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1.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202804, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155370

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: to evaluate urinary biochemical alterations related to urolithogenesis processes after sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Materials and methods : prospective study with 32 individuals without previous diagnosis of urolithiasis who underwent SG. A 24-h urine test was collected seven days prior to surgery and at 6-month follow-up. The studied variables were urine volume, urinary pH, oxalate, calcium, citrate, and magnesium and calcium oxalate super saturation (CaOx SS). Results: patients were mainly women (81.2%), with mean age of 40.6 years. Mean pre- and postoperative BMI were 47.1 ± 8.3 Kg/m2 and 35.5 ± 6.1 Kg/m2, respectively (p<0.001). Urine volume was significantly lower at the postoperative evaluation in absolute values (2,242.50 ± 798.26 mL x 1,240.94 ± 352.39 mL, p<0.001) and adjusted to body weight (18.58 ± 6.92 mL/kg x 13.92 ± 4.65 mL/kg, p<0.001). CaOx SS increased significantly after SG (0.11 ± 0.10 x 0.24 ± 0.18, p<0.001). Moreover, uric acid levels were significantly lower at the postoperative evaluation (482.34 ± 195.80 mg x 434.75 ± 158.38 mg, p=0.027). Urinary pH, oxalate, calcium, citrate, and magnesium did not present significant variations between the pre- and postoperative periods. Conclusion: SG may lead to important alterations in the urinary profile. However, it occurs in a much milder way than that of RYGB.


RESUMO Introdução: avaliar as alterações bioquímicas urinárias relacionadas aos processos de litíase urinária após gastrectomia vertical (GV). Método: estudo prospectivo, com 32 indivíduos submetidos a GV, sem diagnóstico prévio de urolitíase. Foi coletada urina de 24 horas, sete dias antes da operação e no retorno de 6 meses. As variáveis estudadas foram volume de urina, pH urinário, oxalato, cálcio, citrato e super saturação de oxalato e cálcio (SS CaOx). Resultados: os pacientes foram em sua maioria mulheres (81,2%), com idade média de 40,6 anos. O IMC médio pré e pós-operatório foi 47,1 ± 8,3 Kg/m2 e 35,5 ± 6,1 Kg/m2, respectivamente (p<0,001). O volume de urina foi significativamente baixo na avaliação pós-operatória em valores absolutos (2.242,50 ± 798,26 mL versus 1.240,94 ± 352,39 mL, p<0,001) e ajustado ao peso corporal (18,58 ± 6,92 mL/kg versus 13,92 ± 4,65 mL/kg, p<0,001). A SS CaOx aumentou significativamente após a GV (0,11 ± 0,10 versus 0,24 ± 0,18, p<0,001). Além disso, os níveis de ácido úrico apresentaram-se significativamente baixos na avaliação pós-operatória (482,34 ± 195,80 mg versus 434,75 ± 158,38 mg, p=0,027). PH urinário, oxalato, cálcio, citrato e magnésio não apresentaram variações significativas entre os períodos pré e pós-operatório. Conclusão: a GV pode levar a alterações importantes no perfil urinário. Entretanto, essas ocorrem de forma muito mais leve que na derivação gástrica em Y de Roux.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Uric Acid/blood , Urine/chemistry , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Urolithiasis , Gastrectomy , Postoperative Period , Calcium Oxalate/blood , Prospective Studies , Preoperative Period , Magnesium
2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 70-80, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056356

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the compositions of upper urinary tract stones and investigate their distributions in different gender and age groups. Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed with upper urinary tract stone disease between December 2014 and March 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient's age, gender, BMI, comorbidities, stone event characteristics, and compositions were collected, and proportions of stone components in different gender and age groups were analyzed. Results: A total of 1532 stone analyses were performed (992 from males and 540 from females). The mean age was younger in males (p <0.001). Males included more cases with larger BMI, hyperuricemia, and obesity, while females had more urinary tract infections. Multiple components were present in 61.8% of stones. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) (67.0%) was the most common component, followed by uric acid (UA) (11.8%), infection stone (11.4%), calcium phosphate (CaP) (8.0%), cystine (1.1%), brushite (0.4%), and 2, 8-dihydroxyadenine (0.2%). Men contributed with more CaOx stones than women at age 30-49 years (all p <0.01) and more UA stones at 30-59 years (all p <0.05). Women contributed with more infection stones than men in age groups 30-49 and 60-69 years (all p <0.05), and more CaP stones at 30-49 years. The prevalence peak was 50-59 years in men and 60-69 years in women. Both genders had the lowest prevalence in adolescence. Prevalence of UA stones increased while that of infection stones decreased with aging in both genders. Conclusions: Age and sex had a strong association with distribution of stone compositions in this Chinese cohort.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Urinary Calculi/epidemiology , Urinary Calculi/chemistry , Risk Factors , Uric Acid/analysis , Calcium Oxalate/analysis , Calcium Phosphates/analysis , Adenine/analysis , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Urinary Calculi/etiology , Logistic Models , China/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Middle Aged
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765642

