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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 614-622, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364355

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Aparentemente, a pior resposta a algumas classes de anti-hipertensivos, especialmente inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina e bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina, pela população negra, explicaria, pelo menos parcialmente, o pior controle da hipertensão entre esses indivíduos. Entretanto, a maioria das evidências vêm de estudos norte-americanos. Objetivos Este estudo tem o objetivo de investigar a associação entre raça/cor da pele autorrelatadas e controle de PA em participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil) utilizando várias classes de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia. Métodos O estudo envolveu uma análise transversal, realizada com participantes da linha de base do ELSA-Brasil. O controle de pressão arterial foi a variável de resposta, participantes com valores de PA ≥140/90 mmHg foram considerados descontrolados em relação aos níveis de pressão arterial. A raça/cor da pele foi autorrelatada (branco, pardo, negro). Todos os participantes tiveram que responder perguntas sobre uso contínuo de medicamentos. A associação entre o controle de PA e raça/cor da pele foi estimada por regressão logística. O nível de significância adotado nesse estudo foi de 5%. Resultados Do total de 1.795 usuários de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia na linha de base, 55,5% se declararam brancos, 27,9%, pardos e 16,7%, negros. Mesmo depois de padronizar em relação a variáveis de confusão, negros em uso de inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA), bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina (BRA), diuréticos tiazídicos (DIU tiazídicos) e betabloqueadores (BB) in monoterapia tinham controle de pressão arterial pior em comparação a brancos. Conclusões Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que, nesta amostra de brasileiros adultos utilizando anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia, as diferenças de controle de pressão arterial entre os vários grupos raciais não são explicadas pela possível eficácia mais baixa dos IECA e BRA em indivíduos negros.


Abstract Background It seems that the worst response to some classes of antihypertensive drugs, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, on the part of the Black population, would at least partially explain the worse control of hypertension among these individuals. However, most of the evidence comes from American studies. Objectives This study aims to investigate the association between self-reported race/skin color and BP control in participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), using different classes of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy. Methods The study involved a cross-sectional analysis, carried out with participants from the baseline of ELSA-Brasil. Blood pressure control was the response variable, participants with BP values ≥140/90 mmHg were considered out of control in relation to blood pressure levels. Race/skin color was self-reported (White, Brown, Black). All participants were asked about the continuous use of medication. Association between BP control and race/skin color was estimated through logistic regression. The level of significance adopted in this study was of 5%. Results Of the total of 1,795 users of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy at baseline, 55.5% declared themselves White, 27.9% Brown, and 16.7% Black. Even after adjusting for confounding variables, Blacks using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), thiazide diuretics (thiazide DIU), and beta-blockers (BB) in monotherapy had worse blood pressure control compared to Whites. Conclusions Our results suggest that in this sample of Brazilian adults using antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy, the differences in blood pressure control between different racial groups are not explained by the possible lower effectiveness of ACEIs and ARBs in Black individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , United States , Blood Pressure , Brazil , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Race Factors
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2656-2665, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921224

