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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878924

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the cell wall integrity of Candida albicans hypha. The minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) of berberine hydrochloride against clinical and standard C. albicans strains was detected by micro liquid-based dilution method; the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the colony formation of C. albicans SC5314 was investigated by spot assay; the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the metabolism of C. albicans SC5314 hypha was checked by XTT reduction assay, and the viability of C. albicans SC5314 hypha was tested by fluorescent staining assay. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on the morphology of C. albicans SC5314 hypha was examined by scanning electron microscope. The changes in the cell wall of C. albicans SC5314 hypha after berberine hydrochloride treatment were detected by transmission electron microscopy. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on β-glucan from C. albicans SC5314 was detected by flow cytometry. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on hypha-specific gene ECE1 and β-glucan synthase genes FKS1 and FKS2 in C. albicans was examined by qRT-PCR. The results showed that berberine hydrochloride showed a strong inhibitory effect on both clinical and standard strains of C. albicans, and the MIC was 64-128 μg·mL~(-1). Spot assay, XTT redunction assay and fluorescent staining assay showed that with the increase of berberine hydrochloride concentration, the viability of C. albicans SC5314 gradually decreased. The transmission electron microscopy scanning assay showed that this compound could cause cell wall damage of C. albicans. The flow cytometry analysis showed the exposure degree of C. albicans β-glucan. The qRT-PCR further showed that berberine hydrochloride could significantly down-regulate hypha-specific gene ECE1 and β-glucan synthase-related gene FKS1 and FKS2. In conclusion, this compound can down-regulate C. albicans and β-glucan synthase-related gene expressions, so as to destroy the cell wall structure of C. albicans, expose β-glucan and damage the integrity of the wall.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Berberine/pharmacology , Candida albicans/genetics , Cell Wall , Hyphae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
2.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190578, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101256

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study sought to analyze the gene expression of Candida albicans in sound root surface and root caries lesions, exploring its role in root caries pathogenesis. Methodology The differential gene expression of C. albicans and the specific genes related to cariogenic traits were studied in association with samples of biofilm collected from exposed sound root surface (SRS, n=10) and from biofilm and carious dentin of active root carious lesions (RC, n=9). The total microbial RNA was extracted, and the cDNA libraries were prepared and sequenced on the Illumina Hi-Seq2500. Unique reads were mapped to 163 oral microbial reference genomes including two chromosomes of C. albicans SC5314 (14,217 genes). The putative presence of C. albicans was estimated (sum of reads/total number of genes≥1) in each sample. Count data were normalized (using the DESeq method package) to analyze differential gene expression (using the DESeq2R package) applying the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (FDR<0.05). Results Two genes (CaO19.610, FDR=0.009; CaO19.2506, FDR=0.018) were up-regulated on SRS, and their functions are related to biofilm formation. Seven genes ( UTP20 , FDR=0.018; ITR1 , FDR=0.036; DHN6 , FDR=0.046; CaO19.7197 , FDR=0.046; CaO19.7838 , FDR=0.046; STT4 , FDR=0.046; GUT1 , FDR=0.046) were up-regulated on RC and their functions are related to metabolic activity, sugar transport, stress tolerance, invasion and pH regulation. The use of alternative carbon sources, including lactate, and the ability to form hypha may be a unique trait of C. albicans influencing biofilm virulence. Conclusions C. albicans is metabolically active in SRS and RC biofilm, with different roles in health and disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Root/microbiology , Candida albicans/genetics , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Root Caries/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/growth & development , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Up-Regulation , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Transcriptome , Morphogenesis
3.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842772

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess a collection of yeasts to verify the presence of Candida dubliniensis among strains isolated from the oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients which were initially characterized as Candida albicans by the traditional phenotypic method, as well as to evaluate the main phenotypic methods used in the discrimination between the two species and confirm the identification through genotypic techniques, i.e., DNA sequencing. Twenty-nine samples of C. albicans isolated from this population and kept in a fungi collection were evaluated and re-characterized. In order to differentiate the two species, phenotypic tests (Thermotolerance tests, Chromogenic medium, Staib agar, Tobacco agar, Hypertonic medium) were performed and genotypic techniques using DNA sequencing were employed for confirmation of isolated species. Susceptibility and specificity were calculated for each test. No phenotypic test alone was sufficient to provide definitive identification of C. dubliniensis or C. albicans, as opposed to results of molecular tests. After amplification and sequencing of specific regions of the 29 studied strains, 93.1% of the isolates were identified as C. albicans and 6.9% as C. dubliniensis. The Staib agar assay showed a higher susceptibility (96.3%) in comparison with other phenotypic techniques. Therefore, genotypic methods are indispensable for the conclusive identification and differentiation between these species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Candida/genetics , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Genotype , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology , Mycological Typing Techniques , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction
4.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 29(3): 197-205, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-868691

