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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255080, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364503


In the current context of emerging drug-resistant fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, discovery of new antifungal agents is an urgent matter. This research aimed to evaluate the antifungal potential of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide against fluconazole-resistant clinical strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. The antifungal activity of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide was evaluated in vitro by the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), inhibition of biofilm formation and its rupture, sorbitol and ergosterol assays, and association between this molecule and common antifungal drugs, amphotericin B and fluconazole. The test product inhibited all strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, with a MIC ranging from 128 to 256 µg.mL-1, and a MFC of 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. It also inhibited up to 92% of biofilm formation and rupture of up to 87% of preformed biofilm. 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide did not promote antifungal activity through binding to cellular membrane ergosterol nor it damages the fungal cell wall. Antagonism was observed when combining this substance with amphotericin B and fluconazole. The substance exhibited significant antifungal activity by inhibiting both planktonic cells and biofilm of fluconazole-resistant strains. Its combination with other antifungals should be avoided and its mechanism of action remains to be established.

No atual contexto de patógenos fúngicos resistentes emergentes tais como Candida albicans e Candida parapsilosis, a descoberta de novos agentes antifúngicos é uma questão urgente. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antifúngico da 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida contra cepas clínicas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis resistentes a fluconazol. A atividade antifúngica da substância foi avaliada in vitro através da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), concentração fungicida mínima (CFM), ruptura e inibição da formação de biofilme, ensaios de sorbitol e ergosterol, e associação entre esta molécula e antifúngicos comuns, anfotericina B e fluconazol. O produto teste inibiu todas as cepas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis, com uma CIM variando de 128 a 256 µg.mL-1, e uma CFM de 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. Também inibiu até 92% da formação de biofilme e causou a ruptura de até 87% de biofilme pré-formado. A 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida não promoveu atividade antifúngica pela ligação ao ergosterol da membrana celular fúngica, tampouco danificou a parede celular. Antagonismo foi observado ao combinar esta substância com anfotericina B e fluconazol. A substância exibiu atividade antifúngica significativa ao inibir tanto as células planctônicas quanto o biofilme das cepas resistentes ao fluconazol. Sua combinação com outros antifúngicos deve ser evitada e seu mecanismo de ação deve ser estabelecido.

In Vitro Techniques , Candida albicans , Fluconazole , Candida parapsilosis , Antifungal Agents
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 50-55, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980365


Background@#Thalassemia is a common inherited hemolytic disorder characterized by the absence or reduction of one of the globin chains. Beta thalassemia major generally has oral cavity manifestations. Patients with beta thalassemia major often require routine blood transfusion. However, this treatment has the side effect of accumulating iron in the salivary glands, which increase the risk of dental caries, gingivitis, and secondary infection from Candida albicans.@*Objective@#The aim of this review is to explain the relationship of salivary iron levels and the effects of iron accumulation on dental caries, gingivitis, and Candida albicans infection.@*Methods@#A comprehensive search was performed on PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases using the keywords beta thalassemia major, iron, dental caries, gingivitis, Candida albicans.@*Results@#Iron is an essential micronutrient needed by Candida albicans for its growth and virulence. Blood transfusion in patients with beta thalassemia major can lead to a buildup of iron in the salivary glands and trigger the formation of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI). NTBI can circulate in plasma and form a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that stimulate the formation of biofilms and increase dental caries. ROS may affect several genes associated with the inflammatory process and increase the incidence of gingivitis. It can also reduce salivary secretion in patients with thalassemia-β major that cause dysbiosis, which triggers an overgrowth of Candida albicans.@*Conclusion@#The excess iron in patients with beta thalassemia major increase the risk of dental caries, gingivitis, and Candida albicans infection.

Iron , Dental Caries , Gingivitis , Candida albicans
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970630


This study aimed to explore the mechanism of n-butanol alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) in mice based on the negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome via PKCδ/NLRC4/IL-1Ra axis. In the experiment, female C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into the following six groups: a blank control group, a VVC model group, high-, medium-, and low-dose BAEB groups(80, 40, and 20 mg·kg~(-1)), and a fluconazole group(20 mg·kg~(-1)). The VVC model was induced in mice except for those in the blank control group by the estrogen dependence method. After modeling, no treatment was carried out in the blank control group. The mice in the high-, medium-, and low-dose BAEB groups were treated with BAEB at 80, 40, and 20 mg·kg~(-1), respectively, and those in the fluconazole group were treated with fluconazole at 20 mg·kg~(-1). The mice in the VVC model group received the same volume of normal saline. The general state and body weight of mice in each group were observed every day, and the morphological changes of Candida albicans in the vaginal lavage of mice were examined by Gram staining. The fungal load in the vaginal lavage of mice was detected by microdilution assay. After the mice were killed, the degree of neutrophil infiltration in the vaginal lavage was detected by Papanicolaou staining. The content of inflammatory cytokines interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-18, and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) in the vaginal lavage was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and vaginal histopathology was analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The expression and distribution of NLRP3, PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry(IHC), and the expression and distribution of pNLRC4 and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues were detected by immunofluorescence(IF). The protein expression of NLRP3, PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra was detected by Western blot(WB), and the mRNA expression of NLRP3, PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra was detected by qRT-PCR. The results showed that compared with the blank control group, the VVC model group showed redness, edema, and white secretions in the vagina. Compared with the VVC model group, the BAEB groups showed improved general state of VVC mice. As revealed by Gram staining, Papanicolaou staining, microdilution assay, and HE staining, compared with the blank control group, the VVC model group showed a large number of hyphae, neutrophils infiltration, and increased fungal load in the vaginal lavage, destroyed vaginal mucosa, and infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cells. BAEB could reduce the transformation of C. albicans from yeast to hyphae. High-dose BAEB could significantly reduce neutrophil infiltration and fungal load. Low-and medium-dose BAEB could reduce the da-mage to the vaginal tissue, while high-dose BAEB could restore the damaged vaginal tissues to normal levels. ELISA results showed that the content of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-18, and LDH in the VVC model group significantly increased compared with that in the blank control group, and the content of IL-1β, IL-18 and LDH in the medium-and high-dose BAEB groups was significantly reduced compared with that in the VVC model group. WB and qRT-PCR results showed that compared with the blank control group, the VVC model group showed reduced protein and mRNA expression of PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues of mice and increased protein and mRNA expression of NLRP3. Compared with the VVC model group, the medium-and high-dose BAEB groups showed up-regulated protein and mRNA expression of PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues and inhibited protein and mRNA expression of NLRP3 in vaginal tissues. This study indicated that the therapeutic effect of BAEB on VVC mice was presumably related to the negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome by promoting PKCδ/NLRC4/IL-1Ra axis.

