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Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e050, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132693


Abstract Candida infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The increase in its incidence has been associated with resistance to antimicrobial therapy and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tea tree oil (TTO) and its main component - terpinen-4-ol - against resistant Candida albicans strains (genotypes A and B) identified by molecular typing and against C. albicans ATCC 90028 and SC 5314 reference strains in planktonic and biofilm cultures. The minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and rate of biofilm development were used to evaluate antifungal activity. Results were obtained from analysis of the biofilm using the cell proliferation assay 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Terpinen-4-ol and TTO inhibited C. albicans growth. CLSM confirmed that 17.92 mg/mL of TTO and 8.86 mg/mL of terpinen-4-ol applied for 60 s (rinse simulation) interfered with biofilm formation. Hence, this in vitro study revealed that natural substances such as TTO and terpinen-4-ol present promising results for the treatment of oral candidiasis.

Terpenes/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Tea Tree Oil/pharmacology , Reference Values , Terpenes/chemistry , Acrylic Resins , Candida albicans/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Confocal , Biofilms/growth & development , Tea Tree Oil/chemistry , Denture Bases/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190578, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101256


Abstract Objective This study sought to analyze the gene expression of Candida albicans in sound root surface and root caries lesions, exploring its role in root caries pathogenesis. Methodology The differential gene expression of C. albicans and the specific genes related to cariogenic traits were studied in association with samples of biofilm collected from exposed sound root surface (SRS, n=10) and from biofilm and carious dentin of active root carious lesions (RC, n=9). The total microbial RNA was extracted, and the cDNA libraries were prepared and sequenced on the Illumina Hi-Seq2500. Unique reads were mapped to 163 oral microbial reference genomes including two chromosomes of C. albicans SC5314 (14,217 genes). The putative presence of C. albicans was estimated (sum of reads/total number of genes≥1) in each sample. Count data were normalized (using the DESeq method package) to analyze differential gene expression (using the DESeq2R package) applying the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (FDR<0.05). Results Two genes (CaO19.610, FDR=0.009; CaO19.2506, FDR=0.018) were up-regulated on SRS, and their functions are related to biofilm formation. Seven genes ( UTP20 , FDR=0.018; ITR1 , FDR=0.036; DHN6 , FDR=0.046; CaO19.7197 , FDR=0.046; CaO19.7838 , FDR=0.046; STT4 , FDR=0.046; GUT1 , FDR=0.046) were up-regulated on RC and their functions are related to metabolic activity, sugar transport, stress tolerance, invasion and pH regulation. The use of alternative carbon sources, including lactate, and the ability to form hypha may be a unique trait of C. albicans influencing biofilm virulence. Conclusions C. albicans is metabolically active in SRS and RC biofilm, with different roles in health and disease.

Humans , Tooth Root/microbiology , Candida albicans/genetics , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Root Caries/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/growth & development , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Up-Regulation , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Transcriptome , Morphogenesis
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2018. 60 p. il., tab., graf..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-905283


Os micro-organismos estão cada vez mais resistentes aos medicamentos disponíveis tanto na medicina quanto na odontologia, e esta resistência é ainda maior quando estão organizados em biofilmes mono ou multiespécies, de modo que o estudo de antimicrobianos alternativos, como fitoterápicos, estão em crescente ascensão. A interação entre leveduras e bactérias está intimamente presente na cavidade bucal, em que nichos como dentes, língua, mucosa e bolsa periodontal, nutrientes e temperatura adequados promovem condições favoráveis para formação do biofilme. Com isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos de Pfaffia paniculata K (pfaffia), Hamamelis virginiana L. (hamamelis), Stryphnodendron barbatiman (barbatimão) e Gymnema sylvestre (gimena) em biofilmes heterotípicos de Candida albicans (ATCC 18804) com Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35688), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 4083) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442). Para isso, suspensões padronizadas em 107 cels/mL dos micro-organismos testes, foram distribuídos em placas de microtitulação de 96 poços, juntamente 100 µL de caldo BHI. As placas foram incubadas em estufa bacteriológica a 37ºC/48h (5% de CO2 para S. mutans) e, após, os biofilmes foram submetidos ao tratamento com os extratos por 5 min e 24 h, nas respectivas concentrações de 100 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL e 25 mg/mL. Foi utilizado solução salina 0,9% (5 min) ou caldo BHI (24 h) nos grupos controles. Após, os biofilmes foram lavados e desagregados do fundo da placa e diluições seriadas foram semeadas em ágar seletivo para cada micro-organismo. Foram realizadas contagens de UFC/mL (log10) após 24 h de incubação e analisadas estatisticamente pelo método Kruskal-Wallis suplementado pelo teste de Dun's (p<0.05). Os resultados obtidos indicaram reduções significativas promovidas pelos extratos nos dois tempos de tratamento analisados. Foi observado que o extrato de H. virginiana apresentou redução de todos os grupos analisados no tempo de tratamento de 24 h. Conclui-se que os extratos de P. paniculata, H. virginiana, S. barbatiman e G. sylvestre apresentaram ação antimicrobiana sobre biofilmes muliespécie de C. albicans com as bactérias de interesse médico-odontológico, nos tempos de tratamento de 5 min e 24 h. (AU)

Microorganisms are increasingly resistant to drugs available in both medicine and dentistry, and this resistance is even greater when they are organized into mono or multispecies biofilms, so that the study of alternative antimicrobials, such as herbal medicines, are on the rise. The interaction between yeasts and bacteria is intimately present in the oral cavity, in which niches such as teeth, tongue, mucosa and periodontal pocket, food and adequate temperature promote adequate conditions for biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of extracts of Pfaffia paniculata K., Hamamelis virginiana L., Gymnema sylvestre and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M. in heterotopic biofilms of Candida albicans (ATCC 18804) with Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35688). Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 4083), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442). Standardized suspensions at 107 cells/mL of the test microorganisms were distributed in 96 well microtiter plates together with 100 µL of BHI broth, the plates were incubated in a bacteriological oven at 37°C/48h (5% CO2 for S. mutans). After the incubation time, treatments were performed at 5 min and 24 h times, applying the respective extracts at the concentrations of 100 mg, 50 mg and 25 mg/mL and applying 0.9% saline solution or BHI broth in the control groups. After the biofilms were washed and disaggregated from the bottom of the plate, performing serial dilutions for later seeding in selective agar. UFC/ml (log10) counts were performed after 24 h of incubation and statistically analyzed Kruskal-Wallis method supplemented by the Dun's test (p<0.05%). The obtained results indicated significant reductions promoted by extracts in the two treatment times analyzed. It was observed that the extract of H. virginiana showed reduction of all the analyzed groups without treatment time of 24 h. It is concluded that the extracts of P. paniculata, H. virginiana, S. barbatiman and G. sylvestre presented antimicrobial action after analysis of the heterotypic biofilms of C. albicans with the bacteria of medical and dental interest, in the treatment times of 5 min and 24 h. (AU)

Humans , Bacteria , Candida albicans/growth & development , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Plants, Medicinal/classification
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(5): 541-550, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893660


Abstract Objectives: Addition of chlorhexidine has enhanced the antimicrobial effect of glass ionomer cement (GIC) indicated to Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART); however, the impact of this mixture on the properties of these materials and on the longevity of restorations must be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of incorporating chlorhexidine (CHX) in the in vitro biological and chemical-mechanical properties of GIC and in vivo clinical/ microbiological follow-up of the ART with GIC containing or not CHX. Material and Methods: For in vitro studies, groups were divided into GIC, GIC with 1.25% CHX, and GIC with 2.5% CHX. Antimicrobial activity of GIC was analyzed using agar diffusion and anti-biofilm assays. Cytotoxic effects, compressive tensile strength, microhardness and fluoride (F) release were also evaluated. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 36 children that received ART either with GIC or GIC with CHX. Saliva and biofilm were collected for mutans streptococci (MS) counts and the survival rate of restorations was checked after 7 days, 3 months and one year after ART. ANOVA/Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis/ Mann-Whitney tests were performed for in vitro tests and in vivo microbiological analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank tests were applied to estimate survival percentages of restorations (p<0.05). Results: Incorporation of 1.25% and 2.5% CHX improved the antimicrobial/anti-biofilm activity of GIC, without affecting F release and mechanical characteristics, but 2.5% CHX was cytotoxic. Survival rate of restorations using GIC with 1.25% CHX was similar to GIC. A significant reduction of MS levels was observed for KM+CHX group in children saliva and biofilm 7 days after treatment. Conclusions: The incorporation of 1.25% CHX increased the in vitro antimicrobial activity, without changing chemical-mechanical properties of GIC and odontoblast-like cell viability. This combination improved the in vivo short-term microbiological effect without affecting clinical performance of ART restorations.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment/methods , Glass Ionomer Cements/pharmacology , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Materials Testing , Candida albicans/growth & development , Candida albicans/drug effects , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biofilms/growth & development , Biofilms/drug effects , Compressive Strength , Fluorides/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Lactobacillus acidophilus/growth & development , Lactobacillus acidophilus/drug effects , Odontoblasts/drug effects
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(9): 587-592, Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894875


BACKGROUND The link between Candida albicans and diabetes mellitus is well-acknowledged, but incompletely elucidated. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to assess the growth rate of C. albicans (CA) in the presence of different concentrations of glucose and fructose, two of the main pathophysiologic and nutritionally relevant sugars in diabetic patients, in order to obtain a better understanding of the nutrient acquisition strategy and its possible relation to the hyperglycemic status of diabetic patients. METHODS The effects of different concentrations of glucose and fructose (1000 mg%, 500 mg%, 250 mg% and 100 mg% w/v) on the growth rate of CA have been studied by flow-cytometry. FINDINGS We found that glucose concentration is directly related to CA growth, which may be linked to the frequent yeast infections that occur in non-controlled diabetic patients; we also show that fructose inhibits CA growth rate. MAIN CONCLUSIONS As a consequence of our hypothesis, the study demonstrates that fructose-containing food may prevent the development of candidiasis, at least in oral sites.

Humans , Candida albicans/growth & development , Candida albicans/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Fructose/pharmacology , Glucose/pharmacology , Time Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Flow Cytometry
Rev. ADM ; 74(2): 74-78, mar.-abr. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869357


La candidiasis es la infección micótica más común de la cavidad bucaly es causada por el hongo Candida. Dentro de la población geriátricala candidiasis oral es uno de los tres principales motivos de consulta. El crecimiento en superfi cies es parte natural del modo de vivir del hongo Candida y es común que colonice las prótesis dentales, dando como resultado estomatitis por uso de dentadura o estomatitis subplaca.El diagnóstico de estomatitis por dentadura es relevante, ya quealrededor de 50 por ciento de las personas de edad promedio de 65 a 74 años, y 70 por ciento de 75 a 84 años utilizan prótesis dentales removibles. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de candidiasis oral asociada a prótesis dentales removibles en los pacientes de la ClínicaOdontológica de la Universidad Anáhuac México Norte durante el periodo enero-mayo de 2016. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudiodescriptivo, transversal y observacional. La muestra estuvo conformada por pacientes portadores de prótesis dentales removibles que acudieron a la Clínica Odontológica de la Universidad Anáhuac México Norte.Se interrogó al paciente respecto al uso de la prótesis y su condición de salud, posterior a la exploración clínica se tomó la citología exfoliativa de la mucosa debajo de la prótesis removible. Resultados: La muestraestuvo constituida por 22 pacientes de la clínica de prótesis removible,seis eran portadores de prótesis, de éstos 83 por ciento fueron positivos a candidiasis. Conclusiones: La falta de indicaciones sobre el cuidado, uso ehigiene de las prótesis dentales o la falta de apego a estas indicacionespor parte del paciente ocasionan el desarrollo de estomatitis subplaca.

Candidiasis is the most common mycotic infection in oral cavity andcaused by fungi candid. Oral candidiasis is one of three principalreasons for consultation in a geriatric population. A natural part of theway of living of the fungi Candida is the growth on surfaces. It growthmakes common that the fungi Candida colonize the dental prostheses,so the denture stomatitis or dental-related stomatitis is development.Denture stomatitis diagnosis is quite important because from the totalpopulation using dental removable prostheses around of 50% is between65-74 years old and 70% is between 75-84 years old. The ofthis study was identifying oral candidiasis frequency related to dentalremovable prostheses in patients from Universidad Anahuac, DentalSchool (México Norte), from January 2016 to May 2016. Material andmethods: Was made a descriptive, cross and observational study. Thesample was integrated by patients using dental removable prostheses,who went to Universidad Anahuac’s dental school (México Norte). Thepatients were interrogated about dental removable prostheses use andtheir health condition, after clinic exploration and exfoliative cytologywas taken from mucosa below dental removable prostheses. Results: 22patients from dental service using removable prosthesis constituted thesample, from this 22 patients only 6 were using a removable prosthesisand from this 6 patients only 83% were positive to oral candidiasis.Conclusions: Instructions scare about care, use, and hygiene of dentalprosthesis as well as not follow these instructions for patient’s partmake possible denture stomatitis development.

Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Candidiasis, Oral/epidemiology , Candidiasis, Oral/etiology , Denture, Partial, Removable/adverse effects , Stomatitis, Denture/diagnosis , Stomatitis, Denture/pathology , Age and Sex Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/growth & development , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Schools, Dental/standards , Mexico , Observational Studies as Topic , Statistical Analysis , Cytological Techniques/methods
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1379-1383, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741290


Candida albicans is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus that inhabits various host mucosal sites. It can cause both superficial and serious systemic disease. Conversion from the yeast to the hyphal form has been associated with increased virulence and mucosal invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium diclofenac and aspirin on germs tube formation of different Candida albicans strains. Prostaglandins may play an important role in fungal colonization. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes. These drugs specifically block the biosynthesis of mammalian prostaglandins by inhibiting one or both of cyclooxygenase isoenzymes. In tests for germ tube formation sodium diclofenac reduced the filamentation to the 12.5%- 5.1%. In the presence of aspirin the filamentation was reduced up to 85-45% depending on the tested strain. Our results suggest that cyclooxygenase-depending synthesis of fungal prostaglandins is important for morphogenesis and fungal virulence. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase isoensymes (aspirin and diclofenac) are effective in decreasing germ tube formation of Candida albicans.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida albicans/growth & development , Hyphae/drug effects , Hyphae/growth & development , Aspirin/pharmacology , Candida albicans/cytology , Diclofenac/pharmacology , Hyphae/cytology
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(5): 442-449, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-729843


The adhesion of biofilm on dental prostheses is a prerequisite for the occurrence of oral diseases. Objective: To assess the antimicrobial activity and the mechanical properties of an acrylic resin embedded with nanostructured silver vanadate (β-AgVO3). Material and Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of β-AgVO3 was studied in relation to the species Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The halo zone of inhibition method was performed in triplicate to determine the inhibitory effect of the modified self-curing acrylic resin Dencor Lay - Clássico®. The surface hardness and compressive strength were examined. The specimens were prepared according to the percentage of β-AgVO3 (0%-control, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%), with a sample size of 9x2 mm for surface hardness and antimicrobial activity tests, and 8x4 mm for the compression test. The values of the microbiologic analysis were compared and evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05); the mechanical analysis used the Shapiro-Wilk's tests, Levene's test, ANOVA (one-way), and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results: The addition of 10% β-AgVO3 promoted antimicrobial activity against all strains. The antimicrobial effect was observed at a minimum concentration of 1% for P. aeruginosa, 2.5% for S. aureus, 5% for C. albicans, and 10% for S. mutans. Surface hardness and compressive strength increased significantly with the addition of 0.5% β-AgVO3 (p<0.05). Higher rates of the nanomaterial did not alter the mechanical properties of the resin in comparison with the control group (p>0.05). Conclusions: The incorporation of β-AgVO3 has the potential to promote antimicrobial activity in the acrylic resin. At reduced rates, it improves the mechanical properties, and, at higher rates, it does not promote changes in the control. .

Acrylic Resins/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Silver/pharmacology , Vanadates/pharmacology , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida albicans/growth & development , Compressive Strength , Dental Prosthesis/microbiology , Hardness Tests , Materials Testing , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/growth & development , Reproducibility of Results , Silver/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Statistics, Nonparametric , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Vanadates/chemistry
Rev. Assoc. Paul. Cir. Dent ; 68(2): 160-164, abr.-jun. 2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-726071


O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a presença de Candida sp em sítios de pacientes com Periodontite Crônica (PC) e controle, buscando correlacionar a presença deste microrganismo com a presença da doença em 13 pacientes com PC, escolhidos aleatoriamente, 7 sítios foram avaliados: 3 com PC, 3 sem PC e o dorso da língua. Também foram selecionados 7 pacientes sem doença (grupo controle). Quatro sítios foram avaliados: 3 sítios saudáveis e o dorso da língua. Nestes sítios, foram inseridos cones de papéis estéreis por 30 segundos. Na língua, o cone era passado em seu dorso 5 vezes. a exame micológico foi realizado no laboratório de micologia do Ipec/Fio-cruz. Dos 20 pacientes, 8 apresentaram fungos, sendo 6 do grupo com pc e 2 no grupo controle. Na avaliação por sítios, verificou-se que apenas 10,71% dos sítios do grupo controle e 10,99% do grupo com PC apresentaram Candida. Estas diferenças não foram significativas (p¼ 0,05). Os sítios mais afetados no grupo controle e com pc foram respectivamente a língua (66,67%) e sítios profundos (50%). Conclui-se que, embora a Candida esteja presente na cavidade bucal de pacientes com PC e saudáveis, é encontrada em proporções distintas nos diferentes sítios avaliados

The aim of this study was to verify the presence of Candida sp in sites of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) and control, to correlate the presence of this microorganism with the presence of the disease. 7 sites were evaluated in 13 CP patients: 3 sites with PC, 3 sites without PC and dorsum of the tongue . 7 patients without disease (control group) were also selected; four sites were evaluated: 3 healthy sites and the dorsum of the tongue. In ali sites, sterile paper points were inserted for 30 seconds. In tongue, the point was passed 5 times. Mycological examination was performed in the laboratory of mycology of IPEC I Fiocruz. Of the 20 patients, 8 had fungi; 6 of CP group and 2 of control group. In the evaluated sites, it was found that only 10.71 % and 10.99% of control and CP groups showed Candida, respectivelv These differences were not significant (p¼ 0.05). The most affected sites in the control and CP groups were tongue (66.67 %) and deep sites (50 010), respectively. In conclusion, although the Candida is present in the oral cavity of healthy and PC patients, it is found in different proportions according to the evaluated sites

Humans , Male , Female , Colony Count, Microbial , Candida albicans/growth & development , Fungi/growth & development , Chronic Periodontitis/microbiology
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(1): 28-33, feb. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-706543


Background: Melanocytes are cells located in epidermis and mucous membranes that synthesize melanin and cytokines. It is known that melanin has antimicrobial activity and that melanocytes are melanized in presence of microbial molecules. Objective: To study the antifungal activity of melanin on Candida spp. Methodology: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to melanin was determined in 4 Candida ATCC strains (C. albicans SC5314, C. parapsilosis 22019, C. glabrata 2001, C. krusei 6258) and 56 clinical isolates of Candida spp. (33 C. albicans, 12 C. glabrata, 3 C. famata, 3 C. krusei, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 C. tropicalis) using a broth microdilution method. In addition, the antifungal activity of melanocytes and mice melanoma cells was tested against C. albicans. Results: Melanin inhibited the tested isolates, including the susceptible dose-dependent and fluconazole-resistant strains; MIC range and MIC50 were 0.09-50 μg/mL and 6.25 μg/mL, respectively. Pigmented cells lysates inhibited C. albicans. Conclusions: Melanin is able to inhibit clinical isolates of Candida spp. Melanization could be an important protective mechanism of melanocytes.

Introducción: Los melanocitos son células presentes en piel y en mucosas que sintetizan melanina, además de citoquinas. Es sabido que melanina presenta actividad antimicrobiana y que los melanocitos se melanizan al ser expuestos a moléculas microbianas. Objetivo: Estudiar la actividad antifúngica de melanina en cepas clínicas de Candida spp. Metodología: Se midió la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) a melanina, de 4 cepas de Candida ATCC (C. albicans SC5314, C. parapsilosis 22019, C. glabrata 2001 y C. krusei 6258) y 56 aislados clínicos de Candida spp. (33 C. albicans, 12 C. glabrata, 3 C. famata, 3 C. krusei, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 C. tropicalis) mediante un método de microdilución en caldo. Además se estudió el efecto antifúngico de lisados de melanocitos y células de melanoma de ratón en C. albicans. Resultados: Melanina inhibió las cepas analizadas, incluso cepas susceptibles dosis-dependiente y resistentes a fluconazol, siendo los rangos de CIM y CIM50 de 0,09-50 μg/mL y 6,25 μg/ mL, respectivamente. Los lisados de células pigmentadas inhibieron C. albicans. Conclusiones: Melanina es capaz de inhibir cepas clínicas de Candida spp. La melanización podría ser un importante mecanismo protector de los melanocitos.

Animals , Mice , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Melanins/pharmacology , Melanocytes/immunology , Candida albicans/classification , Candida albicans/growth & development , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Melanins/metabolism , Melanocytes/metabolism , Melanoma, Experimental/metabolism , Melanoma, Experimental/microbiology , Skin Pigmentation
Braz. oral res ; 28(1): 22-27, Jan-Feb/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697002


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils (EOs) compared to 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on multi-species biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The biofilms were grown in acrylic disks immersed in broth, inoculated with microbial suspension (106 cells/mL) and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. After the biofilms were formed, they were exposed for 5 minutes to the solutions (n = 10): C. aurantium EO, C. limonum EO, 0.2% CHX, 1% NaOCl or sterile saline solution [0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl)]. Next, the discs were placed in sterile 0.9% NaCl and sonicated to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were performed and the aliquots were seeded onto selective agar and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. Next, the number of colony-forming units per milliliter was counted and analyzed statistically (Tukey test, p ≤ 0.05). C. aurantium EO and NaOCl inhibited the growth of all microorganisms in multi-species biofilms. C. limonum EO promoted a 100% reduction of C. albicans and E. coli, and 49.3% of E. faecalis. CHX was less effective against C. albicans and E. coli, yielding a reduction of 68.8% and 86.7%, respectively. However, the reduction of E. faecalis using CHX (81.7%) was greater than that obtained using C. limonum EO. Both Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium EOs are effective in controlling multi-species biofilms; the microbial reductions achieved by EOs were not only similar to those of NaOCl, but even higher than those achieved by CHX, in some cases.

Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Citrus/chemistry , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Biofilms/growth & development , Colony Count, Microbial , Candida albicans/growth & development , Enterococcus faecalis/growth & development , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Reproducibility of Results , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 63(6): 461-465, nov.-dez. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-697203


EXPERIÊNCIA E OBJETIVOS: Cetamina e propofol são os anestésicos gerais que também exibem efeitos antimicrobianos e promotores do crescimento microbiano, respectivamente. Embora esses agentes sejam frequentemente aplicados em combinação durante o uso clínico, não há dados sobre seu efeito total no crescimento microbiano na administração combinada. Nesse estudo, investigamos o crescimento de alguns microrganismos em uma mistura de cetamina e propofol. MÉTODO: Nesse estudo, utilizamos cepas padronizadas: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Candida albicans. Realizamos uma análise de tempo-crescimento para avaliar as taxas de crescimento microbiano em propofol 1%. A atividade antimicrobiana de cetamina, isoladamente e em propofol, foi estudada pelo método de microdiluição. RESULTADOS: Em propofol, as cepas estudadas cresceram de concentrações de 10³-10(4) ufc/mL para > 10(5) ufc/mL, dentro de 8-16 horas, dependendo do tipo de microrganismo. Foram determinadas a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) (para Candida, concentração fungicida mínima) de cetamina, como se segue (CIM, CBM): E. coli 312,5, 312,5 µg/mL; S.aureus 19,5, 156 µg/mL; P. aeruginosa 312,5, 625 µg/mL; e C. albicans 156, 156 µg/mL. Na mistura cetamina + propofol, cetamina exibiu atividade antimicrobiana para E. coli, P. aeruginosa e C. albicans em CBMs a 1250, 625 e 625 µg/mL, respectivamente. O crescimento de S. aureus não foi inibido nessa mistura (concentração de cetamina = 1250 µg/mL). CONCLUSÃO: Cetamina preservou sua atividade antimicrobiana de maneira dose-dependente contra alguns microrganismos em propofol, que é robusta solução promotora de crescimento microbiano. O uso combinado de cetamina e propofol na aplicação clínica de rotina pode diminuir o risco de infecção causada por contaminação acidental. Entretanto, deve-se ter em mente que cetamina não pode reduzir todas as ameaças patogênicas na mistura com propofol.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ketamine and propofol are the general anesthetics that also have antimicrobial and microbial growth-promoting effects, respectively. Although these agents are frequently applied together during clinical use, there is no data about their total effect on microbial growth when combined. In this study, we investigated some organisms' growth in a ketamine and propofol mixture. METHOD: We used standard strains including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans in this study. Time-growth analysis was performed to assess microbial growth rates in 1% propofol. Antimicrobial activity of ketamine, alone and in propofol was studied with microdilution method. RESULTS: In propofol, studied strains grew from 10³-10(4) cfu/mL to >10(5) cfu/mL concentrations within 8-16 hours depending on the type of organism. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) (for candida, minimal fungicidal concentration) of ketamine were determined as follows (MIC, MBC): E.coli 312.5, 312.5 µg/mL; S.aureus 19.5, 156 µg/mL; P.aeruginosa 312.5, 625 µg/mL; and C.albicans 156, 156 µg/ml. In ketamine+propofol mixture, ketamine exhibited antimicrobial activity to E.coli, P.aeruginosa and C.albicans as MBCs at 1250, 625 and 625 µg/mL, respectively. Growth of S. aureus was not inhibited in this mixture (ketamine concentration=1250 µg/mL). CONCLUSION: Ketamine has sustained its antimicrobial activity in a dose-dependent manner against some organisms in propofol, which is a strong microbial growth-promoting solution. Combined use of ketamine and propofol in routine clinical application may reduce the risk of infection caused by accidental contamination. However, one must keep in mind that ketamine cannot reduce all pathogenic threats in propofol mixture.

EXPERIENCIA Y OBJETIVOS: La Cetamina y el propofol son los anestésicos generales que también tienen efectos antimicrobianos y son los promotores del crecimiento microbiano, respectivamente. Aunque esos agentes sean frecuentemente aplicados en combinación durante el uso clínico, no hay datos sobre su efecto total en el crecimiento microbiano en la administración combinada. En ese estudio, investigamos el crecimiento de algunos microrganismos en una mezcla de cetamina y propofol. MÉTODO: En este estudio, utilizamos cepas estandarizadas: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Candida albicans. Realizamos un análisis de tiempo-crecimiento para evaluar las tasas de crecimiento microbiano en el propofol al 1%. La actividad antimicrobiana de cetamina, aisladamente y en propofol, fue estudiada por el método de microdilución. RESULTADOS: En el propofol, las cepas estudiadas crecieron de concentraciones de 10³-10(4) ufc/mL para #> 10(5) ufc/mL, dentro de 8-16 horas, dependiendo del tipo de microrganismo. Fueron determinadas la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) y la concentración bactericida mínima (CBM) (para Candida, concentración fungicida mínima) de cetamina, como vemos (CIM, CBM): E. coli 312,5, 312,5 µg/mL; S.aureus 19,5, 156 µg/mL; P. aeruginosa 312,5, 625 µg/mL; y C. albicans 156, 156 µg/ml. En la mezcla cetamina + propofol, la cetamina mostró una actividad antimicrobiana para E. coli, P. aeruginosa y C. albicans en CBMs a 1250, 625 y 625 µg/mL, respectivamente. El crecimiento de S. aureus no se inhibió en esa mezcla (concentración de cetamina = 1250 µg/mL). CONCLUSIONES: La cetamina preservó su actividad antimicrobiana de manera dosis-dependiente contra algunos microrganismos en propofol, que es una robusta solución que promueve el crecimiento microbiano. El uso combinado de cetamina y propofol en la aplicación clínica de rutina puede disminuir el riesgo de infección causada por la contaminación accidental. Sin embargo, debemos tener presente que la cetamina no puede reducir todas las amenazas patógenas en la mezcla con el propofol.

Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Ketamine/pharmacology , Propofol/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/growth & development , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida albicans/growth & development , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1315-1320, Oct.-Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705294


In this study we report the potential of alcohols as morphogenetic regulators in Candida albicans. All the alcohols tested influenced various modes of growth like planktonic as well as biofilm forms. Viability was affected at high concentrations. Among the alcohols, the response of C. albicans to amyl alcohol (pentanol) was noteworthy. Amyl alcohol at a concentration 0.5% which was not inhibitory to growth and viability specifically inhibited morphogenetic switching from yeast to hyphal forms. It also inhibited normal biofilm development favoring yeast dominated biofilms. Based on this study we hypothesize that alcohols produced under anaerobic conditions may not favor biofilm development and support dissemination of yeast cells. Since anaerobic conditions are not found to favor production of quorum sensing molecules like farnesol, the alcohols may play a role in morphogenetic regulation.

Alcohols/metabolism , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida albicans/physiology , Candida albicans/cytology , Candida albicans/growth & development , Microbial Viability/drug effects
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 813-821, July-Sept. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699791


Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations were used to analyze particular morphologies of Candida albicans clinical isolate (strain 82) and mutants defective in hyphae-promoting genes EFG1 (strain HLC52) and/ or CPH1 (strains HLC54 and Can16). Transcription factors Efg1 and Cph1 play role in regulating filamentation and adhesion of C. albicans' morphologies. Comparative analysis of such mutants and clinical isolate showed that Efg1 is required for human serum-induced cell growth and morphological switching. In the study, distinct differences between ultrastructural patterns of clinical strain's and null mutants' morphologies were observed (spherical vs tube-like blastoconidia, or solid and fragile constricted septa vs only the latter observed in strains with EFG1 deleted). In addition, wild type strain displayed smooth colonies of cells in comparison to mutants which exhibited wrinkled phenotype. It was observed that blastoconidia of clinical strain exhibited either polarly or randomly located budding. Contrariwise, morphotypes of mutants showed either multiple polar budding or a centrally located single bud scar (mother-daughter cell junction) distinguishing tube-like yeast/ pseudohyphal growth (the length-to-width ratios larger than 1.5). In their planktonic form of growth, blastoconidia of clinical bloodstream isolate formed constitutively true hyphae under undiluted human serum inducing conditions. It was found that true hyphae are essential elements for developing structural integrity of conglomerate, as mutants displaying defects in their flocculation and conglomerate-forming abilities in serum. While filamentation is an important virulence trait in C. albicans the true hyphae are the morphologies which may be expected to play a role in bloodstream infections.

Humans , Candida albicans/ultrastructure , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida albicans/growth & development , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Gene Deletion , Hyphae/genetics , Hyphae/growth & development , Hyphae/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 855-859, July-Sept. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699817


Candida infections are very common in cancer patients and it is a common practice to prescribe antifungal antibiotics along with anticancer drugs. Yeast to hyphal form switching is considered to be important in invasive candidiasis. Targeting morphogenetic switching may be useful against invasive candidiasis. In this study, we report the antimorphogenetic properties of thirty cancer drugs.

Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Hyphae/drug effects , Candida albicans/cytology , Candida albicans/growth & development , Drug Repositioning , Hyphae/cytology , Hyphae/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy
Braz. oral res ; 27(4): 369-375, Jul-Aug/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679221


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the substratum position and the saliva acquired pellicle (AP) on Candida albicans biofilm development. Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) disks were fabricated and randomly allocated to experimental groups: HNP (disks placed in a horizontal position and uncoated by pellicle), VNP (disks placed in a vertical position and uncoated by pellicle), HCP (disks placed in a horizontal position and coated by pellicle), and VCP (disks placed in a vertical position and coated by pellicle). Disks were placed in a 24-well plate and a suspension of 107 cells/mL of Candida albicans was added to each well for biofilm development. The plates were aerobically incubated at 35°C. The biofilms were evaluated at 1.5 (adhesion time point), 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. The number of viable cells was quantified in terms of the colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL). Metabolic activity was measured by the XTT assay. The biofilm structure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test, with significance set at 5%. The vertical groups showed less biofilm formation and lower metabolic activity than the horizontal groups (p< 0.05). Significant differences in cell viability and metabolic activity were observed between the adhesion and other time points (p< 0.05), but these variables were not affected by the presence of the pellicle (p > 0.05). It can be concluded that the substratum position influenced biofilm development.

Biofilms/growth & development , Candida albicans/growth & development , Dental Pellicle/microbiology , Saliva/microbiology , Analysis of Variance , Colony-Forming Units Assay , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Polymethyl Methacrylate , Random Allocation , Surface Properties , Time Factors
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(3): 340-342, May-Jun/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679510


Introduction Candida albicans is a commensal and opportunistic agent that causes infection in immunocompromised individuals. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of this yeast, including the production of germ tubes (GTs) and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate GT production and phospholipase and proteinase activities in bloodstream isolates of C. albicans. Methods One hundred fifty-three C. albicans isolates were obtained from blood samples and analyzed for GT, phospholipase, and proteinase production. The assays were performed in duplicate in egg yolk medium containing bovine serum albumin and human serum. Results Detectable amounts of proteinase were produced by 97% of the isolates, and 78% of the isolates produced phospholipase. GTs were produced by 95% of the isolates. A majority of the isolates exhibited low levels of phospholipase production and high levels of proteinase production. Conclusions Bloodstream isolates of C. albicans produce virulence factors such as GT and hydrolytic enzymes that enable them to cause infection under favorable conditions. .

Animals , Cattle , Humans , Candida albicans/enzymology , Candida albicans/growth & development , Peptide Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Phospholipases/biosynthesis , Virulence Factors/biosynthesis , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Serum Albumin, Bovine
Bauru; s.n; 2013. 148 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-719057


A presença de Candida albicans nos biofilmes microbianos da superfície interna das próteses totais superiores está relacionada com uma doença inflamatória no palato, a estomatite protética. Constituinte da defesa inata do hospedeiro, o epitélio bucal, por sua vez, tem a capacidade de reconhecer e reagir aos fatores fúngicos a fim de evitar a invasão pelo microrganismo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar in vitro o efeito direto e indireto de C. albicans viável sobre as células epiteliais de palato humano (CEPH) ao longo do tempo. Objetivamos correlacionar os eventos de agressão, apoptose e invasão das CEPH provocados pelo fungo, com as respostas de defesa epitelial mediante produção de óxido nítrico (NO) e expressão gênica do peptídeo antimicrobiano β-defensina 2 (hBD-2). Material e Métodos: As CEPH foram obtidas, parte pelo método explante e parte pelo método enzimático, e mantidas em co-cultivo sobre uma camada de sustentação feederlayer (fibroblastos gengivais humanos mitoticamente inativados). Após desafios das CEPH com C. albicans ATCC 90028 por contato direto fungo-epitélio (D.D.) e indireto pelo sobrenadante da cultura do fungo hifal (D.I.), proporções de desafio de 0,01/1; 0,025/1 e 0,1/1 levedura/queratinócito (FUN/EPI) e tempos experimentais de 3, 6 e 10 h foram determinados; via ensaios de viabilidade celular por imunofluorescência (LIVE/DEAD), e análise qualitativa da invasão celular pelo fungo por meio do método colorimétrico com laranja de acridina. A apoptose epitelial foi determinada pela marcação nuclear fluorescente com Hoechtst 33258. A produção de óxido nítrico (NO) e a expressão de RNAm de hBD-2 foram avaliados por reação colorimétrica de Griess e RT-qPCR, respectivamente. Os resultados foram expressos como média ± desvio padrão e submetidos aos testes estatísticos ANOVA Fatorial, Teste de Contraste; ou Teste de Mann-Whitney (p<0,05). Resultados: Em 3 h, foi detectado aumento da apoptose das células epiteliais em relação ao...

The presence of the fungus Candida albicans in the microbial biofilm underlying maxillary prosthesis is related to an inflammatory reaction of the palatal mucosa, the denture stomatitis. As a component of the host innate defense, the oral epithelium has the ability to recognize and react to fungal factors in order to prevent the microrganism invasion. The aim of this study was to in vitro evaluate the direct and indirect effect of viable C. albicans on the human palatal epithelial cells (HPEC) over time. The aggressive events, such as apoptosis and HPEC invasion by the fungus, were correlated with epithelial defense responses through the nitric oxide (NO) production and antimicrobial peptides β-defensin (hBD-2) mRNA expression. Methods: The HPEC were obtained by explant and enzymatic methods, and were maintained in co-culture on a feeder-layer support (mitotically inactivated human gingival fibroblasts). After the HPEC challenges with C. albicans ATCC 90028 by direct contact fungus-epithelium (D.D.) and indirect contact by supernatant from hyphal fungus (D.I.), defiance ratios of 0.01/1, 0.025/1 and 0.1/1 yeast/keratinocyte (FUN/EPI) and experimental times of 3, 6 and 10 h were determined. These conditions were standardized by cell viability immunofluorescence assay (LIVE/DEAD), and cell invasion qualitative analysis (colorimetric method with acridine orange). The apoptotic cells were determined by fluorescent nuclear staining with Hoechtst 33258. The nitric oxide (NO) production and hBD-2 gene expression were evaluated by Griess colorimetric reaction and RT-qPCR, respectively. The results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and were analyzed using the factorial ANOVA, Contrast Test; or Mann-Whitney Test (p<0,05). Results: At 3 h, the apoptotic epithelial cells under 0.1/1 FUN/EPI increased compared to epithelium unchallenged (p<0,05) that remained over time with increasing concentration and independent of D.D. and D.I. The onset...

Humans , Candida albicans/growth & development , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , Stomatitis, Denture/immunology , Stomatitis, Denture/microbiology , Apoptosis , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Immunity, Mucosal , Mouth Mucosa/immunology , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology , Palate/immunology , Palate/microbiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors
São Paulo; s.n; 2013. 124 p. ilus, tab. (BR).
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-758280


O antisséptico cloreto de cetilpiridíneo (CCP) demonstrou ser eficaz como alternativa terapêutica aos antifúngicos em candidose oral, porém, apresenta baixa substantividade. Para aumentar sua biodisponibilidade surge a possibilidade de incorporá-lo num sistema de liberação lenta composto por filmes poliméricos nanofibrílicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi preparar filmes nanofibrílicos através de eletrofiação e incorporar CCP, fazer sua caracterização térmica e morfológica, além de análise microbiológica dos filmes contendo CCP frente a cepas de Candida albicans. O fármaco CCP foi adicionado a três soluções poliméricas, de álcool polivinílico (PVA), polivinilpirrolidona (PVP) e a de PVP/PM [Poli (metacrilato de metila-co-acrilato de etila-co-metacrilato de amônio)] em 5% de concentração. As soluções foram avaliadas quanto à condutividade, viscosidade e tensão superficial e, posteriormente, passaram pelo processo de eletrofiação para obtenção de filmes nanofibrílicos. Os filmes nanofibrílicos foram caracterizados através de análise morfológica (microscopia eletrônica de varredura - MEV), análise térmica (análise termogravimétrica - TGA e calorimetria exploratória diferencial - DSC) e análise química (espectro de infravermelho da transformada de Fourier - FTIR). A eficiência de encapsulação de CCP nas nanofibras, o perfil cinético de liberação das nanofibras e a permeação em mucosa suína (células de Franz) foram avaliados por espectrofotometria. Foi ainda avaliada a concentração de CCP a ser incorporada (de 0,05 a 5%) em nanofibra para que a fração liberada seja a mínima fungicida frente às cepas de C. albicans susceptíveis, pela técnica de disco-difusão, comparada ao miconazol 5% (MCZ)...

The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun nanofiber films cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) incorporated test their potential use as antifungal therapy against Candida albicans. CPC was incorporated to three different polymeric solutions, one containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), the second containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and the third prepared with PVP and poly (methyl methacrylate-co-ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylate ammonium) (PMMA). These polymeric solutions were evaluated as to conductivity, viscosity and surface tension, then subjected to a electrospinning process to obtain nanofiber films. The morphology and structure of nanofiber films were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characterization of nanofiber films was performed by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The encapsulation efficiency of the CPC nanofibers and the release kinetic profile of CPC and porcine mucosa permeation (Franz cells) were assessed by spectrophotometry. It was also assessed the concentration of CPC to be incorporated (from 0.05 to 5%) in nanofiber to be minimal fungicidal fraction released against strains of C. albicans by disk diffusion tests, compared to 5% miconazole (MCZ)...

Humans , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Candida albicans/growth & development , Microbiology , Nanotechnology/organization & administration
J. appl. oral sci ; 20(6): 643-648, Nov.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660635


OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of an acrylic resin combined with an antimicrobial polymer poly (2-tert-butylaminoethyl) methacrylate (PTBAEMA) to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans biofilm formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Discs of a heat-polymerized acrylic resin were produced and divided according to PTBAEMA concentration: 0 (control), 10 and 25%. The specimens were inoculated (10(7) CFU/mL) and incubated at 37ºC for 48 h. After incubation, the wells were washed and each specimen was sonicated for 20 min. Replicate aliquots of resultant suspensions were plated at dilutions at 37ºC for 48 h. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) was counted and expressed as log (CFU+1)/mL and analyzed statistically with α=.05. RESULTS: The results showed that 25% PTBAEMA completely inhibited S. aureus and S. mutans biofilm formation. A significant reduction of log (CFU+1)/mL in count of S. aureus (control: 7.9±0.8A; 10%: 3.8±3.3B) and S. mutans (control: 7.5±0.7A; 10%: 5.1±2.7B) was observed for the group containing 10% PTBAEMA (Mann-Whitney, p<0.05). For C. albicans, differences were not significant among the groups (control: 6.6±0.2A; 10%: 6.6±0.4A; 25%: 6.4±0.1A), (Kruskal-Wallis, p>0.05, P=0.079). CONCLUSIONS: Acrylic resin combined with 10 and 25% of PTBAEMA showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. mutans biofilm, but it was inactive against the C. albicans biofilm.

Acrylic Resins/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida albicans/growth & development , Methacrylates/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/growth & development , Colony Count, Microbial , Denture Bases/microbiology , Methacrylates/chemistry , Stem Cells