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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21114, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429958


Abstract In this study, orodispersible films formed from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) E6 (2, 2.5, and 3%) and plasticizers ((glycerin (Gly), propylene glycol (PP), or polyethylene glycol (PEG)), containing doxazosin mesylate, were prepared by the solvent casting method and characterized. Design of experiments (DoE) was used as a statistical tool to facilitate the interpretation of the experimental data and allow the identification of optimal levels of factors for maximum formulation performance. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) diffractograms showed doxazosin mesylate amorphization, probably due to complexation with the polymer (HPMC E6), and the glass transition temperature of the polymer was reduced by adding a plasticizer. Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results showed that the chemical structure of doxazosin mesylate was preserved when introduced into the polymer matrix, and the plasticizers, glycerin and PEG, affected the polymer matrix with high intensity. The addition of plasticizers increased the elongation at break and adhesiveness (Gly > PEG > PP), confirming the greater plasticizer effect of Gly observed in DSC and FTIR studies. Greater transparency was observed for the orodispersible films prepared using PP. The addition of citric acid as a pH modifier was fundamental for the release of doxazosin mesylate, and the desirability formulation had a release profile similar to that of the reference product

Mechanical Tests/instrumentation , Motion Pictures/classification , Plasticizers/classification , Spectrum Analysis/methods , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/instrumentation , Adhesiveness , Doxazosin/adverse effects , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Hypromellose Derivatives/adverse effects
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21217, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429971


Abstract Solid dispersions (SDs) of ursolic acid (UA) were developed using polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30) in combination with non-ionic surfactants, such as D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) or poloxamer 407 (P407) with the aim of enhancing solubility and in vitro release of the UA. SDs were investigated using a 24 full factorial design, subsequently the selected formulations were characterized for water solubility, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), particle diameter, scanning electron microscopy, drug content, physical-chemical stability and in vitro release profile. SDs showed higher UA water-solubility than physical mixtures (PMs), which was attributed by transition of the drug from crystalline to amorphous or molecular state in the SDs, as indicated by XRD and DSC analyses. SD1 (with P407) and SD2 (with TPGS) were chosen for further investigation because they had higher drug load. SD1 proved to be more stable than SD2, revealing that P407 contributed to ensure the stability of the UA. Furthermore, SD1 and SD2 increased UA release by diffusion and swelling-controlled transport, following the Weibull model. Thus, solid dispersions obtained with PVP k-30 and P407 proved to be advantageous to enhance aqueous solubility and stability of UA.

Polyethylene Glycols/administration & dosage , Solubility , Poloxamer/adverse effects , Diffusion , X-Rays/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22505, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439507


Abstract Natural products are considered an important source of the therapeutic arsenal currently available. Among these alternatives are the seeds of Ambrosia peruviana (altamisa), whose extract has shown an anti-inflammatory effect. The main objective of this work was to perform a preformulation study of Ambrosia peruviana seeds ethanolic extract, where the main factors that affect the physical, chemical, and pharmacological stability of the extract were evaluated, as well as a compatibility study by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis against different excipients. A dry extract was obtained by rotary evaporation of the seeds macerated with 96% ethanol. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by measuring its effect on NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages, stimulated with LPS. The results showed that the dry extract maintained its stability over time when stored at a temperature of 4 and 25ºC, demonstrating its biological activity, the content of phenolic compounds, and its physicochemical parameters remain practically invariable. However, when exposed to high temperatures (60 ºC) it was affected. The thermal analysis revelated that the behavior of most of the selected excipients and the dry extract was maintained, which indicates that it did not present incompatibilities, therefore they can be candidates for formulating a microemulsion.

Seeds/metabolism , Asteraceae/classification , Ambrosia/adverse effects , Biological Products , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Excipients/administration & dosage
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2023. 64 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1509346


A introdução da liga NiTi na endodontia proporcionou a fabricação de instrumentos com excelentes propriedades mecânicas, e uma das principais características é a possibilidade de alteração das temperaturas de transformação da liga, o qual pode possibilitar a presença de martensita em temperatura ambiente e consequentemente um efeito memória de forma. Entretanto, alguns dos sistemas comercializados atualmente possuem pouca ou nenhuma informação científica relatando suas propriedades mecânicas, características de design e métodos de fabricação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar características geométricas, metalúrgicas e propriedades mecânicas (resistência à torção e flexão) de instrumentos Reciproc Blue (VDW, Munique, Alemanha), e quatro sistemas reciprocantes réplicas. Um total de 39 instrumentos de cada um dos sistemas reciprocantes, Reciproc Blue (RB), Prodesign R (PDR), V File (VF), V+ File (V+) e Univy One (UO) foram utilizados na pesquisa. O programa de Image J foi utilizado para mensuração dos diâmetros a cada milímetro da parte ativa e da área da seção transversal a 3 mm da ponta dos instrumentos. Imagens de MEV da parte ativa foram realizados para avaliar o acabamento superficial dos instrumentos. A composição atômica, fases presentes e temperaturas de transformação foram verificadas através de EDS, DRX e DSC, respectivamente. A flexibilidade foi aferida através de ensaios de dobramento até 45º conforme a especificação ISO 3630-1, e os ensaios de resistência à torção foram realizados de acordo com a especificação Nº28 ANSI/ADA. Todos os instrumentos apresentaram uma quantidade aproximadamente equiatômica de níquel e titânio. A análise qualitativa das fases cristalinas realizada através de ensaios de DRX, demonstrou a predominância de Fase R em todos os grupos, com exceção do grupo UO que apresenta uma mistura de fase R e martensita B19'. Na avaliação da área da seção, o instrumento RB obteve valores intermediários, os instrumentos PDR e V+ possuem menores valores e os instrumentos VF e UO possuem maiores valores. Observou-se grande impacto da geometria sobre as propriedades mecânicas, sendo que aqueles sistemas que apresentavam menor área que RB (PDR, V+) mostraram-se mais flexíveis e menos resistentes à torção (p<0.05), e o instrumento VF que teve maior área apresentou, como esperado, menos flexibilidade (p<0.05) e resistência torcional semelhante (p>0.05). A única exceção se deu com o sistema UO, que embora apresentasse uma maior área de seção, mostrou-se mais flexível e menos resistente à torção, provavelmente por influência da maior quantidade de martensita presente à temperatura ambiente. Nenhum dos instrumentos réplicas avaliados apresentaram características e comportamento mecânico iguais ao sistema padrão RB. Sugere-se que mais estudos devem ser realizados para a comparação do comportamento clínico destes instrumentos.

