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1.
REVISA (Online) ; 9(4): 823-833, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146145

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Investigar a presença de fungos patogênicos isolados a partir de amostras de fezes de pombos, em locais de atenção a pacientes imunocomprometidos no DF. Método: As amostras foram coletadas em hospitais onde se oferta atendimento a pacientes HIV/AIDS e que tenha uma presença massiva de pombos. Colônias de leveduras foram previamente selecionados em meio Ágar Sabouraud Dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol, seguindo-se com análise microscópica das estruturas leveduriformes. Colônias de leveduras com suspeita de pertencerem ao gênero Candida spp. ou Cryptococcus sp., foram inoculadas no meio Ágar Cromogênico para identificação das espécies de Candida e em meio Ágar quimicamente definido para indução dos fenótipos de virulência característicos de Cryptococcus sp. Resultados: 100% das amostras analisadas apresentaram crescimento de leveduras do gênero Candida spp. e Rhodotorula sp. No meio Ágar Cromogênico foram identificadas nas amostras C. krusei em 75%; C. tropicalis em 50% e C. glabrata em 15%. Em 15% das amostras foi identificado leveduras do gênero Cryptococcus sp. Conclusão: Dados deste estudo sugerem que fezes de pombo podem estar dispersando leveduras patogênicas e contribuindo com a incidência de infecções fúngicas no DF.


Objective: To investigate the presence of pathogenic fungi isolated from pigeon stool samples, in places of care for immunocompromised patients in the Federal District. Method: The samples were collected in hospitals where care is offered to HIV / AIDS patients and which has a massive presence of pigeons. Yeast colonies were previously selected on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plus chloramphenicol, followed by microscopic analysis of the yeast structures. Yeast colonies suspected of belonging to the genus Candida spp. or Cryptococcus sp., were inoculated in the Chromogenic Agar medium to identify Candida species and in chemically defined Agar medium to induce the virulence phenotypes characteristic of Cryptococcus sp. Results: 100% of the analyzed samples showed growth of yeasts of the genus Candida spp. and Rhodotorula sp. In the chromogenic agar medium, 75% were identified in C. krusei samples; C. tropicalis in 50% and C. glabrata in 15%. In 15% of the samples, yeasts of the genus Cryptococcus sp. Conclusion: Data from this study suggest that pigeon feces may be dispersing pathogenic yeasts and contributing to the incidence of fungal infections in DF


Objetivo: Investigar la presencia de hongos patógenos aislados de muestras de heces de palomas, en los lugares de atención a pacientes inmunodeprimidos del Distrito Federal. Método: Las muestras se recolectaron en hospitales donde se brinda atención a pacientes con VIH / SIDA y que tiene una presencia masiva de palomas. Las colonias de levadura se seleccionaron previamente en Sabouraud Dextrose Agar más cloranfenicol, seguido de un análisis microscópico de las estructuras de la levadura. Las colonias de levaduras sospechosas de pertenecer al género Candida spp. o Cryptococcus sp., se inocularon en medio de agar cromogénico para identificar especies de Candida y en medio de agar químicamente definido para inducir los fenotipos de virulencia característicos de Cryptococcus sp. Resultados: el 100% de las muestras analizadas presentó crecimiento de levaduras del género Candida spp. y Rhodotorula sp. En el medio agar cromogénico, el 75% se identificó en muestras de C. krusei; C. tropicalis en 50% y C. glabrata en 15%. En el 15% de las muestras, levaduras del género Cryptococcus sp. Conclusión: Los datos de este estudio sugieren que las heces de las palomas pueden estar dispersando levaduras patógenas y contribuyendo a la incidencia de infecciones fúngicas en el DF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Columbidae/microbiology , Rhodotorula/isolation & purification , Candida/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Feces/microbiology , Hospitals , Mycoses/transmission
2.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(6): 512-516, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094521