Female , Animals , Humans , Mice , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Inflammasomes/genetics , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , 1-Butanol/pharmacology , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Candida albicans , Cytokines , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Ethanol , RNA, Messenger , Calcium-Binding Proteins/therapeutic use
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 304-317, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970376


Candida albicans is one of the major causes of invasive fungal infections and a serious opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. The antimicrobial peptide AMP-17 has prominent anti-Candida activity, and proteomic analysis revealed significant differences in the expression of cell wall (XOG1) and oxidative stress (SRR1) genes upon the action of AMP-17 on C. albicans, suggesting that AMP-17 may exert anti-C. albicans effects by affecting the expression of XOG1 and SRR1 genes. To further investigate whether XOG1 and SRR1 genes were the targets of AMP-17, C. albicans xog1Δ/Δ and srr1Δ/Δ mutants were constructed using the clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system. Phenotypic observations revealed that deletion of two genes had no significant effect on C. albicans growth and biofilm formation, whereas XOG1 gene deletion affected in vitro stress response and mycelium formation of C. albicans. Drug sensitivity assay showed that the MIC80 values of AMP-17 against xog1Δ/Δ and srr1Δ/Δ mutants increased from 8 μg/mL (for the wild type C. albicans SC5314) to 16 μg/mL, while the MIC80 values against srr1Δ/Δ: : srr1 revertants decreased to the level of the wild type SC5314. In addition, the ability of AMP-17 to inhibit biofilm formation of both deletion strains was significantly reduced compared to that of wild type SC5314, indicating that the susceptibility of the deletion mutants to AMP-17 was reduced in both the yeast state and during biofilm formation. These results suggest that XOG1 and SRR1 genes are likely two of the potential targets for AMP-17 to exert anti-C. albicans effects, which may facilitate further exploration of the antibacterial mechanism of novel peptide antifungal drugs.

Humans , Candida albicans , Antimicrobial Peptides , Proteomics , Peptides/pharmacology , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22045, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439519


Abstract The genus Candida represents the main cause of infections of fungal origin. Some species stand out as disease promoters in humans, such as C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. This study evaluated the antifungal effects of propyl (E)-3-(furan-2-yl) acrylate. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the synthetic compound, amphotericin B and fluconazole alone against four species of Candida ranged from 64 to 512 µg/mL, 1 to 2 µg/mL, and 32 to 256 µg/mL, respectively. The synergistic effect of the test substance was observed when associated with fluconazole against C. glabrata, there was no antagonism between the substances against any of the tested strains. The potential drug promoted morphological changes in C. albicans, decreasing the amount of resistance, virulence, and reproduction structures, such as the formation of pseudohyphae, blastoconidia, and chlamydospores, ensuring the antifungal potential of this substance. It was also possible to identify the fungicidal profile of the test substance through the study of the growth kinetics of C. albicans. Finally, it was observed that the test compound inhibited the ergosterol biosynthesis by yeast

Candida albicans/drug effects , Ergosterol/agonists , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Candida/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation
Braz. dent. sci ; 26(2): 1-8, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1426430


Objective: in this study, biofilm formation by Candida albicans in fixed orthodontic appliances was evaluated. Material and Methods: a total of 300 conventional metal brackets (MC), ceramic (CB), self-ligation (SLB), nickel-titanium (NiTi), and nickel-chromium (NiCr) wires, and ligatures types were organized into thirty groups (n=10). To induce biofilm formation, brackets, wires, and ligatures were joined, sterilized, placed in 24-well plates, contaminated with standardized suspensions of C. albicans (107 cells/mL), and incubated at 37 °C for 48 h with shaking. The biofilms formed were detached using an ultrasonic homogenizer, and suspensions were serially diluted and plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar to determine colony-forming units per mL. Scanning electron microscopy was performed before and after the biofilm formation. Results: lower amount of biofilm formation was observed in the MC group than in the CB and SLB groups (p<0.0001). SLB and CB showed similar biofilm formation rates (p=0.855). In general, the cross-sectional wires .018"x.025" showed higher biofilm formation when associated with the three types of brackets. When brackets, wires, and ligatures were associated, the sets with NiCr wires and SSL ligatures with MC brackets (p=0.0008) and CB (p=0.0003) showed higher biofilm formation. Conclusion: thus, brackets of MC with NiTi and NiCr wires showed lower biofilm formation, regardless of the ligature and cross-sectional or gauge of the wire and, MC and CB brackets with NiCr wires and SSL ligatures were more likely to accumulate biofilms (AU)

