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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(6): 790-793, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058113

ABSTRACT

Resumen La espectrometría de masas MALDI-TOF MS es una técnica rápida y sencilla para identificar microorganismos por análisis proteico. Se estudiaron 304 aislados de levaduras procedentes de micosis superficiales y profundas, con el objetivo de comparar tres métodos: convencional (bioquímico y morfológico), MALDI-TOF MS, y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RPC, método de referencia). Se estudiaron 24 especies con predominio de Candida spp y Cryptococcus spp. La identificación por método convencional fue de 258/304 cepas, mientras que por MALDI-TOF MS fue de: 277/304 cepas (84,8 versus 91,2%, p = no significativo). El coeficiente Kappa entre el MALDI-TOF MS y la RPC reportó una excelente concordancia (0,99). La sensibilidad y la especificidad de MALDI-TOF MS para la identificación de levaduras patógenas oportunistas de muestras clínicas fueron de 94,6% y 99%; respectivamente. MALDI-TOF MS demostró ser una herramienta de alta precisión para la identificación de levaduras patógenas.


MALDI-TOF MS mass spectrometry is a rapid and straightforward technique to identify microorganisms by protein analysis. The study was performed in 304 yeast isolates from superficial and deep mycoses, in order to compare three methods: conventional (biochemical and morphological), MALDI-TOF MS, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, reference). We included 24 species with predominance of Candida spp and Cryptococcus spp. The identification by conventional methods was 258/304 strains, while by MALDI-TOF MS was: 277/304 strains (84.8% versus 91.2%, P = not significant). The Kappa coefficient comparing MALDI-TOF-MS with PCR reported excellent concordance (0.99). The sensitivity and specificity of MALDI-TOF MS for the diagnosis of opportunistic pathogenic yeasts of clinical samples were 94.6% and 99% respectively. MALDI-TOF MS is a simple, fast and reliable tool for pathogenic yeasts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mycoses , Yeasts , Candida/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(6): 767-773, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058109

ABSTRACT

Resumen Candida auris es una levadura multi-resistente emergente con rápida diseminación mundial. Desde el primer reporte el 2009, varios aislados a través de los cinco continentes han sido identificados como agentes de infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud. Brotes independientes y simultáneos por C. auris se han vuelto prioridad para la comunidad hospitalaria y científica. Además, los errores en identificación y los perfiles de multi-resistencia, raramente observados para otras especies de Candida, resultan en una difícil erradicación y fallas terapéuticas frecuentes en infecciones por C. auris. Presentamos el primer aislamiento de una cepa de C. auris en un hospital en Santiago, en un paciente proveniente de la India, que fue admitido para tratamiento de su pie diabético. La cepa fue recuperada de un cultivo de tejido e identificada por VITEK® 2 Compact. La identificación de C. auris fue confirmada por MALDI-TOF MS y secuenciación. El aislado fue resistente a fluconazol y susceptible a anfotericina y caspofungina, según puntos de corte recomendados por el CDC. La emergencia de C. auris es alarmante debido a que el modo de transmisión dentro del ambiente hospitalario no es claro y probablemente es multifactorial.


Candida auris is an emerging multi-drug-resistant fungus that is rapidly spreading worldwide. Since the first reports in 2009, many isolates across five continents have been identified as agents of hospital-associated infections. Independent and simultaneous outbreaks of C. auris are becoming a major concern for healthcare and scientific community. Moreover, laboratory misidentification and multi-drug-resistant profiles, rarely observed for other non-albicans Candida species, result in difficult eradication and frequent therapeutic failures of C. auris infections. In this article we present the first case of isolation of a strain of C. auris at a hospital in Santiago, in a patient coming from India, who was admitted for treatment of diabetic foot complications. The strain was recovered from a tissue culture and identified by VITEK® 2 Compact. The accurate identification of C. auris was confirmed by means of MALDI-TOF MS and DNA sequence analysis. The isolate was resistant to fluconazole, retaining only susceptibility to amphotericin and caspofungin with MIC breakpoints recommended by CDC. The emergence of C. auris is alarming because the mode of transmission within the healthcare environment is not clear and is likely to be multifactorial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/genetics , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180473, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990445

