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1.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190516, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090775

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study investigated the effect of a calcium hydroxide (CH) paste (CleaniCal®) containing N-2-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as a vehicle on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms compared with other products containing saline (Calasept Plus™) or propylene glycol (PG) (Calcipex II®). Methodology Standardized bovine root canal specimens were used. The antibacterial effects were measured by colony-forming unit counting. The thickness of bacterial microcolonies and exopolysaccharides was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Morphological features of the biofilms were observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Bovine tooth blocks covered with nail polish were immersed into the vehicles and dispelling was observed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (p<0.05). Results CleaniCal® showed the highest antibacterial activity, followed by Calcipex II® (p<0.05). Moreover, NMP showed a higher antibacterial effect compared with PG (p<0.05). The thickness of bacteria and EPS in the CleaniCal® group was significantly lower than that of other materials tested (p<0.05). FE-SEM images showed the specimens treated with Calasept Plus™ were covered with biofilms, whereas the specimens treated with other medicaments were not. Notably, the specimen treated with CleaniCal® was cleaner than the one treated with Calcipex II®. Furthermore, the nail polish on the bovine tooth block immersed in NMP was completely dispelled. Conclusions CleaniCal® performed better than Calasept Plus™ and Calcipex II® in the removal efficacy of E. faecalis biofilms. The results suggest the effect might be due to the potent dissolving effect of NMP on organic substances.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Pyrrolidinones/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Potassium Chloride/chemistry , Pyrrolidinones/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Materials Testing , Calcium Chloride/pharmacology , Calcium Chloride/chemistry , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Sodium Bicarbonate/pharmacology , Sodium Bicarbonate/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Confocal , Drug Combinations
2.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180030, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1002410

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide (CH) associated with two different vehicles as a capping material for pulp tissue in primary molars, compared with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Methodology: Forty-five primary mandibular molars with dental caries were treated by conventional pulpotomy using one of the following materials: MTA only (MTA group), CH with saline (CH+saline group) and CH with polyethylene glycol (CH+PEG group) (15 teeth/group). Clinical and periapical radiographic examinations of the pulpotomized teeth were performed 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Data were tested by chi-squared analysis and a multiple comparison post-test. Results: The MTA group showed both clinical and radiographic treatment success in 14/14 teeth (100%), at all follow-up appointments. By clinical evaluation, no teeth in the CH+saline and CH+PEG groups had signs of mobility, fistula, swelling or inflammation of the surrounding gingival tissue. However, in the CH+saline group, radiographic analysis detected internal resorption in up to 9/15 teeth (67%), and inter-radicular bone resorption and furcation radiolucency in up to 5/15 teeth (36%), from 3 to 12 months of follow-up. In the CH+PEG group, 2/11 teeth (18%) had internal resorption and 1/11 teeth (9%) presented bone resorption and furcation radiolucency at all follow-up appointments. Conclusion: CH with PEG performed better than CH with saline as capping material for pulpotomy of primary teeth. However, both combinations yielded clinical and radiographic results inferior to those of MTA alone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Oxides/therapeutic use , Pulpotomy/methods , Tooth, Deciduous/surgery , Calcium Hydroxide/therapeutic use , Silicates/therapeutic use , Calcium Compounds/therapeutic use , Aluminum Compounds/therapeutic use , Pulp Capping and Pulpectomy Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Tooth, Deciduous/diagnostic imaging , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Radiography, Dental , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Drug Combinations , Pulp Capping and Pulpectomy Agents/chemistry , Saline Solution/therapeutic use , Saline Solution/chemistry
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180291, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-984570