ABSTRACT

In 2018, external quality assessment trials for urinalysis and fecal occult blood (FOB) were performed using 1,590 participants. Urine chemistry tests were performed thrice while urine sediment and FOB tests twice. Urine chemistry tests comprised of pH, protein, glucose, ketone body, bilirubin, blood, urobilinogen, nitrite, leukocyte, and specific gravity analyses. The results of urine chemistry and specific gravity tests showed accuracy rates >95%, except for the pH test. The accuracy rate of urine sediments was low, especially for atypical calcium oxalate crystal and red blood cell cast. In the FOB quality test, reagents showed accuracy rates >90%, except for SD and GC Genedia FOB reagents. In the FOB quantitative test, Alfresa NS-Plus C instrument showed falsely high values in the FOB negative specimens.


Subject(s)
Bilirubin , Calcium Oxalate , Chemistry , Erythrocytes , Glucose , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Indicators and Reagents , Leukocytes , Occult Blood , Quality Control , Specific Gravity , Urinalysis , Urobilinogen
4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(4): 680-687, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954070

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Obesity is a worldwide challenging health problem. Weight loss through medical management of obesity has not always been successful, thus, giving rise to the need for surgical intervention. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be helpful for morbidly obese patients. However, studies have also shown the effect of surgery on stone formation, fertility and erectile function. This review summarizes the main findings of several studies that analyze stone formation and fertility in men as well as erectile function post bariatric surgery. The underlying pathophysiologic alterations post bariatric surgery include increased absorption of oxalate leading to hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia and increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation. Contradicting data exist on the effect of bariatric surgery on fertility and erectile function. Further studies are needed to analyze the mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Penile Erection/physiology , Kidney Calculi/etiology , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Infertility, Male/etiology , Postoperative Complications/physiopathology , Calcium Oxalate/metabolism , Gastric Bypass/adverse effects , Kidney Calculi/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Erectile Dysfunction/physiopathology , Infertility, Male/physiopathology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/therapy
6.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 128-132, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775208

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the etiological factors for calculus-associated seminal vesiculitis by analyzing the composition of seminal vesicle calculus samples.@*METHODS@#This retrospective study included 6 cases of recurrent hematospermia diagnosed with seminal vesicle calculus by non-contrast pelvic CT. The patients were aged 28 to 69 years, with persistent or recurrent hematospermia for 3 months to 6 years, and 5 of them with a history of acute urethritis. All the patients underwent seminal vesiculoscopy, which confirmed calculus-associated seminal vesiculitis. The calculus samples were obtained with a spiral dislodge and their composition was determined with a second-generation infrared calculus composition analyzer. The patients were followed up for 2 to 12 weeks postoperatively, during which non-contrast pelvic CT was employed for observation of recurrent calculus in the reproductive tract.@*RESULTS@#Pelvic CT scanning indicated recurrence of seminal vesicle calculus in 3 cases at 12 weeks postoperatively, of which, 2 were accompanied with recurrent hematospermia, both observed at 4 weeks after operation. As for the composition of the calculus, the infrared calculus composition analyzer revealed struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) in 5 cases and a mixture of calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate monohydrate, and carbonate apatite in the other one.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Seminal vesicle calculi are most commonly composed of struvite, and infection is the main etiological factor for calculus-associated seminal vesiculitis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Apatites , Calcium Oxalate , Calculi , Chemistry , Diagnostic Imaging , Genital Diseases, Male , Diagnostic Imaging , Hemospermia , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Period , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Seminal Vesicles , Diagnostic Imaging , Struvite , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Urethritis
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(1): e6536, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889004

