Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 569
Filter
1.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 137-142, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878243

ABSTRACT

Rapamycin (Rap) is an immunosuppressant, which is mainly used in the anti-rejection of organ transplantation. Meanwhile, it also shows great potential in the fields of anticancer, neuroprotection and anti-aging. Rap can inhibit the activity of mammalian target of Rap (mTOR). It activates the transcription factor EB (TFEB) to up-regulate lysosomal function and eliminates the inhibitory effect of mTOR on ULK1 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1) to promote autophagy. Recent research showed that Rap can directly activate the lysosomal cation channel TRPML1 in an mTOR-independent manner. TRPML1 activation releases lysosomal calcium. Calcineurin functions as the sensor of the lysosomal calcium signal and activates TFEB, thus promoting lysosome function and autophagy. This finding has greatly broadened and deepened our understanding of the pharmacological roles of Rap. In this review, we briefly introduce the canonical Rap-mTOR-ULK1/TFEB signaling pathway, and then discuss the discovery of TRPML1 as a new target of Rap and the pharmacological potential of this novel Rap-TRPML1-Calcineurin-TFEB pathway.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Calcium/metabolism , Calcium Channels , Lysosomes/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sirolimus
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879537

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical phenotype and genetic characterization of a child with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy.@*METHODS@#The proband was subjected to history taking and was diagnosed based on his clinical manifestation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and whole exome sequencing (WES). Sanger sequencing was carried out to determine the origin of pathogenic variant.@*RESULTS@#The proband unconsciously tilts his head to one side with squint, which revealed an abnormal discharge. MRI indicated suspicious abnormal signal shadow in the left posterior frontal cortex in addition with inflammation signs in the right maxillary sinus and ethmoid sinus. WES revealed that the proband has carried a heterozygous c.5789G>A variant in the CACNAIA gene. The result of Sanger sequencing was in keeping with that of WES. Neither of his parents has carried the same variant.@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous c.5789G>A variant of the CACNAIA gene probably underlay the early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 42 in the proband, which has a de novo origin.


Subject(s)
Calcium Channels/genetics , Genetic Testing , Heterozygote , Humans , Infant , Mutation , Spasms, Infantile/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: 2018 ESC/ESH Hypertension guideline recommends 2-drug combination as initial anti-hypertensive therapy. However, real-world evidence for effectiveness of recommended regimens remains limited. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of first-line anti-hypertensive treatment combining 2 out of the following classes: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blocker (A), calcium channel blocker (C), and thiazide-type diuretics (D).METHODS: Treatment-naïve hypertensive adults without cardiovascular disease (CVD) who initiated dual anti-hypertensive medications were identified in 5 databases from US and Korea. The patients were matched for each comparison set by large-scale propensity score matching. Primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events as a composite outcome comprised the secondary measure.RESULTS: A total of 987,983 patients met the eligibility criteria. After matching, 222,686, 32,344, and 38,513 patients were allocated to A+C vs. A+D, C+D vs. A+C, and C+D vs. A+D comparison, respectively. There was no significant difference in the mortality during total of 1,806,077 person-years: A+C vs. A+D (hazard ratio [HR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97−1.20; p=0.127), C+D vs. A+C (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87−1.01; p=0.067), and C+D vs. A+D (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.95−1.47; p=0.104). A+C was associated with a slightly higher risk of heart failure (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01−1.18; p=0.040) and stroke (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01−1.17; p=0.040) than A+D.CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in mortality among A+C, A+D, and C+D combination treatment in patients without previous CVD. This finding was consistent across multi-national heterogeneous cohorts in real-world practice.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Antihypertensive Agents , Calcium Channel Blockers , Calcium Channels , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Diuretics , Heart Failure , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Propensity Score , Stroke
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828037