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment. They are able to grow in water and many of them may be opportunistic pathogens. OBJECTIVE: The aims were to identify fungi in registered wells (RWs) and nonregistered wells (NRWs) that tap into groundwater; and to correlate the results from physicochemical assays on this water (free residual chlorine and pH) with the presence of fungi. DATA AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional quantitative study on groundwater wells in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 52 samples of 500 ml of water were collected from RWs and 107 from NRWs. These were sent to a microbiology laboratory to identify any fungi that were present. In addition, free residual chlorine and pH were measured immediately after sample collection. Several statistical analysis tests were used. RESULTS: Fungal contamination was present in 78.8% of the samples from RWs and 81.3% from NRWs. Filamentous fungi were more prevalent than yeast in both types of wells. There was no significant difference in presence of fungi according to whether chloride and pH were within recommended levels in RWs; or according to whether pH was within recommended levels in NRWs. Furthermore, there was no statistical difference in the levels of fungal contamination between RWs and NRWs. CONCLUSION: Both RWs and NRWs are potential reservoirs for many types of fungi. Many of these may become opportunistic pathogens if they infect immunosuppressed individuals. Furthermore, this study confirms that fungi are able to grow even when chlorine and pH parameters are within the standards recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Microbiology , Drinking Water/microbiology , Water Wells , Fungi/isolation & purification , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Drinking Water/chemistry , Groundwater/microbiology , Brazil , Candida/isolation & purification , Chlorine/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Med. infant ; 26(3): 272-275, sept. 2019. Tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026763

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En pacientes pediátricos quemados la osteomielitis fúngica es una complicación infrecuente que conduce a una significativa morbilidad. La información en la literatura está limitada a unos escasos reportes de casos. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y de evolución de niños quemados con osteomielitis fúngica. Métodos: Se llevo a cabo un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de pacientes mayores de 1 mes y menores de 18 años quemados con osteomielitis fúngica internados en el hospital Juan P. Garrahan, un hospital terciario en Buenos Aires, Argentina. Resultados: entre enero del 2007 y enero del 2017, de 600 niños quemados, 9 pacientes presentaron diagnóstico confirmado de osteomielitis fúngica. La mediana de edad fue de 42.5 meses (RIC, 27-118 meses) y la mediana de superficie quemada fue de 33.5% (RIC, 18.5-58%). La osteomielitis fue diagnosticada con una mediana de 30 días luego de la quemadura. Las localizaciones más frecuentes de osteomielitis fueron los miembros superiores y a nivel de calota. Los microorganismos aislados a partir del cultivo de hueso fueron: Fusarium spp. en tres pacientes, Mucor spp. en un paciente; Trichosporon asahii en un paciente; Cándida albicans en dos pacientes y Candida parapsilosis en dos pacientes. En dos casos la infección fúngica fue asociada con aislamientos bacteriano concomitante. Todos los pacientes presentaron hallazgos histopatológicos compatibles con osteomielitis. La mediana de tiempo de tratamiento fue de 44.5 días (RIC, 34.5- 65.5 días). Seis pacientes (67%) presentaron secuela motora. Conclusión: La osteomielitis fúngica fue infrecuente Candida spp. y Fusarium spp. fueron los hongos más comúnmente identificados. La secuela funcional fue frecuente (AU)


Introduction: In pediatric burn patients fungal osteomyelitis is a rare complication that leads to significant morbidity. Data in the literature are limited to sporadic case reports. Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features and outcome in burned children with fungal osteomyelitis. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted in burn patients older than 1 month and younger than 18 years admitted to Hospital Juan P. Garrahan, a tertiary hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Results: Between January 2007 and January 2017, of 600 burned children, nine had a confirmed diagnosis of fungal osteomyelitis. Median age was 42.5 months (IQR, 27-118 months) and median burn surface was 33.5% (IQR, 18.5-58%). Osteomyelitis was diagnosed at a median of 30 days after the burn. The most common location of osteomyelitis were the upper limbs and skull. The microorganisms isolated form bone cultures were Fusarium spp. in three patients, Mucor spp. in one patient; Trichosporon asahii in one patient; Candida albicans in two patients; and Candida parapsilosis in two patients. In two cases the funal infection was associated with concomitant bacterial isolation. In all patients, the histopathological findings were compatible with osteomyelitis. Median duration of treatment was 44.5 days (IQR, 34.5-65.5 days). Six patients (67%) had motor sequelae. Conclusion: Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare disease. Candida spp. and Fusarium spp. were most frequently identified fungi. Functional sequelae were common (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/etiology , Osteomyelitis/epidemiology , Burns/complications , Mycoses/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Miosis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180635, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012524