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Cardiovascular diseases are associated with an increased risk of depression, but it remains unclear whether treatment with cardiovascular agents decreases or increases this risk. The effects of drugs on individual usage are also often unknown. This review aimed to examine the correlation between depression and common cardiovascular drugs, develop more potent interventions for depression in cardiovascular patients, and further research on the bio-behavioural mechanisms linking cardiovascular drugs to depression.@*DATA SOURCES@#The data in this review were obtained from articles included in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science.@*STUDY SELECTION@#Clinical trials, observational studies, review literature, and guidelines about depression and cardiovascular drugs were selected for the article.@*RESULTS@#We systematically investigated whether the seven most used cardiovascular drugs were associated with altered risk of incident depression in this literature review. Statins have been proven to have antidepressant effects. Some studies believe angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) can exert an antidepressant influence by acting on the renin-angiotensin system, but further clinical trials are needed to confirm this. Beta-blockers have previously been associated with depression, but the current study found no significant association between beta blockers and the risk of depression. Aspirin may have antidepressant effects by suppressing the immune response, but its role as an antidepressant remains controversial. calcium channel blockers (CCBs) can regulate nerve signal transduction by adjusting calcium channels, but whether this effect is beneficial or harmful to depression remains unclear. Finally, some cases have reported that nitrates and diuretics are associated with depression, but the current clinical evidence is insufficient.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Statins have been proven to have antidepressant effect, and the antidepressant effects of ACEIs/ARB and aspirin are still controversial. CCBs are associated with depression, but it is unclear whether it is beneficial or harmful. No association has been found with β-blockers, diuretics, and nitrates.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Depression/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1602-1609, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hypertension is considered an important risk factor for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The commonly anti-hypertensive drugs are the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and beta-blockers. The association between commonly used anti-hypertensive medications and the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients with hypertension has not been well studied.@*METHODS@#We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included all patients admitted with COVID-19 to Huo Shen Shan Hospital and Guanggu District of the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Wuhan, China. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were extracted from electronic medical records. Hypertension and anti-hypertensive treatment were confirmed by medical history and clinical records. The primary clinical endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints included the rates of patients in common wards transferred to the intensive care unit and hospital stay duration. Logistic regression was used to explore the risk factors associated with mortality and prognosis. Propensity score matching was used to balance the confounders between different anti-hypertensive treatments. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the cumulative recovery rate. Log-rank tests were performed to test for differences in Kaplan-Meier curves between different groups.@*RESULTS@#Among 4569 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 31.7% (1449/4569) had a history of hypertension. There were significant differences in mortality rates between hypertensive patients with CCBs (7/359) and those without (21/359) (1.95% vs. 5.85%, risk ratio [RR]: 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13-0.76, χ2 = 7.61, P = 0.0058). After matching for confounders, the mortality rates were similar between the RAAS inhibitor (4/236) and non-RAAS inhibitor (9/236) cohorts (1.69% vs. 3.81%, RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.13-1.43, χ2 = 1.98, P = 0.1596). Hypertensive patients with beta-blockers (13/340) showed no statistical difference in mortality compared with those without (11/340) (3.82% vs. 3.24%, RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.53-2.69, χ2 = 0.17, P = 0.6777).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In our study, we did not find any positive or negative effects of RAAS inhibitors or beta-blockers in COVID-19 patients with hypertension, while CCBs could improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Child , China , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Brasília; s.n; 4 maio 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1097406

ABSTRACT

Essa é uma produção do Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia (Decit) da Secretaria de Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação e Insumos Estratégicos em Saúde (SCTIE) do Ministério da Saúde (Decit/SCTIE/MS), que tem como missão promover a ciência e tecnologia e o uso de evidências científicas para a tomada de decisão do SUS, tendo como principal atribuição o incentivo ao desenvolvimento de pesquisas em saúde no Brasil, de modo a direcionar os investimentos realizados em pesquisa pelo Governo Federal às necessidades de saúde pública. Informar sobre as principais evidências científicas descritas na literatura internacional sobre tratamento farmacológico para a COVID-19. Além de resumir cada estudo identificado, o informe apresenta também uma avaliação da qualidade metodológica e a quantidade de artigos publicados, de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, entre outros). Foram encontrados 24 artigos e 10 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(8): 579-589, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019465

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In this review, we discuss the therapies used in the treatment of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy since the first description of the disease. A short description is given of the various theories based on disease pathogenesis, which give the substrates for the many therapeutic interventions. A brief review of the methods of evaluation used in therapeutic trials is made. Of all the treatments, the only drugs that are still considered able to modify the course of the disease are the corticosteroids (prednisone/prednisolone/deflazacort). Other drugs (coenzyme Q10 and creatine) have had a little effect in a few functions without adverse reactions. Idebenone seems to improve the respiratory function in the long term. The trials with mRNA transcription, through nonsense mutations or exon 51 skipping, show some beneficial results in a few functional tests, but they are limited to a small set of DMD patients.


RESUMO Nesta revisão são discutidas as terapêuticas empregadas no tratamento da distrofia muscular de Duchenne desde a descrição da doença. Apresentamos as diversas teorias que fundamentaram as intervenções terapêuticas, com uma breve descrição dos tipos de avaliação empregados nos ensaios terapêuticos. Dentre todos os tratamentos, a única medicação que até agora modificou o curso da doença foram os corticosteroides (prednisona/prednisolona/deflazacort). A coenzima Q10 e creatina tiveram algum efeito pequeno em algumas funções e evolução da doença sem efeitos colaterais. O idebenone mostrou efeito benéfico na função respiratória em longo prazo. As tentativas de intervir no gene da distrofina utilizando técnicas de transcrição do mRNA através das mutações sem sentido e técnicas que pulam o exon 51 mostram resultado muito discreto em algumas provas funcionais e limitado a uma parcela pequena de casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/drug therapy , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Dystrophin/drug effects , Dystrophin/metabolism , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 64-71, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977413