ABSTRACT

To observe the efficacy of San'ao Decoction(SAD) in diffusing the lung and relieving asthma, and its intervention effect on the expression of transient receptor potential V2(TRPV2) during alleviating asthma, this study replicated an ovalbumin(OVA)-induced asthmatic mice model, and investigated the intervention effect of SAD on the airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The regulatory mechanisms of SAD on the mRNA and protein expressions of TRPV2 in lung tissues and the levels of interleukin-4(IL-4),-10(IL-10), nerve growth factor(NGF), prostaglandin D_2(PGD_2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) were discussed. Compared with the control group, the model group showed typical asthmatic phenotype, the level of eosinophils(EOS) in peripheral blood and BALF as well as the airway hyperresponsiveness were increased(P<0.01), and pathological damage in lung tissue was serious. The mRNA and protein expressions of TRPV2 in lung tissue were increased significantly, while the levels of IL-4, IL-10, NGF and PGD_2 in BALF were elevated(P<0.05,P<0.01). SAD could relieve bronchial asthma manifested as repaired lung patholo-gical changes(P<0.05), reduce the level of EOS in blood and BALF(P<0.05, P<0.01), and improve pulmonary resistance and lung compliance(P<0.05, P<0.01). SAD could also regulate the inflammatory cytokine levels of IL-4, IL-10, NGF, PGD_2 in BALF, and reduce the gene and protein expression of TRPV2 in the lung tissue(P<0.05, P<0.01). It is verified that SAD could reduce the lung inflammation, and improve lung function in asthmatic mice. The regulatory mechanism of SAD on asthma induced by OVA might be related to the regulation of TRPV2 expression and the induced decrease of Th2-related cytokines and neuropeptides, which provides the evidences for the treatment of asthma with SAD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Calcium Channels , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Lung , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Ovalbumin , TRPV Cation Channels
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761820

ABSTRACT

Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and its receptor, nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptor, are localized in brain areas implicated in depression including the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, habenula, and monoaminergic nuclei in the brain stem. N/OFQ inhibits neuronal excitability of monoaminergic neurons and monoamine release from their terminals by activation of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K⁺ channels and inhibition of voltage sensitive calcium channels, respectively. Therefore, NOP receptor antagonists have been proposed as a potential antidepressant. Indeed, mounting evidence shows that NOP receptor antagonists have antidepressant-like effects in various preclinical animal models of depression, and recent clinical studies again confirmed the idea that blockade of NOP receptor signaling could provide a novel strategy for the treatment of depression. In this review, we describe the pharmacological effects of N/OFQ in relation to depression and explore the possible mechanism of NOP receptor antagonists as potential antidepressants.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Antidepressive Agents , Brain , Brain Stem , Calcium Channels , Depression , Habenula , Models, Animal , Neurons , Neuropeptides , Opioid Peptides , Receptors, Drug , Septal Nuclei
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761801

ABSTRACT

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3-fatty acid, modulates multiple cellular functions. In this study, we addressed the effects of DHA on human umbilical vein endothelial cell calcium transient and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation under control and adenosine triphosphate (ATP, 100 µM) stimulated conditions. Cells were treated for 48 h with DHA concentrations from 3 to 50 µM. Calcium transient was measured using the fluorescent dye Fura-2-AM and eNOS phosphorylation was addressed by western blot. DHA dose-dependently reduced the ATP stimulated Ca²⁺-transient. This effect was preserved in the presence of BAPTA (10 and 20 µM) which chelated the intracellular calcium, but eliminated after withdrawal of extracellular calcium, application of 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborane (75 µM) to inhibit store-operated calcium channel or thapsigargin (2 µM) to delete calcium store. In addition, DHA (12 µM) increased ser1177/thr495 phosphorylation of eNOS under baseline conditions but had no significant effect on this ratio under conditions of ATP stimulation. In conclusion, DHA dose-dependently inhibited the ATP-induced calcium transient, probably via store-operated calcium channels. Furthermore, DHA changed eNOS phosphorylation suggesting activation of the enzyme. Hence, DHA may shift the regulation of eNOS away from a Ca²⁺ activated mode to a preferentially controlled phosphorylation mode.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Adenosine , Blotting, Western , Calcium Channels , Calcium , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Phosphorylation , Thapsigargin , Umbilical Veins
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761792