ABSTRACT

Kidney stone disease is a major cause of chronic renal insufficiency. The role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in calcium oxalate-induced kidney damage is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to explore the roles of lncRNAs in glyoxylate-exposed and healthy mouse kidneys using microarray technology and bioinformatics analyses. A total 376 mouse lncRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups. Using BLAST, 15 lncRNA homologs, including AU015836 and CHCHD4P4, were identified in mice and humans. The AU015836 expression in mice exposed to glyoxylate and the CHCHD4P4 expression in human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to calcium oxalate monohydrate were analyzed, and both lncRNAs were found to be upregulated in response to calcium oxalate. To further evaluate the effects of CHCHD4P4 on the cell behavior, we constructed stable CHCHD4P4-overexpressing and CHCHD4P4-knockdown HK-2 cells. The results showed that CHCHD4P4 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in kidney damage and fibrosis caused by calcium oxalate crystallization and deposition. The silencing of CHCHD4P4 reduced the kidney damage and fibrosis and may thus be a potential molecular target for the treatment of kidney stones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Kidney Calculi/genetics , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/physiology , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/physiology , Fibrosis , Calcium Oxalate , Kidney Calculi/physiopathology , Up-Regulation , Cell Fractionation , Cell Line , Blotting, Western , Microarray Analysis , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813185

ABSTRACT

To analyze types of urinary calculi and patients' clinical characteristics, and to explore the strategies for prevention and treatment of urinary calculi.
 Methods: A total of 1 849 patients with urinary calculi were treated in the Department of Urology, the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. The components were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The relationship between stone composition and clinical parameters was analyzed according to the clinical characteristics of the patients.
 Results: The proportion of calcium oxalate stone or uric acid stone in male (84.1% or 7.7%) was higher than that in female (78.4% or 4.2%). The older patients were more likely to be diagnosed as uric acid stone. The proportions of uric acid stone in patients <18 years old, 18-<41 years old, 41-<66 years old, and ≥66 years old were 0.0%, 1.6%, 6.6%, and 12.4%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the proportion of stones in patients with different BMI. There were no significant difference in the stone composition between the patients with or without urinary tract infection, hypertension or diabetes. The proportion of uric acid stones in patients with acidic urine was higher than the other types. The proportion of uric acid stones in patients with elevated creatinine (12.1%) was higher than that in the patients with normal creatinine (4.5%).
 Conclusion: Elderly patients, or patients with high uric acid and renal insufficiency are more prone to uric acid stones. Regulation of urinary pH may be an important strategy for preventing and treating urinary calculi in Hunan Province.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Body Mass Index , Calcium Oxalate , Creatinine , Urine , Female , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Kidney Calculi , Chemistry , Therapeutics , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Spectrophotometry, Infrared , Uric Acid , Urinary Calculi , Chemistry , Therapeutics , Urine
9.
Rev. nefrol. diál. traspl ; 37(3): 146-156, sept. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006498

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La urolitiasis (UL) es una alteración frecuente, cuya incidencia ha aumentado en el último cuarto del siglo XX. Para su diagnóstico se realizan estudios metabólicos para lo cual es necesario contar con valores de referencia (VR) establecidos para la población en cuestión. OBJETIVO: El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar VR de calcio, oxalato, citrato, úrico, fósforo, magnesio, sulfato y sodio en orina de 24 horas de alumnos de la Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas de la Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina. Con los VR hallados se determinó la frecuencia de alteraciones y se la comparó con datos bibliográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizó la guía NCCLSC28-A3, 2008. La muestra de referencia fue de 69 alumnos. Se utilizaron métodos enzimáticos-colorimétricos, espectrofotómetro Metrolab 1600 plus, electrodos ion selectivo DIESTRO. RESULTADOS: Los VR hallados (IC 95%) fueron para el oxalato: 1,96-45,08; calcio: 20,65-250,74; citrato: 112,78-666,01; ácido úrico 58,73-782,17; fósforo 238,37-1051,44; magnesio 28,7-146,67 todos en mg/24h; sulfato 3,15-25,18 mmol/24h y sodio 42,81-285,3 mEq/24h. Se encontró un 3% hiperoxaluria, 12% hipercalciuria, 3% hipocitraturia y 6% hiperuricosuria, 6% hiperfosfaturia, 6% hipomagnesuria, 7% hipernatriuria, 0% hipersulfaturia. Los VR comparados mostraron coincidencias para algunos analitos y para otros amplias diferencias. CONCLUSIONES: El diagnóstico de la alteración metabólica para el estudio de UL varía según el valor de referencia utilizado. Adoptar valores establecidos para otras poblaciones, incluidos los de los fabricantes de los kits comerciales, conducen a un diagnóstico que puede no ser acorde a la situación clínica del paciente