The introduction of NiTi alloy in endodontics has allowed the manufacturing of instruments with excellent mechanical properties, and one of the main characteristics is the ability to change alloy's transformation temperature, which can enable the presence of martensite at room temperature and consequently favor a shape memory effect. However, some of the currently marketed systems have limited or no scientific information regarding their mechanical properties, design characteristics, and manufacturing methods. The aim of this study was to compare the geometric characteristics, metallurgical aspects, and mechanical properties (torsional and flexural strength) of Reciproc Blue instruments (VDW, Munich, Germany) with four replica-like reciprocating systems. A total amount of 39 instruments from each reciprocating system, namely Reciproc Blue (RB), Prodesign R (PDR), V File (VF), V+ File (V+), and Univy One (UO), were used in the study. The Image J program was used to measure the diameters at every millimeter along the instruments active portion and the cross-sectional area at 3 mm from the instrument tip. SEM images of the active portion were obtained to evaluate the surface finishing of the instruments. Atomic composition, phases present, and transformation temperatures were determined through EDS, XRD, and DSC analyses, respectively. Flexibility was assessed by bending tests up to 45° according to ISO 3630-1 specifications, and torsional strength tests were performed according with ANSI/ADA Specification No. 28. All instruments exhibited an approximately equiatomic composition of nickel and titanium. Qualitative analysis of the crystalline phases using XRD tests demonstrated the predominance of the R-phase in all groups, except for the UO group, which exhibited a mixture of Rphase and B19' martensite. In terms of diameter and cross-sectional area evaluation, the RB instrument obtained intermediate values, while the PDR and V+ instruments had smaller values, and the VF and UO instruments had larger values. A significant impact of geometry on mechanical properties was observed, with systems exhibiting a smaller area than RB (PDR, V+) being more flexible and less torsion-resistant (p<0.05), and the VF instrument with a larger area showed, as expected, less flexibility (p<0.05) and similar torsional resistance (p>0.05). The only exception was the UO system, which, despite having a larger geometric configuration, exhibited greater flexibility and less torsional resistance, likely due to the higher amount of martensite present at room temperature. None of the replica-like instruments evaluated showed identical characteristics and mechanical behavior to the standard RB system. Further studies are suggested to compare the clinical performance of these instruments.

Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Endodontics , Torsion, Mechanical , Shape Memory Alloys , Mechanical Tests
Natal; s.n; 28/11/2022. 55 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1510707


A engenharia de tecidos ósseos é um ramo importante da medicina regenerativa e envolve o desenvolvimento de arcabouços com composição e arquitetura favoráveis à integração celular, além do estudo de fatores capazes de promover a adesão e proliferação celular, incluindo estímulos químicos e biofísicos. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a utilização do laser de baixa intensidade (LBI) como uma ferramenta para promover a bioestimulação in vitro de células osteoblásticas cultivadas em arcabouços nanofibrosos de ácido polilático (PLA). Os arcabouços foram produzidos pela técnica de eletrofiação e caracterizados quanto à molhabilidade, composição pela espectroscopia no infravermelho por transformada de Fourier (FTIR), morfologia da superfície por microscópica eletrônica de varredura (MEV), caracterização termogravimétrica (TGA), calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC) e cristalinidade por difração de raios-X (DRX). Os ensaios biológicos foram conduzidos com osteoblastos da linhagem OFCOL II cultivados na superfície dos arcabouços e submetidos ou não (grupo controle) a irradiação com laser diodo InGaAIP na potência de 30 mW, nas doses de 1, 4 e 6 J/cm² e nos comprimentos de onda de 660 nm (grupos V1, V4, V6, respectivo as doses) e 780 nm (grupos I1, I4 e I6, respectivo as doses). Os efeitos do LBI na proliferação dos osteoblastos foram avaliados através do método bioquímico Alamar Blue, nos intervalos de 24, 48 e 72h, enquanto a viabilidade e a morfologia celular foram analisadas no intervalo de 72h, através do ensaio Live/Dead e da microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), respectivamente. Os dados do ensaio bioquímico de Alamar Blue mostraram uma maior proliferação celular nos grupos V6 em todos os intervalos analíticos em comparação ao grupo controle (p<0,05). Outras diferenças entre o grupo controle e irradiados foram encontradas apenas nos intervalos de 48h e 72h para V1, e para o grupo IV6 em 72h. O ensaio Live/Dead revelou um aumento na viabilidade celular nos grupos trados com LBI, sendo significativamente maior no grupo V1 quando comparado ao grupo controle. A análise por MEV mostrou adequada interação dos osteoblastos aos arcabouços, com o corpo celular se espalhando ao longo do eixo da nanofibra e a presença de contatos físicos mais evidentes, através da formação de ligação por meio de filopódios e lamelipódios, nos grupos V1, V6 e I6. Em conjunto, os dados do presente trabalho mostraram que o LBI promove a bioestimulação de osteoblastos cultivados sobre nanofibras de PLA, o que aponta para o seu uso potencial nas técnicas de engenharia tecidual óssea, sobretudo no que se refere ao uso do comprimento de onda de 660 nm, a qual apresentou grupos com mais resultados significativos (AU).