ABSTRACT

Confirming the direct link between neural circuit activity and animal behavior has been a principal aim of neuroscience. The genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI), which binds to calcium ions and emits fluorescence visualizing intracellular calcium concentration, enables detection of in vivo neuronal firing activity. Various GECIs have been developed and can be chosen for diverse purposes. These GECI-based signals can be acquired by several tools including two-photon microscopy and microendoscopy for precise or wide imaging at cellular to synaptic levels. In addition, the images from GECI signals can be analyzed with open source codes including constrained non-negative matrix factorization for endoscopy data (CNMF_E) and miniscope 1-photon-based calcium imaging signal extraction pipeline (MIN1PIPE), and considering parameters of the imaged brain regions (e.g., diameter or shape of soma or the resolution of recorded images), the real-time activity of each cell can be acquired and linked with animal behaviors. As a result, GECI signal analysis can be a powerful tool for revealing the functions of neuronal circuits related to specific behaviors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal , Brain , Calcium Channels , Calcium , Carisoprodol , Endoscopy , Fires , Fluorescence , Ions , Microscopy , Neuronal Calcium-Sensor Proteins , Neurons , Neurosciences , Statistics as Topic
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719635

ABSTRACT

Most diabetic patients experience diabetic mellitus (DM) urinary bladder dysfunction. A number of studies evaluate bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM. In this study, we evaluated the change of bladder smooth muscle contraction between normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we used pharmacological inhibitors to determine the differences in the signaling pathways between normal and DM rats. Rats in the DM group received an intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin and measured blood glucose level after 14 days to confirm DM. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced using acetylcholine (ACh, 10⁻⁴ M). The materials such as, atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (a phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), udenafil (a PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (an α₁-receptor antagonist), papaverine (a smooth muscle relaxant), verapamil (a calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) were pre-treated in bladder smooth muscle. We found that the DM rats had lower bladder smooth muscle contractility than normal rats. When prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122 were pre-treated, there were significant differences between normal and DM rats. Taken together, it was concluded that the change of intracellular Ca²⁺ release mediated by PLC/IP3 and PDE5 activity were responsible for decreased bladder smooth muscle contractility in DM rats.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Atropine , Blood Glucose , Calcium Channels , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Muscle, Smooth , Papaverine , Prazosin , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Receptor, Adenosine A1 , Receptors, Muscarinic , Streptozocin , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder , Verapamil
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 874-882, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781387