ABSTRACT

Molecular techniques have been used in recent studies toidentify a wide range of potential bacterial pathogens inperi­implant pockets of the oral cavity. However, the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of yeasts and species distribution related to peri­implantitis are as yet unknown. The aim of thisstudy was to determine the prevalence and distribution of yeasts in peri­-implant biofilm and to study genetic relatedness of Candida albicans.Yeasts recovered from peri­implant biofilm samples (n=89) andbuccal samples (n=120) were studied in 40 immunocompetent non­-smoking patients who visited the dental clinic of the Asociación Implantodontológica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and had received oral rehabilitation with implants for more than five years. Yeasts recovered from samples were studied by typing assays using RAPD­PCR. The prevalence of yeasts in the peri­implant sulcus was 73% (n=29). C. albicans was the most prevalent species identified in this study population. The RAPD analysis showed identical genotypes inmost C. albicans spp. from the two different sampling sites: buccal and peri­implant. These findings suggest that periimplant biofilm is an ecological niche that favors the growth of yeast species. Most C. albicans found in peri­implant biofilmoriginate from the endogenous infection caused by commensalstrains.


Las técnicas moleculares se han utilizado en estudios recientespara identificar una gran diversidad de patógenos bacterianosde surcos periimplantarios de cavidad bucal. Sin embargo, laprevalencia y epidemiología molecular de especies de levadurasen relación con la periimplantitis son aún desconocidas. Elobjetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia ydistribución de las levaduras en la biopelícula periimplantaria yestudiar la relación genética de Candida albicans. Se estudiaron40 pacientes inmunocompetentes no fumadores que se asistieronen la clínica dental de la Asociación ImplantodontológicaArgentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina, y que habían recibidorehabilitación oral con implantes durante más de cinco años.Las levaduras aisladas de las muestras de biopelículaperiimplantaria (n = 89) y bucales (n = 120), fueron identificadaspor métodos micológicos tradicionales y moleculares. Se obtuvoel ADN de C. albicans y se realizaron estudios moleculares porRAPD ­PCR. La prevalencia de levaduras en el surco alrededordel implante fue de 73 % (n = 29). C. albicans fue la especie másfrecuente identificada en esta población de estudio. El análisisRAPD permitió identificar idénticos genotipos de C. albicans enambos nichos ecológicos estudiados, periimplantar y bucal.Según los resultados obtenidos, el surco periiplantario es unnicho ecológico que favorece el crecimiento de especies delevaduras del género Candida. La mayoría de los aislamientosde C. albicans periimplantarios se originan a partir de lainfección endógena causada por cepas comensales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/genetics , Prosthesis-Related Infections/etiology , Prosthesis-Related Infections/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Argentina , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Statistical Analysis
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(5): 511-517, oct. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730266

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The commensal yeast Candida albicans, can cause superficial or systemic candidiasis in susceptible hosts. In Chile, azole antifungals are the most widely used drugs in the treatment of candidiasis. In a previous study performed at our center, 2.1 and 1.6% of clinical isolates of C. albicans were found to be resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Objective: To characterize the resistance mechanisms involved in azoles resistance in Chilean clinical isolates. Methodology: Eight resistant, nine susceptible-dose dependent (SDD) and 10 susceptible strains (n: 27) were selected according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-S3 criteria, from vaginal and urine samples. Mutations in the 408-488 region of the ERG11 gene were studied by sequencing, and the relative expression of ERG11 gene and efflux pump genes CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1, was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR). Results: No mutations were detected in the ERG11 gene and its overexpression was found only in 12.5% of the resistant strains (1/8). The most prevalent mechanism of resistance was the over-expression of efflux pumps (62.5%; 5/8). Conclusion: The study of the expression of efflux pumps by q-PCR could be a useful diagnostic tool for early detection of azole resistance in C. albicans.


Introducción: Candida albicans es una levadura comensal capaz de causar una infección oportunista en hospederos susceptibles denominada candidiasis, que puede ser superficial o sistémica. En Chile, los antifúngicos más utilizados para el tratamiento de las candidiasis son los azoles. En un estudio previo en nuestro centro, se detectó que 2,1 y 1,6% de cepas clínicas de C. albicans fueron resistentes a fluconazol y voriconazol, respectivamente. Objetivo: Caracterizar los mecanismos de resistencia involucrados en la resistencia a azoles en cepas clínicas chilenas. Metodología: Según los criterios del Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-S3, se seleccionaron ocho cepas resistentes, nueve cepas susceptibles dosis dependiente (SDD) y 10 cepas sensibles (n: 27), aisladas de flujo vaginal y orina. Se evaluó la presencia de mutaciones en la región 408-488 del gen ERG11 por secuenciación y la expresión relativa del gen ERG11 y de los genes de bombas de eflujo CDR1, CDR2 y MDR1 por RPC en tiempo real cuantitativa (q-PCR). Resultados: No se encontraron mutaciones en el gen ERG11 y la sobre-expresión de éste sólo se presentó en 12,5% de las cepas resistentes (1/8). El mecanismo prevalente en la cepas resistentes fue la sobre-expresión de bombas de eflujo encontrándose en 62,5% de las cepas resistentes (5/8). Conclusión: El estudio de la expresión bombas de eflujo por q-PCR podría ser una herramienta diagnóstica útil para la detección temprana de resistencia a azoles en C. albicans.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Voriconazole/pharmacology , Chile , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Genes, Fungal/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Fungal/genetics
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(4): 436-441, 03/07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716301

