractions. When contractions were evoked by selective recruitment of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium, β-citronellol preferentially inhibited contractions that involved voltage-operated (but not receptor-operated) pathways. β-Citronellol (but not verapamil) inhibited contractions induced by restoration of external Ca2+ levels after depleting internal Ca2+ stores with the concomitant presence of thapsigargin and recurrent challenge with acetylcholine. Treatment of tracheal rings with L-NAME, indomethacin or tetraethylammonium did not change the relaxing effects of β-citronellol. Inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) or transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptors with selective antagonists caused no change in the effects of β-citronellol. In conclusion, β-citronellol exerted inhibitory effects on rat tracheal rings, with predominant effects on contractions that recruit Ca2+ inflow towards the cytosol by voltage-gated pathways, whereas it appears less active against contractions elicited by receptor-operated Ca2+ channels.

Animals , Male , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Trachea/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Calcium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Monoterpenes/administration & dosage , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Parasympatholytics/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Tetraethylammonium/pharmacology , Thapsigargin/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(12): 1068-1074, 12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727656


Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.

Animals , Male , Jejunum/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Myosins/metabolism , Taurine/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Atropine/pharmacology , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Cimetidine/pharmacology , Diphenhydramine/pharmacology , Enteric Nervous System/drug effects , Histamine H1 Antagonists/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Jejunum/physiology , Muscarinic Antagonists/pharmacology , Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Phentolamine/pharmacology , Propranolol/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Taurine/antagonists & inhibitors , Tetrodotoxin/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(7): 964-966, 11/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728807


The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the efflux of the insecticide, temephos, was assessed in the larvae of Aedes aegypti. Bioassays were conducted using mosquito populations that were either susceptible or resistant to temephos by exposure to insecticide alone or in combination with sublethal doses of the ABC transporter inhibitor, verapamil (30, 35 and 40 μM). The best result in the series was obtained with the addition of verapamil (40 μM), which led to a 2x increase in the toxicity of temephos, suggesting that ABC transporters may be partially involved in conferring resistance to the populations evaluated.

Animals , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/physiology , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Temefos/pharmacology , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/drug effects , Aedes/metabolism , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacokinetics , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Insect Vectors/metabolism , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacokinetics , Larva/drug effects , Larva/metabolism , Temefos/pharmacokinetics , Verapamil/pharmacokinetics , Verapamil/pharmacology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 29(2): 249-254, Apr-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-719408


O paradoxo do cálcio foi pela primeira vez citado em 1966 por Zimmerman et al. A partir daí, ganhou grande interesse por parte da comunidade científica internacional devido ao fato da ausência do íon cálcio produzir na célula muscular cardíaca dano semelhante à lesão de isquemia-reperfusão. Apesar de não serem conhecidos todos os mecanismos envolvidos no processo da lesão celular no paradoxo do cálcio, a conexão intercelular mantida somente pelo nexus parece ter papel chave na fragmentação celular. A adição de pequenas concentrações de cálcio, bloqueadores de canal de cálcio, hiponatremia ou hipotermia são importantes para evitar que haja lesão celular no momento da reperfusão com soluções com concentração fisiológica de cálcio.

The calcium paradox was first mentioned in 1966 by Zimmerman et al. Thereafter gained great interest from the scientific community due to the fact of the absence of calcium ions in heart muscle cells produce damage similar to ischemia-reperfusion. Although not all known mechanisms involved in cellular injury in the calcium paradox intercellular connection maintained only by nexus seems to have a key role in cellular fragmentation. The addition of small concentrations of calcium, calcium channel blockers, and hyponatraemia hypothermia are important to prevent any cellular damage during reperfusion solutions with physiological concentration of calcium.

Animals , Humans , Rats , Calcium/metabolism , Heart Injuries/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Cell Membrane Permeability , Caffeine/adverse effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium/administration & dosage , Dinitrophenols/metabolism , Glycocalyx/metabolism , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Injuries/etiology , Heart Injuries/pathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Sodium/physiology , Time Factors
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(5): 600-604, ago. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680780


Current schistosomiasis control strategies are largely based on chemotherapeutic agents and a limited number of drugs are available today. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug currently used in schistosomiasis control programs. Unfortunately, this drug shows poor efficacy in patients during the earliest infection phases. The effects of PZQ appear to operate on the voltage-operated Ca2+channels, which are located on the external Schistosoma mansoni membrane. Because some Ca2+channels have dihydropyridine drug class (a class that includes nifedipine) sensitivity, an in vitro analysis using a calcium channel antagonist (clinically used for cardiovascular hypertension) was performed to determine the antischistosomal effects of nifedipine on schistosomula and adult worm cultures. Nifedipine demonstrated antischistosomal activity against schistosomula and significantly reduced viability at all of the concentrations used alone or in combination with PZQ. In contrast, PZQ did not show significant efficacy when used alone. Adult worms were also affected by nifedipine after a 24 h incubation and exhibited impaired motility, several lesions on the tegument and intense contractility. These data support the idea of Ca2+channels subunits as drug targets and favour alternative therapeutic schemes when drug resistance has been reported. In this paper, strong arguments encouraging drug research are presented, with a focus on exploring schistosomal Ca2+channels.