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) on the migration of breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanism. The expression of JAK3 in breast cancer MCF-7 cells was silenced by siRNA (siJAK3). The migration ability of MCF-7 cells was detected by scratch test. The activity of store-operated calcium channel (SOCC) was detected by fluorescence calcium imaging. The expression levels of Orai1 and STIM1, key molecules in the process of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) were detected by Western blot and RT-PCR. The results showed that 2-APB, an inhibitor of SOCC, could inhibit the migration ability of MCF-7 cells. siJAK3 transfection significantly inhibited the migration ability of MCF-7 cells, decreased the activity of SOCC, and down-regulated mRNA and protein expression levels of Orai1 and Stim1. Over-expression of Orai1 or STIM1 in JAK3-silenced cells restored their migration ability. These results suggest that JAK3 facilitates the migration of breast cancer cells by SOCC.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Calcium , Metabolism , Calcium Channels , Metabolism , Cell Movement , Physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Janus Kinase 3 , Genetics , Metabolism , MCF-7 Cells , ORAI1 Protein , Genetics
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nicardipine, a calcium channel blocker, is used to treat hypertension in pregnancy or preterm labor. The current study was conducted to investigate the relaxant effects of nicardipine on the isolated uterine smooth muscle of the pregnant rat.METHODS: We obtained uterine smooth muscle strips from pregnant female SD rats. After uterine contraction with oxytocin 10 mU/ml, we added nicardipine (10⁻¹² to 10⁻⁸ M) accumulatively every 20 min. We recorded active tension and frequency of contraction, and calculated EC₅ (effective concentration of 5% reduction), EC₂₅, EC₅₀, EC₇₅, and EC₉₅ of active tension and frequency of contraction using a probit model.RESULTS: Nicardipine (10⁻¹² to 10⁻⁸ M) decreased active tension and frequency of contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC₅₀ and EC₉₅ of nicardipine in the inhibition of active tension of the uterine smooth muscle were 2.41 × 10⁻¹⁰ M and 3.06 × 10⁻⁷ M, respectively. The EC₅₀ and EC₉₅ of nicardipine in the inhibition of frequency of contraction of the uterine smooth muscle were 9.04 × 10⁻¹¹ and 4.18 × 10⁻⁷ M, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Nicardipine relaxed and decreased the frequency of contraction of the uterine smooth muscle in a concentration-dependent pattern. It might be possible to adjust the clinical dosage of nicardipine in the obstetric field based on our results, but further clinical studies are needed to confirm them.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium Channels , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Muscle, Smooth , Nicardipine , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Oxytocin , Pregnancy , Rats , Relaxation , Uterine Contraction , Uterus
12.
Biol. Res ; 52: 45, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Resveratrol was reported to trigger the apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes In adjuvant arthritis rats but the subcellular mechanism remains unclear. Since ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress were involved in the effects of resveratrol with imbalance of calcium bio-transmission, store operated calcium entry (SOCE), a novel intracellular calcium regulatory pathway, may also participate in this process. RESULTS: In the present study, Resveratrol was found to suppress ORAI1 expression of a dose dependent manner while have no evident effects on STIM1 expressive level. Besides, resveratrol had no effects on ATP or TG induced calcium depletion but present partly dose-dependent suppression of SOCE. On the one hand, microinjection of ORAI1 overexpressed vector in sick toe partly counteracted the therapeutic effects of resveratrol on adjuvant arthritis and serum inflammatory cytokine including IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α. On the other hand, ORAI1 SiRNA injection provided slight relief to adjuvant arthritis in rats. In addition, ORAI1 overexpression partly diminished the alleviation of hemogram abnormality induced by adjuvant arthritis after resveratrol treatment while ORAI1 knockdown presented mild resveratrol-like effect on hemogram in rats model. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that resveratrol reduced store-operated Ca2+ entry and enhanced the apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in adjuvant arthritis rats model via targeting ORAI1-STIM1 complex, providing a theoretical basis for ORAI1 targeted therapy in future treatment with resveratrol on rheumatoid arthritis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Arthritis, Experimental/physiopathology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Synoviocytes/drug effects , Stromal Interaction Molecule 1/drug effects , ORAI1 Protein/drug effects , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/physiology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Mitochondria/drug effects
13.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(6): 643-651, nov.- dez. 2018. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979982

ABSTRACT

Sepsis remains the leading cause of mortality and critical illness worldwide. Myocardial dysfunction is one of the most clinically relevant manifestations of sepsis and results from a complex interaction among genetic, molecular, metabolic, and structural changes. Despite the prominence given to the occurrence of systolic dysfunction during sepsis, the association between diastolic dysfunction and mortality is controversial, while diastolic dysfunction and right ventricular dysfunction are identified as independent predictors of mortality in the most recent studies. Elevation of biomarkers during sepsis may result from several mechanisms, and although the role of the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the N-terminal portion of its prohormone (NT-proBNP) as independent predictors of mortality is well defined, the same cannot be said about cardiac troponins due to conflicting results among currently available studies. The objective of the present review is to discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of myocardial dysfunction induced by sepsis in adults and the role of echocardiography and cardiac biomarkers as tools for prognostic evaluation in this clinical setting


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Echocardiography/methods , Biomarkers , Sepsis/mortality , Prognosis , Calcium Channels , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/mortality , Adult
14.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 55(2): 135173, 26 jul. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-913303