INTRODUCTION: Urolithiasis (UL) is a common disease whose incidence increased in the last quarter of the twentieth century. Metabolic evaluation is necessary for diagnosis, which requires the establishment of reference values (RV) for the population in question. OBJECTIVE: To determine the RV for calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, phosphate, magnesium, sulphate and sodium in 24-hour urine belonging to students from the School of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences at Universidad Nacional del Litoral, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Once RV were established, a frequency of alterations was determined and then compared with literature data. METHODS: The NCCLSC28-A3 guideline (2008) was used. The study group included 69 students. The enzymatic colorimetric method, a Metrolab 1600 plus spectrophotometer and a DIESTRO ion-selective electrode were also employed. Results: The RV found (95 % CI) were the following: oxalate, 1.96-45.08; calcium, 20.65-250.74; citrate, 112.78-666.01; uric acid, 58.73-782.17; phosphate, 238.37-1051.44; magnesium, 28.7-146.67, all these values expressed as mg/24h; sulphate, 3.15-25.18 mmol/24h, and sodium, 42.81-285.3 mEq/24h. These findings emerged as well: hyperoxaluria, 3%; hypercalciuria 12%; hypocitraturia, 3%; hyperuricosuria, 6%; hyperphosphaturia, 6%; hypomagnesuria, 6%; hypernatriuria, 7%, and hypersulphaturia, 0%. When RV were compared, some analyte levels were similar and others showed a considerable difference. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of UL through the study of metabolic changes is different according to the reference value used. Applying reference values established for other populations, including those of commercial kits manufacturers, may lead to a diagnosis which does not match the clinical condition of the patient


Subject(s)
Humans , Reference Values , Urolithiasis , Phosphorus/metabolism , Sodium/metabolism , Uric Acid/metabolism , Calcium Oxalate/metabolism , Citric Acid/metabolism , Magnesium/metabolism
10.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2017; 27 (4): 227-231
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189278

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of laser lithotripsy [LL] and pneumatic lithotripters [PL] in calcium oxalate [CaOx] and calcium phosphate [CaP] stones and assess whether these stone compositions affect the outcomes of LL and PL


Study Design: Comparative, descriptive study


Place and Duration of Study: Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, from August 2010 to August 2015


Methodology: A total of 114 patients underwent ureteroscopy using LL and PL. Fifty-eight [50.9%] had CaOx stones and 56 [49.1%] had CaP stones. The lithotripters were compared in stone composition groups, and stone compositions were compared in lithotripter groups. Patient characteristics, perioperative parameters, and postoperative complications were compared


Results: The baseline patient and stone characteristics were similar in all groups. The operation time of the PL and LL for the patients with CaP stones [68.75 +/- 32.88 and 44.48 +/- 34.37 minutes, respectively] was significantly shorter than the operation time of the PL and LL for the patients with CaOx stones [91.56 +/- 30.54 and 65.75 +/- 37.74 minutes, [p=0.012 and p=0.009, respectively]. Moreover, the patients with CaOx or CaP treated with LL [65.75 +/- 37.74 and 44.48 +/- 34.37 minutes, respectively] had significant shorter operation time than the PL [91.56 +/- 30.54 and 68.75 +/- 32.88 minutes, [p=0.046 and p=0.01, respectively]. Stone-free rates were similar in all groups. The PL for the patients with CaP stones caused more postoperative fever and infection than the other groups [p=0.050]


Conclusion: Though both PL and LL are effective in the treatment of CaOx and CaP stones, LL had a significantly shorter operation and hospitalization time and complication rates in patients with CaOx and CaP stones. So LL is a more feasible and safer modality in the treatment of recurrent CaP stones


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Urinary Calculi/chemistry , Lasers, Solid-State , Lithotripsy , Lithotripsy, Laser , Calcium Oxalate , Calcium Phosphates , Ureteral Calculi , Urolithiasis , Treatment Outcome
11.
JBUMS-Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences. 2017; 23 (4): 84-92
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189803

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Due to the effects of herbs in the prevention of kidney stones, the present study aimed at assessing the effect of aqueous eryngium campestre on the prevention of pathologic alterations caused by calcium oxalate crystals induced by ethylene glycol in the cortex and medulla of rats'kidneys