Animals , Mice , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Nifedipine/pharmacology , Praziquantel/pharmacology , Schistosoma mansoni/drug effects , Schistosomicides/pharmacology , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83998


Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) is a neurotransmitter that regulates a variety of functions in the nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Despite such importance, 5-HT signaling pathways are not entirely clear. We demonstrated previously that 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels determine the resting membrane potential of arterial smooth muscle cells and that the Kv channels are inhibited by 5-HT, which depolarizes the membranes. Therefore, we hypothesized that 5-HT contracts arteries by inhibiting Kv channels. Here we studied 5-HT signaling and the detailed role of Kv currents in rat mesenteric arteries using patch-clamp and isometric tension measurements. Our data showed that inhibiting 4-AP-sensitive Kv channels contracted arterial rings, whereas inhibiting Ca2+-activated K+, inward rectifier K+ and ATP-sensitive K+ channels had little effect on arterial contraction, indicating a central role of Kv channels in the regulation of resting arterial tone. 5-HT-induced arterial contraction decreased significantly in the presence of high KCl or the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGCC) inhibitor nifedipine, indicating that membrane depolarization and the consequent activation of VGCCs mediate the 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction. The effects of 5-HT on Kv currents and arterial contraction were markedly prevented by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists ketanserin and spiperone. Consistently, alpha-methyl 5-HT, a 5-HT2 receptor agonist, mimicked the 5-HT action on Kv channels. Pretreatment with a Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor, 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, prevented both the 5-HT-mediated vasoconstriction and Kv current inhibition. Our data suggest that 4-AP-sensitive Kv channels are the primary regulator of the resting tone in rat mesenteric arteries. 5-HT constricts the arteries by inhibiting Kv channels via the 5-HT2A receptor and Src tyrosine kinase pathway.

4-Aminopyridine/pharmacology , Action Potentials , Animals , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Ketanserin/pharmacology , Male , Mesenteric Arteries/drug effects , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/drug effects , Nifedipine/pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A/metabolism , Serotonin/pharmacology , Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Spiperone/pharmacology , Vasoconstriction , src-Family Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 99(2): 706-713, ago. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-647711


FUNDAMENTO: A redução da frequência cardíaca (FC) na angiografia por tomografia das artérias coronarianas (ATCCor) é fundamental para a qualidade de imagem. A eficácia dos bloqueadores de cálcio como alternativas para pacientes com contraindicações aos betabloqueadores não foi definida. OBJETIVOS: Comparar a eficácia na redução da FC e variabilidade RR do metoprolol e diltiazem na ATCCor. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, randomizado, aberto, incluiu pacientes com indicação clínica de ATCCor, em ritmo sinusal, com FC>70bpm e sem uso de agentes que interferissem com a FC. Cinquenta pacientes foram randomizados para grupos: metoprolol IV 5-15 mg ou até FC≤60 bpm(M), e diltiazem IV 0,25-0,60mg/kg ou até FC≤60 bpm (D). Pressão arterial (PA) e FC foram aferidas na condição basal, 1min, 3min e 5min após agentes, na aquisição e após ATCCor. RESULTADOS: A redução da FC em valores absolutos foi maior no grupo M que no grupo D (1, 3, 5min, aquisição e pós-exame). A redução percentual da FC foi significativamente maior no grupo M apenas no 1 min e 3 min após início dos agentes. Não houve diferença no 5 min, durante a aquisição e após exame. A variabilidade RR percentual do grupo D foi estatisticamente menor do que a do grupo M durante a aquisição (variabilidade RR/ FC média da aquisição). Um único caso de BAV, 2:1 Mobitz I, revertido espontaneamente ocorreu (grupo D). CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que o diltiazem é uma alternativa eficaz e segura aos betabloqueadores na redução da FC na realização de angiografia por tomografia computadorizada das artérias coronarianas. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2012; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).