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of modified triple antibiotic paste and an experimental composition using calcium hydroxide on lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-primed apical papilla cells (APC). Material and Methods Human APC were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity of modified Triple Antibiotic Paste (mTAP - Ciprofloxacin, Metronidazole and Cefaclor at 1:1:1) and of a paste of Ciprofloxacin, Metronidazole and Calcium hydroxide (CMC - 1:1:2) and modified CMC (mCMC - 2:2:1) by using MTT assay. The substances were reconstituted in DMEM at 1,000 µg/mL and » serially diluted before being kept in contact with cells for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. Further, cells were primed with 1 µg/mL of Enterococcus faecalis LTA for 7 days prior to the viability test with 1,000 µg/mL of each substance. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and two-way ANOVA respectively followed by Tukey's post-test. Significance levels were set at p<0.05. Results In the first assay, the higher cytotoxic rates were reached by mTAP for all experimental periods. CMC was found toxic for APC at 5 and 7 days, whereas mCMC did not affect the cell viability. Only CMC and mCMC were able to induce some cellular proliferation. In the second assay, when considering the condition with medium only, LTA-primed cells significantly proliferated in comparison to LTA-untreated ones. At this context, mTAP and CMC showed similar cytotoxicity than the observed for LTA-untreated cells, while mCMC was shown cytotoxic at 7 days only for LTA-primed APC. Comparing the medications, mTAP was more cytotoxic than CMC and mCMC. Conclusion mTAP showed higher cytotoxicity than CMC and mCMC and the effect of topic antimicrobials might differ when tested against apical papilla cells under physiological or activated conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Teichoic Acids/toxicity , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Enterococcus faecalis/chemistry , Tooth Apex/cytology , Dental Papilla/cytology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Root Canal Irrigants/toxicity , Time Factors , Calcium Hydroxide/toxicity , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Ciprofloxacin/toxicity , Ciprofloxacin/chemistry , Cefaclor/toxicity , Cefaclor/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Tooth Apex/drug effects , Dental Papilla/drug effects , Metronidazole/toxicity , Metronidazole/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents
4.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e042, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001597

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of a new bioceramic endodontic sealer (i.e., Sealer Plus BC) in comparison with those of MTA Fillapex and AH Plus. L929 fibroblasts were cultured and Alamar Blue was used to evaluate cell viability of diluted extracts (1:50, 1:100, and 1:200) from each sealer at 24 h. Polyethylene tubes that were filled with material or empty (as a control) were implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. The rats were killed after 7 and 30 d (n = 8), and the tubes were removed for histological analysis. Parametric data was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA test, and nonparametric data was analyzed via the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Dunn test (p < 0.05). A reduction in cell viability was observed in the extracts that were more diluted for Sealer Plus BC when compared to that of Control and AH Plus (p < 0.05). However, the 1:50 dilution of the Sealer Plus BC was similar to that of the Control (p > 0.05). Conversely, more diluted extracts of MTA Fillapex (1:200) and AH Plus (1:100 and 1:200) were similar to the Control (p > 0.05). Histological analysis performed at 7 d did not indicate any significant difference between tissue response for all materials, and the fibrous capsule was thick (p > 0.05). At 30 d, Sealer Plus BC was similar to the Control (p > 0.05) and MTA Fillapex and AH Plus exhibited greater inflammation than the Control (p < 0.05). The fibrous capsule was thin for the Control and for most specimens of Sealer Plus BC and AH Plus. Thus, Sealer Plus BC is biocompatible when compared to MTA Fillapex and AH Plus, and it is less cytotoxic when less-diluted extracts are used.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Bone Cements/chemistry , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Oxides/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Biocompatible Materials , Bone Cements/toxicity , Bone Cements/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Materials Testing , Calcium Hydroxide/toxicity , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Silicates/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/blood , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Subcutaneous Tissue/pathology , Drug Combinations , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Inflammation
5.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e005, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989474

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the influence of chlorhexidine (liquid and gel) and zinc oxide in calcium hydroxide (CH) pastes on root pH in simulated external resorption. One hundred human anterior teeth with a single root canal were selected. After decoronation and root canal instrumentation, the specimens were divided into 4 experimental groups and 1 control group (without intracanal paste): CH + saline (CH+S), CH + 2% chlorhexidine liquid (CH+ CHX), CH + 2% chlorhexidine gel (CH+ CHXg), and CH + 2% chlorhexidine gel + zinc oxide (CH+ CHXg+ZnO). pH was measured using a microelectrode at 3 and 24 h, and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after inserting intracanal pastes. Data were analyzed statistically using an ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The CH+CHXg+ZnO group had the highest pH values throughout (p<0.05). The CH+S and CH+ CHX groups had the highest pH values after 1 week and the CH+ CHXg group after 2 weeks. CH+ CHXg maintained the highest pH until the fourth week compared with CH+ CHX (p < 0.05). The control group remained at a neutral pH at all evaluated times. It can be concluded that chlorhexidine solution or gel maintained the alkaline pH of CH, and chlorhexidine gel allowed a slower decrease in pH over time. CH+ CHXg+ZnO showed the highest pH values and was an effective intracanal medication for maintaining alkaline root pH in the area of resorption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Tooth Root/drug effects , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Ointments , Reference Values , Root Resorption/drug therapy , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Gels , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
6.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(3): 290-298, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893628