ABSTRACT

The present study hypothesized that intramammary infection (IMI) might reduce milk ethanol stability (MES), mainly when IMI is caused by major pathogens. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of IMI on bovine MES using a natural exposure experimental design. Ninety-four lactating cows from five dairy herds were selected once they were determined to have an IMI, based on milk bacteriological culturing with positive isolation and somatic cell count (SCC) > 200×103 cells/mL in two out of three composite milk samples collected during three consecutive weeks. After selection, cows were sampled a second time (within two weeks) for evaluation at mammary quarter level (n = 326): milk yield (kg/quarter/day), MES, composition (fat, protein, lactose, casein, total solids and solids-non-fat), and bacteriologic culture. The effect of subclinical mastitis on MES was tested by two models: 1) comparison of healthy vs. infected quarters; and 2) comparison of contralateral mammary quarter within cow. The only milk composition variable associated with MES was lactose (r = 0.18; P < 0.01). Subclinical IMI did not affect MES when the comparison was performed using both models (1 and 2). Likewise, MES did not change when infected quarters were sorted into two groups of pathogens (major, minor and infrequent; and contagious, environmental, minor and infrequent) and compared with healthy mammary quarters. Considering the results of both models, subclinical IMI did not affect MES of dairy cows.(AU)


Neste trabalho investigou-se a hipótese de que a infecção intramamária (IIM) poderia reduzir a estabilidade do leite ao etanol (ELA), principalmente quando a IIM é causada por agentes primários. Assim, em um experimento de exposição natural, foi avaliado o efeito da IIM sobre a ELA em bovinos. Noventa e quatro vacas em lactação de cinco rebanhos leiteiros foram selecionadas por apresentar IIM, segundo resultados de cultura bacteriológica de amostras compostas de leite (isolamento positivo) e contagem de células somáticas (CCS) > 200×103 células/mL em pelo menos duas de três coletas semanais consecutivas. Após essa seleção, as vacas foram amostradas pela segunda vez (dentro de duas semanas) para avaliação da IIM em amostras de leite coletadas por quarto mamário (n = 326): produção de leite (kg/quarto/dia), ELA, composição (gordura, proteína, lactose, caseína, sólidos totais e sólidos não gordurosos) e cultura bacteriológica. O efeito da mastite subclínica sobre a ELA foi testada por dois modelos: 1) comparação de quarto sadio versus infectado; e 2) comparação de quartos mamários contralaterais. A única variável de composição do leite associada à ELA foi a lactose (r = 0,18; P < 0,01). A IIM subclínica não afetou a ELA quando a comparação foi realizada utilizando-se os dois modelos (1 e 2); bem como a ELA não foi alterada quando os quartos infectados foram classificados em grupos de agentes patogênicos (primários, secundários e infrequentes; ou contagiosos, ambientais, secundários e infrequentes) e comparados com os quartos mamários sadios. Os resultados obtidos com os dois modelos empregados demonstraram que a IIM subclínica não afetou a ELA de vacas leiteiras.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Calcium Channels/analysis , Caseins/analysis , Milk/chemistry , Ethanol/analysis , Mastitis, Bovine/diagnosis
15.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 31(2)abr.-jun. 2018. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-913972

ABSTRACT

O eletrocardiograma corresponde ao registro gráfico da atividade elétrica cardíaca. As ondas que o compõem são obtidas por meio de cabos-eletrodos posicionados de maneira convencional na superfície corpórea, e, por essa razão, apresentam características tanto de duração como de morfologia bem estabelecidas. Quaisquer modificações dessas ondas podem indicar alterações da atividade elétrica, de átrios e/ou de ventrículos. Esse conceito é importante não somente para se diagnosticar um desarranjo muscular, mas também para se estadiar uma doença e estabelecer o prognóstico. A fibrilação atrial é uma arritmia frequente, cuja incidência aumenta com a idade e com o acúmulo de fatores de risco relacionados a sua origem. Várias doenças que surgem ao longo da vida agridem o tecido atrial, causando desarranjos elétrico e estrutural atriais, que podem se manifestar como modificações das características das ondas p, tais como morfologia e duração, bem como de sua relação com o intervalo PR. Essas alterações, quando detectadas, podem ser úteis na identificação precoce dos pacientes mais propensos a terem fibrilação atrial, e sua presença, associada a escores clínicos que definem indivíduos mais "doentes", tem se mostrado um aliado útil no manuseio clínico dessa população. Este trabalho tem como objetivo atualizar esses conceitos para a prática clínica