BACKGROUND: Reducing heart rate (HR) in CT angiography of the coronary arteries (CTACor) is critical to image quality. The effectiveness of calcium channel blockers as alternatives for patients with contraindications to beta-blockers has not been established. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy in the reduction of HR and RR variability of metoprolol and diltiazem in CTACor. METHODS: Prospective, randomized, open study that included patients with clinical indication of CTACor in sinus rhythm with HR > 70 bpm and no use of agents that could interfere with HR. Fifty patients were randomized to the groups: metoprolol IV 5-15 mg or up to HR ≤ 60 bpm (M), and diltiazem IV 0.25 to 0.60 mg/kg or up to HR ≤ 60 bpm (D). Blood pressure (BP) and HR were measured at baseline, 1 minute, 3 minutes and 5 minutes after the agents, at the acquisition and after CTACor. RESULTS: HR reduction in absolute values was higher in group M than in group D (1, 3, 5 min, acquisition and post-test). The percentage reduction of HR was significantly higher in group M only 1 min and 3 min after the start of the agents. There was no difference in 5 min at acquisition and after examination. The percentage RR variability in group D was lower than that in group M during acquisition (RR variability/mean HR of acquisition). A single case of AVB, 2:1 Mobitz I occurred, which was spontaneously reverted (group D). CONCLUSION: We conclude that diltiazem is an effective and safe alternative to beta-blockers in the reduction of HR when performing computed tomography angiography of coronary arteries. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2012; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Coronary Angiography/methods , Diltiazem/pharmacology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Metoprolol , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
Biocell ; 36(2): 73-81, Aug. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662144


After depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores the capacitative response triggers an extracellular Ca2+ influx through store-operated channels (SOCs) which refills these stores. Our objective was to explore if human umbilical artery smooth muscle presented this response and if it was involved in the mechanism of serotonin- and histamine-induced contractions. Intracellular Ca2+ depletion by a Ca2+-free extracellular solution followed by Ca2+ readdition produced a contraction in artery rings which was inhibited by the blocker of Orai and TRPC channels 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), suggesting a capacitative response. In presence of 2-APB the magnitude of a second paired contraction by serotonin or histamine was significantly less than a first one, likely because 2-APB inhibited store refilling by capacitative Ca2+ entry. 2-APB inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release was excluded because this blocker did not affect serotonin force development in a Ca2+-free solution. The PCR technique showed the presence of mRNAs for STIM proteins (1 and 2), for Orai proteins (1, 2 and 3) and for TRPC channels (subtypes 1, 3, 4 and 6) in the smooth muscle of the human umbilical artery. Hence, this artery presents a capacitative contractile response triggered by stimulation with physiological vasoconstrictors and expresses mRNAs for proteins and channels previously identified as SOCs.

Humans , Boron Compounds/pharmacology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Umbilical Arteries/drug effects , Vascular Capacitance/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Cells, Cultured , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/chemistry , Calcium Channels/genetics , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Histamine Agonists/pharmacology , Histamine/pharmacology , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth/cytology , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/drug effects , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Serotonin Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Serotonin/pharmacology , TRPC Cation Channels/genetics , TRPC Cation Channels/metabolism , Umbilical Arteries/cytology , Umbilical Arteries/metabolism
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(8): 1032-1038, Dec. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610982


The need for drug combinations to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL) arose because of resistance to antimonials, the toxicity of current treatments and the length of the course of therapy. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have shown anti-leishmanial activity; therefore their use in combination with standard drugs could provide new alternatives for the treatment of VL. In this work, in vitro isobolograms of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi using promastigotes or intracellular amastigotes were utilised to identify the interactions between five CCBs and the standard drugs pentamidine, amphotericin B and glucantime. The drug interactions were assessed with a fixed ratio isobologram method and the fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs), sum of FICs (ΣFICs) and the overall mean ΣFIC were calculated for each combination. Graphical isobologram analysis showed that the combination of nimodipine and glucantime was the most promising in amastigotes with an overall mean ΣFIC value of 0.79. Interactions between CCBs and the anti-leishmanial drugs were classified as indifferent according to the overall mean ΣFIC and the isobologram graphic analysis.