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Candidiasis is the most frequent opportunistic mycosis in humans and can cause mortality, particularly in immunodeficient patients. One major concern is the increasing number of infections caused by drug-resistant Candidas trains, as these cannot be efficiently treated with standard therapeutics. The most common mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida is mutation of ERG11, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a compound essential for cell integrity and membrane function. METHODS: Based on this knowledge, we investigated polymorphisms in the ERG11 gene of 3 Candida species isolated from immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. In addition, we correlated the genetic data with the fluconazole susceptibility profile of the Candida isolates. RESULTS: A total of 80 Candida albicans, 8 Candida tropicalis and 6 Candida glabrata isolates were obtained from the saliva of diabetic, kidney transplant and immunocompetent patients. Isolates were considered susceptible to fluconazole if the minimum inhibitory concentration was lower than 8 μg/mL. The amino acid mutations F105L, D116E, K119N, S137L, and K128T were observed in C. albicans isolates, and T224C and G263A were found in C. tropicalis isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high number of polymorphisms observed, the mutations occurred in regions that are not predicted to interfere with ergosterol synthesis, and therefore are not related to fluconazole resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic/drug effects , Candida/drug effects , Candida/genetics , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Kidney Transplantation , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Immunocompetence , Middle Aged , Mutation/drug effects
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 742-749, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951595

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although invasive infections and mortality caused by Candida species are increasing among compromised patients, resistance to common antifungal agents is also an increasing problem. We analyzed 60 yeasts isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis using a PCR/RFLP strategy based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region to identify different Candida pathogenic species. PCR analysis was performed from genomic DNA with a primer pair of the ITS2-5.8S rDNA region. PCR-positive samples were characterized by RFLP. Restriction resulted in 23 isolates identified as C. albicans using AlwI, 24 isolates as C. parapsilosis using RsaI, and 13 as C. tropicalis using XmaI. Then, a group of all isolates were evaluated for their susceptibility to a panel of previously described killer yeasts, resulting in 75% being susceptible to at least one killer yeast while the remaining were not inhibited by any strain. C. albicans was the most susceptible group while C. tropicalis had the fewest inhibitions. No species-specific pattern of inhibition was obtained with this panel of killer yeasts. Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri and Wickerhamomyces anomalus were the strains that inhibited the most isolates of Candida spp.


Resumo Embora as infecções invasivas e a mortalidade causada por espécies de Candida estejam aumentando entre pacientes comprometidos, a resistência a agentes antifúngicos comuns também é um problema crescente. Analisamos 60 leveduras isoladas de pacientes com candidíase invasiva utilizando como estratégia PCR/RFLP baseada na região espaçadora transcrita interna (ITS2) para identificar diferentes espécies patogênicas de Candida. A análise por PCR foi realizada a partir de ADN genómico com um par de iniciadores da região ITS2-5.8S rDNA. As amostras PCR-positivas foram caracterizadas por RFLP. A restrição resultou em 23 isolados identificados como C. albicans usando AlwI, 24 isolados como C. parapsilosis usando RsaI e 13 como C. tropicalis usando XmaI. Em seguida, avaliou-se o grupo de todos os isolados quanto à sua susceptibilidade a um painel de leveduras killer previamente descritas, resultando em 75% sendo suscetíveis a pelo menos uma levedura killer, enquanto que as restantes não foram inibidas por qualquer cepa. C. albicans foi o grupo mais suscetível enquanto C. tropicalis teve o menor número de inibições. Não se obteve um padrão de inibição específico da espécie com este painel de leveduras killer. Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri e Wickerhamomyces anomalus foram as cepas que inibiram a maioria dos isolados de Candida spp.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis, Invasive/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Candida/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Candidiasis, Invasive/microbiology
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 148-151, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889204