The electrocardiogram is a graphical recording of cardiac electrical activity. The waves in an electrocardiogram are obtained by means of electrode-cables positioned in a conventional way on the body surface and for this reason, their characteristics, including both duration and morphology, are well established. Any changes in these waves may indicate electrical activity changes of the atria and/or ventricles. This concept is important not only for diagnosing heart muscle disease but also for staging the disease and establishing prognosis. Atrial fibrillation is a frequent arrhythmia whose incidence increases with age and with the accumulation of risk factors related to its origin. Several diseases which develop throughout a patient's lifetime cause atrial tissue lesions and atrial electrical and structural derangements whose manifestations may be modifications of p wave characteristics such as its morphology and duration, as well as its relationship with the PR interval. These changes, when detected, may be useful for the early identification of patients most likely to have atrial fibrillation and their presence, along with clinical scores that define "sicker" individuals, have been shown to be a useful ally in the clinical management of this population. The purpose of this study is to update these concepts for the clinical practice


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Patients , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Electrocardiography/methods , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Prognosis , Tobacco Use Disorder , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Calcium Channels , p Wave , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Obesity
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718673

ABSTRACT

An overdose of antihypertensive agents, such calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARBs), and the antihyperglycemic agent, metformin, leads to hypotension and lactic acidosis, respectively. A 40-year-old hypertensive and diabetic man with hyperlipidemia and a weight of 110 kg presented to the emergency room with vomiting, dizziness, and hypotension following an attempted drug overdose suicide with combined CCBs, ARBs, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coemzyme A reductase inhibitors, and metformins. A conventional medical treatment initially administered proved ineffective. The treatment was then changed to simultaneous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), which was effective. This shows that simultaneous ECMO and CRRT can be an effective treatment protocol in cases of ineffective conventional medical therapy for hypotension and lactic acidosis due to an overdose of antihypertensive agents and metformin, respectively.


Subject(s)
Acidosis, Lactic , Adult , Antihypertensive Agents , Calcium Channel Blockers , Calcium Channels , Calcium , Clinical Protocols , Dizziness , Drug Overdose , Emergency Service, Hospital , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Hypotension , Metformin , Oxidoreductases , Receptors, Angiotensin , Renal Replacement Therapy , Suicide , Vomiting
17.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 265-275, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715500

ABSTRACT

Epidermal barrier formation and the maintenance of barrier homeostasis are essential to protect us from the external environments and organisms. Moreover, impaired keratinocytes differentiation and dysfunctional skin barrier can be the primary causes or aggravating factors for many inflammatory skin diseases including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Therefore, understanding the regulation mechanisms of keratinocytes differentiation and skin barrier homeostasis is important to understand many skin diseases and establish an effective treatment strategy. Calcium ions (Ca²⁺) and their concentration gradient in the epidermis are essential in regulating many skin functions, including keratinocyte differentiation, skin barrier formation, and permeability barrier homeostasis. Recent studies have suggested that the intracellular Ca²⁺ stores such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are the major components that form the epidermal calcium gradient and the ER calcium homeostasis is crucial for regulating keratinocytes differentiation, intercellular junction formation, antimicrobial barrier, and permeability barrier homeostasis. Thus, both Ca²⁺ release from intracellular stores, such as the ER and Ca²⁺ influx mechanisms are important in skin barrier. In addition, growing evidences identified the functional existence and the role of many types of calcium channels which mediate calcium flux in keratinocytes. In this review, the origin of epidermal calcium gradient and their role in the formation and regulation of skin barrier are focused. We also focus on the role of ER calcium homeostasis in skin barrier. Furthermore, the distribution and role of epidermal calcium channels, including transient receptor potential channels, store-operated calcium entry channel Orai1, and voltage-gated calcium channels in skin barrier are discussed.