Animals , Cricetinae , Mice , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Leishmania/drug effects , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Pentamidine/pharmacology , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Mesocricetus , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
Clinics ; 66(1): 143-150, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578611


INTRODUCTION: Gynura procumbens has been shown to decrease blood pressure via inhibition of the angiotensinconverting enzyme. However, other mechanisms that may contribute to the hypotensive effect have not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cardiovascular effects of a butanolic fraction of Gynura procumbens in rats. METHODS: Anaesthetized rats were given intravenous bolus injections of butanolic fraction at doses of 2.5-20 mg/kg in vivo. The effect of butanolic fraction on vascular reactivity was recorded in isolated rat aortic rings in vitro. RESULTS: Intravenous administrations of butanolic fraction elicited significant (p<0.001) and dose-dependent decreases in the mean arterial pressure. However, a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the heart rate was observed only at the higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg). In isolated preparations of rat aortic rings, phenylephrine (1×10-6 M)- or potassium chloride (8×10-2 M)-precontracted endothelium-intact and -denuded tissue; butanolic fraction (1×10-6-1×10-1 g/ml) induced similar concentration-dependent relaxation of the vessels. In the presence of 2.5×10-3 and 5.0×10-3 g/ml butanolic fraction, the contractions induced by phenylephrine (1×10-9-3×10-5 M) and potassium chloride (1×10-2-8×10-2 M) were significantly antagonized. The calcium-induced vasocontractions (1×10-4-1×10-2 M) were antagonized by butanolic fraction concentration-dependently in calcium-free and high potassium (6×10-2 M) medium, as well as in calcium- and potassium-free medium containing 1×10-6 M phenylephrine. However, the contractions induced by noradrenaline (1×10-6 M) and caffeine (4.5×10-2 M) were not affected by butanolic fraction. CONCLUSION: Butanolic fraction contains putative hypotensive compounds that appear to inhibit calcium influx via receptor-operated and/or voltage-dependent calcium channels to cause vasodilation and a consequent fall in blood pressure.

Animals , Male , Rats , Asteraceae/chemistry , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Butanols/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium/analysis , Heart Rate/drug effects , Plant Leaves , Potassium/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 24 (4): 553-558
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-137559


Methanolic extract of Onosma grifflthii and its fractions were evaluated for possible effects on rabbits' jejunum preparations. Rabbits of either sex [weight 1.5-2.0 kg] were used in experiments. Studies were carried out on rabbits' jejunum preparations. Crude methanolic extract of Onosma griffithii [Meth.OG] was tried in concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml on rabbits' jejunum preparations. Meth.OG was also tried on KCl-induced contractions to explain its possible mode of actions in the presence and absence of atropine [0.03 microM]. Fractions of Meth.OG were tried in similar manner. Calcium chloride curves were constructed for Meth.OG treated tissues that were compared with curves constructed for verapamil in same fashion. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant was also performed. Meth.OG increased the amplitude of spontaneous activity of rabbits' jejunum preparations at concentrations of 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 mg/ml. However, spasmolytic effects were observed at higher concentrations 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. Mean EC[50] values [mg/ml], respectively, in absence and presence of atropine were 7.5 +/- 0.25 [6.9-8.4, n=6] and 3.0 +/- 0.17 [2.3-3.5, n=6, P<0.05]. Mean EC[50] values, respectively, for effects on spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions were 7.5 +/- 0.25 [6.9-8.4, n=6] and 7.3 +/- 0.35 [6.25-8.2, n=6, p<0.05]. rc-Hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed their respective EC[50] values [mg/ml] 9.7 +/- 0.25 [8.6-10.2, n=6], 4.0 +/- 0.2 [3.5-4.6, n=6] and 1.07 +/- 0.093 [0.78-1.5, n=6]. EC[50] values for calcium chloride curves in presence of 0.3 mg/ml Meth.OG were - 2.27 +/- 0.038 [- 2.4 to - 2.10, n=6] vs. control - 2.78 +/- 0.04 [-2.9 to - 2.6, n=6,P<0.05] Log [Ca[++]]M. Comparing with curves of calcium chloride constructed in presence of 0.1 juM verapamil, the EC[50] [log [Ca[++]] M] values were - 1.82 +/- 0.087 [- 2.0 to - 1.65, n=6] vs. control - 2.64 +/- 0.089 [- 2.9 to - 2.4, n=6] demonstrated a right shift [p<0.05]. Meth.OG tested positive for terpenes, saponins, sterols, flavonoids and carbohydrates. We concluded that the relaxant effect of Meth.OG is exerted through blocking of calcium channels. However,

butanolic and aqueous fractions produced spasmogenic effects that require further work for isolation of pharmacologically active substances

Animals , Parasympatholytics/pharmacology , Parasympathomimetics/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Rabbits , Solvents/chemistry , Verapamil/pharmacology
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 164-170, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229006