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of laser-activated irrigation (LAI), XP-endo Finisher, CanalBrush, Vibringe, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and conventional syringe irrigation systems on the removal of calcium hydroxide (CH) from simulated root canal irregularities. Material and Methods The root canals of one hundred and five extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented using Reciproc rotary files up to size R40. The teeth were split longitudinally. Two of the three standard grooves were created in the coronal and apical section of one segment, and another in the middle part of the second segment. The standardized grooves were filled with CH and the root halves were reassembled. After 14 days, the specimens were randomly divided into 7 experimental groups (n=15/group). CH was removed as follows: Group 1: beveled needle irrigation; Group 2: double side-vented needle irrigation; Group 3: CanalBrush; Group 4: XP-endo Finisher; Group 5: Vibringe; Group 6: PUI; Group 7: LAI. The amount of remaining CH in the grooves was scored under a stereomicroscope at 20× magnification. Statistical evaluation was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni-Correction Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Groups 1 and 2 were the least efficient in eliminating CH from the grooves. Groups 6 and 7 eliminated more CH than the other protocols; however, no significant differences were found between these two groups (P>.05). Conclusions Nevertheless, none of the investigated protocols were able to completely remove all CH from all three root regions. LAI and PUI showed less residual CH than the other protocols from artificial grooves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Laser Therapy/methods , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
7.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(2): 234-242, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841184

ABSTRACT

Abstract Regenerative endodontic procedure (REP) has been proposed as a new approach to treat immature permanent teeth. However, materials used in REP for root canal disinfection or cervical sealing may induce tooth discoloration. Objectives To assess tooth crown’s color after intracanal treatment with triple antibiotic paste (TAP) or calcium hydroxide (CH); cervical sealing with glass ionomer cement (GIC) or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA); and bleaching with carbamide peroxide. Material and Methods After pulp removal and color spectrophotometer measurement, 50 bovine incisors were divided into 4 experimental groups and one control (untreated). Experiments were performed in phases (Ph). Ph1: TAP (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, minocycline), TAPM (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, amoxicillin), DAP (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole), or CH treatment groups. After 1 and 3 days (d); 1, 2, 3 weeks (w); and 1, 2, 3 and 4 months (m), color was measured and medications were removed. Ph2: GIC or MTA cervical sealing, each using half of the specimens from each group. Color was assessed after 1d, 3d; 1w, 2w, 3w; 1m and 2m. Ph3: Two bleaching sessions, each followed by color measurement. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and post-hoc Holm-Sidak method. Results Ph1: Specimens of TAP group presented higher color alteration (ΔE) mean than those of TAPM group. No significant difference was found among TAP or TAPM and CH, DAP or Control groups. Ph2: cervical sealing materials showed no influence on color alteration. Ph3: Different ΔE means (from different groups), prior to bleaching, became equivalent after one bleaching session. Conclusions TAP induces higher color alteration than TAPM; color alteration increases over time; cervical sealing material has no influence on color alteration; and, dental bleaching was able to recover, at least partially, the tooth crown’s color.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Tooth Discoloration/chemically induced , Tooth Crown/drug effects , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Oxides/chemistry , Peroxides/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Time Factors , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Urea/chemistry , Materials Testing , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Silicates/chemistry , Prosthesis Coloring , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Drug Combinations , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 101-111, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841163

ABSTRACT

Abstract The quality of the dentin root is the most important factor for restoration resin sealing and drives the outcome of endodontic treatment. Objective This study evaluated the effect of different filling pastes and cleaning agents on the root dentin of primary teeth using Fourier-transformed Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), micro energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (µ-EDXRF) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. Material and Methods Eighty roots of primary teeth were endodontically prepared and distributed into 4 groups and filled according to the following filling pastes: Control-no filling (CP), Calen®+zinc oxide (CZ), Calcipex II® (CII), Vitapex® (V). After seven days, filling paste groups were distributed to 4 subgroups according to cleaning agents (n=5): Control-no cleaning (C), Ethanol (E), Tergenform® (T), 35% Phosphoric acid (PA). Then, the roots were sectioned and the dentin root sections were internally evaluated by FT-Raman, µ-EDXRF and SEM. Data was submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results Regarding filling pastes, there was no significant difference in organic content. CP provided the lowest calcium values and, calcium/phosphoric ratio (Ca/P), and the highest phosphoric values. For cleaning agents there was no difference in organic content when compared to the C; however, T showed significantly higher calcium and Ca/P than PA. All groups showed similar results for phosphorus. The dentin smear layer was present after use of the cleaning agents, except PA. Conclusion The filling pastes changed the inorganic content, however they did not change the organic content. Cleaning agents did not alter the inorganic and organic content. PA cleaned and opened dentin tubules.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Phosphoric Acids/chemistry , Silicones/chemistry , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Tooth, Deciduous/drug effects , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Analysis of Variance , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Ethanol/chemistry
9.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 30(1): 26-32, 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907404