ABSTRACT

Over the last decades, Candida spp have been responsible for an increasing number of infections, especially in patients requiring intensive care. Knowledge of local epidemiology and analysis of the spread of these pathogens is important in understanding and controlling their transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of 31 Candida albicans and 17 Candida glabrata isolates recovered from intensive care unit patients from the tertiary hospital in Krakow between 2011-2012. The strains were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymerase chain reaction using five primers (CD16AS, HP1247, ERIC-2, OPE-3 and OPE-18). The results of the present investigation revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among the isolates. No clonal relationship was found among the C. albicans strains, whereas two C. glabrata isolates were identical. The source of Candida infection appeared to be mostly endogenous; however, the presence of two clonal C. glabrata strains suggested the possibility of cross-transmission of these pathogens. Our study confirmed the high discriminatory power of the RAPD technique in the molecular typing of Candida clinical isolates. This method may be applied to the evaluation of transmission routes of pathogenic fungi on a local level.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida glabrata/genetics , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida glabrata/drug effects , Candidiasis/microbiology , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Intensive Care Units , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Typing , Poland/epidemiology , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microbiological laboratories seek technologically innovative solutions to cope with large numbers of samples and limited personnel and financial resources. One platform that has recently become available is the Kiestra Total Laboratory Automation (TLA) system (BD Kiestra B.V., the Netherlands). This fully automated sample processing system, equipped with digital imaging technology, allows superior detection of microbial growth. Combining this approach with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) (Bruker Daltonik, Germany) is expected to enable more rapid identification of pathogens. METHODS: Early growth detection by digital imaging using Kiestra TLA combined with MS was compared to conventional methods (CM) of detection. Accuracy and time taken for microbial identification were evaluated for the two methods in 219 clinical blood culture isolates. The possible clinical impact of earlier microbial identification was assessed according to antibiotic treatment prescription. RESULTS: Pathogen identification using Kiestra TLA combined with MS resulted in a 30.6 hr time gain per isolate compared to CM. Pathogens were successfully identified in 98.4% (249/253) of all tested isolates. Early microbial identification without susceptibility testing led to an adjustment of antibiotic regimen in 12% (24/200) of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The requisite 24 hr incubation time for microbial pathogens to reach sufficient growth for susceptibility testing and identification would be shortened by the implementation of Kiestra TLA in combination with MS, compared to the use of CM. Not only can this method optimize workflow and reduce costs, but it can allow potentially life-saving switches in antibiotic regimen to be initiated sooner.


Subject(s)
Automation, Laboratory , Candida albicans/genetics , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacteria/genetics , Humans , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/chemistry , Retrospective Studies , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
8.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(6): 385-391, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-690341

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Introduction: The majority of nosocomial fungal infections are caused by Candida spp. where C. albicans is the species most commonly identified. Molecular methods are important tools for assessing the origin of the yeasts isolated in hospitals. Methods: This is a study on the genetic profifiles of 39 nosocomial clinical isolates of C. albicans using two typing methods: random amplifified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and microsatellite, two different primers for each technique were used. Results: RAPD provided 10 and 11 different profiles with values for SAB of 0.84 ± 0.126 and 0.88 ± 0.08 for primers M2 and P4, respectively. Microsatellite using two markers, CDC3 and HIS3, allowed the observation of six and seven different alleles, respectively, with combined discriminatory power of 0.91. Conclusions: Although genetic variability is clear, it was possible to identify high similarity, suggesting a common origin for at least a part of isolates. It is important to emphasize that common origin was proven from yeasts isolated from colonization (urine, catheter or endotracheal secretions) and blood culture from the same patient, indicating that the candidemia must have started from a site of colonization. The combination of RAPD and microsatellite provides a quick and efficient analysis for investigation of similarity among nosocomial isolates of C. albicans. .