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is an important cause of premature death and disability worldwide. Magnesium sulphate is shown to have a neuroprotective effect and it reverses cerebral vasospasm. Milrinone is also used in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of prophylactic magnesium sulphate and milrinone on the incidence of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: The study included 90 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage classified randomly (by simple randomization) into two groups: magnesium sulphate was given as an infusion of 500 mg.day-1 without loading dose for 21 days. Group B: milrinone was given as an infusion of 0.5 µg.kg-1.min-1 without loading dose for 21 days. The cerebral vasospasm was diagnosed by mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the involved cerebral artery (mean flow velocity ≥ 120 cm.s-1), neurological deterioration by Glasgow coma scale, or angiography (the decrease in diameter of the involved cerebral artery >25%). Results: The mean cerebral blood flow velocity decreased significantly in the magnesium group compared to milrinone group through Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21 (p < 0.001). The incidence of cerebral vasospasm decreased significantly with magnesium compared to milrinone (p = 0.007). The Glasgow coma scale significantly improved in the magnesium group compared to milrinone group through Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21 (p = 0.036, p = 0.012, p = 0.016, respectively). The incidence of hypotension was higher with milrinone than magnesium (p = 0.012). Conclusions: The incidence of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was significantly lower and Glasgow coma scale significantly better with magnesium when compared to milrinone. Milrinone was associated with a higher incidence of hypotension and requirement for dopamine and norepinephrine when compared to magnesium.


Resumo Justificativa: A hemorragia subaracnoidea por aneurisma é uma importante causa de morte prematura e de incapacidade em todo o mundo. O sulfato de magnésio mostra um efeito neuroprotetor e reverte o vasoespasmo cerebral. A milrinona também é usada no tratamento de vasoespasmo cerebral. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o efeito profilático do sulfato de magnésio e da milrinona sobre a incidência de vasoespasmo cerebral após hemorragia subaracnoidea. Métodos: O estudo incluiu 90 pacientes com hemorragia subaracnoidea por aneurisma randomicamente distribuídos (randomização simples) em dois grupos: sulfato de magnésio foi administrado em infusão de 500 mg.dia-1 sem dose de ataque durante 21 dias. O Grupo B recebeu milrinona em infusão de 0,5 µg.kg-1·min-1 sem dose de ataque durante 21 dias. O vasoespasmo cerebral foi diagnosticado pela velocidade média do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral na artéria cerebral envolvida (velocidade média do fluxo ≥ 120 cm.s-1), a deterioração neurológica por escala de coma de Glasgow ou angiografia (diminuição do diâmetro da artéria cerebral envolvida > 25%). Resultados: A velocidade média do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral diminuiu significativamente no grupo magnésio em comparação com o grupo milrinona nos dias 7, 14 e 21 (p < 0,001). A incidência de vasoespasmo cerebral diminuiu significativamente com o magnésio em comparação com milrinona (p = 0,007). A escala de coma de Glasgow melhorou significativamente no grupo magnésio em comparação com o grupo milrinona nos dias 7, 14 e 21 (p = 0,036, p = 0,012, p = 0,016, respectivamente). A incidência de hipotensão foi maior com milrinona do que com magnésio (p = 0,012). Conclusões: A incidência de vasoespasmo cerebral após hemorragia subaracnoidea por aneurisma foi significativamente menor e a escala de coma de Glasgow significativamente melhor com magnésio em comparação com milrinona. A milrinona foi associada a uma maior incidência de hipotensão e necessidade de dopamina e norepinefrina em comparação com o magnésio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Milrinone/therapeutic use , Vasospasm, Intracranial/prevention & control , Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Double-Blind Method , Incidence , Vasospasm, Intracranial/etiology , Vasospasm, Intracranial/epidemiology , Middle Aged
8.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 30(3): f:199-l:206, mai.-jun. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-836659