Bone tissue engineering is a relevant branch of regenerative medicine and involves the development of scaffolds with composition and architecture favorable to cell integration, in addition to studying factors capable of promoting cell adhesion and proliferation, including chemical and biophysical stimuli. The study aimed to evaluate the use of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) to promote in vitro biostimulation of osteoblastic cells cultured on polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibrous scaffolds. The scaffolds were produced by the electrospinning technique and characterized in terms of wettability, composition by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric characterization (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and crystallinity by Xray diffraction (XRD). The biological assays were conducted with osteoblasts of the OFCOL II lineage cultured on the surface of the scaffolds and submitted or not (control group) to irradiation with InGaAIP diode laser, power of 30 mW, with doses of 1, 4 and 6 J/cm² and wavelengths of 660 nm (groups V1, V4, V6, respectively doses) and 780 nm (groups I1, I4 and I6, respectively doses). The effects of LLLT from the perspective of osteoblasts were evaluated using the biochemical method Alamar Blue assay, at intervals of 24, 48 and 72h, while cell viability and morphology were observed at 72h, using the Live/Dead assay and electron microscopy. scan (SEM), respectively. The Alamar Blue assay data showed more significant cell proliferation in groups in the V6 groups at all analytical intervals compared to the control group (p<0.05). Other differences between the control and irradiated groups were found only at intervals of 48h and 72h for V1, and for group IV6 at 72h. The Live/Dead assay revealed an increase in cell viability in the groups treated with LLLT, being significantly higher in the V1 group when compared to the control group. SEM analysis showed adequate interaction between osteoblasts and scaffolds, with the cell body spreading along the nanofiber axis and the presence of more evident physical contacts, through the formation of bonds through filopodia and lamellipodia, in groups V1, V6 and I6. Together, the data from the present study observed that LLLT promotes the biostimulation of osteoblasts cultured on PLA nanofibers, which pointed to its potential use in bone tissue engineering techniques, especially with regard to the use of the wavelength of 660 nm, which presented groups with more significant results (AU).

Osteoblasts , Bone Regeneration , Low-Level Light Therapy/instrumentation , Tissue Engineering , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18946, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364411


Abstract To investigate structure-property relationship of polymer-based curcumin solid dispersion (SD), three acrylic polymers were used to formulate curcumin SD by solvent evaporation method. Curcumin Eudragit EPO SD (cur@EPO), curcumin Eudragit RS PO SD (cur@RSPO) and curcumin Eudragit RL PO SD (cur@RLPO) showed deep red, golden orange and reddish orange color, respectively. Cur@RSPO entrapped 15.42 wt% of curcumin followed by cur@RL PO and cur@EPO. FTIR spectra indicated that in cur@EPO, curcumin may transfer hydrogen to the dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate group and thus change its color to red. In contrast, curcumin may form hydrogen bonding with Eudragit RS PO and Eudragit RL. Curcumin exists in amorphous state in three SDs as proved by differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction measurement. In vitro digestion presented that lower pH value in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) stimulates the curcumin release from cur@EPO while permeability influences the release profile in other two SDs. When in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), first order release model governs the release behaviors of all three SDs which showed sustained release pattern. Our results are helpful to elucidate how structure of polymer may impact on the major properties of curcumin contained SD and will be promising to broaden its therapeutic applications.

Polymers , Curcumin/analysis , Methods , Solvents/administration & dosage , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Evaporation/classification , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Color , Citrus sinensis/classification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19586, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384008


Abstract Design of experiment (DoE) is a useful time and cost-effective tool for analyzing the effect of independent variables on the formulation characteristics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the process variables on the characteristics involved in the preparation of Diclofenac Sodium (DC) loaded ethylcellulose (EC) nanoparticles (NP) using Central Composite Design (CCD). NP were prepared by W/O/W emulsion solvent evaporation method. Three factors were investigated (DC/EC mass ratio, PVA concentration, homogenization speed) in order to optimize the entrapment efficiency (EE) and the particle size of NP. The optimal formulation was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and in vitro release. Optimized formulation showed an EE of 49.09 % and an average particle size of 226.83 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.271. No drug-polymer interaction was observed in FTIR and DSC analysis. SEM images showed that the particles are spherical and uniform. The in vitro release study showed a sustained release nature, 53.98 % of the encapsulated drug has been released over 24hours period. This study demonstrated that statistical experimental design methodology can optimize the formulation and the process variables to achieve favorable responses.