Objetivo: neste estudo, a formação de biofilme por Candida albicans em aparelhos ortodônticos fixos foi avaliada. Material e Métodos: um total de 300 bráquetes metálicos convencionais (MC), cerâmicos (CB), autoligados (SLB), com fios de níquel-titânio (NiTi) e níquel-cromo (NiCr) e tipos de ligaduras foram organizados em trinta grupos (n=10). Bráquetes, fios e ligaduras foram unidos, esterilizados, colocados em placas de 24 poços, contaminados com suspensões padronizadas de C. albicans (107 células/mL) e incubados a 37°C por 48 h para a formação de biofilmes. Os biofilmes formados foram rompidos por meio de um homogeneizador ultrassônico e suspensões foram diluídas e semeadas em ágar Sabouraud-dextrose para determinar as unidades formadoras de colônias por mL. A microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi realizada antes e após a formação do biofilme. Resultados: foi observada menor formação de biofilme no grupo MC em comparação aos grupos CB e SLB (p<0,0001). A formação de biofilme foi semelhante nos grupos SLB e CB (p=0,855). Em geral, os fios de seção transversal .018"x.025" apresentaram maior formação de biofilme quando associados aos três tipos de bráquetes. Os conjuntos com fios de NiCr e ligaduras SSL com bráquetes MC (p=0,0008) e CB (p=0,0003) apresentaram maior formação de biofilme. Conclusão: bráquetes MC com fios de NiTi e NiCr apresentaram menor formação de biofilme, independente da ligadura e secção transversal ou bitola do fio e, braquetes MC e CB com fios de NiCr e ligaduras SSL foram mais propensos a acumular biofilmes.(AU)

Candida albicans , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Orthodontic Brackets , Biofilms , Orthodontic Appliances, Fixed
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981430


Paris rugosa(Melanthiaceae) only grows in Yunnan province of China at present, and its chemical constituents have not been systematically studied. In this study, nine compounds, including one new compound pariposide G(1) and eight known compounds of cerin(2), stigmast-4-en-3-one(3), β-ecdysone(4), ophiopogonin C'(5), methyl protogracillin(6), gracillin(7), parissaponin H(8), and parisyunnanoside G(9), were isolated and identified from the ethanol extract of P. rugosa rhizomes by column chromatography methods and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Compounds 1-9 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of all the compounds were evaluated. The results showed that ophiopogonin C' had strong inhibitory effects on Candida albicans [MIC_(90)=(4.68±0.01) μmol·L~(-1)] and the fluconazole-resistant strain of C. albicans [MIC_(90)=(4.66±0.02) μmol·L~(-1)].

Anti-Bacterial Agents , Candida albicans , China , Liliaceae , Melanthiaceae , Rhizome
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 7(3): 3-12, Sept. - Dec. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1437810


Introduction: candida albicans is a fungal pathogen that can provoke diseases ranging from oral infections to life-threatening systemic disorders. It is now recognized that oral bacteria, such as the genus Streptococcus, establish synergistic relationships with C. albicans, which could potentially increase the fungi's virulence and pathogenicity. Objective: this narrative review aimed to discuss the Candida-Streptococcus mechanisms of interactions and their contribution to increasing oral candidiasis severity. In addition, it provides a background of biofilm formation and potential therapeutical targets. Sources of Data: searches for papers in English were performed in the Pubmed database until May 2022. MeSH and free terms related to the field were used. In vitro studies were selected, tabulated, and qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed descriptively. Synthesis of Data: among the early colonizers bacteria, evidence pointed out that S. gordonnii and S. oralis have major implications in oral candidiasis, in which mixed biofilms increase the infection severity and challenge the host's defense. On the other hand, the outcomes of the interaction between C. albicans and S. mitis, S. sanguinis, or S. mutans remain little explored in the oral candidiasis scenario, albeit evidence pointed out an enhanced fungus population and virulence factors. Conclusion: overall, considering the polymicrobial profile of the infection and the potential to increase Candida-related disease severity, therapeutical strategies should also consider bacteria management.

Introdução: candida albicans é um patógeno fúngico que pode provocar doenças que variam de infecções orais a distúrbios sistêmicos com risco de vida. Hoje se reconhece que as bactérias orais, como o gênero Streptococcus, estabelecem relações sinérgicas com C. albicans, o que pode potencialmente aumentar a virulência e patogenicidade do fungo. Objetivo: esta revisão narrativa teve como objetivo discutir os mecanismos de interação Candida-Streptococcus e sua contribuição para o agravamento da candidíase oral. Além disso, fornece uma breve explanação sobre a formação do biofilme e potenciais alvos terapêuticos. Fonte dos dados: foi realizada pesquisa na base de dados Pubmed para a busca de artigos publicados em Inglês até maio de 2022. Para isso, foram utilizados descritores relacionados ao tema. Estudos in vitro foram selecionados, tabulados e seus resultados quantitativos e qualitativos analisados descritivamente. Síntese dos dados: entre as bactérias denominadas colonizadores iniciais, evidências apontam que S. gordonnii e S. oralis têm implicações importantes na candidíase oral, na qual biofilmes mistos aumentam a gravidade da infecção e desafiam a defesa do hospedeiro. Por outro lado, os desfechos das interações entre C. albicans e S. mitis, S. sanguinis ou S. mutans permanecem pouco explorados no cenário da candidíase oral, apesar de evidências apontarem um aumento dapopulação fúngica e de fatores de virulência. Conclusão: de maneira geral, considerando o perfil polimicrobiano da infecção e o potencial agravamento das doenças provocadas por Candida spp, as estratégias terapêuticas não devem estar focadas apenas no fungo, mas também devem considerar o manejo da bactéria.