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: Um programa permanente de educação em serviço melhora o desempenho dos profissionais de saúde e aumenta os índices de controle da hipertensão arterial. Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência do controle da hipertensão arterial e da inércia terapêutica em adultos atendidos nas Unidades Básicas da Saúde após a implantação de um programa de apoio matricial em cardiologia. Métodos: Estudo transversal, com amostragem por conglomerados, mediante pesquisa em prontuários, em que foram avaliados 463 portadores de hipertensão arterial. Foram avaliados pressão arterial, medicamentos e incrementos terapêuticos em 2013, e comparados ao resultados obtidos em 2007. Resultados: Houve predomínio de pacientes das unidades de Estratégia Saúde da Família e do sexo feminino. A idade variou entre 24 e 92 anos (média de 61,7). Observaram-se redução das médias da pressão arterial (148,62/91,60±23,52/14,51mmHg para 137,60/84,03 ± 21,84/12,72 mmHg) entre o primeiro e o último registro, e controle em 58% dos pacientes, ou seja, superior aos 36,6% encontrados em 2007. No período analisado, houve incremento terapêutico de 39% das ocasiões e 52% dos pacientes, superior aos 12% e 29,5%, respectivamente, em 2007. A média de fármacos por paciente aumentou de 1,85 para 2,05, predominando diuréticos e inibidores da enzima de conversão da angiotensina. Conclusão: Houve redução da inércia clínica e aumento do controle da hipertensão arterial, comparados com os achados do estudo anterior. O resultado sugere que o programa de apoio matricial para os profissionais da saúde e outras medidas para melhorar o controle da doença nas Unidades Básicas da Saúde foram eficazes


Background: A continuing education program for health professionals improves their performance and increases hypertension control rates. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of hypertension control and therapeutic inertia among adults treated at Primary Health Care Units after a continuing education program focused on cardiology for health professionals. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, which included cluster sampling and analysis of medical records. We evaluated 463 patients with high blood pressure and analyzed the blood pressure, medications, and therapeutic increments in 2013, which were compared to the data obtained in 2007. Results: There was prevalence of female patients and appointments at the Family Health Care Units. The age ranged between 24 and 92 years (mean of 61.7 years). There was a reduction in the mean blood pressure (148.62/91.60 ± 23.52/14.51 mmHg to 137.60/84.03 ± 21.84/12.72) between the first and last records, and BP control in 58% of the sample, that is, higher than the 36.6% found in 2007. In the analyzed period, there was a therapeutic increment of 39% in appointments, which benefited 52% patients with high blood pressure, higher than the 12% and 29.5%, respectively, found in 2007. The mean number of drugs per patient increased from 1.85 to 2.05, with a predominance of diuretics and angiotensinconverting-enzyme inhibitors. Conclusion: There was a reduction in the clinical inertia and increased control of arterial hypertension was observed, compared with the findings of the previous study. The result suggests that the matricial support program for health professionals and other measures to improve disease control in the Primary Health Care Units were effective


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Health Education/methods , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Medication Adherence , Prevalence , Primary Health Care/methods , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Drug Therapy/methods , Health Centers , Inertia , Statistical Analysis , Treatment Outcome
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(2): 135-142, Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838686

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Hypertension is the most prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and its proper control can prevent the high morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Objective: To assess the degree of compliance of antihypertensive prescriptions with the VI Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension and the blood pressure control rate in primary care. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted between August 2011 and November 2012, including 332 adults ≥ 45 years registered in the Family Doctor Program in Niteroi and selected randomly. The analysis included the prescribed antihypertensive classes, doses, and frequencies, as well as the blood pressure (BP) of the individuals. Results: The rate of prescription compliance was 80%. Diuretics were the most prescribed medications, and dual therapy was the most used treatment. The most common non-compliances were underdosing and underfrequencies. The BP goal in all cases was < 140/90 mmHg, except for diabetic patients, in whom the goal was set at < 130/80 mmHg. Control rates according to these goals were 44.9% and 38.6%, respectively. There was no correlation between prescription compliance and BP control. Conclusions: The degree of compliance was considered satisfactory. The achievement of the targets was consistent with national and international studies, suggesting that the family health model is effective in BP management, although it still needs improvement.


Resumo Fundamento: A hipertensão arterial é o fator de risco mais prevalente para a doença cardiovascular e seu controle adequado pode prevenir a elevada morbi-mortalidade associada a esta doença. Objetivo: Avaliar o grau de conformidade das prescrições de anti-hipertensivos com as VI Diretrizes Brasileiras de Hipertensão e a taxa de controle pressórico na atenção básica. Métodos: Estudo transversal conduzido entre agosto de 2011 e novembro de 2012, incluindo 332 adultos ≥ 45 anos cadastrados no Programa Médico de Família de Niterói e selecionados aleatoriamente. Foram analisadas as classes de anti-hipertensivos prescritos, suas doses e frequências, bem como a pressão arterial (PA) dos indivíduos. Resultados: A taxa de conformidade das prescrições foi de 80%. Diuréticos foram as medicações mais prescritas e a terapia dupla foi o tratamento mais utilizado. As não conformidades mais comuns foram subdoses e subfrequências. A meta de PA para todos os casos foi < 140/90 mmHg, exceto para diabéticos, que foi < 130/80 mmHg. As taxas de controle de acordo com essas metas foram de 44,9% e 38,6%, respectivamente. Não houve correlação entre conformidade da prescrição e controle pressórico. Conclusões: O grau de conformidade foi considerado satisfatório. O alcance das metas foi compatível com estudos nacionais e internacionais, sugerindo que o modelo de saúde da família é efetivo no manejo da PA, embora ainda necessite aprimoramento. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Brazil , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Guidelines as Topic , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(1): 53-59, Jan. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838672