Pharmaceutical Preparations , Diclofenac/analysis , Process Optimization , Nanoparticles/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Costs and Cost Analysis/methods , Methodology as a Subject , Fourier Analysis
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19723, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394035


Abstract Passiflora nitida Kunth, an Amazonian Passiflora species, is little studied, although the specie's high biological potential. Herein the plant's pharmacognostic characterization, extract production, antioxidant potential evaluation, and application of this extract in cosmetic products is reported. The physical chemical parameters analyzed were particle size by sieve analysis, loss through drying, extractive yield, total ash content, laser granulometry, specific surface area and pore diameter (SBET), differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry (TG), and wave dispersive X-Ray fluorescence (WDXRF). Total phenol/flavonoid content, LC-MS/MS analysis, DPPH and ABTS antioxidant radical assays, cytotoxicity, melanin, and tyrosinase inhibition in melanocytes test provided evidence to determine the content of the major constituent. P. nitida dry extract provided a fine powder with mesopores determined by SBET, with the TG curve showing five stages of mass loss. The antioxidant potential ranged between 23.5-31.5 mg∙mL-1 and tyrosinase inhibition between 400-654 µg∙mL-1. The species presented an antimelanogenic effect and an inhibitory activity of cellular tyrosinase (26.6%) at 25 µg/mL. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the spray-dried extract displayed the main and minor phenolic compounds constituting this sample. The results indicate that P. nitida extract has promising features for the development of cosmetic formulations

Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Leaves/adverse effects , Cosmetics/classification , Passiflora/classification , Thermogravimetry/methods , X-Rays/adverse effects , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Monophenol Monooxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Phenolic Compounds , Melanins , Antioxidants/adverse effects
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 103-110, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927916


The present study explored the effect of co-amorphous technology in improving the dissolution rate and stability of silybin based on the puerarin-silybin co-amorphous system prepared by the spray-drying method. Solid-state characterization was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction(PXRD), polarizing microscopy(PLM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC), etc. Saturated powder dissolution, intrinsic dissolution rate, moisture absorption, and stability were further investigated. The results showed that puerarin and silybin formed a co-amorphous system at a single glass transition temperature which was higher than that of any crude drug. The intrinsic dissolution rate and supersaturated powder dissolution of silybin in the co-amorphous system were higher than those of the crude drug and amorphous system. The co-amorphous system kept stable for as long as three months under the condition of 40 ℃, 75% relative humidity, which was longer than that of the single amorphous silybin. Therefore, the co-amorphous technology could significantly improve the dissolution and stability of silybin.

Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Desiccation , Drug Compounding/methods , Drug Stability , Silymarin , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Technology , X-Ray Diffraction
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 80 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415544


O objetivo deste trabalho foi preparar e caracterizar nanocarreadores via auto-organização a partir da pectina de citros e lisozima para o encapsulamento da ß-lactose. Foram estudadas três condições de interação entre os biopolímeros variando a razão molar pectina/lisozima (3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 e 1:3), o pH e o tempo de aquecimento. A confirmação da interação foi determinada por espectroscopia no infravermelho por transformada de Fourier (FTIR) e por calorimetria de varredura diferencial (DSC). Os espectros de infravermelho evidenciaram que ligações de hidrogênio foram as principais forças envolvidas na formação dos nanocarreadores e sugeriram a ausência de ß-lactose livre na superfície das nanopartículas. Os termogramas evidenciaram que as nanopartículas formadas na presença de ß-lactose têm maior estabilidade térmica do que as nanopartículas sem ß-lactose. Para ambas as formulações estudadas, na presença e na ausência de ß-lactose, a formação das nanopartículas ocorreu entre os valores de pKa e ponto isoelétrico (pI) da pectina e lisozima, respectivamente, sendo a melhor razão de interação pectina/lisozima 1:2, em pH 10, a 80 ºC por 30 min. As nanopartículas foram formadas via auto-organização e todos as partículas apresentaram distribuição de tamanho homogênea, formato esférico, diâmetro inferior a 100 nm e carga superficial negativa. A morfologia e o tamanho das partículas pouco alteraram com a incorporação da -lactose. A eficiência de encapsulação (EE) da ß-lactose foi superior a 96% para as concentrações estudadas. Ensaios preliminares in vitro, em células epiteliais de câncer de cólon (HCT-116), evidenciaram que as nanopartículas formadas são capazes de adentrar no meio intracelular, possivelmente, por via endocitose

This work aimed to prepare and characterize nanocarriers via self-assembly using citrus pectin and lysozyme for ß-lactose encapsulation. Three interaction conditions between the biopolymers were studied, varying the pectin/lysozyme molar ratio (3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3), pH and heating time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) determined the interaction's confirmation. The infrared spectra showed that hydrogen bonds were the main forces involved in the formation of nanocarriers and suggested the absence of free ß-lactose on the surface of the nanoparticles. The thermograms showed that nanoparticles formed in the presence of ß-lactose have greater thermal stability than nanoparticles without ß-lactose. For both formulations studied, in the presence and absence of lactose, the formation of nanoparticles occurred between the pKa and isoelectric point (pI) values of pectin and lysozyme, respectively, with the best pectin/lysozyme interaction molar ratio 1:2, at pH 10, at 80 °C for 30 min. Nanoparticles were formed via self-assembly, and all particles presented homogeneous size distribution, spherical shape, diameter less than 100 nm, and negative surface charge. The morphology and size of the particles changed little with the incorporation of ß-lactose. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of ß-lactose was higher than 96% for the concentrations studied. Preliminary in vitro assays in colon cancer epithelial cells (HCT-116) showed that the nanoparticles formed are capable of entering the intracellular medium, possibly via endocytosis

Muramidase/analysis , Pectins/analysis , Biopolymers/adverse effects , Calorimetry , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Colonic Neoplasms , Nanoparticles , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lactose
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e21131, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420447