RESUMO Introdução: A maioria das infecções fúngicas hospitalares são causadas por Candida spp. e C. albicans é a espécie mais comumente identificada. Métodos moleculares são ferramentas importantes para a avaliação da origem das leveduras isoladas em hospitais. Métodos: Este é um estudo sobre o perfil genético de 39 isolados clínicos nosocomiais de C. albicans através das técnicas de RAPD e microssatélite, foram usados dois diferentes iniciadores para cada técnica. Resultados: RAPD forneceu 10 e 11 diferentes perfis com valores de SAB 0,84 ± 0,126 e 0,88 ± 0,08 para os primers M2 e P4, respectivamente. A análise de microssatélites, usando os marcadores CDC3 e HIS3 permitiu a observação de seis e sete diferentes alelos respectivamente, com poder discriminatório combinado de 0,91. Conclusões: Embora seja clara a variabilidade genética, foi possível identificar alta similaridade, sugerindo origem comum para pelo menos parte deles. É importante enfatizar que foi comprovada origem comum de leveduras isoladas de colonização (urina, cateter ou secreção orotraqueal) e hemocultura do mesmo paciente, indicando que a candidemia deve ter iniciado a partir de um sítio de colonização. A combinação das técnicas RAPD e microssatélites fornece uma análise rápida e eficiente para investigação de similaridade entre isolados nosocomiais de C. albicans. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans/genetics , Candidiasis/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Candida albicans/classification , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genotype , Microsatellite Repeats , Mycological Typing Techniques , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 813-821, July-Sept. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699791

ABSTRACT

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations were used to analyze particular morphologies of Candida albicans clinical isolate (strain 82) and mutants defective in hyphae-promoting genes EFG1 (strain HLC52) and/ or CPH1 (strains HLC54 and Can16). Transcription factors Efg1 and Cph1 play role in regulating filamentation and adhesion of C. albicans' morphologies. Comparative analysis of such mutants and clinical isolate showed that Efg1 is required for human serum-induced cell growth and morphological switching. In the study, distinct differences between ultrastructural patterns of clinical strain's and null mutants' morphologies were observed (spherical vs tube-like blastoconidia, or solid and fragile constricted septa vs only the latter observed in strains with EFG1 deleted). In addition, wild type strain displayed smooth colonies of cells in comparison to mutants which exhibited wrinkled phenotype. It was observed that blastoconidia of clinical strain exhibited either polarly or randomly located budding. Contrariwise, morphotypes of mutants showed either multiple polar budding or a centrally located single bud scar (mother-daughter cell junction) distinguishing tube-like yeast/ pseudohyphal growth (the length-to-width ratios larger than 1.5). In their planktonic form of growth, blastoconidia of clinical bloodstream isolate formed constitutively true hyphae under undiluted human serum inducing conditions. It was found that true hyphae are essential elements for developing structural integrity of conglomerate, as mutants displaying defects in their flocculation and conglomerate-forming abilities in serum. While filamentation is an important virulence trait in C. albicans the true hyphae are the morphologies which may be expected to play a role in bloodstream infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans/ultrastructure , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida albicans/growth & development , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Gene Deletion , Hyphae/genetics , Hyphae/growth & development , Hyphae/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(8): 998-1005, Dec. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660646

ABSTRACT

To cope with oxidative stress, Candida albicans possesses several enzymes involved in a number of biological processes, including superoxide dismutases (Sods) and glutaredoxins (Grxs). The resistance of C. albicans to reactive oxygen species is thought to act as a virulence factor. Genes such as SOD1 and GRX2, which encode for a Sod and Grx, respectively, in C. albicans are widely recognised to be important for pathogenesis. We generated a double mutant, Δgrx2/sod1, for both genes. This strain is very defective in hyphae formation and is susceptible to killing by neutrophils. When exposed to two compounds that generate reactive oxygen species, the double null mutant was susceptible to menadione and resistant to diamide. The reintegration of the SOD1 gene in the null mutant led to recovery in resistance to menadione, whereas reintegration of the GRX2 gene made the null mutant sensitive to diamide. Despite having two different roles in the responses to oxidative stress generated by chemical compounds, GRX2 and SOD1 are important for C. albicans pathogenesis because the double mutant Δgrx2/sod1 was very susceptible to neutrophil killing and was defective in hyphae formation in addition to having a lower virulence in an animal model of systemic infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candidiasis/microbiology , Diamide/pharmacology , Glutaredoxins/physiology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Superoxide Dismutase/physiology , /pharmacology , Candida albicans/enzymology , Candida albicans/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Genotype , Glutaredoxins/genetics , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mutation , Phenotype , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics , Virulence
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(3): 873-879, July-Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656647