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: As the world population ages, patients older than 80 years, known as very elderly, are more frequently found. There are no studies in this age group aimed at analyzing the multidisciplinary intervention in the treatment of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and some comorbidities. Objectives: To assess the effect of a multidisciplinary approach in very elderly hypertensives cared for at a specialized service. Methods: Longitudinal retrospective cohort study in a multidisciplinary service specialized in the SAH treatment in the Brazilian West-Central region. Patients aged 80 years and older by June 2015 were included. Data from the first (V1) and last visit (Vf) were assessed. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure (BP), renal function, pharmacological treatment, lifestyle, comorbidities and cardiovascular events were studied, comparing data from V1 and Vf. Controlled BP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) lower than 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) lower than 90 mm Hg. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSSR software, version 21.0. Values of p<0,05 were considered significant. Results: Data of 71 patients were assessed with a mean follow-up time of 15,22 years. Their mean age at V1 was 69.2 years, and, at Vf, 84.53 years, and 26.8% of them were males. There was a significant reduction in mean SBP (157.3 x 142.1 mm Hg; p<0.001) and DBP (95.1 x 77.8 mm Hg; p<0.001), with an increase in BP control rates from V1 to Vf (36.6 x 83.1%; p<0.001). The number of antihypertensive drugs used increased (1.49 x 2.85; p<0.001), with an increase in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (22.5 x 46.5%; p=0.004), angiotensin II receptor blockers (4.2 x 35.2%; p<0.001) and calcium-channel blockers (18.3 x 67.6%; p<0.001). There was a reduction in total cholesterol (217.9 x 191 mg/dL; p<0.001) and LDL-cholesterol (139.6 x 119.0 mg/dL; p<0.001), but worsening of the glomerular filtration rate (62.5 x 45.4 mL/min; p<0.001). Conclusion: The multidisciplinary intervention in very elderly hypertensives increased BP control rate, with optimization of the pharmacological treatment.


Resumo Fundamento: Indivíduos com mais de 80 anos, denominados muito idosos, são encontrados com uma frequência crescente com o envelhecimento da população mundial. Não há estudos com essa população avaliando a intervenção multidisciplinar no tratamento da hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) e algumas comorbidades associadas. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito do tratamento multiprofissional em hipertensos muito idosos acompanhados em serviço especializado. Métodos: Estudo de coorte longitudinal retrospectivo em serviço multidisciplinar para o tratamento de HAS do centro-oeste brasileiro. Incluídos pacientes com 80 anos ou mais em junho de 2015. Coletados dados da primeira (V1) e última consulta (Vf). Avaliadas variáveis antropométricas, pressão arterial (PA), função renal, medicamentos em uso, hábitos de vida, comorbidades e eventos cardiovasculares, comparando V1 com Vf. Foram considerados controlados os valores de PA inferiores a 140 mmHg para pressão sistólica e inferiores a 90 mmHg para a pressão diastólica. Análise estatística realizada com software SPSSR versão 21.0. Considerados significativos valores de p<0,05. Resultados: Analisados 71 pacientes, com tempo médio de seguimento de 15,22 anos, 26,8% sexo masculino e idade média em V1 de 69,2 anos e, em Vf, de 84,53 anos. Houve uma redução significativa nos valores médios de PA sistólica (157,3 x 142,1 mmHg; p<0,001) e diastólica (95,1 x 77,8 mmHg; p<0,001), com aumento nas taxas de controle da PA entre V1 e Vf (36,6 x 83,1%; p<0,001). O número de drogas anti-hipertensivas se elevou (1,49 x 2,85; p<0,001), com incremento no uso de inibidores de ECA (22,5 x 46,5%; p=0,004), bloqueadores do receptor de angiotensina (4,2 x 35,2%; p<0,001) e bloqueadores dos canais de cálcio (18,3 x 67,6%; p<0,001). Houve uma redução nos valores de colesterol total (217,9 x 191 mg/dl; p<0,001) e LDL colesterol (139,6 x 119,0 mg/dl; p<0,001) e piora da taxa de filtração glomerular (62,5 x 45,4 ml/min; p<0,001). Conclusão: A intervenção multiprofissional em pacientes hipertensos muito idosos reduziu os valores de PA e aumentou a taxa de controle da mesma, com uma otimização do tratamento medicamentoso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Patient Care Team , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 90-98, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65058