ABSTRACT

The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate changes in pH andcalcium ion diffusion through root dentin from calcium hydroxide(Ca (OH)2) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) pastes at 7,30 and 60 days; and the relationship between pH and iondiffusion. Thirty­two human premolars were used. Crowns weresectioned and root canals instrumented and filled in with thefollowing preparations: 1) Ca(OH)2 + distilled water (n=7); 2)Ca(OH)2 + 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate (n=7); 3) MTA +distilled water (n=7); 4) MTA + 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate(CHX) (n=7); 5) distilled water (n=2) (control); 6) 0.1%chlorhexidine gluconate (n=2) (control). The apex and coronaryopening were sealed with IRM. Roots were placed in Eppendorftubes with 1 ml distilled water at 37°C and 100% humidity. Atbaseline, 7, 30 and 60 days, pH was measured with pH meter,and calcium ion content in the solution was analyzed by atomicabsorption spectrophotometry. The data were statisticallyanalyzed using ANOVA, simple linear regression analysis andPearson’s correlation test. The highest pH values were achievedwith calcium hydroxide pastes at 60 days (p ≤ 0.05). Calciumions were released in all groups. The calcium hydroxide pastewith distilled water at 60 days had the highest calcium ion value(p ≤ 0.01). There was a positive correlation between calcium andpH values.


El objetivo de este estudio ex vivo fue evaluar los cambios en elpH y la difusión a través de la dentina radicular de iones calcioa partir de pastas de hidróxido de calcio (Ca (OH)2) y trióxidomineral agregado (MTA), durante 7, 30 y 60 días; y la relaciónentre el pH y la difusión de iones. Se utilizaron 32 premolareshumanos. Las coronas fueron seccionadas, los conductos radicu ­lares fueron instrumentados y obturados con las siguientespreparaciones: 1) Ca (OH)2 + agua destilada (n = 7); 2)Ca (OH)2 + gluconato de clorhexidina (CHX) al 0,1% (n = 7);3) MTA + agua destilada (n = 7); 4) MTA + gluconato declorhexidina al 0,1% (n = 7); 5) agua destilada (n = 2) (control);6) gluconato de clorhexidina al 0,1% (n = 2) (control). El ápicey la apertura coronaria se sellaron con IRM. Las raíces secolocaron en tubos Eppendorf con 1 ml de agua destilada a37 °C y 100% de humedad. Se midió el pH inicial y a los 7, 30 y60 días, con pHmetro, y se analizó el contenido de iones calcioen la solución por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Losdatos fueron analizados estadísticamente con ANOVA, análisisde regresión lineal y correlación de Pearson. Los valores de pHmás altos se obtuvieron con las pastas de hidróxido de calcio alos 60 días (p ≤ 0,05). Todos los grupos mostraron liberación deiones calcio. La pasta de hidróxido de calcio con agua destiladamostró el valor más alto de iones calcio a los 60 días (p ≤ 0,01).Hubo una correlación positiva entre los valores de pH y calcio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oxides/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/classification , Analysis of Variance , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Dentin Permeability , Distilled Water , Statistical Analysis , Spectrophotometry, Atomic/methods
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(6): 543-548, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841147

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective This study compared the effectiveness of Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation (PIPS), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) with EndoUltra and standard needle irrigation (SNI) in the removal of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] from the mesial roots of Weine Type II mandibular molars. Material and Methods Thirty mandibular molars were screened by µCT for the presence of mesial roots with complex intra-canal anatomy and a common apical foramen. The teeth were enlarged to a standardized 25/.06 preparation and filled with Ca(OH)2 paste. Specimens were divided into three groups (n=10) according to the technique used for Ca(OH)2 removal: PIPS, at 15 Hz and 20 mJ using a 9 mm long, 600 µm diameter tip; PUI using a 15/.02 tip; and SNI (30 Ga. side-vented needle). Equal volumes of 8.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA were used in all groups. µCT was used to measure the initial amount of Ca(OH)2 present and to assess the residual volume of Ca(OH)2 following each irrigation protocol. Data were analyzed using Tukey HSD and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α=5%). Results The mean volume of Ca(OH)2 before removal was significantly higher in the coronal third than in the middle and apical third (p<0.001). Ca(OH)2 was similarly removed from the coronal and middle thirds with the three methods used (p>0.05). PIPS (median 0%; IQR: 0-0) showed significant higher Ca(OH)2 removal in the apical third than PUI (median 100%, IQR: 85-100) and SNI (median 47%; IQR: 16-72) (p<0.001). Conclusions PIPS laser-activation was more effective for the removal of Ca(OH)2 from mesial roots of mandibular molars with Weine Type II canal configurations than PUI with EndoUltra and SNI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , X-Ray Microtomography/methods , Photoacoustic Techniques/methods , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods , Molar , Needles
11.
Braz. dent. j ; 27(3): 325-331, May-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782829