ABSTRACT

Candida dubliniensis is an emerging pathogen capable of causing superficial as well as systemic infections. Due to its close similarity to C. albcians, conventional methods based on phenotypic traits are not always reliable in identification of C. dubliniensis. In this study, we developed a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay to identify and discriminate between the two closely related species. The D1/D2 region of 28S rDNA was amplified by PCR and enzymatically digested by ApaI and BsiEI respectively. PCR products of both species were digested into two fragments by ApaI, but those of other yeast species were undigested. BsiEI cut the PCR products of C. albicans into two fragments but not those of C. dubliniensis. Thus two species were differentiated. We evaluated 10 reference strains representing 10 yeast species, among which C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were successfully identified. A total of 56 phenotypically characterized clinical isolates (42 C. albicans isolates and 14 C. dubliniensis isolates) were also investigated for intra-species variability. All tested isolates produced identical RFLP patterns to their respective reference strains except one initially misidentified isolate. Our method offers a simple, rapid and reliable molecular method for the identification of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candidiasis , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Methods , Patients , Virulence
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(3): 959-965, July-Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656659

ABSTRACT

In the present investigation, the basic esters of meta-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid bearing variously substituted N-phenylpiperazine fragment were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, respectively. The most effective against Escherichia coli was found the compound 6d (MIC=195,3 μg/mL) bearing simultaneously para-fluoro substituent at the 4‑phenylpiperazin-1-yl core and meta-methoxy side chain in the lipophilic part of the molecule. From whole analyzed set of the molecules the substance 8e with propoxy side chain forming meta-alkoxyphenylcarbamoyl fragment and lipophilic, sterically bulky meta-trifluoromethyl group attached at N-phenylpiperazine moiety was evaluated as the most active against Candida albicans (MIC=97,7 μg/mL). On the contrary, all investigated structures were practically inactive against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC>1000 μg/mL).


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , In Vitro Techniques , Methods , Prevalence , Virulence
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(2): 198-204, Mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-617065

ABSTRACT

Candida albicans is a common member of the human microbiota and may cause invasive disease in susceptible populations. Several risk factors have been proposed for candidaemia acquisition. Previous Candida multifocal colonisation among hospitalised patients may be crucial for the successful establishment of candidaemia. Nevertheless, it is still not clear whether the persistence or replacement of a single clone of C. albicans in multiple anatomical sites of the organism may represent an additional risk for candidaemia acquisition. Therefore, we prospectively evaluated the dynamics of the colonising strains of C. albicans for two groups of seven critically ill patients: group I included patients colonised by C. albicans in multiple sites who did not develop candidaemia and group II included patients who were colonised and who developed candidaemia. ABC and microsatellite genotyping of 51 strains of C. albicans revealed that patients who did not develop candidaemia were multiply colonised by at least two ABC genotypes of C. albicans, whereas candidaemic patients had highly related microsatellites and the same ABC genotype in colonising and bloodstream isolates that were probably present in different body sites before the onset of candidaemia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Candida albicans/genetics , Candidemia/microbiology , Carrier State/microbiology , Critical Illness , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Genotype , Microsatellite Repeats , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to compare several DNA extraction methods and 16S rDNA primers and to evaluate the clinical utility of broad-range PCR in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) culture fluids. METHODS: Six type strains were used as model organisms in dilutions from 10(8) to 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL for the evaluation of 5 DNA extraction methods and 5 PCR primer pairs. Broad-range PCR was applied to 100 CAPD culture fluids, and the results were compared with conventional culture results. RESULTS: There were some differences between the various DNA extraction methods and primer sets with regard to the detection limits. The InstaGene Matrix (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA) and Exgene Clinic SV kits (GeneAll Biotechnology Co. Ltd, Korea) seem to have higher sensitivities than the others. The results of broad-range PCR were concordant with the results from culture in 97% of all cases (97/100). Two culture-positive cases that were broad-range PCR-negative were identified as Candida albicans, and 1 PCR-positive but culture-negative sample was identified as Bacillus circulans by sequencing. Two samples among 54 broad-range PCR-positive products could not be sequenced. CONCLUSIONS: There were differences in the analytical sensitivity of various DNA extraction methods and primers for broad-range PCR. The broad-range PCR assay can be used to detect bacterial pathogens in CAPD culture fluid as a supplement to culture methods.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , Candida albicans/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Genetic Techniques/standards , Humans , Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory , Peritonitis/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sequence Analysis, DNA
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(6): 740-744, Nov.-Dec. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-611775