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Calcium channel blockers diltiazem and nitrate have been used as selective coronary vasodilators for patients with significant coronary artery spasm (CAS). However, no study has compared the efficacy of diltiazem alone versus diltiazem with nitrate for long-term clinical outcomes in patients with CAS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2741 consecutive patients without significant coronary artery disease with positive CAS by acetylcholine (Ach) provocation test between November 2004 and May 2014 were enrolled. Significant CAS was defined as a narrowing of >70% by incremental intracoronary injection of 20, 50, and 100 µg of Ach into the left coronary artery. Patients were assigned to either the diltiazem group (n=842) or the dual group (diltiazem with nitrate, n=1899) at physician discretion. To adjust for potential confounders, a propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed using the logistic regression model. After PSM analysis, two well-balanced groups (811 pairs, n=1622, C-statistic=0.708) were generated. RESULTS: At 5 years, there were similar incidences in primary endpoints, including mortality, myocardial infarction, revascularization, and recurrent angina requiring repeat coronary angiography between the two groups. Diltiazem alone was not an independent predictor for major adverse cardiovascular events or recurrent angina requiring repeat coronary angiography. CONCLUSION: Despite the expected improvement of endothelial function and the relief of CAS, the combination of diltiazem and nitrate treatment was not superior to diltiazem alone in reducing mortality and cardiovascular events up to 5 years in patients with significant CAS.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Aged , Angina Pectoris/diagnosis , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Coronary Angiography/adverse effects , Coronary Artery Disease/prevention & control , Coronary Vasospasm/diagnosis , Diltiazem/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Nitrates/therapeutic use , Propensity Score , Time Factors , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Porto Alegre; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Telessaúde; 2017. ilus.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995641

ABSTRACT

As principais causas de tremor em pacientes atendidos na Atenção Primária à Saúde são: exacerbação de tremor fisiológico, tremor essencial (acomete 5% da população acima de 40 anos) e as síndromes parkinsonianas. É importante definir corretamente sua origem, pois o tratamento e o prognóstico são variados. Esta guia apresenta informação que orienta a conduta para casos de tremor e síndromes parkinsonianas no contexto da Atenção Primária à Saúde, incluindo: etiologia do tremor e síndromes parkinsonianas, avaliação clínica, tipos de tremor, sintomas cardinais de parkinsonismo, medicamentos indutores, fluxograma de avaliação do tremor, exames complementares, tratamento do tremor essencial e doença de parkinson, encaminhamento para serviço especializado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parkinsonian Disorders/diagnosis , Parkinsonian Disorders/therapy , Essential Tremor/diagnosis , Essential Tremor/therapy , Primary Health Care , Referral and Consultation , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Hypokinesia , Antiemetics/therapeutic use
13.
Porto Alegre; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Telessaúde; 2017.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995608

ABSTRACT

Cardiopatia isquêmica é uma causa importante de morbimortalidade no Brasil. Visto sua importante prevalência, seus casos estáveis devem ser manejados na Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS). A principal etiologia é a aterosclerose, porém podem ocorrer eventos por espasmo coronariano, alteração da relação da oferta de oxigênio e demanda miocárdica ou trombose coronariana. A manifestação clínica mais comum é a angina pectoris (desconforto torácico em aperto, retroesternal, relacionado com esforços físicos ou emocionais e que alivia com repouso ou nitratos), mas podem ocorrer outras situações, como: infarto agudo do miocárdio, arritmia, insuficiência cardíaca, isquemia silenciosa e morte súbita. O papel do médico na APS é avaliar a probabilidade clínica da dor ser de origem cardíaca e iniciar investigação diagnóstica apropriada, continuar ou otimizar tratamento farmacológico em pacientes com diagnóstico confirmado, trabalhar no controle dos fatores de risco e coordenar o cuidado de pacientes que necessitam encaminhamento para o cardiologista ou serviço de emergência. Esta guia apresenta informação que orienta a conduta para casos de cardiopatia isquêmica no contexto da Atenção Primária à Saúde, incluindo: Classificação clínica da dor torácica, Probabilidade pré-teste na dor torácica, Classificação da angina, Exames complementares, Acompanhamento na APS, Tratamento farmacológico, Tabela com medicamentos, Manejo na APS da doença arterial aguda, Encaminhamento para serviço especializado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Telemedicine/methods , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/therapy , Education, Distance/methods , Primary Health Care , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Nitrates/therapeutic use
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 114(1): e17-e20, feb. 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-838169