Materials and Methods: To conduct the study 40 male Wistar rats, weighing 200 - 250 gr were randomly divided into 5 equal groups; i.e. the healthy control group that just received water, the negative control group receiving water with 1% ethylene glycol, the prevention groups, which in addition to 1% ethylene glycol in water were daily gavaged with 100 mg/kg, 200mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg of the plant extract. After 30 days all rats were killed and slides from each one's kidneys were prepared. The slides were stained applying H/E method and the number of their calcium oxalate crystals was checked


Results: It was found that there was a significant difference between the number of their calcium oxalate crystals in the control health and negative groups [P<0.05]. But, in the prevention group gavaged 100 mg/kg there was no significant difference with the negative group, [P>0.05]. However, in the 200mg/kg prevention group compared to the negative control one there was a significant difference in reducing the number of the crystals [P<0.05]. But in 400mg/kg the prevention group there was no significant difference with the negative control group [P>0.05]


Conclusion: It was discovered that aqueous extract of eryngium campestre is effective in preventing the accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Calcium Oxalate , Rats, Wistar , Ethylene Glycol , Kidney , Kidney Cortex , Kidney Medulla , Plant Extracts , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal , Kidney Calculi/therapy
12.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 20(3): 173-178, jul-set. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-882948

ABSTRACT

A uretra do macho é uma continuação do sistema de ductos, originada de um óstio interno no colo da bexiga urinária e estendida até o orifício peniano uretral externo na extremidade livre do pênis. Relata-se um caso de um canino, macho, SRD, de três anos, pesando 12 kg. Foi atendido no Hospital Veterinário Universitário "Jeremias Pereira da Silva" - HVU/UFPI, na área de Clínica Médica e Cirúrgica de cães e gatos. O mesmo apresentava manifestações clínicas como: dificuldade de locomoção, disúria, inapetência, hematúria, anúria, agressividade, dor abdominal, apatia e emagrecimento progressivo. A conduta clínica adotada diante do caso, após o resultado dos exames complementares que confirmaram o diagnostico inicial, indicativo de obstrução uretral total por urólitos de oxalato de cálcio, devido ao insucesso das tentativas clínicas de desobstrução foi optar pela técnica cirúrgica uretrostomia. Decorrido dez dias da cirurgia, o animal retornou para retirada dos pontos, apresentando-se em bom estado, alimentando-se bem, fluxo urinário constante (sem sangue), e andando normalmente. A urolitíase deve ser diagnosticada e tratada o mais previamente possível, uma vez que a doença se complica no avançar dos sinais clínicos, podendo ocasionar casos mais complexos, como obstruções urinárias severas e até morte do animal.(AU)


The male urethra is a continuation of the duct system originated from an internal ostium inside the bladder and extends to the external urethral penile hole at the free end of the penis. This is a case study of a 3-year old male mongrel dog weighing 12 kg. The dog was attended at the University Veterinary Hospital "Jeremias Pereira da Silva" ­ HVU/UFPI in the Clinical and Surgical Practice of dogs and cats. It presented clinical manifestations such as difficulty in walking, dysuria, loss of appetite, hematuria, anuria, aggressiveness, abdominal pain, lethargy and progressive weight loss. An urethrostomy was the clinical approach adopted for the case, after the laboratory tests confirmed the initial diagnosis of total urethral obstruction by calcium oxalate uroliths due to the failure of clinical unblocking attempts. Ten days after the surgery, the animal returned to the clinic to remove the stitches, and presented a good condition, feeding well, with a constant urine flow (no blood), and walking normally. Urolithiasis must be diagnosed and treated as early as possible, since the disease complicates itself with the worsening of the clinical signs, which may result in more complex cases, such as severe urinary obstruction and even the death of the animal.(AU)