Abstract The study is aimed to develop a monolithic controlled matrix transdermal patches containing Metoclopramide as a model drug by solvent casting method. Eudragit L100, Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30, and Methylcellulose were used in different ratios and Polyethylene glycol 400 added as a plasticizer. Resulting patches were evaluated for their physicochemical characters like organoleptic characters, weight variation, folding endurance, thickness, swelling index, flatness, drug content, swelling index, percentage erosion, moisture content, water vapor transmission rate and moisture uptake. Formed patches were also evaluated through Fourier transform spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results of SEM unveiled smooth surface of drug-loaded patches. In-vitro dissolution studies were conducted by using dissolution medium phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4. Effect of natural permeation enhancers was elucidated on two optimized formulations (Z4 and Z9). Different concentrations (5%-10 %) of permeation enhancers i.e. Olive oil, Castor oil and Eucalyptus oil were evaluated on Franz diffusion cell using excised abdominal rat skin. Z4-O2 (Olive oil 10%) had enhanced sustain effect and flux value (310.72) close to the desired flux value. Z4-O2 followed Higuchi release model (R2= 0.9833) with non-fickian diffusion release mechanism (n=0.612)

Spectrum Analysis/methods , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Metoclopramide/agonists , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods
Natal; s.n; 29 dez. 2021. 93 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1532968


Introdução: Os fios Copper Ni-Ti (CuNiTi) possuem indicações de uso clínico específicas, permanecendo no ambiente bucal por um longo período. Por esse motivo suas características mecânicas, termodinâmicas e estruturais devem ser preservadas durante todo o período de uso. Objetivos: Investigar se ocorrem alterações no comportamento mecânico, termodinâmico, estrutura e composição química superficial em fios CuNiTi 35°C submetidos ao envelhecimento in vivo (uso clínico) e in vitro (termociclagem), evidenciando as possíveis diferenças entre os métodos de envelhecimento. Material e Métodos: A amostra total foi constituída de 30 arcos pré-contornados 0.016", termodinâmicos com adição de cobre, e temperatura austenítica final (Af) de 35°C, da marca Ormco®. As análises destes fios resultaram em dois capítulos. Para o experimento clínico, 10 unidades de fios foram instaladas em 05 pacientes e permaneceram em meio bucal durante 30, 60 e 90 dias, e 05 fios foram analisados como recebidos (CR). A cada período, um hemiarco completo mais 1/3 (um terço) do hemiarco inferior direito foi retirado para análises. Para o experimento in vitro os 15 fios restantes foram submetidos à termociclagem para simulação do envelhecimento em ambiente oral durante 30 (600 ciclos), 60 (1200 ciclos) e 90 dias (1800 ciclos) com variação de temperatura entre 5°C e 55°C, com banhos de 90 segundos em cada temperatura, e transição de 15 segundos entre os banhos. Após cada período de envelhecimento in vivo e in vitro, os fios foram submetidos a um teste de padronização das suas dimensões através da medição dos diâmetros com paquímetro, Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV), Espectrometria por Raios X Fluorescentes (FRX), ensaios de tração uniaxial e ensaio de Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria (DSC). Resultados: No capítulo 1 a comparação entre os fios CR e os envelhecidos revelou que não houve diferença significativa entre os diâmetros das amostras, das forças obtidas ou mesmo das temperaturas Af, independentemente do tempo de permanência em boca. Foram encontrados predominantemente Ni, Ti, Cu e Al nas amostras, além de outros elementos químicos em concentrações variadas. No capítulo 2 não houve diferença significativa entre os diâmetros das amostras, das forças obtidas ou mesmo das temperaturas Af entre as amostras, independentemente do tempo ou do método de envelhecimento. Conclusão: As análises laboratoriais dos fios envelhecidos in vivo e in vitro foram comparadas, evidenciando que as características mecânicas, termodinâmicas e químicas dos fios permanecem estáveis mesmo até 90 dias de uso clínico ou 1800 ciclos de termociclagem. O método de envelhecimento in vitro se mostra uma alternativa viável para a análise destes parâmetros, em substituição aos métodos in vivo (AU).

Introduction: Copper Ni-Ti wires (CuNiTi) have specific indications for clinical use, remaining in the oral environment for a long period. For this reason, their mechanical, thermodynamic and structural characteristics must be preserved throughout the period of use of these materials. Objectives: To investigate whether there are changes in the mechanical, thermodynamic, structure and surface chemical composition of CuNiTi 35°C wires subjected to in vivo aging (clinical use) and in vitro (thermocycling), highlighting the possible differences between the aging methods. Material and Methods: The total sample was obtained from 30 pre-contoured Ormco® 0.016 thermodynamic archwires with copper addition and austenitic final temperature (Af) of 35°C. The analysis of these archwires resulted in two articles. For the clinical experiment, 10 units of wires were installed in 05 patients and remained in the oral environment for 30, 60 and 90 days, and 05 wires were analyzed as received. At each period, a complete hemiarch plus 1/3 of the right lower hemiarch was removed for analysis. For the in vitro experiment, the 15 remaining wires underwent thermocycling to simulate the aging of the oral environment for 30 (600 cycles), 60 (1200 cycles) and 90 days (1800 cycles) with a temperature range between 5°C and 55°C, with 90 second baths at each temperature, and 15 second transition between baths. After each in vivo and in vitro aging period, the wires underwent to a standardization test of their dimensions, by defining the diameters with a caliper, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fluorescent X-Ray Spectrometry (FRX), tests of Uniaxial traction and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) test. Results: In chapter 1, the comparison between CR and aged wires revealed that there was no significant difference between the sample diameters, the forces obtained or even the temperatures Af, regardless the time spent in the mouth. Predominantly Ni, Ti, Cu and Al were found in the samples, in addition to other chemical elements in different concentrations. In chapter 2 there was no significant difference between the diameters of the samples, the forces obtained or even the temperatures Af between the samples, regardless of time or aging method. Conclusion: The comparison of the laboratoral analyzes of the archwires aged in vivo and in vitro showed that the mechanical, thermodynamic and the surface chemical characteristics were stable, even up to 90 days of clinical use or 1800 thermocycling cycles. The in vitro aging method is a viable alternative for the analysis of these parameters, replacing the in vivo methods (AU).