ABSTRACT

Durante la niñez, la tromboembolia pulmonar (TEP) es una afección poco frecuente, aunque potencialmente mortal. El mayor número de episodios de tromboemblia venosa (TEV) es resultado de complicaciones de factores de riesgo subyacentes, tales como tumores malignos, quimioterapia (L-asparaginasa) y colocación de un catéter venoso central. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con leucemia linfocítica aguda y TEP que tuvo un presíncope y fue tratado satisfactoriamente con heparina de bajo peso molecular y antagonistas del calcio.


In childhood, pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is an uncommonbut potentially life-threatening disease. The greater numbers of venous thromboembolism (VTE) are complications of underlying risk factors such as malignancies, chemotherapy (L-asparaginase), and central venous catheter. We report a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and PTE, who presented with near-syncope, and was successfully treated with low molecular weight heparin and calcium channel blockers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Fatal Outcome , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
16.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 49(1): 69-75, Jan-Feb/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-742066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of using antihypertensive classes of drugs of the calcium channel antagonists and inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme in plasma concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide in patients with hypertension. METHODS Cross-sectional study with quantitative approach conducted with hypertensive patients in use of antihypertensive classes of drugs: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or calcium channel antagonists. RESULTS It was found that the concentration of plasma nitric oxide was significantly higher in hypertensive patients that were in use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (p<0.03) and the hydrogen sulphide concentration was significantly higher in hypertensive plasma in use of calcium channel antagonists (p<0.002). CONCLUSION The findings suggest that these medications have as additional action mechanism the improvement of endothelial dysfunction by elevate plasma levels of vasodilatory substances. .


OBJETIVO Evaluar el efecto del uso de antihipertensivos pertenecientes a las clases medicamentosas antagonistas de canales de calcio e inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina en las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácido sulfhídrico y óxido nítrico en portadores de hipertensión arterial sistémica. MÉTODO Estudio transversal con abordaje cuantitativo realizado con hipertensos que toman antihipertensivos de las clases de inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina o antagonistas de los canales de calcio. RESULTADOS Se verificó que la concentración de óxido nítrico plasmático fue significativamente mayor en hipertensos que estaban usando inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (p<0.03) y que la concentración de ácido sulfhídrico plasmático fue significativamente mayor en hipertensos en uso de antagonistas de los canales de calcio (p<0.002). CONCLUSIÓN Los hallazgos sugieren que dichos fármacos tienen como mecanismo de acción adicional la mejora de la disfunción endotelial al elevar los niveles plasmáticos de sustancias vasodilatadoras. .


OBJETIVO Avaliar o efeito do uso de anti-hipertensivos pertencentes às classes medicamentosas antagonistas de canais de cálcio e inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina nas concentrações plasmáticas de ácido sulfídrico e óxido nítrico em portadores de hipertensão arterial sistêmica. MÉTODO Estudo transversal com abordagem quantitativa realizado com hipertensos em uso de anti-hipertensivos das classes inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina ou antagonistas dos canais de cálcio. RESULTADOS Verificou-se que a concentração de óxido nítrico plasmático foi significativamente maior em hipertensos que estavam em uso de inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (p<0.03) e que a concentração de ácido sulfídrico plasmático foi significativamente maior em hipertensos em uso de antagonistas dos canais de cálcio (p<0.002). CONCLUSÃO Os achados sugerem que essas medicações possuem como mecanismo de ação adicional a melhora da disfunção endotelial por elevar os níveis plasmáticos de substâncias vasodilatadoras. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Hydrogen Sulfide/blood , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157699