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to isolate and identify Candida species from the oral cavity of denture wearers with denture-related stomatitis who were attended at the University Federal of Pará (Belém City, Pará State, Brazil). A total of 36 denture wearers with denture-related stomatitis were included, and type I (50%), type II (33%) and type III (17%) stomatitis were observed. Candida spp. were isolated from 89% of the cases and included five different Candida species. C. albicans was the most frequently recovered species (78% of the cases), followed by C. famata and C. tropicalis. We observed a significant association between Candida species isolation and unsatisfactory denture condition (p = 0.0017). Our results demonstrated the highly frequency of Candida species isolation in denture wearers with denture-related stomatitis and showed the relationship between these species and poor denture maintenance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Stomatitis, Denture/microbiology , Brazil , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , Dentures/microbiology
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 843-847, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041438

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Incidence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. from two teaching public hospitals are described. METHODS The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were determined using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute broth microdilution and genomic differentiation using PCR. RESULTS Of 221 Candida isolates, 50.2% were obtained from intensive care unit patients; 71.5% were recovered from urine and 9.1% from bloodstream samples. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto was the most common candidemia agent. CONCLUSIONS We observed variations in Candida species distribution in hospitals in the same geographic region and documented the emergence of non-C. albicans species resistant to azoles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Voriconazole/pharmacology , Hospitals, Public , Middle Aged
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(3): 214-219, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040568

ABSTRACT

Since the description of Candida orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis in 2005, several methods have been proposed to identify and differentiate these species from C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Species-specific uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed and compared with sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the LSU 28S rDNA gene, microsatellite typing of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA gene. There was agreement between results of testing of 98 clinical isolates with the four PCR-based methods, with 59 isolates identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 37 as C. orthopsilosis, and two as C. metapsilosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/isolation & purification , Mycological Typing Techniques/methods , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA Fingerprinting , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Genotype
8.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842772

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess a collection of yeasts to verify the presence of Candida dubliniensis among strains isolated from the oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients which were initially characterized as Candida albicans by the traditional phenotypic method, as well as to evaluate the main phenotypic methods used in the discrimination between the two species and confirm the identification through genotypic techniques, i.e., DNA sequencing. Twenty-nine samples of C. albicans isolated from this population and kept in a fungi collection were evaluated and re-characterized. In order to differentiate the two species, phenotypic tests (Thermotolerance tests, Chromogenic medium, Staib agar, Tobacco agar, Hypertonic medium) were performed and genotypic techniques using DNA sequencing were employed for confirmation of isolated species. Susceptibility and specificity were calculated for each test. No phenotypic test alone was sufficient to provide definitive identification of C. dubliniensis or C. albicans, as opposed to results of molecular tests. After amplification and sequencing of specific regions of the 29 studied strains, 93.1% of the isolates were identified as C. albicans and 6.9% as C. dubliniensis. The Staib agar assay showed a higher susceptibility (96.3%) in comparison with other phenotypic techniques. Therefore, genotypic methods are indispensable for the conclusive identification and differentiation between these species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Candida/genetics , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Genotype , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology , Mycological Typing Techniques , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(7): 417-422, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787553

ABSTRACT

Yeasts of the genus Candida have high genetic variability and are the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungi in humans. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity among 120 isolates of Candida spp. obtained from diabetic patients, kidney transplant recipients and patients without any immune deficiencies from Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis was performed using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and a partial sequence of 28S rDNA. In the phylogenetic analysis, we observed a consistent separation of the species C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, however with low intraspecific variability. In the analysis of the C. albicans species, two clades were formed. Clade A included the largest number of isolates (91.2%) and the majority of isolates from GenBank (71.4%). The phylogenetic analysis showed low intraspecific genetic diversity, and the genetic polymorphisms between C. albicans isolates were similar to genetic divergence found in other studies performed with isolates from Brazil. This low genetic diversity of isolates can be explained by the geographic proximity of the patients evaluated. It was observed that yeast colonisation was highest in renal transplant recipients and diabetic patients and that C. albicans was the species most frequently isolated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Candida/genetics , Candidiasis, Invasive/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Genetic Variation , Kidney Transplantation , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Invasive/classification , Candidiasis, Invasive/epidemiology , Candidiasis, Invasive/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Complications , DNA, Fungal/analysis , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 373-380, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780822