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated pH and release of calcium, sodium and phosphate ions from different medications in human dentin. Fifty premolars were prepared and randomly divided into groups: (CHX) - 2% chlorhexidine gel; (CHX + CH) - CHX + calcium hydroxide PA; (CH) - CH + propylene glycol 600; (NPBG) - experimental niobium phosphate bioactive glass + distilled water; (BG) - bioactive glass (Bio-Gran) + distilled water. The specimens were immersed in deionized water and the pH variations were measured. The quantification of ions in the solutions was made by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) at 10 min, 24 h, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey`s test, with a significance level of 5%. CH had the highest level of calcium ions release at 30 days, while CHX and BG released more sodium ions. BG, NPBG and CHX released a higher amount of phosphate ions. The pH of CH was significantly higher compared with the other groups. CH favored the greatest increase of pH and calcium ions release. The bioactive glasses released more sodium and phosphate ions and presented an alkaline pH immediately and after 30 days.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o pH e a liberação de íons cálcio, sódio e fosfato de diferentes medicamentos em dentina humana. Cinquenta pré-molares foram preparados e divididos aleatoriamente em grupos: (CHX) - clorexidina gel 2%; (CHX + CH) - CHX + hidróxido de cálcio PA; (CH) - CH + propilenoglicol 600; (NPBG) - vidro experimental nióbio fosfato bioativo + água destilada; (BG) - vidro bioativo (Bio-Gran) + água destilada. Os espécimes foram submersos em água deionizada e as variações de pH foram mensuradas. A quantificação dos íons nas soluções foi feita por espectrometria de emissão atômica com plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP - AES) nos tempos de 10 min, 24 h, 7, 14, 21 e 30 dias. Os resultados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste Tukey, com um nível de significância de 5%. Verificou-se que CH a teve a maior liberação íons de cálcio ao final de 30 dias, enquanto CHX e BG liberaram mais íons de sódio. BG, NPBG e CHX apresentaram a maior liberação de íons fosfato. O pH de CH foi significativamente maior em comparação com os outros grupos testados. O grupo CH aumentou o pH e a liberação de íons cálcio. Os vidros bioativos obtiveram uma maior liberação de íons sódio e fosfato e apresentaram pH alcalino imediato e ao final de 30 dias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Calcium/metabolism , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Glass , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Root Canal Therapy , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
12.
Rev. ADM ; 73(2): 60-64, mar.-abr. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-789835

ABSTRACT

Uno de los objetivos de la endodoncia es la eliminación de los microorganismos de la endodoncia es la eliminación de los microorganismos y la prevención de la reinfección en el sistema de conductosradiculares. Una de las fases de la terapia endodóntica que permite laobtención de dichos objetivos es la obturación de los conductos radiculares;esto significa rellenarlos con un material inerte de la manera más hermética posible y un cemento que permita estimular el proceso de reparación apical y periapical. Los microorganismos pueden permanecer en el sistema de conductos radiculares inclusive después de los procesos de instrumentación e irrigación porque pueden presentar una anatomía compleja. En endodoncia, una de las propiedades deseadas en los cementos endodónticos es la acción antimicrobiana, para eliminar las bacterias resistentes. Los cementos a base de hidróxido de calcio son utilizados debido a su acción antimicrobiana y degradación deendotoxinas, entre otras propiedades. Estas premisas nos llevan a larealización de este trabajo, teniendo como objetivo evaluar la actividadantimicrobiana y la biocompatibilidad que presentan los cementos endodónticos a base de hidróxido de calcio a través de una revisión deliteratura. Después de la revisión podemos concluir que los cementosa base de hidróxido de calcio poseen biocompatibilidad y actividad antimicrobiana contra diversos tipos de microorganismos; sin embargo, pueden tener sus propiedades biológicas alteradas dependiendo de la etodología utilizada y del tiempo de aplicación.