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is a prevalent condition. Improving blood pressure control would depend on understanding concerns and limitations of physicians. Objective: Understanding practice of calcium channel blockers use among physicians. Material and methods: A cross-sectional, observational paper based questionnaire survey among 218 Indian physicians. Results: According to 55.83% of physicians (n=218), prevalence of hypertension ranges between 21-40%. Sixty percent physicians get referred cases mostly from the general physicians (69.48%). More than 20% patients have concomitant illness according to 33.81% physicians, most common being diabetes (33.44%).According to 96.30% physicians, due to asymptomatic nature, hypertension remains undiagnosed, untreated and uncontrolled. Stress (32.35%), obesity (23.13%), physical inactivity (22.78%) and smoking (20.52%) are responsible for sympathetic over activity. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (37.19%), beta blockers (30.43%), angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) (12.14%) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (4.02%) are used as first choice in patients with sympathetic over activity. Ischemic event, stroke, heart failure and renal failure occur due to ignoring sympathetic over activity according to 30.91%, 25.39%, 20.97% and 22.30% physicians respectively. According to 51.63% of physicians, patient compliance to antihypertensive therapy is > 70%. Lack of awareness (40.5%) and dosage frequency (24%) are two most common reasons for noncompliance. According to 89.72% of physicians, the current CCBs primarily inhibit L-type calcium channels but cause sympathetic over activity. A total of 48.34% physicians, >10% patients complain of pedal edema with amlodipine. In physicians opinion, blockage of L and N type of calcium channels (56.47%), unique mode of action (11.76%), arteriolar and venous dilation (9.41%) and inhibition of reninangiotensin- aldosterone (RAS) system (7.06%) are responsible for less pedal edema with cilnidipine. A total of 98.7% and 99.54% physicians rated efficacy and safety of cilnidipine as “good-very good” compared to other CCB respectively. Conclusion: In hypertension, sympathetic over activity may cause many complications. As per the physicians opinion survey, cilnidipine because of its unique mechanism of action offers multiple benefits in hypertensive patients and can be preferred over amlodipine.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Pressure/physiology , Calcium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Dihydropyridines/administration & dosage , Dihydropyridines/analogs & derivatives , Dihydropyridines/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , India , Middle Aged , Physicians , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164155

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess one-year persistence with antihypertensive therapy (AHT) among newly treated uncomplicated hypertensive patients in Korea and to evaluate the effect of initial therapeutic classes on persistence. We retrospectively analyzed a random sample of 20% of newly treated uncomplicated hypertensive patients (n = 45,787) in 2012 from the National Health Insurance claims database. This group was classified into six cohorts based on initial AHT class. We then measured treatment persistence, allowing a prescription gap of 60 days. Adherence to AHT was assessed with the medication possession ratio. Calcium channel blockers (CCB, 43.7%) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB, 40.3%) were most commonly prescribed as initial monotherapy. Overall, 62.1% and 42.0% were persistent with any AHT and initial class at one year, respectively, and 64.2% were adherent to antihypertensive treatment. Compared with ARBs, the risk of AHT discontinuation was significantly increased with initial use of thiazide diuretics (hazard ratio [HR], 3.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.96-3.74) and beta blockers (HR, 1.86; CI, 1.77-1.95) and was minimally increased with CCBs (HR, 1.12; CI, 1.08-1.15). In conclusion, persistence and adherence to AHT are suboptimal, but the differences are meaningful in persistence and adherence between initial AHT classes.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/classification , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Medication Adherence , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Young Adult
20.
J. bras. med ; 102(6)dez. 2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-737127

ABSTRACT

O fenômeno de Raynaud (FRy) caracteriza- se por episódios reversíveis de vasoespasmos de extremidades, que ocorrem usualmente após estresse ou exposição ao frio. O FRy pode ser primário ou secundário a uma série de condições, principalmente a doenças do espectro da esclerose sistêmica (ES). Na ES o FRy costuma ser mais grave, e lesões isquêmicas de extremidades são frequentes. Nos últimos anos, avanços no estudo da fisiopatologia do FRy e da doença vascular na ES propiciaram o surgimento de novas opções terapêuticas para esta manifestação. Os bloqueadores de canal de cálcio devem ser utilizados como tratamento de primeira escolha para o FRy. Novas drogas, como os inibidores da fosfodiesterase V e os prostanoides, podem ser utilizadas em pacientes com FRy grave, e a bosentana (antagonista do receptor da endotelina-1) é indicada para a prevenção de úlceras digitais recorrentes.


Raynaud?s phenomenon (RP) is characterized by episodic vasospasm of the extremities, usually in response to stress or cold exposure. It can be primary or secondary to several conditions, especially systemic sclerosis-related diseases. In systemic sclerosis (SSc), RP is usually more severe and digital ischemic lesions are a frequent problem. In recent years, advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of RP and of SSc vasculopathy led to the development of new therapeutic options for this condition. Calcium-channel blockers are the first choice for the treatment of RP. New drugs, including phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors and prostanoids, can be used for severe RP, and bosentan (endothelin-1 receptor antagonist) for prevention of recurrent digital ulcers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Raynaud Disease/etiology , Raynaud Disease/drug therapy , Scleroderma, Systemic , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use
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