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vulvovaginal candidiasis affects women of reproductive age, which represents approximately 15–25% of vaginitis cases. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize yeast from the patients irrespective of the presentation of clinical symptoms. The isolates were subjected to in vitro susceptibility profile and characterization by molecular markers, which intended to assess the distribution of species. A total of 40 isolates were obtained and identified through the CHROMagar, API20aux and by ITS and D1/D2 regions sequencing of DNAr gene. Candida albicans strains were genotyped by the ABC system and the isolates were divided into two genotypic groups. The identity of the C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. kefyr and Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates was confirmed by the multilocus analysis. The strains of Candida, isolated from patients with complications, were found to be resistant to nystatin but sensitive to fluconazole, amphotericin B and ketoconazole, as observed by in vitro sensitivity profile. The isolates from asymptomatic patients, i.e., the colonized group, showed a dose-dependent sensitivity to the anti-fungal agents, fluconazole and amphotericin B. However, the isolates of C. albicans that belong to distinct genotypic groups showed the same in vitro susceptibility profile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Fungal
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 367-372, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780823

ABSTRACT

Abstract The incidence of the species Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida was evaluated in a Brazilian Tertiary Hospital from the environment and health practitioners. In a 12-month period we had a total positivity of 19.65% of Candida spp. The most recurring non-albicans Candida species was C. glabrata (37.62%), generally considered a species of low virulence, but with a higher mortality rate than C. albicans. Subsequently, C. parapsilosis (25.74%) and C. tropicalis (16.86%) were the second and third most commonly isolated species. Considering the total samples collected from the emergency room and from the inpatient and the pediatric sector, 19.10% were positive for Candida spp., with the predominance of non-albicans Candida species (89.42%). The high percentage of positivity occurred in the hands (24.32%) and the lab coats (21.88%) of the health care assistants. No sample of C. albicans presented a profile of resistance to the drugs. All the non-albicans Candida species presented a decreased susceptibility to miconazole and itraconazole, but they were susceptible to nystatin. Most of the isolates were susceptible to fluconazole and amphotericin B. As expected, a high resistance rate was observed in C. glabrata and C. krusei, which are intrinsically less susceptible to this antifungal agent. The contamination of environmental surfaces by Candida spp. through hand touching may facilitate the occurrence of Candida infections predominantly in immunocompromised patients. In addition to that, the antifungal agents used should be carefully evaluated considering local epidemiologic trends in Candida spp. infections, so that therapeutic choices may be better guided.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross Infection/microbiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Candida glabrata/isolation & purification , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/microbiology , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/classification , Candida/drug effects , Candida/genetics , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Candida glabrata/classification , Candida glabrata/drug effects , Candida glabrata/genetics , Hospitals , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(3): 192-199, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777368

ABSTRACT

The azoles are the class of medications most commonly used to fight infections caused by Candida sp. Typically, resistance can be attributed to mutations in ERG11 gene (CYP51) which encodes the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase, the primary target for the activity of azoles. The objective of this study was to identify mutations in the coding region of theERG11 gene in clinical isolates of Candidaspecies known to be resistant to azoles. We identified three new synonymous mutations in the ERG11 gene in the isolates of Candida glabrata (C108G, C423T and A1581G) and two new nonsynonymous mutations in the isolates of Candida krusei - A497C (Y166S) and G1570A (G524R). The functional consequence of these nonsynonymous mutations was predicted using evolutionary conservation scores. The G524R mutation did not have effect on 14α-demethylase functionality, while the Y166S mutation was found to affect the enzyme. This observation suggests a possible link between the mutation and dose-dependent sensitivity to voriconazole in the clinical isolate of C. krusei. Although the presence of the Y166S in phenotype of reduced azole sensitivity observed in isolate C. kruseidemands investigation, it might contribute to the search of new therapeutic agents against resistant Candida isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/drug effects , Candida/genetics , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Point Mutation/drug effects , /genetics , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Azoles/pharmacology , Candida glabrata/genetics , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Genes, Fungal , Haplotypes/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phylogeny , Voriconazole/pharmacology
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 172-176, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775126