Candida albicans , Candidiasis, Oral , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus sanguis , Biofilms , Streptococcus oralis , Streptococcus mitis , Streptococcus gordonii
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370924


Objective: to evaluate the molecular interaction of silibinin with the targets ALS3 and SAP5. Methodology: Molecular docking protocols were conducted to analyze the binding interaction of silibinin with ALS3 and SAP5. Results: Eleven interactions of ALS3 with silibinin and four with fluconazole were found, while six interactions were observed of SAP5 with silibinin and four with fluconazole. Conclusion: Molecular docking between silibinin and ALS3 identified important interactions, but no significant interactions were observed with SAP5, even though silibinin can exhibit affinity and interactions with other SAP5 sites.

Objetivo: Avaliar a interação molecular da silibinina com os alvos ALS3 e SAP5. Metodologia: Protocolos de docking molecular foram conduzidos para analisar a interação de ligação da silibinina com ALS3 e SAP5. Resultados: Foram encontradas onze interações de ALS3 com silibinina e quatro com fluconazol, enquanto seis interações foram observadas de SAP5 com silibinina e quatro com fluconazol. Conclusão: Docking molecular entre silibinina e ALS3 identificou interações importantes, mas não foram observadas interações significativas com SAP5, embora a silibinina possa apresentar afinidade e interações com outros sítios SAP5.

Candida albicans , Silymarin , Proteins , Invasive Fungal Infections
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1360-1375, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402290


A ocorrência das infecções do trato urinário (ITU) causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida estão aumentando consideravelmente nas últimas décadas, sendo a Candida albicans a mais comumente diagnosticada como causadora deste tipo de infecções. Contudo, outras espécies, como exemplo da Candida tropicalis, estão emergindo como preocupantes causadores da doença. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente trabalho é revisar os aspectos relacionados com as ITU causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida. Foi realizada uma pesquisa na base de dados PubMed, buscando artigos sobre a epidemiologia, patogenia e tratamento das ITU causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida. As espécies de Candida são os fungos patogênicos oportunistas mais relevantes causadores de infecções nosocomiais e podem causar infecção no trato urinário, tanto inferior (ureteres, bexiga e uretra) quanto superior (rins), principalmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Existem alguns fatores predisponentes, como gênero feminino, idade avançada, diabetes mellitus, hospitalização prolongada, imunossupressão, gravidez, hipertensão, neutropenia, cálculos renais, infecções nosocomiais, terapia antibiótica e procedimentos, como a cateterização, que atuam como facilitadores das ITU por Candida spp. A doença pode ocorrer de forma assintomática, porém, pode evoluir para casos mais graves com comprometimento sistêmico em situações de candidemia que pode causar a morte do paciente, principalmente se tratando de indivíduos imunocomprometidos. Sendo assim, devido ao risco existente, a doença não pode ser negligenciada e um diagnóstico preciso e um tratamento adequado devem ser estabelecidos.

The occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by yeasts of the genus Candida has increased considerably in recent decades, with Candida albicans being the most commonly diagnosed as causing this type of infections. However, other species, such as Candida tropicalis, are emerging as worrisome causes of the disease. In this sense, the objective of the present paper is to review the aspects related to the UTI caused by yeasts of the genus Candida. A search was carried out in the PubMed database, searching for articles on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of UTI caused by yeasts of the genus Candida. Candida species are the most relevant opportunistic pathogenic fungi that cause nosocomial infections and can cause both lower (ureters, bladder and urethra) and upper (kidneys) urinary tract infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There are some predisposing factors, such as female gender, advanced age, diabetes mellitus, prolonged hospitalization, immunosuppression, pregnancy, hypertension, neutropenia, kidney stones, nosocomial infections, antibiotic therapy and procedures, such as catheterization, that act as facilitators of UTI by Candida spp. The disease can occur asymptomatically, however, it can progress to more severe cases with systemic involvement in situations of candidemia that can cause the death of the patient, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, due to the existing risk, the disease cannot be neglected and an accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment must be established.