The purpose of the present study was to discuss the effects of risedronate on osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee by reviewing the existing literature. The literature was searched with PubMed, with respect to prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs), using the following search terms: risedronate, knee, and osteoarthritis. Two RCTs met the criteria. A RCT (n = 231) showed that risedronate treatment (15 mg/day) for 1 year improved symptoms. A larger RCT (n = 1,896) showed that risedronate treatment (5 mg/day, 15 mg/day, 35 mg/week, and 50 mg/week) for 2 years did not improve signs or symptoms, nor did it alter radiological progression. However, a subanalysis study (n = 477) revealed that patients with marked cartilage loss preserved the structural integrity of subchondral bone by risedronate treatment (15 mg/day and 50 mg/week). Another subanalysis study (n = 1,885) revealed that C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) decreased with risedronate treatment in a dose-dependent manner, and levels reached after 6 months were associated with radiological progression at 2 years. The results of these RCTs show that risedronate reduces the marker of cartilage degradation (CTX-II), which could contribute to attenuation of radiological progression of OA by preserving the structural integrity of subchondral bone. The review of the literature suggests that higher doses of risedronate (15 mg/day) strongly reduces the marker of cartilage degradation (CTX-II), which could contribute to attenuation of radiological progression of OA by preserving the structural integrity of subchondral bone.

Animals , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Cartilage/drug effects , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Etidronic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Osteoarthritis, Knee/drug therapy
Braz. oral res ; 23(1): 61-67, 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-514648


The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of diltiazem in combination with a sucrose-rich diet on gingival alterations in rats. One hundred and twenty male Holtzman rats were randomly assigned to 10 groups (n = 12), being 2 control groups treated with saline and 8 test groups treated with diltiazem in daily doses of 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg during 40 or 60 days. Afterwards, the mandibles were removed for macroscopic, histologic and histometric analyses of the buccal gingiva of the mandibular right first molar. No macroscopic characteristic of gingival overgrowth was observed in any of the groups. The microscopic analysis showed characteristics of normality with inflammatory cells only adjacent to the crevicular epithelium in all groups for both periods. The histometric analysis showed significant differences only for the epithelial tissue area in the 40-day period (Kruskal-Wallis; P = 0.032). Comparing the periods, significant differences regarding the connective and epithelial tissue areas were observed only in the group treated with a 25 mg/kg dose (Mann-Whitney; P = 0.004 and P = 0.007, respectively). Oral administration of diltiazem in combination with a sucrose-rich diet did not induce gingival alterations in rats.

Animals , Male , Rats , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Dietary Sucrose/adverse effects , Diltiazem/pharmacology , Gingival Overgrowth/chemically induced , Gingival Overgrowth/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Time Factors
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 25(1): 8-14, 2009. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-520480


Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and progressive disease. Invasive hemodynamic study (HS) is required to confirm the diagnosis of PAH and to perform the vasodilator test (VT) with adenosine. Vasodilator acute responders (VAR) may have a sustained benefit with diltiazem. There is not national information regarding these issues. All patients with probable PAH were evaluated with HS and VT. VAR were treated with diltiazem and followed up with functional class score (FC) and 6 minute walk test. After 6 months, a second HS was performed. Results: Between 2003 and 2008, 6/54 (11%) were VAR. All were women, 45 +/- 14 years old, 4 with idiopathic PAH, 4 in FCIII and 2 in FCII. After two years of treatment, all patients clinically improved. Walked distance significantly increased by 83 and 87 m at month 12 and 24 respectively. Hemodynamic parameters also improved. Therapy with diltiazem is effective in VAR patients supporting the convenience to perform the VT.

La Hipertensión Pulmonar Arterial (HAP) es una entidad grave y progresiva. El estudio hemodinámica (EH) permite certificar el diagnóstico y evaluar la vasorreactividad mediante adenosina. Los pacientes vaso-reactivos podrían responder a terapia con diltiazem. No existe información nacional al respecto. En nuestro programa todo paciente con sospecha de HAP es sometido a EH diagnóstico y de vasorreactividad. Los positivos son tratados con diltiazem y seguidos semestralmente según capacidad funcional (CF) y con test de caminata. Al 6º mes se efectúa un 2º EH. Entre 2003-2008, 6/54 (11%) de los pacientes con HAP fueron vasorreactivos. Todas mujeres, 45 +/- 14 años, 4 con HPA idiopática, 4 en CFIII y 2 en CFII. A los 2 años, todos mejoraron clínicamente. La distancia recorrida aumentó significativamente en los meses 12 y 24 en 83 y 87 m respectivamente. Todas las variables hemodinámicas mejoraron. La terapia con diltiazem es efectiva en los pacientes vaso-reactivos lo que justifica usar el test de vasorreactividad.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Adenosine/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Diltiazem/pharmacology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Vascular Resistance , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Pulmonary Circulation , Exercise Tolerance , Follow-Up Studies , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Blood Pressure/physiology , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Vasodilation , Walking