ABSTRACT

Abstract Candida species, especially C. albicans, are commensals on human mucosal surfaces, but are increasingly becoming one of the important invasive pathogens as seen by a rise in its prevalence in immunocompromised patients and in antibiotic consumption. Thus, an accurate identification of Candida species in patients with pulmonary symptoms can provide important information for effective treatment. A total of 75 clinical isolates of Candida species were obtained from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with pulmonary symptoms. Candida cultures were identified based on nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1-ITS2 rDNA) sequence analysis by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP). Molecular identification indicated that the isolates belonged predominantly to C. albicans (52%), followed by C. tropicalis (24%), C. glabrata (14.7%), C. krusei (5.3%), C. parapsilosis (1.3%), C. kefyr (1.3%) and C. guilliermondii (1.3%). Given the increasing complexity of disease profiles and their management regimens in diverse patients, rapid and accurate identification of Candida species can lead to timely and appropriate antifungal therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Time Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can detect many more microorganisms of a microbiome than traditional methods. This study aimed to analyze the vaginal microbiomes of Korean women by using NGS that included bacteria and other microorganisms. The NGS results were compared with the results of other assays, and NGS was evaluated for its feasibility for predicting vaginitis. METHODS: In total, 89 vaginal swab specimens were collected. Microscopic examinations of Gram staining and microbiological cultures were conducted on 67 specimens. NGS was performed with GS junior system on all of the vaginal specimens for the 16S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and Tvk genes to detect bacteria, fungi, and Trichomonas vaginalis. In addition, DNA probe assays of the Candida spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, and Trichomonas vaginalis were performed. Various predictors of diversity that were obtained from the NGS data were analyzed to predict vaginitis. RESULTS: ITS sequences were obtained in most of the specimens (56.2%). The compositions of the intermediate and vaginitis Nugent score groups were similar to each other but differed from the composition of the normal score group. The fraction of the Lactobacillus spp. showed the highest area under the curve value (0.8559) in ROC curve analysis. The NGS and DNA probe assay results showed good agreement (range, 86.2-89.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Fungi as well as bacteria should be considered for the investigation of vaginal microbiome. The intermediate and vaginitis Nugent score groups were indistinguishable in NGS. NGS is a promising diagnostic tool of the vaginal microbiome and vaginitis, although some problems need to be resolved.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Candida/genetics , Female , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Gardnerella vaginalis/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Microbiota , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/chemistry , ROC Curve , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Trichomonas vaginalis/genetics , Vagina/microbiology , Vaginitis/diagnosis
15.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(3): 185-191, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752603

ABSTRACT

Infections by Candida species are a high-impact problem in public health due to their wide incidence in hospitalized patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate frequency, susceptibility to antifungals, and genetic polymorphism of Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients. The Candida isolates included in this study were obtained from blood cultures, abdominal fluids, and central venous catheters (CVC) of hospitalized patients at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia during the period of July 2010 - June 2011. Susceptibility tests were conducted by the broth microdilution method. The RAPD-PCR tests used employed initiator oligonucleotides OPA09, OPB11, and OPE06. Of the 63 Candida isolates, 18 (28.5%) were C. albicans, 20 (31.7%) were C. parapsilosis complex species, 14 (22.2%) C. tropicalis, four (6.4%) C. glabrata, four (6.4%) C. krusei, two (3.3%) C. kefyr, and one (1.6%) C. lusitaniae. In vitro resistance to amphotericin B was observed in 12.7% of isolates. In vitro resistance to azoles was not detected, except for C. krusei. The two primers, OPA09 and OPB11, were able to distinguish different species. Isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex species presented six and five clusters, respectively, with the OPA09 marker by RAPD-PCR, showing the genetic variability of the isolates of those species. It was concluded that members of the C. parapsilosis complex were the most frequent species found, and most isolates were susceptible to the antifungals amphotericin B, flucozanole, and itraconazole. High genetic polymorphisms were observed for isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex species, mainly with the OPA09 marker.