La uretra del macho es una continuación del sistema de ductos, originada de un ostium interno en el cuello de la vejiga urinaria y se extiende hasta el orificio uretral externo en la extremidad libre del pene. Presentamos un caso de un canino, macho, SRD, de tres años, con un peso de 12 kg. Fue atendido en el Hospital Veterinario de la Universidad "Jeremías Pereira da Silva" - HVU/UFPI, en el campo de Clínica Médica y Quirúrgica de perros y gatos. Lo mismo presentaba manifestaciones clínicas como: dificultad para caminar, disuria, pérdida de apetito, hematuria, anuria, agresividad, dolor abdominal, letargo y pérdida progresiva de peso. La conducta clínica adoptada delante el caso, tras el resultado de los exámenes complementarios que confirmaron el diagnóstico inicial, indicativo de obstrucción uretral total de cálculos de oxalato de calcio, debido al fracaso de las tentativas clínicas de desbloqueo cupo optar por uretrostomía, técnica quirúrgica. Después de diez días de la cirugía el animal volvió para retirada de los puntos de sutura, presentándose en buen estado, alimentándose bien, flujo de orina constante (sin sangre), y caminando normalmente. La urolitiasis debe ser diagnosticada y tratada cuanto antes posible, ya que la enfermedad se complica con el avance de los signos clínicos, pudiendo causar casos más complejos, como obstrucciones urinarias severas e incluso la muerte del animal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Urethral Stricture/surgery , Urolithiasis/surgery , Urolithiasis/veterinary , Calcium Oxalate
13.
Univ. salud ; 18(1): 69-78, ene.-abr. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-783679

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El ácido oxálico (H2C2O4) y las sales de oxalato son sustancias altamente oxidadas y consideradas tóxicas para algunos sistemas biológicos, incluido el humano, no obstante, pueden ser utilizadas como fuente de carbono y energía por algunas comunidades bacterianas, denominadas oxalotróficas, las cuales por su capacidad metabólica forman parte de la ruta biogeoquímica oxalato-carbonato (OCP, oxalate-carbonate pathway). Objetivo: Aislar y caracterizar bacterias oxalotróficas a partir de plantas del género Oxalis sp., de zonas alto-andina de Nariño- Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Se recolectaron muestras de suelo rizosférico de plantas oxalogénicas que fueron analizadas con parámetros fisicoquímicos y se utilizó un medio selectivo Schlegel para el aislamiento de bacterias oxalotróficas. Resultados: Las bacterias aisladas en medio selectivo Schlegel fueron caracterizadas bioquímicamente como: (Serratia fonticola, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus vallismortis y Bacillus cereus). Estas especies fueron capaces de degradar oxalato e incrementar el pH producto de la degradación. Conclusión: Este tipo de bacterias pueden ser estudiadas en trabajos complementarios para evaluar su potencial como biofertilizantes y/o alternativas de bioremediación en suelos ácidos. El estudio a pesar de ser indicativo a nivel biológico, puede en un futuro y con base en mayores soportes en investigación, tornarse en una promisoria aplicación para reducir el oxalato de calcio en los alimentos de consumo diario que presentan un renglón de importancia agrícola en la región, potencialmente dañinos para la función renal.


Introduction: Oxalic acid (H2C2O4) and oxalate salts are highly oxidized substances, which are considered as toxic for some biological systems, including the human being; however, they can be used as a source of carbon and energy for some bacterial communities called oxalotrophic which are part of the so called oxalate-carbonate geochemistry pathway (OCP) due to its metabolic capacity. Objective: The aim of this research was to isolate and characterize oxalotrophic bacteria from plants of the genus Oxalis sp. in the high-andean zone of the department of Nariño, Colombia. Materials and methods: Samples of rhizosphere soil from oxalogenic plants were analyzed with physicochemical parameters and a Schlegel selective medium was used to isolate oxalotrophic bacteria. Results: The isolated bacteria through Schlegel selective medium were identified biochemically as: (Serratia fonticola, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus vallismortis and Bacillus cereus). The identified species play an important role in the rhizosphere soil, principally for the capacity to increase the pH during oxalate consumption. Conclusion: This type of bacteria can be studied in additional studies to evaluate their potential as bio-fertilizers and/or bioremediation alternatives in acid soils. Despite that the study is indicative at a biological level, it can become a promising application, in the future and with greater support in research, to reduce the calcium oxalate in food of daily consumption which represent an agricultural important line in the region and are potentially harmful to kidney finction.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Calcium Oxalate , Kidney Calculi , Oxalidaceae
15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(6): 1116-1125, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769752

