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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 46: 14-21, jul. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biosurfactants are biomolecules that have the potential to be applied in food formulations due to their low toxicity and ability to improve sensory parameters. Considering the ability of yeasts to produce biosurfactants with food-friendly properties, the aim of the present study was to apply a biosurfactant produced by Candida utilis in the formulation of cookies. RESULTS: The biosurfactant was obtained with a yield of 24.22 ± 0.23 g/L. The characterization analysis revealed that the structure of a metabolized fatty acid with high oleic acid content (68.63 ± 0.61%), and the thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated good stability at temperatures lower than 200°C, potential for food applications. The biosurfactant also exhibited satisfactory antioxidant activity at concentrations evaluated, without cytotoxic potential for cell strains, L929 and RAW 264.7, according to the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The incorporation of the surfactant into the dough of a standard cookie formulation to replace animal fat was carried out, achieving a softer, spongier product without significantly altering the physical and physicochemical properties or energy value. CONCLUSION: The thermal stability and antioxidant activity of the biosurfactant produced by C. utilis were verified, besides the positive contribution in the texture analysis of the cookies. Therefore, this biomolecule presents itself as a potential ingredient in flour-based sweet food formulations.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Candida/metabolism , Food, Formulated , Cookies , Temperature , Yeasts , Food Industry , Food Additives , Antioxidants
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180568, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132273

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sophorolipids are glycolipids that have natural antimicrobial properties and present great potential in the pharmaceutical field. The present study aimed to produce sophorolipids from Candida bombicola using a chicken fat-based medium and evaluate the antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans). The production of sophorolipids reached 27.86 g L-1. Based on the structural characterization, 73.55% of the sophorolipids present a mixture of acidic monoacetylated C18:2 and lactonic diacetylated C16:0, and 26.45% were present in the diacetylated C18:1 lactonic form. Bacteria submitted to sophorolipid exposure showed a reduction in viability at doses of 500 μg mL-1 and 2,000 μg mL-1 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. These results suggest that sophorolipids produced in chicken fat medium may be used as antimicrobial agents to prevent or eliminate contamination by different pathogens.


Subject(s)
Candida/metabolism , Glycolipids/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Proteus mirabilis/drug effects , Glycolipids/isolation & purification , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 378-391, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889229

ABSTRACT

Abstract High potential, thermotolerant, ethanol-producing yeasts were successfully isolated in this study. Based on molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis, the isolated thermotolerant yeasts were clustered in the genera of Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida tropicalis, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida glabrata and Kodamea ohmeri. A comparative study of ethanol production using 160 g/L glucose as a substrate revealed several yeast strains that could produce high ethanol concentrations at high temperatures. When sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate containing 85 g/L glucose was used as a substrate, the yeast strain designated P. kudriavzevii RZ8-1 exhibited the highest ethanol concentrations of 35.51 g/L and 33.84 g/L at 37 °C and 40 °C, respectively. It also exhibited multi-stress tolerance, such as heat, ethanol and acetic acid tolerance. During ethanol fermentation at high temperature (42 °C), genes encoding heat shock proteins (ssq1 and hsp90), alcohol dehydrogenases (adh1, adh2, adh3 and adh4) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (tdh2) were up-regulated, suggesting that these genes might play a crucial role in the thermotolerance ability of P. kudriavzevii RZ8-1 under heat stress. These findings suggest that the growth and ethanol fermentation activities of this organism under heat stress were restricted to the expression of genes involved not only in heat shock response but also in the ethanol production pathway.


Subject(s)
Ethanol/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Pichia/metabolism , Biotransformation , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/metabolism , Pichia/classification , Pichia/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Saccharum/metabolism , Stress, Physiological
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(4): 558-561, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041422

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Candida parapsilosis complex species, frequently found in hospital environments, have gained importance as etiological agents of candidemia. METHODS: Candida parapsilosis complex isolates from a nosocomial environment were identified and their hydrolitic enzyme activity and ability to form biofilm were characterized. RESULTS: Twenty-two C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates produced proteinase and three produced phospholipase. Most Candida metapsilosis isolates produced proteinase and one also produced phospholipase. All 29 isolates formed biofilms. CONCLUSIONS: The nosocomial environment may act as a reservoir for C. parapsilosis complex isolates with phenotypic features that could possibly lead to nosocomial infections and health complications in hospital patients.


Subject(s)
Peptide Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Phospholipases/biosynthesis , Candida/enzymology , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/metabolism , Health Facility Environment , Hydrolysis
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 489-496, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780830

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sugarcane straw has become an available lignocellulosic biomass since the progressive introduction of the non-burning harvest in Brazil. Besides keeping this biomass in the field, it can be used as a feedstock in thermochemical or biochemical conversion processes. This makes feasible its incorporation in a biorefinery, whose economic profitability could be supported by integrated production of low-value biofuels and high-value chemicals, e.g., xylitol, which has important industrial and clinical applications. Herein, biotechnological production of xylitol is presented as a possible route for the valorization of sugarcane straw and its incorporation in a biorefinery. Nutritional supplementation of the sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as a function of initial oxygen availability was studied in batch fermentation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The nutritional supplementation conditions evaluated were: no supplementation; supplementation with (NH4)2SO4, and full supplementation with (NH4)2SO4, rice bran extract and CaCl2·2H2O. Experiments were performed at pH 5.5, 30 °C, 200 rpm, for 48 h in 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing either 25 or 50 mL of medium in order to vary initial oxygen availability. Without supplementation, complete consumption of glucose and partial consumption of xylose were observed. In this condition the maximum xylitol yield (0.67 g g-1) was obtained under reduced initial oxygen availability. Nutritional supplementation increased xylose consumption and xylitol production by up to 200% and 240%, respectively. The maximum xylitol volumetric productivity (0.34 g L-1 h-1) was reached at full supplementation and increased initial oxygen availability. The results demonstrated a combined effect of nutritional supplementation and initial oxygen availability on xylitol production from sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate.


Subject(s)
Xylitol/biosynthesis , Candida/metabolism , Saccharum/microbiology , Xylose/metabolism , Plant Stems/metabolism , Plant Stems/microbiology , Plant Stems/chemistry , Culture Media/metabolism , Saccharum/metabolism , Saccharum/chemistry , Fermentation , Hydrolysis
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1469-1475, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741302

ABSTRACT

The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials.


Subject(s)
Candida/metabolism , Cellulose/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Oryza , Plant Extracts , Pichia/metabolism , Saccharum/metabolism , Candida/growth & development , Ethanol/metabolism , Pichia/growth & development , Xylitol/metabolism
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1503-1511, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741306

ABSTRACT

Extracellular lipases from the endophytic yeast Candida guilliermondii isolated from castor leaves (Ricinus communis L.) were produced using low-cost raw materials such as agro-industrial residues and applying them in the esterification of oleic acid for evaluating their potential use in biodiesel production. After partial purification using ammonium sulfate, the enzyme was characterized and presented higher activity (26.8 ± 1.5 U mL-1) in the presence of 5 mmol L-1 NaCl at 30 ºC and pH 6.5. The production through submerged fermentation was formerly performed in 150 mL erlenmeyer flasks and, once the enzyme production was verified, assays in a 14 L bioreactor were conducted, obtaining 18 ± 1.4 U mL-1. The produced enzyme was applied in the oleic acid esterification under different solvents: hexane, cyclohexane or cyclohexanone) and different acid:alcohol molar ratios. Higher ester conversion rate (81%) was obtained using hexane and the molar ratio of 1:9 was the best conditions using methanol. The results suggest the potential for development of endophytic yeast in the production of biocatalyst through submerged fermentation using agroindustrial residues as culture medium.


Subject(s)
Candida/enzymology , Candida/metabolism , Lipase/isolation & purification , Lipase/metabolism , Candida/growth & development , Candida/isolation & purification , Culture Media/chemistry , Esterification , Endophytes/enzymology , Endophytes/growth & development , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oleic Acid/metabolism , Plant Leaves/microbiology , Ricinus/microbiology , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Temperature
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 17(1): 6-6, Jan. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-706520

ABSTRACT

Background: Biotechnological processes are costly, especially for the production of biosurfactants. The successful production of a biosurfactant is dependent on the development of processes using low cost raw materials. Considering the importance of the characteristics of a biosurfactant to facilitate its industrial application, the properties of the biosurfactant produced by Candida lipolytica through previously optimized medium have been established. Results: The yeast was grown for 72 h to determine the kinetics of growth and production. The surface tension of the cell-free broth was reduced from 55 to 25 mN/m. The yield of biosurfactant was 8.0 g/l with a CMC of 0.03%. The biosurfactant was characterized as an anionic lipopeptide composed of 50% protein, 20% lipids, and 8% of carbohydrates. Conclusions: The isolated biosurfactant showed no toxicity against different vegetable seeds: Brassica oleracea, Solanum gilo and Lactuca sativa L. and the micro-crustacean Artemia salina. The properties of the biosurfactant produced suggest its potential application in industries that require the use of effective compounds at low cost.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Candida/metabolism , Artemia , Surface-Active Agents/toxicity , Surface Tension , Kinetics , Biomass , Lipopeptides , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fermentation , Micelles
9.
Braz. oral res ; 27(6): 484-489, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-695992

ABSTRACT

The ability to produce enzymes, such as hemolysins, is an important virulence factor for the genus Candida.The objective of this study was to compare the hemolytic activity between C. albicansand non-albicans Candida species. Fifty strains of Candida species, isolated from the oral cavity of patients infected with HIV were studied. The isolates included the following species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. dubliniensis, C. norvegensis, C. lusitaniae, and C. guilliermondii. Hemolysin production was evaluated on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol, blood, and glucose. A loop-full of pure Candidaculture was spot-inoculated onto plates and incubated at 37ºC for 24 h in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. Hemolytic activity was defined as the formation of a translucent halo around the colonies. All C. albicansstrains that were studied produced hemolysins. Among the non-albicans Candidaspecies, 86% exhibited hemolytic activity. Only C. guilliermondiiand some C. parapsilosis isolates were negative for this enzyme. In conclusion, most non-albicans Candidaspecies had a similar ability to produce hemolysins when compared to C. albicans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/metabolism , HIV Infections/microbiology , Hemolysin Proteins/biosynthesis , Culture Media , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/metabolism , Candida/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Species Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Virulence Factors
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162946

ABSTRACT

Background: Candida species are now recognized as major causative agents of hospitalacquired infection. Aims: To evaluate the species distribution, biofilm formation,and antifungal susceptibility (amphotericin B, ketoconazole, and fluconazole) of Candida isolates. Place and Duration of Study: This is a Six-months Cross sectional study conducted in Alansar hospital, Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: One hundred and three isolates of Candida spp. were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). Candida spp. were identified by four standard methods, CHROMagar candida, cornmeal agar, germ tube test and API 20C. Detection of Biofilm formation was done by microtitre plate and antifungal susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion. Results: C. albicans was the most common species 61%, followed by C. tropicalis 25%, C. lusitanaie 5%, C. parapsilosis 4%, C. glabrata 4% and C. famata 1%. Biofilm formation was found to occur most frequently among non-albicans spp.(70%) than C. albicans (46%). All isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B and ketoconazole. Resistance to fluconazole was found in 22.5% of non-albicans spp. and 5% of C. albicans isolates. Conclusion: The present study proved that C. albicans is still the major isolate from urinary, vaginal and respiratory samples but non-albicans spp. predominate in the blood samples and from plastic devices. The non-albicans spp. were more biofilm - producers compared to C. albicans and C. tropicalis showed the highest score of biofilm intensity (grade 4+). The species isolated are less susceptible to fluconazole.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/growth & development , Biofilms/physiology , Candida/classification , Candida/metabolism , Candida albicans/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Respiratory System/microbiology , Urinary Tract/microbiology , Vagina/microbiology
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 16(4): 2-2, July 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684017

ABSTRACT

Background: Candida utilis is widely used in bioindustry, and its cell mass needs to be produced in a cost effective way. Process optimization based on the experimental results is the major way to reduce the production cost. However, this process is expensive, time consuming and labor intensive. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool for process analysis and optimization. Furthermore, sufficient information can be obtained with fewer experiments by using the mathematical modeling, and some results can be predicted even without doing experiments. Results: In the present study, we performed the mathematical modeling and simulation for the cell mass production of Candida utilis based on limited batch and repeated fedbatch experiments. The model parameters were optimized using genetic algorithm (GA), and the processes were analyzed. Conclusions: Taken together, this newly developed method is efficient, labor saving and cost effective.


Subject(s)
Candida/metabolism , Models, Theoretical , Fermentation , Batch Cell Culture Techniques
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 16(4): 4-4, July 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684019

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of the present study was to propose a low-cost method for the production of a biosurfactant by the yeast Candida sphaerica and assess its toxicity and phytotoxicity. The medium was formulated with distilled water supplemented with residue from a soy oil refinery (5%) and corn steep liquor (2.5%) as substrates. These two products were the sources of carbon and nitrogen as well as mineral elements to encourage the growth of the microorganism and production of a biosurfactant. Results: The isolated biosurfactant yield was 6.364 g/l. The biosurfactant exhibited an excellent ability to reduce surface tension (26 mN/m) and demonstrated no toxicity against seeds of Brassica oleracea, Chicoria intybus and Solanum gilo or the micro crustacean Artemia salina employed as a bioindicator. The biosurfactant exhibited no antimicrobial activity against the fungi and bacteria tested. Conclusions: The promising results obtained in this study indicate the feasibility of producing biosurfactants from powerful non-toxic organic residues and their application in the bioremediation of contaminated soil and water.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents/toxicity , Candida/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/isolation & purification , Kinetics , Bioreactors , Culture Media , Industrial Waste
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Jul; 51(7): 556-566
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147627

ABSTRACT

An efficient conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars is a key step in producing bioethanol in a cost effective and eco-friendly manner. Alternative source like water hyacinth biomass (WHB) (Eichhornia crassipes) may be used as a supplement for the routine feedstocks. The enzyme loading for optimum yield of total reducing sugar was investigated and the enzyme-substrate interaction optimised. The maximal reducing sugar and xylose yield was obtained using cellulase and xylanase loading of 46.12 and 289.98 U/g and 2.26% (w/v) substrate loading. The efficiencies of ethanol production from the WHB hydrolysate are very less and the maximal ethanol yield was 3.4969 g/L when Pichia stiptis was used, followed by 3.4496 and 3.1349 g/L for Candida shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Candida/metabolism , Carbohydrates , Cellulases/metabolism , Eichhornia/metabolism , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/metabolism , Ethanol/metabolism , Fermentation , Hydrolysis , Lignin/metabolism , Pichia/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , X-Ray Diffraction
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 15(6): 1-1, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662199

ABSTRACT

Palm pressed fiber (PPF) is a clean and renewable lignocellulosic material. The PPF and delignified PPF (DPPF) were used as a carrier for immobilization of Candida shehatae TISTR5843 in bioethanol production. PPF was pre-treated by milling to obtain small particles, whereas DPPF was the delignification of PPF using NaClO2. C. shehatae TISTR5843 was grown in modified yeast extract- malt (YM) medium at 30 +/- 2ºC on an orbital shaker at 150 rpm for batch and repeated batch fermentation. In the batch system, immobilized cells on a small size, less than 0.5 mm, of DPPF (sDPPF) gave the maximum ethanol production of 11.5 g L-1 at 24 hrs cultivation period. The ethanol concentration and ethanol yield of sDPPF were 6.2 percent and 6.8 percent higher (ethanol production 11.5 g L-1, ethanol yield 0.47 g g-1) than those of free cells (ethanol production 10.8 g L-1, ethanol yield 0.44 g g-1) after 36 hrs of cultivation. In contrast, the small size of PPF (sPPF) was selected as a carrier in repeated batch fermentation for cost effectiveness. The ethanol productivity of immobilized yeast cells in repeated batch fermentations was 45.2-51.6 percent greater than that obtained from batch fermentations. The immobilized cells on sPPF improved the ethanol production and could be reused 4 times with retaining the activity of 93 percent. In conclusion, PPF is a potential carrier in the immobilization system. The pre-treatment of PPF increases the surface area that enhances cell adsorption and ethanol production by C. shehatae TISTR5843.


Subject(s)
Candida/metabolism , Ethanol/metabolism , Immobilization
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(5): 620-626, Sept.-Oct. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656219

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The capacity to overcome the oxidative stress imposed by phagocytes seems to be critical for Candida species to cause invasive candidiasis. METHODS: To better characterize the oxidative stress response (OSR) of 8 clinically relevant Candida sp., glutathione, a vital component of the intracellular redox balance, was measured using the 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB)-glutathione disulfide (GSSG) reductase reconversion method; the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured using a modified method based on the decolorization of the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid radical cation (ABTS*+). Both methods were used with cellular Candida sp. extracts treated or not with hydrogen peroxide (0.5 mM). RESULTS: Oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide clearly reduced intracellular glutathione levels. This depletion was stronger in Candida albicans and the levels of glutathione in untreated cells were also higher in this species. The TAC demonstrated intra-specific variation. CONCLUSIONS: Glutathione levels did not correlate with the measured TAC values, despite this being the most important non-enzymatic intracellular antioxidant molecule. The results indicate that the isolated measurement of TAC does not give a clear picture of the ability of a given Candida sp. to respond to oxidative stress.


INTRODUÇÃO: A capacidade de suportar o estresse oxidativo imposto por fagócitos parece ser crítica para que espécies de Candida causem candidíase invasiva. MÉTODOS: Para melhor caracterizar a resposta ao estresse oxidativo (REO) de oito Candida sp. clinicamente relevantes, um componente vital do balanço redox intracelular, a glutationa, foi mensurada pelo método de reconversão DTNB-GSSG redutase e a capacidade antioxidante total (CAT) foi mensurada por um método modificado baseado na descoloração do ABTS*+. Ambos os métodos foram utilizados em extratos celulares das espécies de Candida tratadas ou não com peróxido de hidrogênio (0,5mM). RESULTADOS: O estresse oxidativo induzido pelo peróxido de hidrogênio claramente reduziu os níveis intracelulares de glutationa. Esta diminuição foi mais intensa em C. albicans e os níveis de glutationa em células não tratadas foram também maiores nesta espécie. A capacidade antioxidante total demonstrou variação intraespecífica na capacidade antioxidante. CONCLUSÕES: Os níveis de glutationa não se correlacionaram com a capacidade antioxidante total mensurada, apesar desta ser a defesa antioxidante intracelular não-enzimática mais importante. Os resultados indicam que a medição isolada da CAT não fornece um quadro claro da habilidade de certa espécie de Candida responder ao estresse oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis/microbiology , Glutathione/analysis , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Candida/metabolism , Candida/pathogenicity , Dithionitrobenzoic Acid/analysis , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidants/pharmacology , Sulfhydryl Reagents/analysis , Virulence
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(4): 649-654, July 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-523735

ABSTRACT

Candida glabrata is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause severe invasive infections and can evade phagocytic cell clearance. We are interested in understanding the virulence of this fungal pathogen, in particular its oxidative stress response. Here we investigated C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans responses to two different oxidants: menadione and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). In log-phase, in the presence of menadione, C. glabrata requires Cta1p (catalase), while in a stationary phase (SP), Cta1p is dispensable. In addition, C. glabrata is less resistant to menadione than C. albicans in SP. The S. cerevisiae laboratory reference strain is less resistant to menadione than C. glabrata and C. albicans; however S. cerevisiaeclinical isolates (CIs) are more resistant than the lab reference strain. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae CIs showed an increased catalase activity. Interestingly, in SP C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae are more resistant to CHP than C. albicans and Cta1p plays no apparent role in detoxifying this oxidant.


Subject(s)
Benzene Derivatives/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Oxidants/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , /pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida albicans/metabolism , Candida glabrata/drug effects , Candida glabrata/metabolism , Candida/metabolism , Catalase/drug effects , Catalase/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism
17.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 40(4): 211-217, oct.-dic. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-634602

ABSTRACT

Con el objeto de estimar la frecuencia de aislamientos de Candida dubliniensis en materiales clínicos en el Hospital de Infecciosas F. J. Muñiz, se identificaron 388 levaduras entre setiembre de 2005 y agosto de 2007. Doscientos doce aislamientos presentaban color verde en CHROMagar® y producían tubos germinativos y clamidoconidias en agarleche. Para diferenciar cuales de ellos correspondían a Candida albicans o a C. dubliniensis, se utilizaron distintos métodos fenotípicos y se evaluó la utilidad de cada técnica a fin de proponer un algoritmo de identificación simple, económico y confiable. Se estudió el color en 2 medios con sustratos cromogénicos, la producción de clamidoconidias en medios de Staib, agar tomate-zanahoria y agar-tabaco; en este último medio también se evaluaron las características macromorfológicas de las colonias; se evaluó la presencia de actividad lipolítica (medio-opacidad), capacidad de desarrollo a 45 °C y asimilación de D-xilosa. El 6,1% (13/212 aislamientos) correspondió a C. dubliniensis (3,3% del total de levaduras). No se pudo diferenciar entre ambas especies por el color en los medios cromogénicos usados. Las pruebas que resultaron más sensibles y específicas fueron crecimiento a 45 °C, asimilación de D-xilosa, color y desarrollo en agar-tabaco. C. albicans produjo clamidoconidias en los 3 medios diferenciales, entre 11,6% y 15,1% de los casos. La presencia de lipasas se evidenció en el 95,6% de C. albicans pero 2 de las 13 cepas de C. dubliniensis también presentaron halo de opacidad. Consideramos que se deben usar, al menos, 3 métodos diferentes para discriminar entre estas levaduras ya que ninguna prueba es absolutamente sensible o específica.


In order to estimate the frequence of Candida dubliniensis in clinical samples in F. J. Muñiz Infectious Diseases Hospital, a total of 388 yeasts from September 2005 to August 2007. There were 212 isolates which presented a green color on CHROMagar® Candida medium and produced germ tubes and chlamidoconidiae in milk-agar; so as to distinguish whether they corresponded to Candida albicans or C. dubliniensis, different phenotypical methods were utilized. It was also evaluated the usefulness of each one in order to suggest a simple, economic and reliable identification algorithm. Each isolate was subcultured in two chromogenic media and then, the following determinations were done: chlamidospores production in Staib-agar, tomato-carrot-agar and tobacco-agar, colonies macromorphology was also studied in the last medium; opacity-test in Tween 80-CaCl2 agar (lipase activity), growing capacity at 45 °C, and D-xylose assimilation. Thirteen strains (6.1%) corresponded to C. dubliniensis. The difference in color between both species on chromogenic media was not so stressed as it is pointed out in some works. The more specific and sensitive tests were the ability to grow at 45 °C, D-xylose assimilation, color and macroscopic appearance in tobacco-agar. Between 11.6% and 15.1% of C. albicans strains produced chlamidoconidiae in the 3 differential media tested. The opacity halo (lipase) was evident in 95.6% of C. albicans isolates but 2 out of 13 C. dubliniensis also presented precipitation halo. We consider that at least 3 different phenotypical methods should be used to distinguish properly these two species since none of the tests is absolutely sensitive or specific.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Candida albicans , Candida/classification , Candida/growth & development , Candida/metabolism , Chromogenic Compounds/metabolism , Culture Media/pharmacology , Mycology/methods , Phenotype , Species Specificity , Xylose/metabolism
18.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 47(2): 109-111, Mar.-Apr. 2005. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-399955

ABSTRACT

Dezenove culturas de C. dubliniensis isoladas no Brasil, previamente identificadas através de métodos genotípicos, foram avaliadas pelo kit comercial ID 32C (bioMerieux). Treze culturas foram identificadas como C. dubliniensis, mas as demais (seis) evidenciaram perfil duvidoso, embora o software do sistema sugerisse 83,6% de chances das mesmas pertencerem à espécie C. dubliniensis. A literatura tem registrado grande variabilidade fenotípica com esta espécie e, por isto, as identificações obtidas com este sistema deverão ser consideradas como presuntivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/classification , Carbohydrates/metabolism , Mycological Typing Techniques/methods , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/metabolism , Phenotype
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 34(2): 120-123, Apr.-Jun. 2003. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-355159

ABSTRACT

Candida lipolytica IA 1055 produced extracellular biosurfactants with emulsification activity by fermentation using babassu oil and D-glucose as carbon sources. Natural seawater diluted at 50 percent supplemented with urea, ammonium sulfate, and phosphate was used as economic basal medium. The best results were achieved with the YSW-B2 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, and babassu oil and with YSW-B3 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate, and babassu oil, kept under fed batch fermentation for 60 hours with 5 percent of babassu oil. For the two media, the maximum specific growth rates were 0.02 h-1 and 0.04 h-1; the generation times were 34.6 h-1 and 17.3 h-1, and the emulsification activities were 0.666 and 0.158 units, respectively. The molecules of these new bioemulsifiers were contituted of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.


Subject(s)
Candida/metabolism , Emulsifying Agents/metabolism , Plant Oils/metabolism , Palm Oil , Potassium Compounds/metabolism , Fermentation , Seawater
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 31(6): 523-527, nov.-dez. 1998. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-463594

ABSTRACT

Opportunistic infections of the oral cavity are primarily caused by Candida and frequently occur in patients with cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy and antibiotic treatment. Of the specimens received from the oral mucosa of 44 patients with cancer, 25 (56.8%) yielded Candida on culture in Sabouraud agar. Twenty four of these isolates were identified as C. albicans (96%) and 1 as C. krusei (4%). The phenotypic characteristics of these isolates showed that all of them were strongly proteolytic, had a high ability to produce phospholipase, and presented the byotypes characterized as 811 (95.8%) and 511 (4.2%) in terms of susceptibility to killer toxins.


Infecções oportunistas da cavidade bucal são primariamente causadas por fungos do gênero Candida e freqüentemente ocorrem em pacientes com câncer que estão sobtratamento quimioterápico e antibacteriano. De 44 amostras coletadas da mucosa oral de pacientes com câncer, observou-se o isolamento de 25 leveduras do gênero Candida em cultivo realizado em ágar Sabouraud-dextrose. Foram identificados Candida albicans em 24 (96%) isolados e C. krusei em 1 (4%). As características fenotípicas das amostras de Candida albicans mostraram que todos os isolados foram fortemente proteolíticos, capazes de produzir fosfolipases e possuíam os biotipos caracterizados como 811(95,8%) e 511 (4,2%) em relação a susceptibilidade às toxinas killer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/metabolism , Candidiasis, Oral/complications , Mycotoxins/biosynthesis , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology , Neoplasms/complications , Cell Death , Candida albicans/enzymology , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/metabolism , Candida/enzymology , Candidiasis, Oral/pathology , Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Phospholipases/biosynthesis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Neoplasms/pathology
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