As infecções causadas por espécies de Candida são problema de grande impacto para a saúde pública, devido à alta incidência em pacientes hospitalizados e como causa de mortalidade. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a frequência de Candida spp. isoladas de pacientes hospitalizados, assim como a sensibilidade aos antifúngicos e o polimorfismo genético por RAPD-PCR. Os microrganismos incluíram isolados de hemocultura, líquido abdominal e ponta de cateter venoso central de pacientes internados no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de julho de 2010-junho de 2011. Os testes de sensibilidade aos antifúngicos foram realizados por microdiluição em caldo e na análise por RAPD-PCR foram utilizados os oligonucleotídeos OPA09, OPB11, e OPE06. Dos 63 isolados, 18 (28,5%) foram C. albicans, 20 (31,7%) C. parapsilosis, 14 (22,2%) C. tropicalis, quatro (6,4%) C. glabrata, quatro (6,4%) C. krusei, dois (3,3%) C. kefyr, e um (1,6%) C. lusitaniae. Resistência in-vitro à anfotericina B foi observada em 12,7% dos isolados. Não foi observada resistência in-vitro aos azólicos, exceto para os isolados de C. krusei. Os oligonucleotídeos OPA09 e OPB11 possibilitaram distinguir diferentes espécies. Isolados de C. albicans apresentaram seis clusters e o complexo C. parapsilosis, cinco clusters, com o iniciador OPA09, por RAPD-PCR, mostrando a variabilidade genética daquelas espécies. Conclui-se que o complexo C. parapsilosis foi a espécie mais frequente, e a maioria dos isolados foi sensível in vitro aos antifúngicos testados. Alto polimorfismo genético foi observado para os isolados de C. albicans e complexo C. parapsilosis, principalmente com o oligonucleotídeo OPA09.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/classification , Candida/drug effects , DNA, Fungal , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Brazil , Candida/genetics , Candida/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Mycological Typing Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Tertiary Healthcare
16.
EJMM-Egyptian Journal of Medical Microbiology [The]. 2015; 24 (4): 89-97
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-175727

ABSTRACT

Background: Candida species are among the most common fungal pathogens in ICU patients. Candida albicans was the predominant species, but a shift toward non-albicans Candida species has been recently observed


Objectives: To detect the prevalence of different Candida species and determine their antifungal susceptibility profile in ICU patients using phenotypic methods, the Vitek 2 system compared with CHROMagar Candida agar and a genotypic method; PCR-RFLP


Methodology: Various clinical samples were collected from 248 ICU patients in Sohag University Hospital from the period between September 2014 and May 2015. Samples were cultured on CHROMagar Candida agar. Results were compared with those of Vitek 2 system and confirmed by PCR- RFLP method and antifungal susceptibility profiles were analyzed by disc diffusion and Vitek 2 antifungal susceptibility tests


Results: The study revealed an overall isolation rate of Candida species among ICU patients was 29% by PCR-RFLP. Candida albicans was the most frequent species isolated [40.3%]. Non- albicans Candida species including Candida tropicalis [22.2%], Candida glabrata [18%], Candida krusei [12.5%], C. parapsilosis [4.2%], C. dubliniensis [1.4%] and Candida guilliermondii [1.4%] were also isolated. The sensitivity of vitek 2 with regard to correct identification of Candida species was 96%; the specificity was 100%, also CHROMagar Candida agar enable the correct identification with sensitivity 89%, specificity 100%. Vitek 2 antifungal susceptibility tests results were found to be an accurate method as it was compared with the disc diffusion method for fluconazole, voriconazole and amphotracin B


Conclusion: CHROMagar Candida agar supported by Vitek 2 system is a valuable method for identification of common Candida species, these methods are easy to interpret and give rapid results in comparison with the expensive PCR-RFLP method. Although amphotericin B and fluconazole are widely used in clinical practice, there was no evidence of enhanced resistance. Moreover, voriconazole could be used in treatment of fluconazole-resistant Candida species