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Candida albicans is responsible for superficial or systemic infections known as candidiasis, which may be found in infected tissue as unicellular budding yeasts, hyphae, or pseudohyphae. In this study, the effects of both fluconazole and itraconazole antifungal agents on the hyphal formation and genotypic characterization of C. albicans isolates classified as either susceptible or resistant were investigated. METHODS: The hyphal production of five C. albicans isolates under the action of antifungal agents was investigated by culturing yeast on growth medium and on hyphal induction medium. The genotypic characterization was carried out for 13 isolates of C. albicans using the random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) method. RESULTS: The dimorphism analysis showed that the hyphal formation was higher in resistant than in the susceptible isolates to both azoles. The RAPD-PCR method identified the formation of two different groups. In group A, four resistant and two susceptible isolates were clustered, and in group B, one resistant and six susceptible isolates were clustered. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that hyphal formation was higher in resistant isolates in the presence of azole drugs, we confirmed that the hyphal production is closely related to susceptibility to azoles. These drugs may affect the morphogenesis of C. albicans depending on their susceptibility to these drugs. In relation to RAPD-PCR, most resistant isolates classified in group A and susceptible isolates in group B demonstrated that this method presented a similar standard between the two groups, suggesting that by this technique, a strong correlation between genotypes and fluconazole-resistant samples may be found.


INTRODUÇÃO: Candida albicans é responsável por infecções superficiais ou sistêmicas conhecidas como candidíase, encontrada em tecidos infectados na forma de leveduras brotantes unicelulares, hifas ou pseudohifas. Neste estudo, os efeitos de agentes antifúngicos como o fluconazol e o itraconazol sobre a formação de hifas e caracterização genotípica de isolados de C. albicans suscetíveis ou resistentes foram investigados. MÉTODOS: A produção de hifas de cinco isolados de C. albicans, sob a ação de antifúngicos foi investigada pelo cultivo da levedura em meios de crescimento e de indução de hifas. A caracterização genotípica foi realizada para 13 isolados de C. albicans pelo método de RAPD-PCR. RESULTADOS: A análise do dimorfismo mostrou que a formação de hifas foi maior nos isolados resistentes do que nos suscetíveis aos antifúngicos. O método de RAPD-PCR identificou a formação de dois diferentes grupos. No grupo A, foram agrupados quatro isolados resistentes e dois suscetíveis e no grupo B um resistente e seis suscetíveis. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando que a formação hifal foi maior em isolados resistentes na presença de azólicos, concluimos que a produção hifal está muito relacionada a suscetibilidade a estes fámacos. Estes antifúngicos podem alterar a morfologia de C. albicans em dependência da sua suscetibilidade. No método de RAPD-PCR, o encontro da maioria dos isolados resistentes classificados como pertencentes ao grupo A e suscetíveis ao grupo B demonstrou que este método apresentou um padrão semelhante entre os dois grupos, sugerindo que por este método pode ser detectado uma estreita correlação entre genótipos e amostras resistentes ao fluconazol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Hyphae/growth & development , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Candida albicans/genetics , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Genotype , Hyphae/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(3): 1030-1046, July-Sept. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-607533

ABSTRACT

The genetic diversity of C. albicans oral isolates from 75 healthy schoolchildren from eight schools located in different geographic areas of Piracicaba city, São Paulo state, Brazil, was established using isoenzymes marker (Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis - MLEE) and cluster analysis. Patterns of monoclonal and polyclonal oral colonization by C. albicans within and between groups of schoolchildren were identified. However, significant divergence between the observed and the expected genotypic frequencies (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test) was not detected in the geographically adjacent groups, suggesting the hypothesis that populations of healthy schoolchildren do not correspond to the selection factor (differential survival) of strains. Two highly polymorphic and distantly genetically related taxa (A and B) were identified within the total population of yeasts, each contained subgroups (A1, A2, A3, A4, B1 and B2) and clusters of moderately related strains (from I to X), suggesting the existence of strains restricted or not to certain groups of geographically limited, healthy students. However, the coexistence of identical strains in healthy schoolchildren from the same school (geographically related) reinforces the hypothesis of oral transmission, where the sources of propagation could be explored. Furthermore, this could also be used in current and retrospective analyses of C. albicans isolated from immunocompetent and immunocompromised people, in order to detect commensal or potentially pathogenic yeast groups, predominantly in candidiasis, and in the development of strategies to prevent transmission or human propagation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Enzyme Activation , Enzymes/analysis , Genetic Variation , Isoenzymes/analysis , Polymorphism, Genetic , Electrophoresis , Genotype , Methods , Methods
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 41(1): 42-49, Jan.-Mar. 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-531733