La aparición de infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) causadas por levaduras del género Candida ha aumentado considerablemente en las últimas décadas. Candida albicans es la infección por levaduras más comúnmente diagnosticada. Sin embargo, otras especies, como la Candida tropicalis, están surgiendo como causa preocupante de la enfermedad. En este sentido, el objetivo del presente trabajo es revisar los aspectos relacionados con la ITU causada por levaduras del género Candida. Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos PubMed, buscando artículos sobre la epidemiología, la patogénesis y el tratamiento de la ITU causada por levaduras del género Candida. Las especies de Candida son los hongos patógenos oportunistas más relevantes que causan infecciones nosocomiales y pueden provocar infecciones del tracto urinario inferior (uréteres, vejiga y uretra) y superior (riñones), especialmente en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Existen algunos factores predisponentes, como el sexo femenino, la edad avanzada, la diabetes mellitus, la hospitalización prolongada, la inmunosupresión, el embarazo, la hipertensión, la neutropenia, los cálculos renales, las infecciones nosocomiales, la terapia con antibióticos y los procedimientos como el cateterismo, que actúan como facilitadores de la ITU por Candida spp. La enfermedad puede presentarse de forma asintomática, pero puede evolucionar a casos más graves con afectación sistémica en situaciones de candidemia que pueden causar la muerte del paciente, especialmente en individuos inmunodeprimidos. Por lo tanto, debido al riesgo existente, no se puede descuidar la enfermedad y se debe establecer un diagnóstico preciso y un tratamiento adecuado.

Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Candida tropicalis/pathogenicity , Pyelonephritis/complications , Urinary Tract/injuries , Cross Infection/complications , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Immunocompromised Host/physiology , Biofilms , Cystitis/complications , Candidemia/complications , Hospitalization
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 16(3): 72-82, 20220819.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392795


Frecuentemente, se hayan especies del género Candida en la microbiota oral de los humanos. Objetivo: comparar la efectividad antimicrobiana de la terapia fotodinámica sobre las cepas de Candida albicans en superficies acrílicas para prótesis dentales, empleando láser con 660nm de longitud de onda y azul de metileno como agente fotosensibilizador, con respecto a otros métodos terapéuticos. Metodología: estudio in vitro, empleando 60 discos de acrílico de termocurado sumergidos en una suspensión de C. albicans, generando una simulación de biofilm sobre la superficie de una prótesis dental. Luego se conformaron cinco grupos al azar de 12 unidades a los que se aplicó diferentes procedimientos terapéuticos: G1 (suero fisiológico), G2 (clorhexidi-na al 0,12%), G3 (nistatina en solución tópica en 0,001ml/ul), G4 (azul de metileno al 0,005% + láser diodo con λ=660nm, 100mW, 32J/cm2) y G5 (azul de metileno 0,01% + láser diodo con λ=660nm, 100mW, 321J/cm2). Resultados: Se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa al comparar los grupos G4 y G5 con respecto a los G1 y G3 (p<0,05). Conclusión: la eficacia en la reducción del número de UFC viables de C. albicans resultó superior en los grupos donde se empleó radiación láser con una longitud de onda de 660nm con diferentes concentraciones de azul de metileno. El uso de nistatina y de suero fisiológico tuvieron los menores valores de eficacia.

Species of the genus Candida are frequently found in the oral microbiota of humans. Objective: to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of photodynamic therapy on Candida albicansstrains on acrylic surfaces for dental prostheses by using a 660nm wavelength laser and methyle-ne blue as a photosensitizing agent, with respect to other therapeutic methods. Methodology: in vitro study, using 60 thermosetting acrylic discs immersed in a suspension of C. albicans, gene-rating a biofilm simulation on the surface of a dental prosthesis. After that, five random groups of 12 units were formed to apply them different therapeutic procedures: G1 (saline solution), G2 (chlorhexidine 0.12%), G3 (nystatin in topical solution at 0.001ml/ul), G4 (0.005% methylene blue + diode laser with λ=660nm, 100mW, 32J/cm2) and G5 (0.01% methylene blue + diode laser with λ=660nm, 100mW, 321J/cm2). Results: a statistically significant difference was observed when comparing groups G4 and G5 with respect to G1 and G3 (p<0.05). Conclusion: the efficacy in reducing the number of viable C. albicans CFU was higher in the groups where laser radiation with a wavelength of 660nm was used with different concentrations of methylene blue. The use of nystatin and physiological saline had the lowest efficacy values

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Photochemotherapy , Candida albicans , Dental Prosthesis , Therapeutics , In Vitro Techniques , Therapeutic Approaches
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(3): 1-8, 2022-08-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1399360


Background: Tomato is a source of bioactive compounds, antimicrobials, and antioxidants. Tomato leaf preparations have been empirically used for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibiotic, and antiseptic purposes. However, research on the potential activity of tomato leaf extracts against oral microorganisms and in managing oropharyngeal infections is scarce. Objective: To investigate tomato leaf ethanolic extract's antioxidant and growth inhibitory capacity against common oral pathogenic microorganisms, namely, Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Candida albicans.Methods: Ethanolic extracts were made from 'Chonto' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) leaves. The antimicrobial activity was measured with the microdilution technique using vancomycin and fluconazole as positive controls. The antioxidant capacity was measured with the ORAC assay using Trolox as a positive control. Results: We found a high percentage of growth inhibition (≥100%) against S. mutans and P. gingivalis at a concentration of 500 mg/L. However, the extract was ineffective in inhibiting the growth of C. albicans. Finally, we observed that the extract exerted a high antioxidant capacity (126%) compared to the positive control. Conclusions: This study provides new insights into the potential antimicrobial effect of tomato leaf extracts on common oral pathogenic bacteria, which may ultimately result in the development of new herbal products that might help prevent and treat oral infections, such as dental caries and periodontal disease. Our findings also support previous studies on the high antioxidant capacity of tomato leaf extracts