Subject(s)
Humans , Intensive Care Units , Candida/genetics , Candidiasis/etiology , Chromatography, Agarose , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1371-1377, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741289

ABSTRACT

Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo). C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources,in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida/genetics , Candida/physiology , Candidiasis/microbiology , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Brazil , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Public , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(4): 301-305, Jul-Aug/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716420

ABSTRACT

Candidemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the health care environment. The epidemiology of Candida infection is changing, mainly in relation to the number of episodes caused by species C. non-albicans. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of yeasts of the genus Candida, in a four-year period, isolated from blood of pediatric patients hospitalized in a public hospital of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. In this period, yeasts from blood of 104 patients were isolated and, the identified species of Candida by phenotypic and genotypic methods were: C. albicans (39/104), C. tropicalis (25/104), C. parapsilosis (23/104), Pichia anomala (6/104), C. guilliermondii (5/104), C. krusei (3/104), C. glabrata (2/104) and C. pararugosa (1/104). During the period of the study, a higher frequency of isolates of C. non-albicans (63.55%) (p = 0.0286) was verified. In this study we verified the increase of the non-albicans species throughout the years (mainly in 2009 and 2010). Thus, considering the peculiarities presented by Candida species, a correct identification of species is recommended to lead to a faster diagnosis and an efficient treatment.


Candidemia permance como a maior causa de morbidade e mortalidade em ambiente hospitalar. A epidemiologia de infecções por Candida vem se alterando, principalmente em relação ao número de episódios causados por espécies não-albicans. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a frequência, em um período de quatro anos, de leveduras do gênero Candida isoladas de sangue de pacientes pediátricos internados em hospital público da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Neste período foram isoladas leveduras de sangue de 104 pacientes, e as espécies de Candida identificadas, por métodos fenotípicos e genotípicos, foram: C. albicans (39/104), C. tropicalis (25/104), C. parapsilosis (23/104), Pichia anomala (6/104), C. guilliermondii (5/104), C. krusei (3/104), C. glabrata (2/104) e C. pararugosa (1/104). Em todo período do estudo foi observada maior frequência de isolamento de C. não-albicans (63,55%) (p = 0,0286). Neste estudo verificou-se aumento das espécies não-albicans ao longo dos anos (principalmente em 2009 e 2010), assim, ressalta-se que correta identificação em nível de espécie é recomendável, para que isso acarrete diagnóstico rápido e tratamento eficaz.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Candida/classification , Candidemia/microbiology , Brazil , Candida/genetics , Genotype , Hospitals, Pediatric , Hospitals, Public , Phenotype
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 515-522, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723109

ABSTRACT

Microbial culture collections underpin biotechnology applications and are important resources for clinical microbiology by supplying reference strains and/or performing microbial identifications as a service. Proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS have been used for Candida spp. identification in clinical laboratories and demonstrated to be a fast and reliable technique for the routine identification of pathogenic yeasts. The main aim of this study was to apply MALDI-TOF MS combined with classical phenotypic and molecular approaches to identify Candida clinical isolates preserved from 1 up to 52 years in a Brazilian culture collection and assess its value for the identification of yeasts preserved in this type of collections. Forty Candida spp. clinical isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical analyses. Identifications were also performed by the new proteomic approach based on MALDI-TOF MS. Results demonstrated 15% discordance when compared with morphological and biochemical analyses. Discordant isolates were analysed by ITS sequencing, which confirmed the MALDI-TOF MS identifications and these strains were renamed in the culture collection catalogue. In conclusion, proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS represents a rapid and reliable method for identifying clinical Candida species preserved in culture collections and may present clear benefits when compared with the performance of existing daily routine methods applied at health centres and hospitals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/chemistry , Candida/classification , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Brazil , Cluster Analysis , Candida/genetics , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/microbiology , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Mycological Typing Techniques , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA
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