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the in vitro susceptibility of C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis and C. krusei to photodynamic therapy (PDT) induced by Photogem® and light emitting diode (LED). Suspensions of each Candida strain were treated with three photosensitizer (PS) concentrations (10, 25 and 50 mg/L) and exposed to 18.0, 25.5 and 37.5 J/cm² LED light fluences (λ ~ 455 nm). Control suspensions were treated only with PS concentrations, only exposed to the LED light fluences or not exposed to LED light or PS. Sixteen experimental conditions were obtained and each condition was repeated three times. From each sample, serial dilutions were obtained and aliquots were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. After incubation of plates (37 ºC for 48 hours), colonies were counted (cfu/mL) and the data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (α=0.05). Complete killing of C. albicans was observed after 18.0 J/cm² in association with 50 mg/L of PS. C. dubliniensis were inactivated after 18.0 J/cm² using 25 mg/L of PS. The inactivation of C. tropicalis was observed after photosensitization with 25 mg/L and subsequent illumination at 25.5 J/cm². For C. krusei, none of the associations between PS and light resulted in complete killing of this species. PDT proved to be effective for the inactivation of C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. tropicalis. In addition, reduction in the viability of C. krusei was achieved with some of the PS and light associations.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Candidiasis , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida tropicalis/genetics , Candida tropicalis/isolation & purification , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Hematoporphyrins , In Vitro Techniques , Photochemotherapy , Photosensitizing Agents , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Methods
18.
Rev. patol. trop ; 39(1): 41-47, jan.-mar. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-560298

ABSTRACT

By using RAPD method, a total of 28 primers were screened for discrimination among Candidaalbicans isolates. Seven of these primers were selected because they presented reproducible DNAbanding patterns for all the strains of C. albicans. The same genetic profile was obtained by RAPD method using OPG 14 (5’-GGATGAGACC-3’) while the OPG 17 (5’- ACGACCGACA-3’) demonstrated capacity to differentiate the isolates of C. albicans in 4 genotypes. According to the results obtained, we concluded that by using these primers, the RAPD analysis may be useful in providing genotypic characteristics for C. albicans in epidemiological investigation.


Usando o método de amplificação randômica de DNA polimórfico (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA analysis, RAPD), um total de 28 iniciadores (primers) foi estudado para discriminar entre os isolados de Candida albicans. Sete destes primers foram selecionados porque apresentaram padrões de banda de DNA reprodutíveis para todos os isolados de C. albicans. O mesmo perfil genético foi obtido usando OPG 14 (5-GGATGAGACC-3), enquanto o OPG 17 (5-ACGACCGACA-3) demonstrou capacidade de diferenciar os isolados em quatro genótipos. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, nós concluímos que usando estes primers, a análise de RAPD pode ser útil em prover características genotípicas em investigações epidemiológicas.


Subject(s)
Candida albicans/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Genotype
19.
Bauru; s.n; 2010. 128 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-865264

ABSTRACT

A desinfecção de dentaduras promove o controle do biofilme microbiano e previne doenças, como a estomatite por uso de dentadura, associada à presença de Candida albicans. A expressão dos genes HWP1, ALS1, ALS3 deste fungo está relacionada à adesão das células fúngicas às do hospedeiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar e quantificar a expressão desses genes em células planctônicas e biofilme de Candida albicans, desenvolvidos sobre superfícies de resina acrílica, após tratamento com dois métodos de desinfecção. Corpos de prova de resina acrílica, previamente tratados por hipoclorito de sódio 1%, microondas, e um grupo não tratado, foram inoculados com Candida albicans para desenvolvimento de biofilme. O biofilme e as células planctônicas foram coletados em três tempos distintos, correspondentes às etapas de desenvolvimento do biofilme: inicial (6h), intermediária (12h) e madura (48h) e a expressão gênica foi quantificada pelo ensaio de RT-PCR em tempo real. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao teste estatístico ANOVA two-way e pós-teste de Bonferroni; valores de p<0,05, p<0,01 e p<0,001 foram considerados significantes. Os três genes avaliados foram detectados e quantificados por RT-PCR em tempo real, em biofilmes e células planctônicas, independente do grupo de tratamento ou tempo de desenvolvimento do biofilme. A expressão dos genes ALS1 e ALS3 variou de acordo com o tempo de desenvolvimento do biofilme e, e com o tratamento da superfície. Ocorreu diferença significativa (p<0,001) entre a expressão desses genes nas superfícies tratadas por hipoclorito de sódio e microondas, além de diferenças significativas (p<0,001) na expressão gênica entre células planctônicas e biofilme, para os tratamentos avaliados. Concluiu-se que os tratamentos de desinfecção alteram o padrão da expressão dos genes ALS1 e ALS3 em biofilmes desenvolvidos sobre superfície de resina acrílica e em células planctônicas e este padrão foi diferente entre os tratamentos de desinfecção.