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Sodium thiosulfate (STS) is clinically reported to be a promising drug in preventing nephrolithiasis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial KATP channel in the renal protection mediated by STS. Materials and Methods: Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar rats by administrating 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG) along with 1% ammonium chloride for one week in drinking water followed by only 0.75% EG for two weeks. Treatment groups received STS, mitochondrial KATP channel opener and closer exclusively or in combination with STS for two weeks. Results: Animals treated with STS showed normal renal tissue architecture, supported by near normal serum creatinine, urea and ALP activity. Diazoxide (mitochondria KATP channel opening) treatment to the animal also showed normal renal tissue histology and improved serum chemistry. However, an opposite result was shown by glibenclamide (mitochondria KATP channel closer) treated rats. STS administered along with diazoxide negated the renal protection rendered by diazoxide alone, while it imparted protection to the glibenclamide treated rats, formulating a mitochondria modulated STS action. Conclusion: The present study confirmed that STS render renal protection not only through chelation and antioxidant effect but also by modulating the mitochondrial KATP channel for preventing urolithiasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Antioxidants/pharmacokinetics , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Ethylene Glycol , Nephrolithiasis/prevention & control , Potassium Channels/pharmacology , Thiosulfates/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Calcium Oxalate/metabolism , Chelating Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Nephrolithiasis/pathology , Potassium Channels/therapeutic use , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Thiosulfates/therapeutic use
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(5): 935-944, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767061

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: For most cases, urolithiasis is a condition where excessive oxalate is present in the urine. Many reports have documented free radical generation followed by hyperoxaluria as a consequence of which calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition occurs in the kidney tissue. The present study is aimed to exam the antilithiatic potency of the aqueous extract (AE) of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna). Materials and Methods: The antilithiatic activity of Terminalia arjuna was investigated in vitro nucleation, aggregation and growth of the CaOx crystals as well as the morphology of CaOx crystals using the inbuilt software ‘Image-Pro Plus 7.0’ of Olympus upright microscope (BX53). Antioxidant activity of AE of Terminalia arjuna bark was also determined in vitro. Results: Terminalia arjuna extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and aggregation of CaOx crystals. The AE of Terminalia arjuna bark also inhibited the growth of CaOx crystals. At the same time, the AE also modified the morphology of CaOx crystals from hexagonal to spherical shape with increasing concentrations of AE and reduced the dimensions such as area, perimeter, length and width of CaOx crystals in a dose dependent manner. Also, the Terminalia arjuna AE scavenged the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals with an IC50 at 13.1µg/mL. Conclusions: The study suggests that Terminalia arjuna bark has the potential to scavenge DPPH radicals and inhibit CaOx crystallization in vitro. In the light of these studies, Terminalia arjuna can be regarded as a promising candidate from natural plant sources of antilithiatic and antioxidant activity with high value.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Calcium Oxalate/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Terminalia/chemistry , Urinary Calculi/prevention & control , Analysis of Variance , Biphenyl Compounds/chemistry , Crystallization , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Picrates/chemistry , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Urinary Calculi/chemistry
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(3): 511-520, May-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755884

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTPurpose:

Urolithiasis is a common urological disorder responsible for serious human affliction and cost to the society with a high recurrence rate. The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluate the phlorotannin rich extract of Sargassum wightii using suitable in vitro and in vivo models to provide scientific evidence for its antilithiatic activity.

Materials and Methods:

To explore the effect of Sargassum wightii on calcium oxalate crystallization, in vitro assays like crystal nucleation, aggregation and crystal growth were performed. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced in male Sprague dawley rats using a combination of gentamicin and calculi producing diet (5% ammonium oxalate and rat pellet feed). The biochemical parameters like calcium, oxalate, magnesium, phosphate, sodium and potassium were evaluated in urine, serum and kidney homogenates. Histopathological studies were also done to confirm the biochemical findings.

Results:

The yield of Sargassum wightii extract was found to be 74.5 gm/kg and confirmed by quantitative analysis. In vitro experiments with Sargassum wightii showed concentration dependent inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation, aggregation and growth supported by SEM analysis. In the in vivo model, Sargassum wightiireduced both calcium and oxalate supersaturation in urine, serum and deposition in the kidney. The biochemical results were supported by histopathological studies.

Conclusion:

The findings of the present study suggest that Sargassum wightii has the ability to prevent nucleation, aggregation and growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Sargassum wightii has better preventive effect on calcium oxalate stone formation indicating its strong ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Calcium Oxalate/antagonists & inhibitors , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sargassum/chemistry , Tannins/pharmacology , Urolithiasis/prevention & control , Calcium Oxalate/chemistry , Calcium/analysis , Crystallization , Kidney/drug effects , Magnesium/analysis , Models, Animal , Oxalates/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(3): 503-510, May-June 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755866

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTPurpose:

Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model.

Materials and Methods:

The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH), sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques.