Antecedentes: El tomate es una fuente de compuestos bioactivos, antimicrobianos y antioxidantes. Las hojas de tomate se han utilizado empíricamente con fines antiinflamatorios, analgésicos, antibióticos y antisépticos. Sin embargo, los estudios sobre la actividad de los extractos de hojas de tomate contra los microorganismos orales y en el manejo de las infecciones orofaríngeas son escasos. Objetivo: Investigar la capacidad antioxidante del extracto etanólico de la hoja de tomate y su actividad inhibitoria de crecimiento contra microorganismos patógenos orales comunes, a saber, Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis y Candida albicans.Métodos: Se realizaron extractos etanólicos a partir de hojas de tomate 'Chonto' (Lycopersicon esculentum). La actividad antimicrobiana se midió con la técnica de microdilución utilizando vancomicina y fluconazol como controles positivos. La capacidad antioxidante se midió con el ensayo ORAC utilizando Trolox como control positivo. Resultados: Encontramos un alto porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento (≥100%) contra a S. mutans y P. gingivalis a una concentración de 500 mg/L. Sin embargo, el extracto fue ineficaz en la inhibición el crecimiento de C. albicans. Finalmente, observamos que el extracto tuvo una alta capacidad antioxidante (126%) en comparación con el control positivo. Conclusiones: Este estudio proporciona nuevos conocimientos sobre el posible efecto antimicrobiano de los extractos de hojas de tomate en bacterias patógenas orales comunes, lo cual puede resultar en el desarrollo de nuevos productos naturales que podrían ayudar a prevenir y tratar infecciones orales, como la caries dental y la enfermedad periodontal. Nuestros hallazgos también respaldan los estudios previos sobre la alta capacidad antioxidante de los extractos de hojas de tomate

Humans , Antioxidants , Streptococcus mutans , Candida albicans , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Solanum lycopersicum , Ethanol
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 37(1): 2-8, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396937


Introducción: C. albicans es reconocida como la especie más virulenta del género y representa la causa más frecuente de candidiasis en humanos. A nivel taxonómico, C.albicans se clasifica como un complejo de especies estrechamente relacionadas que incluye a C. albicans sensu stricto (s.s), C. dubliniensis y C. africana. Objetivo: identificar las especies del complejo C. albicans aisladas desde distintas muestras de pacientes de la quinta región de Valparaíso. Materiales y método: Se identificaron 103 cepas del complejo C. albicans, aisladas desde muestras superficiales y profundas durante el año 2020. La identificación se realizó en base a morfofisiología y la amplificación del gen HWP1. Resultados: Se identificaron 100 cepas como C. albicans s.s, 2 como C. dubliniensis y 1 como C. africana. Dentro de las cepas identificadas como C. albicans s.s se observaron cuatro patrones de tamaños de fragmentos genéticos. Conclusiones: C. albicans s.s fue la especie más frecuente y en base al genotipo de HPW1 se describen cuatro patrones ( H1 a H4). (AU)

Introduction: C. albicans is recognized as the most virulent species of the genus and represents the major cause of candidiasis in humans. At the taxonomic level, C. albicansis classified as a complex of closely related species that includes C. albicans sensu stricto (s.s), C. dubliniensis, and C. africana. Objective: to identify the species of the C. albicans complex isolated from different samples of patients from the fifth region of Valparaíso. Materials and method: 103 strains of the C. albicans complex were identified, isolated from superficial and deep samples during the year 2020. The identification was carried out based on morphophysiology and the amplification of the HWP1 gene. Results: 100 strains were identified as C. albicans s.s, 2 as C. dubliniensis and 1 as C. africana. Within the strains identified as C. albicans s.s, 4 patterns of fragment sizes were observed. Conclusions: C. albicans s.s was the most frequent species and based on the HPW1 genotype, four patterns are described (H1 to H4).(AU)

Humans , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida albicans/classification , Chile , Prospective Studies , Genotype
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 12-12, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396583


The method of preserving substances of natural origin should not only maintain the microbiological safety of the product but also the integrity of its therapeutic potential. Essential oils obtained from plants are complex mixtures of substances and it issuggested to keep them under refrigeration for better conservation. On the other hand, homeopathic mother tincture prepared from plant is kept at room temperature. Aim: This work aimed to evaluate if the freezing process changes the in vitro antifungal activity potential of the homeopathic preparation Aloysia polystachya1CH against Candida albicans. Methodology:The inoculum of C. albicansATCC 10231 was cultivated in culture médium Sabouroud (Himedia®), standardized on a spectrometer and distributed in a 96-well plate. Then, A. polystachya1CH was added to the wells, prepared accordingtothe Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia (FHB, 3rd edition) from A. polystachya essencial oil. An aliquot of this homeopathic preparation was frozen and after 40 days it was submitted to the same methodology for evaluation of the antifungal activity. After incubation, the plates were read with triphenyltetrazolic (TTC) (Vetec®). Results and discussion: The results of the in vitroevaluation showed that the freezing process retained the antifungal activity of the dynamized essential oil of A. polystachya1CH against C. albicans. Conclusion: Under the conditions evaluated in this study, the freezing method presented as a viable method of conservation of dynamized plant material.