One of the aims of endodontics is to eliminate microorganisms and prevent reinfection in the root-canal system. To achieve this, one of the procedures performed in endodontic therapy is the sealing of the root canals. This implies fi lling the root canal with as hermetic an inert material as possible and a sealer that encourages the process of apical and periapical repair. Microorganisms can remain in the root-canal system even after biomechanical preparation and irrigation, as they may have a complex anatomy. In endodontics, one of the desired properties of an endodontic sealer is antimicrobial activity to eliminate resistant bacteria. Calcium hydroxide-based sealers are used due to their antimicrobial activity and role in endotoxin degradation, among other properties. These were the premises that gave rise to this study, which aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and biocompatibil-ity exhibited by a calcium hydroxide-based endodontic sealer based on a review of the literature. As a result of this review, we were able to conclude that while calcium hydroxide-based sealers do display biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity, their biological properties can vary depending on the method used and the time of application.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Bacteria, Aerobic , Bacteria, Anaerobic , Colony Count, Microbial , Culture Media , Dental Plaque/prevention & control
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e50, 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952036

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of drying protocols (DP) on the apical sealing (AS) and on the bond strength (BS) of teeth filled with different sealers. The root canals of one hundred and fifty-six roots of maxillary canines were prepared with Reciproc rotary files (R50). The teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n = 39), according to the DP: GI-paper points; GII-70% isopropyl alcohol + aspiration with NaviTip points; GIII-95% ethanol + paper points; GIV-EndoVac + paper points. Each group was divided into subgroups, according to the sealer used: AH Plus, Sealapex and MTA Fillapex, using a single-cone technique. Evaluation of AS and BS was performed with fluid filtration (FF) and push-out (PO) methods, respectively. The PO test consisted of sectioning the roots, and subjecting a single slice from each third to testing and analysis for failure type. The data was submitted to two-way and three-way variance analysis (ANOVA) and Tukey (α = 5%). The AS showed no drying protocol influence. The FF results revealed a statistically significant difference between MTA and Sealapex (p < 0.05) sealers. The BS test values showed that there was no statistical significant difference among the canal thirds (p > 0.05), but that there was such a difference among the sealers (p < 0.05), among the protocols (p < 0.05), and in the interaction between sealers and protocols (p < 0.05). AH Plus revealed the highest BS values among the sealers; the highest BS results for the sealers occurred with the specimens used with isopropyl alcohol, compared with ethanol and EndoVac.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxides/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Salicylates/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Silicates/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Random Allocation , Adhesiveness , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Dentin/drug effects , Drug Combinations
14.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e24, 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952025

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different root canal filling techniques on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based sealers. Sixty single-rooted canines were prepared using ProTaper (F5) and divided into the following groups based on the root filling technique: Lateral Compaction (LC), Single Cone (SC), and Tagger Hybrid Technique (THT). The following subgroups (n = 10) were also created based on sealer material used: AH Plus and Sealer 26. Two-millimeter-thick slices were cut from all the root thirds and subjected to push-out test. Data (MPa) was analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The push-out values were significantly affected by the sealer, filling technique, and root third (p < 0.05). AH Plus (1.37 ± 1.04) exhibited higher values than Sealer 26 (0.92 ± 0.51), while LC (1.80 ± 0.98) showed greater bond strength than THT (1.16 ± 0.50) and SC (0.92 ± 0.25). The cervical (1.45 ± 1.14) third exhibited higher bond strength, followed by the middle (1.20 ± 0.72) and apical (0.78 ± 0.33) thirds. AH Plus/LC (2.26 ± 1.15) exhibited the highest bond strength values, followed by AH Plus/THT (1.32 ± 0.61), Sealer 26/LC (1.34 ± 0.42), and Sealer 26/THT (1.00 ± 0.27). The lowest values were obtained with AH Plus/SC and Sealer 26/SC. Thus, it can be concluded that the filling technique affects the bond strength of sealers. LC was associated with higher bond strength between the material and intra-radicular dentine than THT and SC techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Obturation/methods , Dental Bonding/methods , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties/drug effects , Bismuth/chemistry , Materials Testing , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Dental Restoration Failure , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Gutta-Percha/therapeutic use
15.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e27, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952023

ABSTRACT

Abstract The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT). Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26) and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each). Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm3) in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = ٠.٠٥). The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009) and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010). The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008) and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018) (p > 0.05). Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Bismuth/chemistry , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Salicylates/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , X-Ray Microtomography/methods , Materials Testing , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Gutta-Percha/chemistry
16.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e16, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952011