Complete dentures disinfection promotes biofilm control and prevents diseases such as denture stomatitis associated with the presence of Candida albicans infection. The expression of the genes HWP1, ALS1, ALS3 in this fungus is related to the adhesion of fungal cells to the host tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect and quantify the expression of these genes in planktonic cells and biofilms of Candida albicans, developed on acrylic resin surfaces, after treatment with two disinfection methods. Specimens of acrylic resin, previously treated by 1% sodium hypochlorite or microwave, and an untreated group were inoculated with Candida albicans for biofilm development. Biofilm and planktonic cells were collected at three different time points corresponding to biofilm development stages: initial (6 h), intermediate (12h) and mature (48h). The total RNA of these samples was obtained and the gene expression for mRNA of HWP1, ALS1 and ALS3 were quantified by Real-Time RT-PCR assay. The data obtained were assessed throught two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-test. Significant levels were determined for p values at <0.05. The three genes were detected and quantified in both biofilms and planktonic cells regardless of treatment condition or time of biofilm development. ALS1 and ALS3 expression varied according to the time point, and surface treatment. Significant differences (p <0.001) were showed between gene expression on surfaces treated with sodium hypochlorite and microwave, and significant differences (p <0.001) were showed in gene expression between planktonic and biofilm cells. It can be concluded that the disinfection procedures affect the ALS1 and ALS3 expression patterns in Candida albicans denture biofilms and planktonic cells. Additionaly, differential gene expression patterns were observed among the disinfection treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Denture Cleansers/therapeutic use , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Denture, Complete/microbiology , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Biofilms , Culture Media , Candida albicans , Gene Expression , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Acrylic Resins/radiation effects , Time Factors
20.
Bauru; s.n; 2010. 128 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-564724

ABSTRACT

A desinfecção de dentaduras promove o controle do biofilme microbiano e previne doenças, como a estomatite por uso de dentadura, associada à presença de Candida albicans. A expressão dos genes HWP1, ALS1, ALS3 deste fungo está relacionada à adesão das células fúngicas às do hospedeiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar e quantificar a expressão desses genes em células planctônicas e biofilme de Candida albicans, desenvolvidos sobre superfícies de resina acrílica, após tratamento com dois métodos de desinfecção. Corpos de prova de resina acrílica, previamente tratados por hipoclorito de sódio 1%, microondas, e um grupo não tratado, foram inoculados com Candida albicans para desenvolvimento de biofilme. O biofilme e as células planctônicas foram coletados em três tempos distintos, correspondentes às etapas de desenvolvimento do biofilme: inicial (6h), intermediária (12h) e madura (48h) e a expressão gênica foi quantificada pelo ensaio de RT-PCR em tempo real. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao teste estatístico ANOVA two-way e pós-teste de Bonferroni; valores de p<0,05, p<0,01 e p<0,001 foram considerados significantes. Os três genes avaliados foram detectados e quantificados por RT-PCR em tempo real, em biofilmes e células planctônicas, independente do grupo de tratamento ou tempo de desenvolvimento do biofilme. A expressão dos genes ALS1 e ALS3 variou de acordo com o tempo de desenvolvimento do biofilme e, e com o tratamento da superfície. Ocorreu diferença significativa (p<0,001) entre a expressão desses genes nas superfícies tratadas por hipoclorito de sódio e microondas, além de diferenças significativas (p<0,001) na expressão gênica entre células planctônicas e biofilme, para os tratamentos avaliados. Concluiu-se que os tratamentos de desinfecção alteram o padrão da expressão dos genes ALS1 e ALS3 em biofilmes desenvolvidos sobre superfície de resina acrílica e em células planctônicas e este padrão foi diferente entre os tratamentos de desinfecção.


Complete dentures disinfection promotes biofilm control and prevents diseases such as denture stomatitis associated with the presence of Candida albicans infection. The expression of the genes HWP1, ALS1, ALS3 in this fungus is related to the adhesion of fungal cells to the host tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect and quantify the expression of these genes in planktonic cells and biofilms of Candida albicans, developed on acrylic resin surfaces, after treatment with two disinfection methods. Specimens of acrylic resin, previously treated by 1% sodium hypochlorite or microwave, and an untreated group were inoculated with Candida albicans for biofilm development. Biofilm and planktonic cells were collected at three different time points corresponding to biofilm development stages: initial (6 h), intermediate (12h) and mature (48h). The total RNA of these samples was obtained and the gene expression for mRNA of HWP1, ALS1 and ALS3 were quantified by Real-Time RT-PCR assay. The data obtained were assessed throught two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-test. Significant levels were determined for p values at <0.05. The three genes were detected and quantified in both biofilms and planktonic cells regardless of treatment condition or time of biofilm development. ALS1 and ALS3 expression varied according to the time point, and surface treatment. Significant differences (p <0.001) were showed between gene expression on surfaces treated with sodium hypochlorite and microwave, and significant differences (p <0.001) were showed in gene expression between planktonic and biofilm cells. It can be concluded that the disinfection procedures affect the ALS1 and ALS3 expression patterns in Candida albicans denture biofilms and planktonic cells. Additionaly, differential gene expression patterns were observed among the disinfection treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Denture Cleansers/therapeutic use , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Denture, Complete/microbiology , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Biofilms , Culture Media , Candida albicans , Gene Expression , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Acrylic Resins/radiation effects , Time Factors
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