In Vitro Techniques , Candida albicans , Derived Preparations , Antifungal Agents
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408426


Introducción: Las inmunodeficiencias primarias son un grupo heterogéneo de trastornos hereditarios ocasionados por defectos del desarrollo o función del sistema inmunológico. Las inmunodeficiencias combinadas graves constituyen el 15 por ciento de las inmunodeficiencias primarias, son graves y los pacientes rara vez sobreviven sin tratamiento después del primer año de vida, lo que obliga a un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno. Objetivo: Presentar un caso con inmunodeficiencia combinada grave, condición reportada con poca frecuencia y evolución desfavorable. Presentación de caso: Lactante masculino de seis meses con antecedentes de cuatro ingresos en Unidad de Terapia Intensiva por infecciones, el último por bronconeumonía bilateral. Fue valorado por Inmunología y se diagnosticó una inmunodeficiencia combinada grave por la clínica (infecciones por gérmenes oportunistas: Candida albicans y Pneumocistys jirovecii) y estudios inmunológicos (con disminución de los anticuerpos IgG: 0,02 g/L, IgM: 0.1 g/L e IgA: 0 g/L), subpoblaciones linfocitarias disminuidas (CD3/CD4: 9,3 por ciento, CD3/CD8: 5,6 por ciento, CD19: 0 por ciento, CD 16: 0,73 por ciento), además hipoplasia tímica severa (120 mm2). Se inició tratamiento con antimicrobianos de amplio espectro e inmunoestimulantes (Hebertrans y Biomodulina T). Evolucionó desfavorablemente y falleció por shock séptico. Conclusiones: La inmunodeficiencia combinada grave es una emergencia pediátrica que debe tenerse en cuenta en pacientes con antecedentes de infecciones recurrentes, es vital conocer las manifestaciones clínicas tempranas que permitan la sospecha diagnóstica, haciendo uso de todas las herramientas disponibles para su confirmación. El diagnóstico precoz es el elemento clave para la reducción de la morbilidad y mortalidad relacionada con estas enfermedades(AU)

Introduction: Primary Immunodeficiencies are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders caused by defects in development or function of the immune system. Severe Combined Immunodeficiencies constitute 15% of the primary immunodeficiencies, they are acute and patients rarely survive without treatment after the first year of life, requiring a quick diagnosis and treatment. Objective: To present a case on Severe Combined Immunodeficiency, a condition infrequently reported and with unfavorable evolution. Case presentation: Six-month-old male infant with a history of four admissions to the Intensive Care Unit due to infections, in the latter one due to bilateral bronchopneumonia. He was evaluated by Immunology and a Severe Combined Immunodeficiency was diagnosed by the clinic (infections by opportunistic germs: Candida albicans and Pneumocistys jirovecii) and immunological studies (with a decrease in IgG antibodies: 0.02 g/L, IgM: 0.1 g/L and IgA: 0 g/L), decreased lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3/CD4: 9.3 percent, CD3/CD8: 5.6 percent, CD19: 0 percent, CD 16: 0.73 percent), in addition to severe thymic hypoplasia (120 mm2). Treatment with broad spectrum antimicrobials and immunostimulants (Hebertrans and Biomodulin T) was started. He evolved unfavorably and died of septic shock. Conclusions: Severe Combined Immunodeficiency is a pediatric emergency that must be taken into account in patients with a history of recurrent infections, it is vital to know the early clinical manifestations that allow a suspected diagnosis, making use of all the available tools for its confirmation. Early diagnosis is the key element in reducing morbidity and mortality related to these diseases(AU)

Humans , Male , Infant , Shock, Septic , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/mortality , Immune System , Intensive Care Units , Candida albicans , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 123-130, ene. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372547


The genus Fuchsia is generally used in herbal preparations to treat conditions caused by microorganisms. Based on the popular use of this type of plants, the objective of this study was to obtain sequential extracts of increasing polarity from the branches of Fuchsia lycioides by maceration at room temperature and by the Soxhlet method at 60ºC, to later evaluate the antifungal capacity of the extracts against different clinical isolates of the Candida genus. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited strong anti-fungal activity, selectively inhibiting C. albicans strains with MIC and CMF values of 10 and 15 µg/mL, respectively; comparable with the drug itraconazole®. The analysis of the extract by GC-MS showed a high concentration of terpenoids (mainly phytol) and phenylpropanoids (mainly cinnamic acid), possibly responsible for the antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate extract of F. lycioides.

El género Fuchsia se usa generalmente en preparaciones de hierbas para tratar afecciones provocadas por microorganismos. En base al uso popular de este tipo de plantas, el objetivo de este estudio fue obtener los extractos secuenciales de polaridad creciente de las ramas de Fuchsia lycioides por maceración a temperatura ambiente y por el método Soxhlet a 60ºC, para luego evaluar la capacidad antifúngica de los extractos frente a diferentes aislados clínicos del genero Candida. El extracto de acetato de etilo exhibió una fuerte actividad antifúngica inhibiendo en forma selectiva las cepas de C. albicans con valores de CMI y de CMF de 10 y 15 µg/mL, respectivamente; comparables con el fármaco itraconazol®. El análisis del extracto por CG-EM mostró una alta concentración de terpenoides (principalmente fitol) y fenilpropanoides (principalmente ácido cinámico), posibles responsables de la actividad antifúngica del extracto de acetato de etilo de F. lycioides.

Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Onagraceae/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Phenylpropionates/analysis , Temperature , Terpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 56(1): 37-42, ene. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1402945


Resumen En este estudio se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de extractos de Xenophyllum poposum sobre microorganismos bucales como Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Candida albicans y Veillonella sp. Se empleó el método de difusión radial en agar y como controles negativo y positivo de inhibición se emplearon etanol y clorhexidina al 0,12% (Plac out NF®) respectivamente. Los extractos con mayor actividad antimicrobiana fueron el etanólico y el clorofórmico. La diferencia entre ambos no fue estadísticamente significativa (p≥0,05). Tampoco se observó diferencia significativa con respecto a la clorhexidina, excepto sobre Veillonella sp., ya que el extracto etanólico presentó halos de inhibición significativamente menores sobre este microorganismo. Esto es importante ya que Veillonella se considera indicador de salud en relación a la caries dental. En base a esto, el extracto etanólico de Xenophyllum poposum podría ser usado como control químico de la biopelícula dental.

Abstract In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Xenophyllum poposum extracts on oral microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Candida albicans, Veillonella sp. was evaluated. The radial diffusion method in agar was used and 0.12% ethanol and chlorhexidine (Plac out NF®) were used as negative and positive inhibition controls, respectively. The extracts with the highest antimicrobial activity were the ethanolic and chloroform extracts. The difference between the two was not statistically significant (p≥0.05). No significant difference was observed with respect to chlorhexidine, except on Veillonella sp., since the ethanolic extract presented significantly lower inhibition halos on this microorganism. This is important as Veillonella is considered an indicator of health in relation to dental caries. Based on this, the ethanolic extract of Xenophyllum poposum could be used as chemical control of dental biofilm.

Resumo Neste estudo, a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de Xenophyllum poposum sobre microrganismos orais como Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Candida albicans e Veillonella sp. Foi utilizado o método de difusão radial em ágar e etanol 0,12% e clorexidina (Plac out NF®) como controles de inibição negativa e positiva, respectivamente. Os extratos com maior atividade antimicrobiana foram os extratos etanólico e clorofórmio. A diferença entre os dois não foi estatisticamente significativa (p≥0,05). Não foi observada diferença significativa em relação à clorexidina 0,12%, exceto em Veillonella sp., uma vez que o extrato etanólico apresentou halos de inibição significativamente menores neste microrganismo. Isso é importante, pois a Veillonella é considerada um indicador de saúde em relação à cárie dentária. Com base nisso, o extrato etanólico de Xenophyllum poposum pode ser utilizado como controle químico do biofilme dental.

Dental Caries , Dental Plaque , Mouth , Streptococcus mutans , Actinomyces , Candida albicans , Chlorhexidine , Chloroform , Health , Health Status Indicators , Streptococcus sobrinus , Agar , Minors , Lacticaseibacillus casei , Methods , Microbiology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928131


This study aims to explore the effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) on vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) in mice and to clarify the mechanism from Toll-like receptors(TLRs)/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome. To be specific, female KM mice were randomized into control group(i.g., normal saline), model group, fluco-nazole group(i.g., 20 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose BAEB groups(i.g., 20, 40, and 80 mg·kg~(-1), respectively). VVC was induced in mice except the control group. After the modeling, administration began and lasted 7 days. The ge-neral conditions and body weight of mice were recorded every day. On the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th, and 14 th after vaginal infection by Candida albicans, the fungal load in the vaginal lavage fluid of the mice was measured with the plate method, and the morphology of C. albicans in vaginal lavage fluid was observed based on Gram staining. After the mice were killed, vaginal tissues were subjected to hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) staining for vaginal histopathological analysis. The content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, such as interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), IL-6, and S100 a8, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and content of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in vaginal tissues by tissue ROS detection kit. The protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) in vaginal tissues was detected by Western blot, and the levels and distribution of NLRP3, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, and TLR4 in vaginal tissues were determined with the immunohistochemical method. The results show that BAEB can improve the general conditions of VVC mice, reduce the fungal load and C. albicans hyphae in vaginal secretion, decrease ROS content in vaginal tissues and content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, and down-regulate the expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and NF-κB in vaginal tissues. The above results indicate that BAEB exerts therapeutic effect on VVC mice by down-regulating the key proteins in the TLRs/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome.

Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , 1-Butanol/therapeutic use , Candida albicans , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20205, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403727


Abstract Several factors contribute to the resistance of some pathogenic microorganisms and this fact requires the search for new therapeutic alternatives. The genus Cyperus (family Cyperaceae) groups species that present chemical compounds of pharmacological interest, mainly with antimicrobial action. Thus, the present work was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activities, antioxidants and the phytochemical profile of Cyperus articulatus L. and Cyperus iria L. Hydroalcoholic extracts (1:1, v:v) of the aerial and underground parts of these species were used to analyze the total phenol content and to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity against the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). The ethyl acetate and chloroform phases resulting from liquid-liquid partitioning of C. articulatus and C. iria extracts were evaluated in antimicrobial assays and subject to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) analysis. The chromatograms obtained by HPLC-DAD allowed us to identify four compounds: chlorogenic acid, catechin, quercetin, and quercitrin. The hydroalcoholic extracts of C. articulatus and C. iria showed a weak antioxidant activity with IC50 of 395.57 and 321.33 µg/mL (aerial parts), and 1,114.01 and 436.82 µg/mL (underground parts), respectively. Regarding antimicrobial activity, the chloroform phase of C. iria showed the best result at the concentration of only 31.2 µg/mL against the pathogens Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. The ethyl acetate phases of the aerial parts of C. articulatus and C. iria did not show antimicrobial activity

Cyperaceae/classification , Cyperus/adverse effects , Phytochemicals , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Candida albicans , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Inhibitory Concentration 50