Orthodontic Wires , Orthodontics , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission/instrumentation , Smart Materials , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190276, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278448


Abstract The present study focused on the use of pineapple plant stem, which is an agro-waste, for the production of starch (11.08 % ± 0.77). Characters were studied using X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rheological methods. The granular size of stem starch was comparatively smaller than corn starch granules. The X-ray diffraction data revealed that stem starch has an A-type crystal structure. The molecular structure was similar to those obtained for native starches, which is confirmed by NMR and FTIR. The gelatinization temperature was observed to be higher than corn starch and rheological studies revealed; stem starch is more viscous than corn starch. The purity analysis showed that the harmful heavy metals were in negligible quantity and the tested pesticides were absent. This could make this a good source of starch for food industries. Results revealed that this agro-waste has a high potential for the production of good quality starch.

Ananas , Agribusiness , Resistant Starch , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/instrumentation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 176 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396454


A baixa solubilidade aquosa dos insumos farmacêuticos ativos (IFA) é um grande desafio no desenvolvimento de formulações farmacêuticas, pois pode resultar em biodisponibilidade insuficiente e variável. Diversas estratégias de modificação do estado sólido dos compostos ativos, têm sido propostas para incrementar a solubilidade de fármacos pouco solúveis em água. Dentre as estratégias abordadas a ispersão sólida (DS) é uma das formas mais promissoras de aumentar a solubilidade, dissolução e a biodisponibilidade de IFAs com baixa solubilidade aquosa. O efavirenz (EFV) é um inibidor não nucleosídeo da transcriptase reversa (NNRTI) e um dos componentes da terapia antirretroviral de alta atividade (HAART), sendo parte da primeira linha de tratamento de infecções do vírus HIV tipo 1. O antirretroviral está classificado como pertencente à classe II do SCB, e exibe baixa solubilidade aquosa (solubilidade menor que 10 µg/mL) e alta permeabilidade com absorção dependente da taxa de dissolução, resultando em biodisponibilidade oral baixa e variável. A administração de fármacos pouco solúveis na forma de DS é um método atraente para aumentar a biodisponibilidade in vivo. Neste estudo, um método de triagem rápida por evaporação de solvente foi empregado para preparar DS de EFV, variando-se proporções em misturas compostas pelos carreadores, polivinilpirrolidona K-28/32 (PVP K-28/32), copovidona (CoPVP), hidroxipropilmetilcelulose ftalato (HPMCP-50, HPMCP-55 e HPMCP-55s), poloxâmero 188 (P188) e poloxâmero 407 (P407). A solubilidade das DS foi avaliada por meio do método do equilíbrio (shake-flask), onde selecionou-se os polímeros P188 e P407 que conduziram a uma elevada capacidade de saturação em meio aquoso, superior a 1.000 vezes ao fármaco puro. As propriedades físico-químicas e do estado sólido das amostras foram avaliadas por meio de calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC); termogravimetria (TG); espectroscopia do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR), difratometria de raios X pelo método do pó (DRXP) e ensaios de dissolução com emprego do aparato IV USP. Os resultados de DRXP demonstraram que os carreadores P188 e P407 foram capazes de estabilizar o EFV na forma amorfa nas DS, fato esse evidenciado pela ausência de picos característicos do antirretroviral

he low aqueous solubility of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is a major challenge in the development of pharmaceutical formulations as it may result in insufficient and variable bioavailability. Several strategies for modifying the solid-state of the active compounds have been proposed to increase solubility of drugs that are poorly soluble in water. Among the strategies approaches, solid dispersion (SD) is one of the most promising ways to increase solubility, dissolution and bioavailability of APIs with low aqueous solubility. Efavirenz (EFV) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and one of the components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), being part of the first line of treatment of type 1 HIV virus infections. The antiretroviral is classified as belonging to BCS class II, and exhibits low aqueous solubility (solubility less than 10 µg / mL) and high permeability with dissolution ratedependent absorption, resulting in low and variable oral bioavailability. Drug delivery of poorly aqueous soluble drugs in form SD is an appealing method to increase in vivo bioavailability. In this study, a fast screening method of solvent evaporation method was used to prepare EFV SD, varying the proportions in mixtures composed by the carriers polyvinylpyrrolidone K-28/32 (PVP K-28/32), copovidone (CoPVP), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP-50, HPMCP-55 e HPMCP-55s), poloxamer 188 (P188) e poloxamer 407 (P407). The solubility of the samples was evaluated by the method of equilibrium (shake-flask), wherein the polymers P188 and P407 were selected due to the capacity to promote high saturation in aqueous medium, 1,000 times superior to the pure drug. The physicochemical and solid-state properties of the samples were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); thermogravimetry (TG); Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and dissolution assays using the IV USP apparatus. The results of XRPD demonstrated that the carriers P188 and P407 were able to stabilize the EFV in amorphous form in the SD, a fact evidenced by the absence of characteristic peaks of the antiretroviral

Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Pharmaceutical Raw Material , Dissolution , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/adverse effects , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Poloxamer/analogs & derivatives , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/instrumentation , Hypromellose Derivatives/metabolism , Fourier Analysis
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 123 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380006


Diante das exigências crescentes das agências regulatórias do mundo todo quanto à redução/eliminação de ácidos graxos trans nos alimentos industrializados, bem como da conscientização do consumidor sobre a relação entre alimentação e saúde, o desenvolvimento de alternativas mais saudáveis aos óleos parcialmente hidrogenados e a outras fontes lipídicas com alto grau de saturaçã o se faz necessário. O oleogel, um sistema composto por um óleo preso em uma rede tridimensional formada por um agente estruturante, se apresenta como uma solução promissora. Dentre os diversos agentes estruturantes, as ceras vegetais se destacam por sua excelente capacidade de gelificação de óleos. Contudo, apresentam uma desvantagem sob o aspecto sensorial, pois podem conferir cerosidade e sabor residual desagradável aos alimentos. Com o objetivo de viabilizar o uso das ceras como agentes estruturantes em oleogéis face ao seu excelente desempenho tecnológico, este projeto propõe o estudo e a aplicação de oleogéis à base de óleo de soja (SBO) estruturado com ceras de farelo de arroz (RBW) a 2 e 4 % (m/m) ou carnaúba (CBW) a 3 e 6% (m/m), isoladamente. As matérias-primas foram caracterizadas e o comportamento de gelificação de cada cera foi avaliado por análises de textura por penetração de cone, estabilidade à perda de óleo por centrifugação, energia coesiva por parâmetro de solubilidade de Hansen (HSP) e comportamento de cristalização e fusão por calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC). Os resultados mostraram que ambas as ceras são capazes de formar oleogéis estruturalmente estáveis, contudo, o oleogel com 2% de RBW apresentou maior firmeza a 20 °C (190,4 gf/cm2) do que o oleogel com 6% de CBW a 5 °C (186,1 gf/cm2). Ao final de 5 dias, a capacidade de retenção de óleo do oleogel preparado com RBW foi de 100% às concentrações de 2 e 4% (m/m), contra 61 e 99,3% do oleogel elaborado com CBW às concentrações de 3 e 6% (m/m), respectivamente. Esses resultados podem ser explicados pela diferença entre as energias coesivas, ou seja, do grau de interação molecular entre o solvente e o soluto de cada oleogel. De acordo com os resultados de distância, que prevê se o gel formado será forte, fraco ou se não haverá formação de gel, o soluto CBW apresentou menor interação com o óleo (3,3 MPa1/2) do que o soluto RBW (3,7 MPa1/2). Os oleogéis foram aplicados como ingredientes em diferentes formulações de cream cheese, que foram analisados quanto a diferentes parâmetros de textura e esses resultados foram comparados a uma referência comercial. Nenhuma das amostras produzidas obteve resultados de textura estatisticamente iguais aos do cream cheese comercial (CC), o que pode ser explicado pelas diferenças de formulação e processamento dos produtos. Face aos resultados para textura e estabilidade à perda de óleo dos oleogéis de RBW, este agente estruturante apresenta ria maior potencial de aplicação, porém o oleogel CBW6 obteve alta capacidade de retenção de óleo (99,3%) e quando aplicado na formulação de cream cheese (CCBW6) apresentou resultados de firmeza e espalhabilidade mais próximos da amostra de referência, feita com gordura do leite (CMF)

Given the growing demands of regulatory agencies around the world regarding the reduction/elimination of trans fatty acids in processed foods, as well as consumer awareness about the relationship between food and health, the development of healthier alternatives to partially hydrogenated oils and others lipid sources with a high degree of saturation are necessary. Oleogel, a system composed of an oil trapped in a three-dimensional network formed by a structuring agent, presents itself as a promising solution. Among the various structuring agents, vegetable waxes stand out for their excellent oil gelling capacity. However, they have a sensory disadvantage, as they can give waxy and unpleasant aftertaste to foods. Aiming at enabling the use of waxes as structuring agents in oleogels in view of their excellent technological performance, this study proposes the evaluation and application of oleogels based on soybean oil (SBO) structured with rice bran wax (RBW) at 2 and 4% (m/m) or carnauba (CBW) at 3 and 6% (m/m). The raw materials were characterized and the gelling behavior of each wax was evaluated by analysis of texture by cone penetration, stability to oil loss by centrifugation, cohesive energy by Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) and crystallization and melting behavior. by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that both waxes are able to form structurally stable oleogels, however, oleogel with 2% RBW showed greater firmness at 20 °C (190.4 gf/cm2) than oleogel with 6% CBW at 5° C (186.1 gf/cm2). At the end of 5 days, the oil retention capacity of oleogel prepared with RBW was 100% at concentrations of 2 and 4% (m/m), against 61 and 99.3% of oleogel prepared with CBW at concentrations of 3 and 6% (m/m), respectively. These results can be explained by the difference between the cohesive energies, that is, the degree of molecular interaction between the solvent and the solute of each oleogel. According to the distance results, which predicts if the formed gel will be strong, weak or if there will be no gel formation, the CBW solute showed less interaction with the oil (3.3 MPa1/2) than the RBW solute (3 ,7 MPa1/2). Oleogels were applied as ingredients in different cream cheese formulations, which were analyzed for different texture parameters and these results were compared to a commercial reference. None of the samples produced had texture results statistically equal to those of commercial cream cheese (CC), which can be explained by the differences in formulation and processing of the products. Given the results for texture and oil binding capacity of RBW oleogels, this structuring agent would present greater application potential, but CBW6 oleogel obtained high oil biding capacity (99.3%) and when applied in cream cheese formulation (CCBW6) showed firmness and spreadability results closer to the reference sample, made with milk fat (CMF)

Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Industrialized Foods , Food/adverse effects , Vegetables , Waxes/pharmacology , Soybean Oil/classification , Calorimetry/methods , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18414, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249155


Tolmetin sodium (TS) is a powerful non-steroidal mitigating drug for the treatment of rheumatoid joint inflammation, osteoarthritis, and adolescent rheumatoid joint pain. In addition to its gastrointestinal (GIT) problems, TS has a short biological half-life (1 hr). In a trial to overcome these side effects and control the rate of (TS) release, chitosan coated alginate microspheres are recommended. A Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to produce controlled release microspheres of TS in the sodium alginate and chitosan copolymers (Alg-Ch) by emulsification internal gelation methodology. The effect of critical formulation variables namely, drug to polymer ratio (D:P ratio), speed of rotation and span 80% on drug encapsulation efficiency (% EE), drug release at the end of 2 hours (Rel2) and drug release at the end of 8 hours (Rel8) were analyzed using response surface modeling. The parameters were assessed using the F test and mathematical models containing only the significant terms were generated for each parameter using multiple linear regression analysis. The produced microspheres were spherical in shape with extensive pores at D:P ratio 1:1 and small pores at a drug to polymer ratio (D:P ratio) 1:3. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) affirmed the steady character of TS in microspheres and revealed their crystalline form. All formulation variables examined exerted a significant influence on the drug release, whereas the speed emerged as a lone factor significantly influencing % EE. Increasing the D: P ratio decreases the release of the drug after two and 8 hours. The increase in speed results in an increase in drug release after two and eight hours. The drug release from the microspheres followed zero order kinetics. TS Alg-Ch microspheres exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory effect on incited rat paw edema after eight hours. These results revealed that the internal gelation technique is a promising method to control TS release and eradicate GIT side effects using Alg-Ch copolymers.

Tolmetin/analysis , Chitosan/analysis , Alginates/analysis , Microspheres , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Arthralgia/pathology , Drug Liberation , Inflammation/pathology , Joints/pathology
The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics ; : 9-14, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811435


PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different numbers of heat treatments applied to superstructure porcelain on optical, thermal, and phase formation properties of zirconia.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty zirconia specimens were prepared in the form of rectangular prism. Specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10) according to the number of firing at heating values of porcelain. Color differences and translucency parameter were measured, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA).RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in ΔE, TP, L, a, and b value changes of the zirconia specimens as a result of repetitive firing processes (P>.05).CONCLUSION: Although additional firing processes up to 4 increase peak density in thermal analysis, additional firing processes up to 4 times can be applied safely as they do not result in a change in color and phase character of zircon frameworks.

Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Dental Porcelain , Fires , Heating , Hot Temperature , X-Ray Diffraction
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18575, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285517


Buccal route of administration has many advantages such as improving patient compliance, bypassing the GIT and hepatic first pass effect. The objectives are to formulate mucoadhesive buccal tablet using Mefenamic acid and compatible excipients, and to evaluate the product using quality control tests and in vitro tests. The ingredients were subjected to Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy studies for compatibility test and the results showed no interaction. Two batches of mefenamic buccal tablet were prepared. The tablet thickness and diameter are 3.75 mm and 12 mm respectively. All tablets are within the specification of +/- 5%. The in-house tablet hardness is 6.8-15kg and percent friabilation is not more than 0.8%. The disintegration test showed that all tablets disintegrated within 4 hours. The content uniformity showed that tablets are within the range of 85%-115%. The tablet weight is within the 5% range. The percent swelling is 53.83% to 58.86% and moisture absorption is 14.79% to 15.56%. The surface pH of the tablet is close to the salivary pH, which means that it would not irritate the buccal mucosa. The buccal tablet has a mucoadhesiveness of 0.196 to 0.200. There was no change in pH and size after subjecting it to stability studies in human saliva. Drug release studies showed 80.7% to 83.4% after 3 hours. Even after 3 months of subjecting the tablets to 40 ºC and 75% RH, results are within acceptable range. The results show the potential of the formulation as a mucoadhesive buccal tablet.

Mefenamic Acid/analysis , Mouthwashes/analysis , Quality Control , Tablets/pharmacology , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18562, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285519


The aim of present work was to investigate blends of Eudragit® NE 30D with Aquacoat® ECD using different ratios to eliminate curing effect associated with individual polymers. Propranolol HCl 10% w/w was layered onto sugar cores using 5% w/w HPMC as a binder. Drug-layered-cores were coated either with pure or blends of Aquacoat® ECD: Eudragit® NE 30D in a fluidized bed coater to obtain 20% w/w coating level. Talc 35% w/w was used as anti-tacking agent. The pellets were characterized for in vitro dissolution studies, morphology, water uptake-weight loss, osmolality and adhesion of coating after curing at 60 °C or 60 °C/75% RH for 24 h. The findings revealed that Aquacoat® ECD coated pellets showed curing effect due to further gradual coalescence of polymeric particles which resulted into better film formation upon curing. In contrast, the curing effect of Eudragit® NE 30D coated pellets was caused by decrease in adhesion of coatings after curing which provided entirely different swelling behavior of uncured (localized swelling) and cured (uniform swelling) pellets. The undesired curing effect of individual polymers was eliminated by using their blends in appropriate ratio.

Polymers/analysis , /classification , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Drug Delivery Systems/adverse effects