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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(1): 2-5, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973875

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine whether a correlation exists between pathogenic species and clinical findings, disease severity, and visual outcome in patients with keratitis and fungal growth in microbiological culture. Methods: A retrospective study of patients with fungal growth in the microbiological culture of corneal scrapings. Patients were treated at an ophthalmologic reference center in Southeastern Brazil from January 1992 to October 2015. Results: Medical records of 181 patients (131 males and 50 females) with a mean age of 47 ± 18 years were analyzed. The three most common etiologies were Fusarium sp. (38.7%), Aspergillus sp. (15%), and Candida sp. (13.2%). Among these, Fusarium sp. was the most frequent in patients aged £50 years (p=0.002) and in those with a recent history of a foreign body and/or ocular trauma (p=0.01). Candida sp. was the most frequent etiology in patients aged >50 years (p=0.002), in those with postoperative ocular surgery (p=0.002); in those with a previous ocular pathology (p=0.0007); and in immunodepressed patients (p=0.0004). Conclusion: Fusarium sp. was predominant in patients aged £50 years and those with a recent history of foreign body and/or ocular trauma, whereas Candida sp. was predominant in older adults, in those with a postoperative ocular surgery, in those with a previous ocular pathology, and in immunodepressed patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar se existe uma correlação entre espécies patogênicas e achados clínicos, gravidade da doença e resultado visual em pacientes com ceratite e crescimento de fungos em cultura microbiológica. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de pacientes com crescimento de fungos na cultura microbiológica de raspado de córnea. Os pacientes foram tratados em um centro de referência oftalmológica no Sudeste do Brasil de janeiro de 1992 a outubro de 2015. Resultados: Foram analisados registros médicos de 181 pacientes (131 homens e 50 mulheres) com idade média de 47 ± 18 anos. As três etiologias mais comuns foram Fusarium sp. (38,7%), Aspergillus sp. (15%) e Candida sp. (13,2%). Entre estas, Fusarium sp. foi a mais frequente em pacientes com idade £50 anos (p=0,002) e naqueles com história recente de corpo estranho e/ou trauma ocular (p=0,01). Candida sp. foi a etiologia mais frequente em pacientes com idade >50 anos (p=0,002), naqueles com cirurgia ocular pós-operatória (p=0,002); naqueles com patologia ocular prévia (p=0,0007); e em pacientes imunodeprimidos (p=0,0004). Conclusão: Fusarium sp. foi predominante em pacientes com idade £50 anos e naqueles com história recente de corpo estranho e/ou trauma ocular; enquanto Candida sp. foi predominante em adultos mais velhos, naqueles com cirurgia ocular pós-operatória, naqueles com patologia ocular prévia e em pacientes imunodeprimidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/pathology , Corneal Ulcer/microbiology , Corneal Ulcer/pathology , Aspergillus/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Candida/pathogenicity , Visual Acuity , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Corneal Ulcer/drug therapy , Eye Foreign Bodies/microbiology , Eye Foreign Bodies/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Corneal Injuries/microbiology , Corneal Injuries/pathology , Fusarium/pathogenicity , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Clin. biomed. res ; 39(4): 341-345, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087506

ABSTRACT

O gênero Candida possui várias espécies conhecidas e que podem tornar-se patogênicas em determinadas situações. Candida blankii é uma espécie emergente que, na última década, foi identificada como um agente de doenças sistêmicas. Ainda não existe um protocolo de tratamento específico, apesar de que n os poucos casos registrados na literatura a terapia adotada foi efetiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão bibliográfica para coletar informações relevantes sobre este patógeno como um possível agente etiológico em infecções sistêmicas, bem como sua epidemiologia e os aspectos de sua patogenicidade. (AU)


The genus Candida has several known species and may become pathogenic in certain situations. Candida blankii is an emerging species that in the past decade has been identified as an agent of systemic diseases. There is no specific treatment protocol yet, although in the few cases reported in the literature the therapy adopted was effective. The objective of this study was to conduct a literature review to collect relevant information about this pathogen as a possible etiological agent in systemic infections, as well as its epidemiology and aspects of pathogenicity. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/classification , Candida/drug effects , Candida/pathogenicity , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/genetics , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology
3.
Univ. med ; 59(2): 1-15, 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-995812

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección por levaduras del género Candida representa la causa más común de infecciones fúngicas invasivas. Su alta incidencia y la creciente resistencia frente a los azoles y, recientemente, a las equinocandinas ha generado la necesidad de buscar nuevas alternativas farmacológicas. Esta revisión presenta las principales alternativas farmacológicas en estudio frente a Candida resistente a equinocandinas. Métodos: Se buscó literatura referente al tema en las bases de datos Bireme, Clinical Key, Embase, Cochrane, Lilacs, Pubmed y Scopus. Se incluyeron 15 artículos en esta revisión. Resultados: Se exploran diferentes alternativas, incluyendo el aumento de dosis de las equinocandinas, su combinación con otros medicamentos y nuevos compuestos en estudio. Conclusión: A pesar de que las infecciones por Candida resistente a equinocandinas aún representan un desafío, dos alternativas farmacológicas se presentan como promisorias: la combinación con medicamentos existentes como el diclofenaco y nuevos compuestos que se encuentran actualmente en fase II de estudios clínicos.


Introduction: Candida yeasts infections represent the most common cause of invasive fungal infections. Its high incidence and increasing resistance to azoles and, recently, to echinocandins has generated the need to find new therapeutic options. This review presents the main pharmacological alternatives in research against echinocandins resistant Candida. Methods: A search was conducted in the databases of Bireme, Clinical Key, Embase, Cochrane, Lilacs, Pubmed and Scopus. 15 articles were included in this review. Results: Several alternatives are explored, including increased doses of echinocandins, combination with other drugs and new compounds under study. Conclusion: Although resistant Candida infections still represent a challenge, two pharmacological approaches show promise: The combination with existing medicaments such as diclofenac, and new compounds that are currently in Phase II of clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/pathogenicity , Echinocandins , Drug Resistance , Antifungal Agents
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 53-60, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841164

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4); biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5) and medium without Candida (Group 6). Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05) from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/microbiology , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Time Factors , Tooth, Deciduous/microbiology , Tooth, Deciduous/virology , Virulence , In Vitro Techniques , Candida/growth & development , Candida/virology , HIV Infections/complications , Calcium/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Caries/virology , Dental Enamel/virology , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Dental Plaque/virology , Hardness Tests , Microscopy, Polarization
5.
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(3): 247-254, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-859840

ABSTRACT

Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant emerging yeast, which was responsible for healthcare-associated infection outbreaks, and was cataloged as a new species in 2009, after being isolated from a patient's ear canal secretion in Japan. Since the notification of this first occurrence, numerous cases have been reported throughout the world, including Brazil. C. auris affects mainly inpatients, patients in intensive care units, exposed to broad-spectrum antifungal medications and who make use of vascular catheters. Currently, this yeast is one of the main responsible for invasive infections in hospitals and has been cause of concern by authorities and organs due to its rapid dissemination and difficult treatment caused by its low susceptibility to antifungal agents traditionally used in clinical practice. As a contributor to the severity of infections associated with C. auris, the transmission mechanism is still unknown, which implies in a lack of control of the microorganism and high mortality rates. Thus, this literature review presents relevant information in order to alert the importance of C. auris as an etiological agent of systemic infections, as well as its epidemiology and the real challenges of the treatment (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/pathogenicity , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida/drug effects , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Candidiasis/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(1): 51-58, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771081

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the antifungal susceptibility profile and the production of potential virulence attributes in a clinical strain of Candida nivariensis for the first time in Brazil, as identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S-ITS2 region and D1/D2 domains of the 28S of the rDNA. For comparative purposes, tests were also performed with reference strains. All strains presented low planktonic minimal inhibitory concentrations (PMICs) to amphotericin B (AMB), caspofungin (CAS), and voriconazole. However, our strain showed elevated planktonic MICs to posaconazole (POS) and itraconazole, in addition to fluconazole resistance. Adherence to inert surfaces was conducted onto glass and polystyrene. The biofilm formation and antifungal susceptibility on biofilm-growing cells were evaluated by crystal violet staining and a XTT reduction assay. All fungal strains were able to bind both tested surfaces and form biofilm, with a binding preference to polystyrene (p < 0.001). AMB promoted significant reductions (≈50%) in biofilm production by our C. nivariensis strain using both methodologies. This reduction was also observed for CAS and POS, but only in the XTT assay. All strains were excellent protease producers and moderate phytase producers, but lipases were not detected. This study reinforces the pathogenic potential of C. nivariensis and its possible resistance profile to the azolic drugs generally used for candidiasis management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis/microbiology , Brazil , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/pathogenicity , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenotype , Virulence
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163460

ABSTRACT

Medicinal and aromatic plants are gift of nature and are being used against various infections and diseases in the world since ages. Species of the genus Bridelia stipularis var scandens is reported to be used traditionally for treating various oral diseases. However, the antimicrobial effect of these plant materials against oral pathogens is not proved. Therefore, we have done the present study. Aim is to find out the anticandidal effect of water extract of Bridelia stipularis against four common oral candidal pathogens. The leaves after identification and authentication by a botanist were collected, air dried, pulverized to fine powder using household blender. The water extract was prepared using cold percolation method. The standard Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis obtained from Post Graduate Institute (PGI), Chandigarh was procured. Antifungal activity was determined by Kirby Bauer well diffusion method and Time kill assay. All four species of Candida showed variable results with diameter of zone of inhibition ranging from 12mm to 21mm on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar with both 6 hour and 24 hour peptone water subculture. Time kill assay showed inconsistent results even after 24 hours of exposure with the crude extract of Bridelia stipularis. All four species of Candida causing oral infections are moderately sensitive to crude water extract of dried leaves of Bridelia stipularis.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida/drug effects , Candida/pathogenicity , Euphorbiaceae/pharmacology , Euphorbiaceae/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Leaves/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/therapeutic use
8.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 14(2): 149-153, Apr.-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755047

ABSTRACT

Aim: To measure the agreement of methods for identification of Candida species in oral cavity samples, comparing the CHROMagar Candida, microculture, API 20C AUX and RAPD techniques. Methods: Ninety-one colonies of Candida were isolated and presumptively identified in CHROMagar Candida, submitted to microculture, API 20C AUX and RAPD techniques. After this, agreement among methods using Kappa test was performed. Results: Agreement rates between RAPD and CHROMagar Candida, showed significant accuracy for C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis and C. krusei (Kappa: 0.760, 0.640, 0.416 and 0.360, respectively, p<0.05). Comparing RAPD results with microculture, the highest agreement was for C. albicans (Kappa: 0.851 - p<0.05) but no significant agreement for C. lusitaniae, C. krusei and C. guilliermondii was obtained (p>0.05). The agreement was significant for all identified species when RAPD (OPE-18) and API 20C AUX (p<0.05) were used. Critical levels of agreement between RAPD and microculture were observed when C. lusitaniae, C. krusei and C. guilliermondii were identified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Mouth/pathology , Candida/pathogenicity , Methods
9.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(1): 175-185, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742928

ABSTRACT

Entre as micoses relevantes em saúde pública destaca-se a candidíase, infecção oportunista que acomete o homem e animais. A enfermidade era considerada pouco frequente na medicina veterinária, porém relatos demonstram um aumento considerável, assim como a resistência aos antifúngicos. Com isso, pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas visando encontrar substâncias bioativas frente ao gênero Candida. Desta forma, objetivou-se reunir dados das bases Scielo e ScienceDirect com informações entre os anos de 2005-2013 referentes à ação anti-Candida de diferentes extratos vegetais. Foi encontrado um total de 78 famílias e 208 espécies de plantas com atividade frente à Candida spp., destacando-se as famílias Asteraceae, Geraniaceae, Myrtaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Rubiaceae, Verbenaceae e Anacardiaceae, com extratos diclorometânicos, aquosos, etanólicos, metanólico, frações e subfrações, sendo as folhas a parte vegetal mais utilizada. As plantas descritas apresentaram ação anti-Candida, porém algumas necessitam concentrações muito altas dos extratos com pequena inibição de crescimento/eliminação destas leveduras, ocorrendo variações, principalmente, quanto ao método de avaliação, tipo de extrato, parte vegetal, e procedência dos isolados fúngicos. Chama a atenção a raridade dos estudos com isolados de animais, principalmente de casos clínicos. Por fim, destacam-se as famílias Asteraceae e Geraniaceae que apresentaram maior número de espécies vegetais com atividade, podendo ser uma fonte de investigação frente à Candida spp.


Among the relevant mycoses in public health, one that stands out is candidiasis, an opportunistic infection that affects humans and animals. The disease was considered uncommon in veterinary medicine, but reports show a significant increase, as well as resistance, to conventional antifungal agents. Therefore, research has been undertaken aimed at finding bioactive substances from plants that fight against Candida. Thus, the objective of this work was to gather the databases SciELO and ScienceDirect with information between the years 2005 and 2013 concerning the anti-Candida activity of different plant extracts. A total of 78 families and 208 species of plants with activity against Candida spp. was found highlighting the Asteraceae, Geraniaceae, Myrtaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Rubiaceae, Verbenaceae and Anacardiaceae families, with dichloromethane, aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts and fractions and subfractions, being the leaf the most used plant part. The plants described showed anti-Candida activity, but some require very high concentrations of the extracts with little growth inhibition / elimination of these yeasts, with variations related mainly to the method of assessment, type of extract, plant parts and origin of the fungal isolates. The rarity of studies with isolates from animals, mainly clinical cases, draws attention. Finally, we highlight the Asteraceae and Geraniaceae families, which had a greater number of plant species with activity and which may be a source of research against Candida spp.


Subject(s)
Candida/pathogenicity , Data Collection/methods , Plant Extracts/analysis , Candidiasis/prevention & control , Yeasts/classification
10.
Clinics ; 70(2): 102-106, 2/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741423

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a clinical pharmacy program on health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy at a teaching hospital in Brazil. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up period was performed in 70 adults, aged 45 years or older, with type 2 diabetes who were taking insulin and who had an HbA1c level ≥8%. Patients in the control group (CG) (n = 36) received standard care, patients in the intervention group (IG) (n = 34) received an individualized pharmacotherapeutic care plan and diabetes education. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes included diabetes and medication knowledge, adherence to medication, insulin injection and home blood glucose monitoring techniques and diabetes-related quality of life. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 6 months using questionnaires. RESULTS: Diabetes knowledge, medication knowledge, adherence to medication and correct insulin injection and home blood glucose monitoring techniques significantly improved in the intervention group but remained unchanged in the control group. At the end of the study, mean HbA1c values in the control group remained unchanged but were significantly reduced in the intervention group. Diabetes-related quality of life significantly improved in the intervention group but worsened significantly in the control group. CONCLUSION: The program improved health outcomes and resulted in better glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cholangitis/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Candida/drug effects , Candida/pathogenicity , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Klebsiella/drug effects , Klebsiella/pathogenicity , Retrospective Studies
11.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1253-1256, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172981

ABSTRACT

Candida is a commensal organism that is frequently found in the human gastrointestinal tract. It is the most common organism that causes pancreatic fungal infections. However, magnetic resonance imaging findings of Candida infection in the pancreas have not been described. We report imaging findings of pancreatic candidiasis in a patient in immunocompetent condition. It presented as a multi-septated cystic mass with a peripheral solid component in the background of pancreatitis and restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted image that mimicked a malignant pancreatic cystic tumor.


Subject(s)
Candida/pathogenicity , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pancreatitis/diagnosis
12.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 74(1): 71-74, 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-783225

ABSTRACT

Infecções de corrente sanguínea por leveduras do gênero Candida são uma das principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Candida albicans permanece a espécie mais isolada nestas infecções e é de fácil e rápida identificação. Contudo, existem outras espécies, como C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata e C. krusei, que são encontradas com menor frequência e que necessitam de maior período de tempo e de metodologias comerciais automatizadas ou semi-automatizadas para sua identificação. Neste estudo foram analisadas 146 cepas de leveduras quanto à capacidade do Sistema API 20C AUX® (Biomerieux®, França) em identificar corretamente o gênero e a espécie de microrganismos em diferentes períodos de leitura, visando-se a liberação do resultado em menor tempo. C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. pelliculosa, C. colliculosa, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Trichosporon mucoides e T. asahii foram as leveduras cujos resultados finais puderam ser liberados nos períodos de tempo de 96, 120 e 144 h. Oitenta por cento das C. glabrata e 69 % das C. tropicalis também foram identificadas nos períodos além do tempo estabelecido. Com os resultados obtidos é possível antecipar a identificação do gênero e de algumas espécies de leveduras...


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/pathogenicity , Blood Circulation , Infections , Yeasts/pathogenicity
13.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 29(2): 30-34, dic. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868793

ABSTRACT

Candida lusitaniae es una levadura que ha sido descrita como un patógeno nosocomial emergente de baja frecuencia en infecciones profundas. La identificación oportuna de C. lusitaniae es importante porque puede desarrollar resistencia in vivo a la amfotericina B durante la terapia. Reportamos el aislamiento de C. lusitaniae como agente etiológico de infección de tracto respiratorio inferior en un paciente masculino. Los cultivos de orina y esputo fueron negativos para bacterias y positivos para esta levadura. Los aislamientos fueron identificados por métodos fenotípicos de rutina y confirmados por secuenciación y polimorfismos de longitud de fragmentos de restricción y PCR de la región espaciadora interna del DNA ribosómico.


The yeast Candida lusitaniae has been described as an emerging low frequency nosocomial pathogen in deep infections. Early identification of C. lusitaniae is important because it can readily develop in vivo resistance to amphotericin B during treatment. We report the isolation of C. lusitaniae as etiologic agent of a lower respiratory tract infection in a male patient. Urine and sputum cultures were negative for bacteria and positive for yeast. Isolates were identified by routine phenotypic methods and confirmed by ribosomal DNA internal spacer region restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR and sequencing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/pathogenicity , Candidiasis, Invasive/diagnosis , Candidiasis, Invasive/etiology , Candidiasis, Invasive/drug therapy , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Cross Infection , Sputum/microbiology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Respiratory System/microbiology , Respiratory System/pathology
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(5): 618-623, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728892

ABSTRACT

Introduction This is the first study to examine the in vitro susceptibility and the expression of virulence factors in Candida species in the presence of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes) L.R. Landrum (Myrtaceae), a Brazilian plant known as paucravo. Additionally, the mechanisms of action of the crude ethanol extract and the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of this plant were investigated. Methods The in vitro susceptibility of Candida was tested using the broth microdilution method, whereas an XTT reduction assay was used for biofilms. Adherence was determined by counting the number of yeast cells that adhered to 100 oral epithelial cells, and hyphal formation was verified in the hyphal induction medium M199. Flow cytometry with propidium iodide and FUN-1 was performed to assess the mechanism of action. Results The results revealed that the crude ethanol extract and the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of P. pseudocaryophyllus inhibited the growth of Candida isolates at a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 64 to 256µg/mL, whereas the 50% sessile minimal inhibitory concentration (SMIC50) ranged from 512 to >1,024µg/mL. Adherence and hyphal formation were significantly reduced in the presence of the crude ethanol extract and both fractions. Although cell membrane injury was detected, the predominant mechanism of action appeared to be the alteration of yeast metabolism, as demonstrated by flow cytometry. Conclusions Our results indicated that antifungal activity reduced the expression of virulence factors in yeast via the alteration of yeast metabolism, suggesting that the crude extract of P. pseudocaryophyllus and its fractions may contain novel antifungal agents. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Genus Pimenta/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Virulence Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida/pathogenicity , Flow Cytometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157618

ABSTRACT

Chromagar Candida is a new, modified, simple, rapid and cost effective method for the presumptive identification of Candida spp. after preliminary growth. 54 randomly selected clinical isolates of Candida were evaluated including, C.albicans (24), C.tropicalis (13), C.parapsilosis (6), C.krusei (5) & C.glabrata (4). The sensitivity and specificity appeared to be equal to that of conventional identification system except 4 C.glabrata strains which could only be identified by conventional method. Terbinafine, amphotericin B and nystatin were found to be highly sensitive drugs and clotrimazole and fluconazole showed the worst sensitivity results.


Subject(s)
Agar , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/classification , Candida/drug effects , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/microbiology , Candida/pathogenicity , Chromogenic Compounds , Culture Media , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Species Specificity
16.
Full dent. sci ; 5(17): 112-116, jan. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-706303

ABSTRACT

As infecções que afetam a cavidade bucal são de origem polimicrobiana e, muitas vezes, ocorrem devido … presença de fungos do gênero Candida. Esses microrganismos comportam-se como anfibiontes, isto é, são capazes de agredir o hospedeiro quando as condições ambientais e imunológicas são favoráveis, como em pacientes imunocomprometidos, com disfunções metabólicas ou que sofreram traumas mecânicos, químicos ou térmicos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de fungos do gênero Candida em próteses totais de idosos institucionalizados em uma Instituição asilar de Passo Fundo – RS. Os dados foram coletados a partir de amostras das 42 próteses com auxílio de swab estéril. As amostras foram semeadas em  gar Sabouraud Dextrose com cloranfenicol e incubadas por 72 horas a 37§C. Os resultados mostraram que do total de amostras, 33 (79%) apresentaram leveduras do gênero Candida. Dentre essas, 18 (54,5%) foram de C. albicans, 8 de (24,3%) de C. kruzei e 7 (21,2 %) de C. tropicalis


Infections that affect the oral cavity are polymicrobial and often occur due to the presence of Candida. These microorganisms behave as anfibiontes, it means they are able to attack the host when immunological and environmental conditions are favorable, as in immunocompromised patients with metabolic dysfunctions or that underwent mechanical, chemical or thermal trauma. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of Candida in dentures used by elderly institutionalized in an asylum in Passo Fundo (Rio Grande do Sul -Brazil). Data were collected from samples of 42 prostheses with the aid of a sterile swab. The samples were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and incubated for 72 hours at 37 øC. The results showed that from the overall number of samples, 33 (79%) had Candida yeasts. Among these, 18 (54.5%) were C. albicans, 8 (24.3%) of C. kruzei, and 7 (21.2%) of C. tropicalis


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Candida/pathogenicity , Health of Institutionalized Elderly , Oral Hygiene , Soft Tissue Injuries/pathology , Denture, Complete
17.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2014. 80 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-715918

ABSTRACT

A candidíase bucal é uma importante alteração secundária à corticoterapia tópica bucal. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar a colonização bucal por cinco espécies de candida durante a corticoterapia tópica e investigar a patogenicidade e a suscetibilidade in vitro ao fluconazol e à anfotericina B. Amostras de raspado bucal de 11 pacientes com líquen plano bucal (LPB) sintomático foram coletadas antes (dia 0), 7 e 30 dias após o início da corticoterapia. Métodos convencionais de identificação e quantificação de candida spp...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Candidiasis, Oral/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Candida/pathogenicity , Lichen Planus, Oral/therapy
18.
Salusvita ; 33(3)2014. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-737189

ABSTRACT

A estomatite por prótese é uma condição patológica caracterizada por um processo inflamatório que acomete a mucosa oral. Objetivo: à luz da literatura, discutir as relações de candidíase oral e estomatite por prótese. Resultados e Discussão: Diversos fatores, encontrados com frequência, podem estar relacionados à sua etiologia, entre eles: fungos, especialmente do gênero Candida; traumas na mucosa, que podem ser provocados pela prótese mal adaptada; idade avançada; xerostomia; tabagismo; doenças que levam o paciente a um estado de imunossupressão e higiene precária. Nesses casos, são observadas alterações teciduais, especialmente na presença de próteses superiores. Normalmente associados à doença, estão os fungos do gênero Candida, espécies leveduriformes, onde a C. albicans é a mais conhecida e frequentemente associada à manifestação clínica. A capacidade dos microrganismos envolvidos de formar biofilmes é condição precípua para a evolução da infecção. O biofilme acumula-se em superfícies duras como dentes e próteses, produzindo uma película envolta por matriz extracelular proveniente tanto do hospedeiro quanto dos microrganismos; trata-sede uma estrutura organizada, composta por seres unicelulares que formam uma estrutura multicelular, garantindo a sobrevivência coletiva destes em seu interior. Supõe-se que essa característica seja regulada por um mecanismo chamado quorum sensing, mediado pela densidade celular no interior dos biofilmes e por moléculas autoindutoras. Conclusão: Sendo assim, a estomatite por prótese é uma doença infecciosa multifatorial que envolve fatores relacionados ao microrganismo e ao hospedeiro. Tais fatores contribuem para a manifestação da doença que afeta uma parcela significativa dos usuários de prótese dentária...


Denture stomatitis is a pathological condition characterized by an inflammatory process that affects the oral mucosa. Objective: to discuss the relation among oral candidiasis and denture stomatitis thorough an ample literature review. Results and Discussion : Several factors, frequently found, may be related to its etiology, including: fungi, especially genus Candida; trauma in the mucosa, which can be caused by badly fitting denture; old age; xerostomia; smoking; diseases that lead the patient to a state of immunosuppression and poor hygiene. In those cases, tissue changes are observed, especially in the presence of upper dentures. Usually associated with the disease are fungi of the genus Candida, where the C. albicans is the most widely known and frequently associated with clinical manifestations. The ability of involved microorganisms to form biofilms is essential condition for the infection development. The plaque accumulates on hard surfaces such as teeth and prostheses, producing a film surrounded by extracellular matrix from both the host and the microorganisms; it's an organized structure, consisting of unicellular beings that form a multicellular structure, ensuring the collective survival these inside. It is believed that this characteristic is regulated by a mechanism called quorum sensing, mediated by cell density within the biofilm and self-inducing molecules. Conclusion: Thus, the denture stomatitis is a multifactorial infectious disease that involves factors related to the microorganism and host. Such factors contribute to the manifestation of the disease that affects a significant portion of dentures users...


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/pathogenicity , Stomatitis, Denture/etiology , Stomatitis, Denture/pathology , Dental Plaque/pathology
19.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 28(2): 48-52, dic. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708086

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La queratitits micótica puede ser provocada por una amplia variedad de especies, tanto por hongos filamentosos como levaduras. Objetivo: Conocer las especies involucradas en queratitits micótica durante el decenio 2003-2013 en la ciudad de Valparaíso. Materiales y método: Se revisaron los casos de queratitis micótica diagnosticados durante el periodo 2003-2013 en la cátedra de Micología de la Universidad de Valparaíso. Las muestras fueron tomadas con tórulas estériles, las cuales fueron sembradas en agar sabouraud y una vez obtenido el desarrollo de las especies se traspasaron a medios de cultivo especiales. La identificación se realizó por morfofisiología y en el caso de Candida además por pruebas bioquímicas. Resultados: Se diagnosticaron 10 pacientes con queratitis micótica, de ellos 6 fueron hombres. 8 pacientes tenían el antecedente de lesión traumática corneal. Las especies más frecuentes fueron Aspergillus fumigatus y Fusarium oxysporum. También se aislaron especies como Fusarium dimerumy Exophiala jeanselmei. Conclusión: De los 10 casos de queratitis micótica diagnosticados, la mayoría tenía el antecedente de lesión traumática corneal. Los géneros más aislados fueron Aspergillus y Fusarium.


Introduction: Fungal keratitis can be caused by a wide variety of species, either filamentous as yeast fungi. Objective: To determine the species involved in fungal keratitis during the decade 2003-2013 in the city of Valparaiso. Materials and Methods: The cases of fungal keratitis diagnosed in the depar tment of Mycology, University of Valparaiso, were reviewed for the period 2003-2013. Samples were taken with sterile swabs, which were seeded in Sabouraud agar and after obtaining the development of species, were transferred to special culture media. Identification was performed by morphophysiology and in the case of Candida further biochemical tests. Results: 10 patients were diagnosed with fungal keratitis, of which 6 were men. 8 patients had a history of traumatic corneal injury. The most frequent species were Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum. Species Fusarium dimerum and Exophiala jeanselmei were also isolated. Conclusion: Of the 10 cases of fungal keratitis diagnosed, most had a history of traumatic corneal injury. The most isolated genus were Aspergillus and Fusarium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Agar , Aspergillus fumigatus/pathogenicity , Candida , Candida/pathogenicity , Cornea/microbiology , Cornea/pathology , Fusarium/pathogenicity , Keratitis/diagnosis , Keratitis/microbiology , Chile , Environment , Fungi/pathogenicity
20.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 12(3): 199-204, July-Sept. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-701306

ABSTRACT

An essential factor to the virulence of the genus Candida is the ability to produce enzymes and this may be crucial in the establishment of fungal infections. AIM:This study investigated in vitro enzymatic activities of Candida species and their virulence in an in vivo Galleria mellonella experimental model. METHODS: Twenty-four clinical strains of Candida spp. isolated from the human oral cavity were evaluated, including the following species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. norvegensis, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii. All Candida strains were tested in vitro for production of proteinase and phospholipase. The Candida strains were also injected into Galleria mellonella larvae to induce experimental candidiasis, and after 24 hours, the survival rate was assessed. RESULTS: Phospholipase and proteinase activity were observed in 100% of the C. albicans strains. In the non-albicans species, proteinase and phospholipase activity were observed in 25 and 43% of the studied strains, respectively. The most pathogenic Candida species in G. mellonella were C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. lusitaniae, whereas C. glabrata was the least virulent species. Furthermore, a positive significant correlation was found between both enzymatic activities with virulence in G. mellonella. CONCLUSIONS: The virulence of Candida strains in G. mellonella is related to the quantity of proteinases and phospholipases production of each strain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/pathogenicity , Invertebrates/pathogenicity , Peptide Hydrolases , Phospholipases , Virulence Factors
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