Results:

The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4.

Conclusion:

Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O32-and SO42- moiety produced by the test compounds.

.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Calcium Oxalate/metabolism , Hydrogen Sulfide/chemistry , Hydrogen Sulfide/metabolism , Urolithiasis/metabolism , Urolithiasis/prevention & control , Analysis of Variance , Case-Control Studies , Calcium Oxalate/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Urine/chemistry
19.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(1): 26-35, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742935

ABSTRACT

Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), conhecida como aroeira-vermelha é uma espécie nativa do Brasil, perenifólia e pioneira, sendo muito utilizada para combater diversas doenças, pois apresenta, entre outras, propriedades anti-inflamatórias e cicatrizantes. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar um estudo morfoanatômico do caule e da folha de S. terebinthifolius, descrevendo a organização dos tecidos e suas possíveis variações. As análises macro e microscópicas foram realizadas com material selecionado de partes vegetativas de um espécime localizado na cidade de Campina Grande - PB. A aroeira-vermelha é um vegetal arbóreo e dióico, que apresenta caule cilíndrico e simpodial, com casca rugosa e estriada. A folha é perene, alterna, coriácea e composta. As análises microscópicas evidenciaram epiderme caulinar e foliar uniestratificadas, exceto na face adaxial da folha, que é bisseriada. No caule e no pecíolo são visualizados muitos tricomas tectores unicelulares, curtos, cônicos e agudos no ápice. Encontram-se canais secretores arredondados e bem desenvolvidos na região do floema em todos os órgãos estudados, bem como cutícula revestindo as células epidérmicas e grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. Os feixes vasculares são circundados por células esclerenquimáticas e apresentam o floema seguido por xilema helicoidal bem desenvolvido. No caule, pecíolo e nervura central da folha, o xilema é interno e o floema, externo. A aroeira-vermelha apresenta alguns aspectos estruturais característicos de plantas xerófilas, como camada múltipla da epiderme da face adaxial foliar, que protegem o mesofilo de excessiva dessecação; presença de cutícula espessa e grande quantidade de pêlos e de estômatos; além de sistema vascular bem desenvolvido, com abundância de esclerênquima, dando sustentação ao feixe.


Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as Brazilian pepper, is an evergreen, pioneer and indigenous plant from Brazil, and it is used to combat various diseases, as it presents anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. The aim of this research was to study the morpho-anatomical features of the stem and leaf of S. terebinthifolius, describing the organization of the tissues and their variations. The macroscopic and microscopic analyses were performed with material selected from vegetative parts of a specimen collected in the city of Campina Grande - state of Paraíba, Brazil. The Brazilian pepper is a dioecious plant with cylindrical and sympodial stem and rough and striated bark. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, leathery and compound. The microscopic analysis showed uniseriate epidermis in the stem and leaf, except in the adaxial leaf, which is biseriate. In the stem and petiole, many unicellular, short, conical tector trichomes with acute apex are observed. In the phloem of all studied organs, we found rounded and well-developed secretory ducts, as well as cuticle covering the epidermal cells and a large amount of calcium oxalate druses. The vascular bundles are surrounded by sclerenchyma cells and present phloem followed by well-developed spiral xylem. In the stem, petiole and leaf's central vein, the xylem is internal and the phloem is external. The Brazilian pepper has some structural features characteristic of xerophilous plants, such as multiple layers of the epidermis in adaxial leaf, which protects the mesophyll from excessive drying, thick cuticle and a large quantity of hairs and stomata, well-developed vascular system with plenty of sclerenchyma, giving support to the bundle.


Subject(s)
Anacardiaceae/metabolism , Plant Structures/anatomy & histology , Calcium Oxalate , Plant Leaves/classification
20.
Urology Annals. 2015; 7 (1): 109-111
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-154921

ABSTRACT

Renal stones are one of the most common diseases in the urology field that are easily diagnosed by one of the standard imaging techniques. Noncontrast spiral computerized tomography [CT] can detect up to 95% of the renal, ureteric and bladder stones, especially those with calcium composition, and considered nowadays one of the most accurate methods for detecting undetectable stones by other modalities. We report a case of a 60-year-old female who presented with colicky right flank pain due to large calcium oxalate renal stone that is undetected by standard imaging technique including spiral CT scan. Uretroscopy diagnosed and ultimately treat this patient problem


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Tomography, Spiral Computed , Review Literature as Topic , Flank Pain , Calcium Oxalate
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