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the solubility of a Mineral Trioxide Aggregate sealer (MTA-Fillapex) compared with five other sealers, calcium hydroxide (Sealapex), resin (Realseal), zinc oxide-eugenol (Tubli-Seal), and two epoxy resins (AH-26 and AH-Plus), in chloroform and eucalyptoil in static and ultrasonic environments. Samples of each sealer were prepared (n = 180) and then divided into 12 groups that were immersed in solvents for 5 and 10 min in static and ultrasonic environments. The mean weight loss was determined, and the values were compared using Student's t-test, One-way ANOVA, and Tukey's HSD post-hoc test (p < 0.05). In chloroform, MTA-Fillapex, AH-26, and Sealapex displayed moderate solubility with no significant difference in dissolution (p = 0.125); however, their dissolution was significantly lower than that of AH-Plus (p < 0.001), which was almost fully dissolved after 10 minutes. Realseal was significantly less soluble than all sealers (p < 0.001). In eucalyptoil, MTA-Fillapex showed low solubility, as all of the sealers did, but Tubli-Seal was significantly more soluble than other sealers (p < 0.001). Using ultrasonic activation resulted in a significantly higher dissolution rate in chloroform for all sealers except MTA-Fillapex after 10 min (p = 0.226). In eucalyptoil, ultrasonic activation significantly increased the dissolution rate of all sealers except MTA-Fillapex after 5 and 10 min, Sealapex at 10 min, and AH-Plus at 5 min (p > 0.05). In conclusion, MTA-Fillapex was not sufficiently dissolved in either solvent. Ultrasonic activation had limited effectiveness on MTA-Fillapex dissolution, whereas it significantly increased the efficiency of solvents in dissolving a number of endodontic sealers.


Subject(s)
Oxides/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Solvents/chemistry , Chloroform/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Cyclohexanols/chemistry , Monoterpenes/chemistry , Reference Values , Silver/chemistry , Solubility , Time Factors , Titanium/chemistry , Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement/chemistry , Bismuth/chemistry , Materials Testing , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Salicylates/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Drug Combinations , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Ultrasonic Waves , Eucalyptol , Immersion
17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e81, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951987

ABSTRACT

Abstract Obturation of the root canal system aims to fill empty spaces, promoting hermetic sealing and preventing bacterial activity in periapical tissues. This should provide optimal conditions for repair, stimulating the process of biomineralization. An endodontic sealer should be biocompatible once it is in direct contact with periapical tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat subcutaneous tissue response to implanted polyethylene tubes filled with Smartpaste Bio, Acroseal, and Sealapex and investigate mineralization ability of these endodontic sealers. Forty Wistar rats were assigned to the three sealers groups and control group, (n = 10 animals/group) and received subcutaneous implants containing the test sealers, and the control group were implanted with empty tubes. After days 7, 15, 30, and 60, animals were euthanized and polyethylene tubes were removed with the surrounding tissues. Inflammatory infiltrate and thickness of the fibrous capsule were histologically evaluated. Mineralization was analyzed by Von Kossa staining and polarized light. Data were tabulated and analyzed via Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test. All tested materials induced a moderate inflammatory reaction in the initial periods. Smartpaste Bio induced the mildest inflammatory reactions after day 15. No difference was observed among groups after days 30 or 60. Von Kossa-positive staining and birefringent structures observed under polarized light revealed a larger mineralization area in Sealapex-treated animals followed by Smartpaste Bio-treated animals. At the end of the experiment, all tested sealers were found to be biocompatible. All sealers induced biomineralization, except Acroseal, which induced a mild tissue reaction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Root Canal Filling Materials/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Ceramics/pharmacology , Subcutaneous Tissue/drug effects , Epoxy Resins/pharmacology , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Time Factors , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Materials Testing , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Salicylates/pharmacology , Salicylates/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Subcutaneous Tissue/pathology , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Inflammation/chemically induced
18.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e38, 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951978

ABSTRACT

Abstract Enterococcus faecalis are gram positive bacteria that can mostly resist endodontic therapy, inducing persistent infection in the root canal system. Endodontic sealers with antimicrobial activity may help eliminate residual microorganisms that survive endodontic treatment. The present study aimed at comparing the antimicrobial activity of Acroseal, Sealapex and AH Plus endodontic sealers in an in vitro biofilm model. Bovine dentin specimens (144) were prepared, and twelve blocks for each sealer and each experimental time point (2, 7 and 14 days) were placed and left in contact with plates containing inoculum of E. faecalis (ATCC 51299), to induce biofilm formation. After 14 days, the samples were transferred to another plate with test sealers and kept at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 2, 7 and 14 days. The specimens without sealers were used as a control for each period. The samples were agitated in a sonicator after each experiment. The suspensions were agitated in a vortex mixer, serially diluted in saline, and triple plated onto m-Enterococcus agar. Colonyforming units were counted, and the data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Shapiro-Wilk and Kruskal-Wallis one-way tests (p < 0.05) to determine antimicrobial potential. Sealapex showed significant differences at all the experimental time points, in comparison with all the other groups. AH Plus and Acroseal showed antimicrobial activity only on the 14th experimental day. Neither of the sealers tested were able to completely eliminate the biofilm. Sealapex showed the highest antimicrobial activity in all the experimental periods. The antimicrobial activity of all the sealers analyzed increased over time.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Root Canal Filling Materials/pharmacology , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Salicylates/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Epoxy Resins/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Colony Count, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Salicylates/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
19.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(5): 508-514, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-764164

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the subcutaneous tissue response in rats and the antimicrobial activity of intracanal calcium hydroxide dressings mixed with different substances against E. faecalis. Fifty four rats were divided into three experimental groups according to the vehicle in the calcium hydroxide treatment: 0.4% chlorohexidine in propylene glycol (PG),Casearia sylvestris Sw in PG and calcium hydroxide+PG (control group). The pastes were placed into polyethylene tubes and implanted into the subcutaneous tissue. After 7, 14 and 30 days, the samples were processed and histologically evaluated (hematoxylin and eosin). The tissue surface in contact with the material was analyzed, and the quantitative analysis determined the volume density occupied by the inflammatory infiltrate (giant cells, polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells), fibroblasts, collagen fibers and blood vessels. For the antimicrobial analysis, 20 dentin blocks infected with E. faecalis were treated with calcium hydroxide pastes in different vehicles; 0.4% chlorhexidine in PG, PG, extract fromCasearia sylvestris Sw in PG and a positive control (infection and without medication) for 7 days. The efficiency of the pastes was evaluated by the live/dead technique and confocal microscopy. The results showed that 0.4% chlorhexidine induced a higher inflammatory response than the other groups. The Casearia sylvestris Sw extract showed satisfactory results in relation to the intensity of the inflammatory response. In the microbiological test, there were no statistical differences between the evaluated intracanal dressings and the percentage of bacterial viability was between 33 and 42%. The control group showed an 86% viability. Antimicrobial components such as chlorhexidine or Casearia sylvestris Sw did not improve the antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis in comparison to the calcium hydroxide+PG treatment. In addition, the incorporation of chlorhexidine in the calcium hydroxide paste promoted the highest inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Casearia/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Subcutaneous Tissue/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Cells, Cultured , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Collagen/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Materials Testing , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Ointments , Pharmaceutical Vehicles/chemistry , Pharmaceutical Vehicles/pharmacology , Propylene Glycol/chemistry , Propylene Glycol/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Subcutaneous Tissue/pathology , Time Factors
20.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 4(3): 205-210, jun.2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779223

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to evaluate the action of the synthetic chalcone 1-phenyl-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-propen-1-one to induce pulp healing in rats. Material and Methods: Sixty lower first molars of male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (n=20): control (no treatment); calcium hydroxide and chalcone. After relative isolation, the cavities were prepared using a sterile low-speed » round dental bur. After controlling the hemorrhaging, all the pulp exposures were capped with the capping material, by groups. The cavities were sealed with glass ionomer cement and the repair process was assessed at 21 days of procedure. The data were statistically analyzed using the Fisher exact test (p<0.05). Results: Moderate inflammation was observed in all the experimental groups and significant (p<0.05) reparative dentin (tertiary) formation in the calcium hydroxide and chalcone groups. The chalcone group showed dentinal tubules and a low number of cellular inclusions (p<0.05). Conclusion: The chalcone used in this study indicates potential as an inducer of reparative dentine (tertiary) in a rat model...


El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la acción de la chalcona sintética 1-fenil-3- (4-clorofenil) -2-propen-1-ona para inducir la reparación de la pulpa dentaria en ratas. Materiales y métodos: Sesenta primeros molares inferiores de ratas Wistar machos se dividieron en 3 grupos (n = 20): control (sin tratamiento); hidróxido de calcio y chalcona. Después del aislamiento relativo, las cavidades se prepararon usando una fresa dental redonda de » estéril a baja velocidad. Después de controlar la hemorragia, todas las exposiciones pulpares se taparon con el material de recubrimiento de acuerdo con los grupos del experimiento. Las cavidades fueron selladas con cemento de ionómero de vidrio y el proceso de reparación se evaluó a los 21 días del procedimiento. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher (p<0,05). Resultados: Se observó inflamación moderada en todos los grupos experimentales y significativa (p <0,05) formación de dentina reparadora (terciaria) en los grupos de hidróxido de cálcio y chalcona. El grupo de chalcona mostró túbulos dentinarios y un bajo número de inclusiones celulares (p <0,05). Conclusión: La chalcona utilizada en este estudio indica potencial como un inductor de la dentina reparadora (terciaria) en ratas...


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Chalcone/chemistry , Dental Pulp Capping/methods , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Rats, Wistar
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