Subject(s)
Calcium Channels , Calcium , Dermatitis, Atopic , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Epidermis , Homeostasis , Intercellular Junctions , Ions , Keratinocytes , Permeability , Psoriasis , Skin Diseases , Skin , Transient Receptor Potential Channels
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate how a Portulaca oleracea L. extract (POE) stimulates insulin secretion in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells. MATERIALS/METHOD: INS-1 pancreatic β-cells were incubated in the presence of various glucose concentrations: 1.1 or 5.6, 16.7 mM glucose. The cells were treated with insulin secretagogues or insulin secretion inhibitor for insulin secretion assay using an insulin ELISA kit. In order to quantify intracellular influx of Ca2+ caused by POE treatment, the effect of POE on intracellular Ca2+ in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells was examined using Fluo-2 AM dye. RESULTS: POE at 10 to 200 µg/mL significantly increased insulin secretion dose-dependently as compared to the control. Experiments at three glucose concentrations (1.1, 5.6, and 16.7 mM) confirmed that POE significantly stimulated insulin secretion on its own as well as in a glucose-dependent manner. POE also exerted synergistic effects on insulin secretion with secretagogues, such as L-alanine, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and especially tolbutamide, and at a depolarizing concentration of KCl. The insulin secretion caused by POE was significantly attenuated by treatment with diazoxide, an opener of the K+ ATP channel (blocking insulin secretion) and by verapamil (a Ca2+ channel blocker). The insulinotropic effect of POE was not observed under Ca2+-free conditions in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells. When the cells were preincubated with a Ca2+ fluorescent dye, Fluo-2 (acetoxymethyl ester), the cells treated with POE showed changes in fluorescence in red, green, and blue tones, indicating a significant increase in intracellular Ca2+, which closely correlated with increases in the levels of insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that POE stimulates insulin secretion via a K+ ATP channel-dependent pathway in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine , Adenosine Triphosphate , Alanine , Calcium Channels , Diabetes Mellitus , Diazoxide , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescence , Glucose , Insulin , Portulaca , Tolbutamide , Verapamil
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715165

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been shown to have significant therapeutic effects on calcium channel blocker overdose in animal studies and clinical cases. In this preliminary experiment, we investigated the hemodynamic changes and survival in a rat model of verapamil intoxication. METHODS: Fourteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were sedated and treated with ILE or normal saline (control), followed by continuous intravenous infusion of verapamil (20 mg/kg/h). Mean arterial pressure and heart rate of rats were monitored during the infusion. In addition, the total dose of infused verapamil and the duration of survival were measured. RESULTS: Survival was prolonged in the ILE group (32.43±5.8 min) relative to the control group (24.14±4.3 min) (p=0.01). The cumulative mean lethal dose of verapamil was higher in the ILE group (4.3±0.7 mg/kg) than in the control group (3.2±0.5 mg/kg; p=0.017). CONCLUSION: ILE pretreatment prolonged survival and increased the lethal dose in a rat model of verapamil poisoning.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arterial Pressure , Calcium Channels , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Male , Models, Animal , Poisoning , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Therapeutic Uses , Verapamil
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738910

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and meta-analyses indicate that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the a-1C subunit of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (CACNA1C) gene increase the risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (BDs). We investigated the association between the genetic variants on CACNA1C and schizophrenia and/or BDs in the Korean population. METHODS: A total of 582 patients with schizophrenia, 336 patients with BDs consisting of 179 bipolar I disorder (BD-I) and 157 bipolar II disorder (BD-II), and 502 healthy controls were recruited. Based on previous results from other populations, three SNPs (rs10848635, rs1006737, and rs4765905) were selected and genotype-wise association was evaluated using logistic regression analysis under additive, dominant and recessive genetic models. RESULTS: rs10848635 showed a significant association with schizophrenia (p=0.010), the combined schizophrenia and BD group (p=0.018), and the combined schizophrenia and BD-I group (p=0.011). The best fit model was dominant model for all of these phenotypes. The association remained significant after correction for multiple testing in schizophrenia and the combined schizophrenia and BD-I group. CONCLUSION: We identified a possible role of CACNA1C in the common susceptibility of schizophrenia and BD-I. However no association trend was observed for BD-II. Further efforts are needed to identify a specific phenotype associated with this gene crossing the current diagnostic categories.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , Calcium Channels , Genetic Association Studies , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Logistic Models , Models, Genetic , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Schizophrenia
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL