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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190214, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057290


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate some virulence factors in Candida albicans isolates from patients with onychomycosis and determine the correlation between these factors and the antifungal resistance profile. METHODS: Seventy species of C. albicans were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the HWP1 gene. According to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, the susceptibility profile of four antifungal agents was investigated, and the production of aspartyl protease, phospholipase, haemolysin, and biofilm was determined. The correlation between these profiles was also investigated. RESULTS: The isolates indicated different levels of resistance and production of virulence factors. Significant correlations were observed between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole/itraconazole and biofilm production, between phospholipase production and fluconazole/itraconazole MIC, and between fluconazole MIC and hemolytic activity in C. albicans isolates. The results also showed significant correlations between phospholipase activity and biofilm production. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of C. albicans and characterize the relationship between virulence factors and antifungal resistance, which may suggest new therapeutic strategies considering the possible involvement of the virulence mechanism in the effectiveness of treatment.

Humans , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Virulence Factors , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Nails/microbiology , Phospholipases/biosynthesis , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida albicans/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Biofilms/growth & development , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Aspartic Acid Proteases/biosynthesis , Hemolysis
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 813-821, July-Sept. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699791


Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations were used to analyze particular morphologies of Candida albicans clinical isolate (strain 82) and mutants defective in hyphae-promoting genes EFG1 (strain HLC52) and/ or CPH1 (strains HLC54 and Can16). Transcription factors Efg1 and Cph1 play role in regulating filamentation and adhesion of C. albicans' morphologies. Comparative analysis of such mutants and clinical isolate showed that Efg1 is required for human serum-induced cell growth and morphological switching. In the study, distinct differences between ultrastructural patterns of clinical strain's and null mutants' morphologies were observed (spherical vs tube-like blastoconidia, or solid and fragile constricted septa vs only the latter observed in strains with EFG1 deleted). In addition, wild type strain displayed smooth colonies of cells in comparison to mutants which exhibited wrinkled phenotype. It was observed that blastoconidia of clinical strain exhibited either polarly or randomly located budding. Contrariwise, morphotypes of mutants showed either multiple polar budding or a centrally located single bud scar (mother-daughter cell junction) distinguishing tube-like yeast/ pseudohyphal growth (the length-to-width ratios larger than 1.5). In their planktonic form of growth, blastoconidia of clinical bloodstream isolate formed constitutively true hyphae under undiluted human serum inducing conditions. It was found that true hyphae are essential elements for developing structural integrity of conglomerate, as mutants displaying defects in their flocculation and conglomerate-forming abilities in serum. While filamentation is an important virulence trait in C. albicans the true hyphae are the morphologies which may be expected to play a role in bloodstream infections.

Humans , Candida albicans/ultrastructure , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida albicans/growth & development , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Gene Deletion , Hyphae/genetics , Hyphae/growth & development , Hyphae/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(4): 395-400, July-Aug. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683124


Biofilms formed by Candida albicans, a human pathogen, are known to be resistant to different antifungal agents. Novel strategies to combat the biofilm associated Candida infections like multiple drug therapy are being explored. In this study, potential of chloroquine to be a partner drug in combination with four antifungal agents, namely fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin, was explored against biofilms of C. albicans. Activity of various concentrations of chloroquine in combination with a particular antifungal drug was analyzed in a checkerboard format. Growth of biofilm in presence of drugs was analyzed by XTT-assay, in terms of relative metabolic activity compared to that of drug free control. Results obtained by XTT-metabolic assay were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The interactions between chloroquine and four antifungal drugs were determined by calculating fractional inhibitory concentration indices. Azole resistance in biofilms was reverted significantly (p < 0.05) in presence of 250 µg/mL of chloroquine, which resulted in inhibition of biofilms at very low concentrations of antifungal drugs. No significant alteration in the sensitivity of biofilms to caspofungin and amphotericin B was evident in combination with chloroquine. This study for the first time indicates that chloroquine potentiates anti-biofilm activity of fluconazole and voriconazole.

Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Azoles/pharmacology , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida albicans/physiology , Candida albicans/ultrastructure , Drug Synergism , Echinocandins/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Braz. dent. j ; 22(6): 502-510, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622725


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of specific parameters of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on biofilms formed by Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans or an association of both species. Single and dual-species biofilms - SSB and DSB - were exposed to laser doses of 5, 10 or 20 J/cm2 from a near infrared InGaAsP diode laser prototype (LASERTable; 780 ± 3 nm, 0.04 W). After irradiation, the analysis of biobilm viability (MTT assay), biofilm growth (cfu/mL) and cell morphology (SEM) showed that LLLT reduced cell viability as well as the growth of biofilms. The response of S. mutans (SSB) to irradiation was similar for all laser doses and the biofilm growth was dose dependent. However, when associated with C. albicans (DSB), S. mutans was resistant to LLLT. For C. albicans, the association with S. mutans (DSB) caused a significant decrease in biofilm growth in a dose-dependent fashion. The morphology of the microorganisms in the SSB was not altered by LLLT, while the association of microbial species (DSB) promoted a reduction in the formation of C. albicans hyphae. LLLT had an inhibitory effect on the microorganisms, and this capacity can be altered according to the interactions between different microbial species.

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de parâmetros específicos de irradiação com laser de baixa intensidade sobre biofilmes formados por Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Candida albicans (C. albicans) ou associação de ambas as espécies. Biofilmes isolados ou associados destes microrganismos foram irradiados com um dispositivo laser infra-vermelho próximo de diodos InGaAsP (LaserTABLE 780 ±3 nm, 0,04W), utilizando-se para isto o dispositivo LASERTable. Quinze horas após a irradiação, foi demonstrado, por meio da avaliação da viabilidade celular (Teste de MTT), da morfologia das células (MEV) e do crescimento do biofilme (UFC/mL), que esta terapia foi capaz de reduzir o metabolismo celular, número de microrganismos presentes no biofilme, bem como seu crescimento no local. Quanto à viabilidade celular, a resposta à irradiação do biofilme de S. mutans (SSB) foi semelhante para todas as doses de energia, sendo que o crescimento do biofilme foi dose dependente. Porém, quando associado à C. albicans, este microrganismo apresentou resistência à fototerapia. Já a C. albicans associada ao S. mutans apresentou redução de crescimento significativa, sendo este resultado também foi dose dependente. A morfologia dos microrganismos não foi alterada pelas irradiações realizadas quando em biofilmes isolados. A associação entre os microrganismos promoveu redução na formação de hifas pela C. albicans. A laserterapia de baixa intensidade apresentou efeito inibitório sobre microrganismos, sendo que esta capacidade pode ser alterada de acordo com a interação entre diferentes microrganismos.

Humans , Biofilms/radiation effects , Candida albicans/radiation effects , Lasers, Semiconductor , Low-Level Light Therapy/instrumentation , Mouth/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/radiation effects , Bacteriological Techniques , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida albicans/growth & development , Candida albicans/ultrastructure , Coloring Agents , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Hyphae/radiation effects , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microbial Interactions/radiation effects , Microbial Viability/radiation effects , Mycology/methods , Radiation Dosage , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Streptococcus mutans/ultrastructure , Succinate Dehydrogenase/analysis , Temperature , Time Factors , Tetrazolium Salts , Thiazoles
IJI-Iranian Journal of Immunology. 2009; 6 (2): 67-74
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-91230


Candida albicans is a member of the normal human microflora. C. albicans cell wall is composed of several protein and carbohydrate components which have been shown to play a crucial role in C. albicans interaction with the host immune system. Major components of C. albican cell wall are carbohydrates such as mannans, beta glucans and chitins, and proteins that partially modulate the host immune responses. Dendritic cells [DC], as the most important antigen-presenting cells of the immune system, play a critical role in inducing immune responses against different pathogens. We investigated the effect of the cell wall protein fraction [CPF] of C. albicans on DC maturation. The CPF of C. albicans cells was extracted by a lysis buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulphate, 2-mercaptoethanol and phosphate-buffered saline. The extract was dialyzed and its protein pattern was evaluated by electrophoresis. Dendritic cells were purified from Balb/c mice spleens through a three-step method including mononuclear cell separation, as well as 2-h and overnight cultures. The purified CPF was added at different concentrations to DC. The purity and maturation status of DC were determined by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies against CD11c, MHC-II, CD40 and CD86. Treatment of DC with 10 micro g/ml of CPF increased the expression of maturation markers including MHC-II, CD86 and CD40 on DC compared to the control group. In this study we used C. albicans CPF with the molecular weight of 40-45 kDa for pulsing and maturation of dendritic cells. Since according to our results CPF significantly increased the expression of maturation markers on DC, we suggest that CPF may act as an efficient immunomodulator, or may be used as a potential adjuvant to boost the host immune system against infections

Candida albicans/ultrastructure , Cell Wall , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Gene Expression , Antigens, Differentiation , Dendritic Cells , Antigen-Presenting Cells , Immune System , Immunologic Factors