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acetaldehyde, associated with consumption of alcoholic beverages, is known to be a carcinogen and to be related to the tongue dorsum. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air and bacterial characteristics on the tongue dorsum. Methodology Thirty-nine healthy volunteers participated in the study. Acetaldehyde concentrations in mouth air were evaluated by a high-sensitivity semiconductor gas sensor. A 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used to compare microbiomes between two groups, focusing on the six samples with the highest acetaldehyde concentrations (HG) and the six samples with lowest acetaldehyde concentrations (LG). Results Acetaldehyde concentration increased in correlation with the increase in bacterial count (p=0.048). The number of species observed in the oral microbiome of the HG was higher than that in the oral microbiome of the LG (p=0.011). The relative abundances of Gemella sanguinis, Veillonella parvula and Neisseria flavescens in the oral microbiome of the HG were higher than those in the oral microbiome of the LG (p<0.05). Conclusion Acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was associated with bacterial count, diversity of microbiome, and relative abundance of G. sanguinis, V. parvula, and N. flavescens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Tongue/microbiology , Microbiota , Acetaldehyde/analysis , Mouth/surgery , Reference Values , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/genetics , Tongue/metabolism , Candida/isolation & purification , Alcohol Drinking/metabolism , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/metabolism , Smoking/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , Bacterial Load , Japan , Acetaldehyde/metabolism , Mouth/metabolism
6.
Clin. biomed. res ; 39(2): 128-135, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022788

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Identification of yeast species has clinical and epidemiological value. Different methods can be used, such as chromogenic media, microculture on corn meal agar with Tween 80, as well as conventional biochemical and automated methods. Recently, proteomic studies employing matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry have been a major advance in diagnosis due to speed of execution and accuracy of results. Methods: For this study, 79 yeast samples were submitted to identification using chromogenic medium, microculture on corn meal-Tween 80 agar, VITEK 2 Compact identification, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Results: Most of the 79 samples were identified, with differences in the performance of the methods used. Colonial morphology and microscopy were compatible with the genus Candida. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry had the best performance, with 78 strains identified (98.7%), compared to VITEK 2 Compact (92.4%) and microculture on corn meal agar (70.9%). Conclusions: MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry using the VITEK MS instrument performed best and has proven to be a revolutionary method in clinical microbiology laboratories. Regarding the identification of C. albicans and C. tropicalis, the chromogenic medium had excellent performance, thus being a good option to optimize the process. (AU)


Subject(s)
Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/diagnosis
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180473, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990445

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Candidiasis is the most frequent opportunistic mycosis in humans and can cause mortality, particularly in immunodeficient patients. One major concern is the increasing number of infections caused by drug-resistant Candidas trains, as these cannot be efficiently treated with standard therapeutics. The most common mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida is mutation of ERG11, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a compound essential for cell integrity and membrane function. METHODS: Based on this knowledge, we investigated polymorphisms in the ERG11 gene of 3 Candida species isolated from immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. In addition, we correlated the genetic data with the fluconazole susceptibility profile of the Candida isolates. RESULTS: A total of 80 Candida albicans, 8 Candida tropicalis and 6 Candida glabrata isolates were obtained from the saliva of diabetic, kidney transplant and immunocompetent patients. Isolates were considered susceptible to fluconazole if the minimum inhibitory concentration was lower than 8 μg/mL. The amino acid mutations F105L, D116E, K119N, S137L, and K128T were observed in C. albicans isolates, and T224C and G263A were found in C. tropicalis isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high number of polymorphisms observed, the mutations occurred in regions that are not predicted to interfere with ergosterol synthesis, and therefore are not related to fluconazole resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic/drug effects , Candida/drug effects , Candida/genetics , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Kidney Transplantation , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Immunocompetence , Middle Aged , Mutation/drug effects
8.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 55(4): 1-11, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-991078

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O uso contínuo das próteses removíveis e a higiene inadequada das mesmas podem levar ao desenvolvimento da estomatite protética. Doença frequente em usuários de próteses e muito associada à Candida spp. Objetivo: determinar características sociais e os cuidados dos indivíduos com a higienização das próteses dentárias removíveis, assim como a presença de espécies de Candida em usuários de próteses numa comunidade do município de Cabedelo, Paraíba, Brasil. Métodos: Tratou-se de um estudo piloto, transversal, observacional e laboratorial com a avaliação de 14 voluntários. Foram utilizados formulários de investigação e realizada a coleta, o isolamento e identificação do material biológico. Resultados: Os participantes da pesquisa apresentaram renda e escolaridade baixas. A higiene diária das próteses, a escovação com dentifrício, a não remoção das próteses para dormir e a utilização das mesmas por mais de seis anos foram verificadas na maior parte da amostra. Conclusão: Demonstrou-se uma alta presença de Candida spp. nos usuários de próteses dentárias removíveis e Candida albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente(AU)


Introducción: El uso continuo de las prótesis removibles y la higiene inadecuada de estas pueden conducir al desarrollo de la estomatitis protésica, enfermedad frecuente en usuarios de prótesis y muy asociada a la Candida spp. Objetivo: determinar las características sociales y los cuidados de los individuos con la higienización de las prótesis dentales removibles, así como la presencia de especies de Candida en usuarios de prótesis en una comunidad del municipio de Cabedelo, Paraíba, Brasil. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio piloto, transversal, observacional y de laboratorio con la evaluación de 14 voluntarios. Se utilizaron formularios de investigación y se realizó la recolección, el aislamiento e identificación del material biológico. Resultados: Los participantes de la encuesta presentaron ingresos y escolaridad bajos. La higiene diaria de las prótesis, el cepillado con dentífrico, la no remoción de las prótesis para dormir y la utilización de estas durante más de seis años se verificaron en la mayor parte de la muestra. Conclusión: Se demostró una alta presencia de Candida spp. en los usuarios de prótesis dentales removibles y Candida albicans fue la especie que más predominó(AU)


Introduction : The continued use of dentures and inadequate hygiene may lead to the development of denture stomatitis, a frequent disease in patients who wear dentures and very much associated with Candida spp. Objective : To determine the social characteristics and the care of the individuals with the hygiene of their dentures, as well as the presence of Candida species in patients who wear dentures from a community of Cabedelo Municipality, Paraíba, Brazil. Methods : This is a pilot, cross-sectional, observational and laboratory study with the evaluation of 14 volunteers. Research forms were used and the collection, isolation and identification of the biological material were carried out. Results : The participants had low income and schooling. The daily hygiene of the prostheses, brushing with dentifrice, the non-removal of the prosthesis for sleeping and their use for more than six years were verified in most of the sample. Conclusions : A high presence of Candida spp. in the patients who wear dentures was shown, while C. albicans was the most prevalent species(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Oral Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Stomatitis/etiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Denture, Partial, Removable/adverse effects , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
9.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(4): 400-403, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975604

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Otomycosis is a common problem in otolaryngology practice. However, we usually encounter some difficulties in its treatment because many patients show resistance to antifungal agents, and present high recurrence rate. Objectives To determine the fungal pathogens that cause otomycosis as well as their susceptibility to the commonly used antifungal agents. Additionally, to discover the main reasons for antifungal resistance. Methods We conducted an experimental descriptive study on 122 patients clinically diagnosed with otomycosis from April 2016 to April 2017. Aural discharge specimens were collected for direct microscopic examination and fungal culture. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against the commonly used antifungal drugs. We tested the isolated fungi for their enzymatic activity. Results Positive fungal infection was found in 102 samples. The most common fungal pathogens were Aspergillus and Candida species, with Aspergillus niger being the predominant isolate (51%). The antifungal susceptibility testing showed that mold isolates had the highest sensitivity to voriconazole (93.48%), while the highest resistance was to fluconazole (100%). For yeast, the highest sensitivity was to nystatin (88.24%), followed by amphotericin B (82.35%), and the highest resistance was to terbinafine (100%), followed by Itraconazole (94.12%). Filamentous fungi expressed a high enzymatic ability, making them more virulent. Conclusion The Aspergillus and Candida species are the most common fungal isolates in otomycosis. Voriconazole and Nystatin are the medications of choice for the treatment of otomycosis in our community. The high virulence of fungal pathogens is owed to their high enzymatic activity. Empirical use of antifungals should be discouraged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Otomycosis/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Candida/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Epidemiology, Experimental , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Voriconazole/pharmacology , /pharmacology
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 644-652, Nov. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951608

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Candida species between a non-hospitalized and a hospitalized population. For this purpose, samples of saliva were sampled through sterile swabs, moistened in peptone water and rubbed in the oral cavity of 140 individuals, from which, 70 were hospitalized patients from the Medical Clinic of a Teaching Hospital and the other 70 were non-hospitalized subjects. All saliva samples were plated in Sabouraud Dextrose agar added with Chloramphenicol and incubated at 36 °C for 48 hours. The morphology identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic characterization, the CHROMagar Candida medium and the VITEK® system Yeast Biochemical Card (bio Mérieux SA, France). The results showed a colonization of Candida spp. in 85.7% the hospitalized individuals, where the species found were C. albicans (60%), C. tropicalis (23.4%), C. krusei (3.3%) and Candida spp. (13.3%). In the non-hospitalized individuals the colonization by Candida spp was 47.1%, and the species found were: C. albicans (45.5%), C.krusei (9.1%), C. guilliermondii (9.1% %), C. tropicalis (3.0%), C. famata (3.0%) and Candida spp. (30.3%). In spite of their presence in oral cavity in both groups, Candida spp. was more frequently isolated in hospitalized individuals, who were 6.73 times more likely to have this fungus in the oral cavity and were 3.88 times more likely to have Candida albicans.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência de espécies de Candida entre uma população de indivíduos não-hospitalizados e hospitalizados. Para isto, amostras de saliva foram coletadas através de swabs estéreis, umedecidas em água de peptona e friccionadas na cavidade bucal de 140 indivíduos, dos quais 70 eram pacientes internados em uma Clínica Médica de um Hospital Escola e os outros 70 eram indivíduos não hospitalizados sem contato com ambiente hospitalar. Todas as amostras de saliva foram plaqueadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose adicionadas de cloranfenicol e incubadas a 36 °C durante 48 horas. A identificação morfológica foi realizada através da caracterização macroscópica e microscópica, com o meio CHROMagar Candida e do sistema VITEK® Biochemical Card (bio Mérieux SA, França). Os resultados mostraram uma colonização de Candida spp. em 85,7% dos indivíduos hospitalizados, onde as espécies encontradas foram: C.albicans (60%), C. tropicalis (23,4%), C. krusei (3,3%) e Candida spp. (13,3%). Nos indivíduos não-hospitalizados a colonização por Candida spp foi de 47,1%, e as espécies encontradas foram: C. albicans (45,5%), C. krusei (9,1%), C. guilliermondii (9,1%), C. tropicalis (3,0%), C. famata (3,0%) e Candida spp. (30,3%). Apesar de sua presença na cavidade oral em ambos os grupos, Candida spp. foi mais freqüentemente isolada em indivíduos hospitalizados, que foram 6,73 vezes mais propensos a ter este fungo na cavidade oral e foram 3,88 vezes mais propensos a ter Candida albicans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Candidiasis/microbiology , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Saliva/microbiology , Candida/classification , Candida/growth & development , Colony Count, Microbial , Culture Media , Mouth/microbiology
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(5): 663-666, oct. 2018. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973669

ABSTRACT

La Candida haemulonii forma parte de la especie Candida no albicans. La candidemia por C. haemulonii es sumamente infrecuente, pero mortal, en los recién nacidos. Se informa sobre los dos primeros recién nacidos con candidemia por C. haemulonii en China tratados con fluconazol y se revisan dos artículos informados con anterioridad. Nuestro informe incrementa la sensibilización sobre la candidemia por C. haemulonii en recién nacidos críticos y resalta la importancia de un diagnóstico y un tratamiento tempranos de esta infección mortal.


Candida haemulonii forms part of the non-albicans Candida species. The candidemia caused by C. haemulonii is extremely rare but fatal in neonates. We reported the first two neonates with C. haemulonii candidemia in China which were treated with fluconazole and reviewed two papers previously reported. Our report adds further awareness on C. haemulonii candidemia in critical neonates and points out the importance of an early diagnosis and treatment of this fatal infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Candidemia/drug therapy , Candida/isolation & purification , China , Treatment Outcome , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Candidemia/etiology , Candidemia/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 542-545, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041473

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION This study aims to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility of different species of Candida isolated from diabetic patients against eight antifungal agents. METHODS Susceptibility testing of 111 clinical isolates of Candida species was performed against 8 antifungals using the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). RESULTS Voriconazole, lanoconazole, and caspofungin showed the highest in vitro activity against all the isolates of C. albicans. Resistance against the tested antifungals was only observed in the C. albicans isolates. CONCLUSIONS Our finding revealed that resistance against amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, and fluconazole can be observed in C. albicans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Candida/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Middle Aged
13.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 273-277, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974228

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Candidemia is the most frequent invasive fungal disease in hospitalized patients, and is associated with high mortality rates. The main objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the epidemiology of candidemia at a tertiary care hospital in a 21-year period. Methods We evaluated all episodes of candidemia diagnosed between 1996 and 2016 at a University-affiliated tertiary care hospital in Brazil. We arbitrarily divided the study period in 3: 1996-2002 (period 1), 2003-2009 (period 2) and 2010-2016 (period 3). Incidence rates were calculated using hospital admissions as denominator. Results We observed 331 episodes of candidemia. The incidence was 1.30 episodes per 1000 admissions, with no significant change over time. Candida albicans (37.5%), C. tropicalis (28.1%), C. parapsilosis (18.4%) and C. glabrata (6.9%) were the most frequent species. The proportion of patients receiving treatment increased (65.5%, 79.4% and 74.7% in periods 1, 2 and 3, respectively, p= 0.04), and the median time from candidemia to treatment initiation decreased from 4 days in period 1 (range 0-32 days) to 2 days in period 2 (range 0-33 days) and 2 days in period 3 (range 0-14 days, p< 0.001). We observed a significant decrease in the use of deoxycholate amphotericin B (47.4%, 14.8% and 11.9%), and an increase in the use of echinocandins (0%, 2.8% and 49.1%; p< 0.001). The APACHE II score increased over time (median 16, 17.5, and 22, p< 0.001). The overall 30-day mortality was 58.9%, and did not change significantly over the study period. Conclusions There was an improvement in patient care, with an increase in the proportion of patients receiving treatment and a decrease in the time to treatment initiation, but no improvement in the outcome, possibly because the proportion of sicker patients increased over time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Candida/classification , Candidemia/epidemiology , Patient Admission/trends , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Incidence , Hospital Mortality/trends , Candidemia/mortality , Candidemia/drug therapy , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 352-356, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041467

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION We describe the clinical and laboratorial features of oral candidiasis in 66 HIV-positive patients. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction-based techniques were performed for differentiation of Candida spp. isolated from patients at a public teaching hospital in Midwest Brazil. RESULTS: Oral lesions, mainly pseudomembranous, were significantly related to higher levels of immunosuppression. Of 45 Candida isolates, 66.7% were C. albicans. Most of the isolates were susceptible to the antifungal drugs tested. CONCLUSIONS: Oral lesions were associated with higher immunosuppression levels. Lower susceptibility to antifungals by non-albicans isolates supports the importance of surveillance studies using susceptibility tests to aid in the treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis, Oral/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Mycological Typing Techniques , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Middle Aged
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 378-391, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889229

ABSTRACT

Abstract High potential, thermotolerant, ethanol-producing yeasts were successfully isolated in this study. Based on molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis, the isolated thermotolerant yeasts were clustered in the genera of Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida tropicalis, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida glabrata and Kodamea ohmeri. A comparative study of ethanol production using 160 g/L glucose as a substrate revealed several yeast strains that could produce high ethanol concentrations at high temperatures. When sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate containing 85 g/L glucose was used as a substrate, the yeast strain designated P. kudriavzevii RZ8-1 exhibited the highest ethanol concentrations of 35.51 g/L and 33.84 g/L at 37 °C and 40 °C, respectively. It also exhibited multi-stress tolerance, such as heat, ethanol and acetic acid tolerance. During ethanol fermentation at high temperature (42 °C), genes encoding heat shock proteins (ssq1 and hsp90), alcohol dehydrogenases (adh1, adh2, adh3 and adh4) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (tdh2) were up-regulated, suggesting that these genes might play a crucial role in the thermotolerance ability of P. kudriavzevii RZ8-1 under heat stress. These findings suggest that the growth and ethanol fermentation activities of this organism under heat stress were restricted to the expression of genes involved not only in heat shock response but also in the ethanol production pathway.


Subject(s)
Ethanol/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Pichia/metabolism , Biotransformation , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/metabolism , Pichia/classification , Pichia/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Saccharum/metabolism , Stress, Physiological
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 356-361, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949881

ABSTRACT

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity caused by fungi of the genus Candida and usually associated with immunosuppressed individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the presence of oral candidiasis and identify the presence of Candida spp. in liver transplant recipients and assess the association between the presence of the fungus and sociodemographic variables, dietary habits and environmental exposure. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 49 patients who had undergone liver transplants at Hospital São Vicente de Paulo in Passo Fundo - RS. Patient information was collected to obtain sociodemographic data, eating habits and environmental exposure. Fungal infections were screened by oral clinical examination and the presence of Candida spp by the collection of oral samples with a sterile swab, seeded in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, incubated at 25°C and observed at 48 hours. To identify Candida albicans, the germ tube test was performed. RESULTS: In 49 patient samples, 39% had the yeast of the genus Candida isolated and, of these patients, 12% had candidiasis, 66% of atrophic type and 34% pseudomembranous. Eleven yeast species were (58%) Candida non-albicans and eight (42%) Candida albicans. STUDY LIMITATIONS: The present study presents as a limitation the inclusion of patients in different stages of immunosuppression. CONCLUSION: The high incidence of Candida non-albicans in the oral cavity of transplant patients with a long period of transplantation is warning to a more effective control of the health of these individuals, especially those with older age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Oral/diagnosis , Liver Transplantation , Mouth/microbiology , Candida/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunocompromised Host , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 148-151, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889204

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to isolate and identify Candida species from the oral cavity of denture wearers with denture-related stomatitis who were attended at the University Federal of Pará (Belém City, Pará State, Brazil). A total of 36 denture wearers with denture-related stomatitis were included, and type I (50%), type II (33%) and type III (17%) stomatitis were observed. Candida spp. were isolated from 89% of the cases and included five different Candida species. C. albicans was the most frequently recovered species (78% of the cases), followed by C. famata and C. tropicalis. We observed a significant association between Candida species isolation and unsatisfactory denture condition (p = 0.0017). Our results demonstrated the highly frequency of Candida species isolation in denture wearers with denture-related stomatitis and showed the relationship between these species and poor denture maintenance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Stomatitis, Denture/microbiology , Brazil , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , Dentures/microbiology
18.
Med. infant ; 25(1): 17-21, marzo 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-883427

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La frecuencia de las candidemias ha aumentado en los últimos años asociada principalmente a internación prolongada, antibióticos de amplio espectro y enfermedades de base. Se produjo también un cambio en la distribución y un aumento en la resistencia a los antifúngicos de las distintas especies de Candida spp., todo esto asociado a una elevada morbimortalidad. En este trabajo realizado durante un año en un hospital de alta complejidad, se incluyeron 33 pacientes con candidemia. La mediana de la edad fue de 22 meses y un 60% de los afectados fueron varones. El 97% de los niños tenían enfermedad de base con predominio de la patología oncohematológica. Un 88% presentó algún procedimiento o condición predisponente para la infección, principalmente portación de catéter venoso central y cirugía previa. En un 59% de los aislamientos predominaron especies de Candida diferentes de Candida albicans. Anfotericina B desoxicolato fue el tratamiento empírico de elección. La mediana de tratamiento fue de 21 días y la de internación de 66 días. La mortalidad fue del 12% y se asoció a ingreso a UCI, presencia de fiebre al momento del diagnóstico y requerimiento de ARM (AU)


The incidence of candidemia has increased over the past years mainly associated with prolonged hospital stay, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and underlying diseases. At the same time there has been a change in the distribution and an increase in the resistance to antifungals in different Candida spp, associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this study, conducted during one year at a tertiary hospital, 33 patients with candidemia were included. Median age was 22 months and 60% of the patients were boys. Overall, 97% of the children had an underlying hematology-oncology disease. Of the patients, 88% underwent a procedure or had a condition that predisposed to infection, mainly the placement of a central venous catheter and previous surgery. In 59% the isolated Candida species were Candida albicans. Amphotericin B deoxycholate was the empirical treatment of choice. Median time of treatment was 21 days and median hospital stay was 66 days. Mortality was 12% and was associated with ICU admission, presence of fever at the time of diagnosis, and requirement of mechanical ventilation (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida/drug effects , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidemia/epidemiology , Candidemia/mortality , Child, Hospitalized , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Incidence , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies
19.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(1): 54-58, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897978

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Fungal endocarditis is reported less frequently than bacterial endocarditis, with an incidence of 0-12% of the total pediatric infective endocarditis. Objective: In this study, the incidence of infective endocarditis in Candida bloodstream infections in a tertiary hospital during the periods of 2007 and 2016 was reviewed. Methods: Patients with positive blood or catheter cultures in terms of Candida spp. during the study period of January 2007 and January 2016 were analyzed in terms of Candida infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis was defined according to the modified Duke criteria. The outcome, possible associated predisposing factors for Candida endocarditis were determined. Results: 221 patients and 256 attacks with positive blood or catheter cultures in terms of Candida were included in the study. The most common Candida species was Candida parapsilosis, isolated in 157 (61.3%) attacks, followed by Candida albicans in 70 (27.3%). Neurological diseases (23%), hemato-oncological diseases (12.1%), previously known heart diseases (8.2%), inborn errors of metabolism (9%) were common comorbidities. Twelve (5.4%) patients had a previous history of cardiac surgery. Among the 221 patients, Candida endocarditis was present in only two (0.9%) of them. Conclusion: Although Candida infective endocarditis is an uncommon but frequently fatal infection in pediatrics, echocardiography should be performed routinely for patients with positive blood or catheter cultures in terms of Candida. Prompt and effective antimicrobial therapy might prevent cardiac surgery in selected cases, however this could not be a general rule for all patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Candida/classification , Endocarditis/microbiology , Candidemia/microbiology , Turkey , Candida/isolation & purification , Echocardiography , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Endocarditis/epidemiology , Candidemia/complications , Candidemia/epidemiology
20.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(3): eAO4224, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953168

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate antifungal susceptibility and factors associated with oral colonization by Candida species in HIV-positive patients. Methods A prospective study based on convenience sampling of subjects recruited from a pool of confirmed HIV-positive individuals seen at a specialty outpatient service in Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil). Oral swabs were collected from 197 patients. Candida species were identified by standard microbiological techniques (phenotypic and molecular methods). Antifungal susceptibility was investigated using the broth microdilution method. Results A total of 101 (51.3%) patients were Candida spp carriers. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species (80%). Patients aged 45 to 59 years (Prevalence ratios: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.57-6.31) and 60 years or older (Prevalence ratios: 4.43; 95%CI: 1.57-34.18) were at higher risk of oral colonization by Candida species. Resistance to fluconazole and ketoconazole, or to itraconazole, corresponded to 1% and 4%, respectively. Conclusion Age (45 years or older) was the only factor associated with oral colonization by Candida . Low rates of antifungal resistance to azoles were detected in yeast isolates obtained from HIV-positive patients. Findings of this study may contribute to proper therapeutic selection for oral candidiasis in HIV-positive patients.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar a suscetibilidade a antifúngicos e os fatores associados à colonização oral por espécies de Candida isoladas de pacientes HIV positivo. Métodos Estudo prospectivo realizado com amostragem por conveniência de indivíduos HIV positivo, acompanhados por um serviço de atendimento especializado da cidade de Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Foram coletados swabs orais de 197 pacientes. As espécies de Candida foram identificadas por técnicas microbiológicas fenotípicas padrão e por método molecular. A suscetibilidade antifúngica foi determinada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Resultados Cento e um (51,3%) pacientes foram colonizados por Candida spp. Candida albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente (80%). Identificou-se um maior risco de colonização oral por espécies de Candida em pacientes com idade entre 45 e 59 anos (razão de prevalência: 1,90; IC95%: 1,57-6,31) e 60 anos ou mais (razão de prevalência: 4,43; IC95%: 1,57-34,18). A resistência ao fluconazol e ao cetoconazol foi de 1% cada e de 4% ao itraconazol. Conclusão O único fator associado à colonização oral por espécies de Candida foi ter 45 anos ou mais. Identificamos baixa taxa de resistência antifúngica aos azóis entre as leveduras isoladas de pacientes HIV positivo. Estes achados podem contribuir para selecionar o tratamento da candidíase oral em pacientes HIV positivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Fluconazole/pharmacology , HIV Infections/complications , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/drug therapy , Candidiasis, Oral/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Middle Aged
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