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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 644-650, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957457


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The increase in the incidence of fungal infections, especially those caused by Candida albicans and other Candida species, necessitates the understanding and treatment of Candida-associated infections. In this study, we aimed to investigate the identification, distribution, and biofilm formation ability of different clinical Candida isolates and evaluate the distribution and antifungal susceptibilities of high biofilm-forming (HBF) Candida isolates. METHODS: For identification, carbohydrate fermentation, carbohydrate assimilation, and ChromAgar tests were used. Biofilm formation was assessed using crystal violet binding assay, while the susceptibility to antifungal agents was determined using ATBTM Fungus 3 test kits. RESULTS: The majority of Candida species were C. parapsilosis (31.3%; 31/99) and C. tropicalis (30.3%; 30/99). C. tropicalis was found to be the most frequently isolated species among all HBF Candida species. HBF Candida isolates were more frequently isolated from vaginal swab (35.7%; 10/28), tracheal aspirate (17.9%; 5/28), and urine (17.9%; 5/28). The majority of tested isolates were resistant to itraconazole and voriconazole, whereas no isolate was deemed resistant to 5-flucytosine. CONCLUSIONS: C. tropicalis displays the highest biofilm formation ability among all the Candida species evaluated, and HBF Candida isolates were more frequently seen in vaginal swab, tracheal aspirate, and urine samples. Our findings revealed that 5-flucytosine is the most efficient antifungal agent against HBF Candida isolates.

Humans , Candida/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/classification , Candida/physiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms/growth & development
Braz. dent. j ; 28(6): 669-674, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888713


Abstract Recently, the non-albicans Candida species have become recognized as an important source of infection and oral colonization by association of different species in a large number of immunosuppressed patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interactions between C. krusei and C. glabrata in biofilms formed in vitro and their ability to colonize the oral cavity of mouse model. Monospecies and mixed biofilms were developed of each strain, on 96-well microtiter plates for 48 h. These biofilms were analyzed by counting colony-forming units (CFU/mL) and by determining cell viability, using the XTT hydroxide colorimetric assay. For the in vivo study, twenty-four mice received topical applications of monospecie or mixed suspensions of each strain. After 48 h, yeasts were recovered from the mice and quantified by CFU/mL count. In the biofilm assays, the results for the CFU/mL count and the XTT assay showed that the two species studied were capable of forming high levels of in vitro monospecie biofilm. In mixed biofilm, the CFU of C. krusei increased (p=0.0001) and C. glabrata decreased (p=0.0001). The metabolic activity observed in XTT assay of mixed biofilm was significantly reduced compared with a single C. glabrata biofilm (p=0.0001). Agreeing with CFU in vitro count, C. glabrata CFU/mL values recovered from oral cavity of mice were statistically higher in the group with single infection (p=0.0001) than the group with mixed infection. We concluded that C. krusei inhibits C. glabrata and takes advantage to colonize the oral cavity and to form biofilms.

Resumo Recentemente, as espécies não albicans tem se tornado uma importante fonte de infecção e de colonização oral pela associação de espécies em um grande número de pacientes imunossuprimidos. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a interação entre C. krusei e C. glabrata em biofilmes formados in vitro e sua capacidade em colonizar a cavidade oral em modelo de camundongo. Biofilmes monoespécies e mistos foram formados em placas de 96 poços por 48 h. Esses biofilmes foram analisados pela contagem de UFC/mL e pela determinação da viabilidade celular, usando ensaio de XTT. Para o estudo in vivo, vinte e quatro camundongos receberam aplicações tópicas de suspensões monoespécies e mistas de cada espécie. Após 48 h, as leveduras foram recuperadas dos camundongos e quantificadas por UFC/mL. Nos ensaios de biofilme, os resultados da contagem de UFC/mL e do ensaio de XTT mostraram que as duas espécies estudadas foram capazes de formar grande quantidade de biofilme monoespécie in vitro. Nos biofilmes mistos, a UFC/mL de C. krusei aumentou (p=0,0001) e de C. glabrata diminuiu (p=0,0001). A atividade metabólica observada no ensaio de XTT nos biofilmes mistos foi significantemente reduzida comparada com o biofilme formado apenas de C. glabrata (p=0,0001). Concordado com as contagens in vitro, os valores de UFC/mL de C. glabrata recuperados da cavidade oral dos camundongos foram estatisticamente maior no grupo com infecção simples (p=0,0001) do que do grupo com infecção mista. Nós concluímos que C. krusei inibe C. glabrata e possui vantagem em colonizar a cavidade oral e formar biofilmes.

Mice , Candida/physiology , Species Specificity , In Vitro Techniques , Candida/classification , Colony Count, Microbial , Colorimetry , Biofilms , Microbial Interactions
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e23, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951969


Abstract Most Candida infections are related to microbial biofilms often formed by the association of different species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interactions between Candida albicans and non-albicans species in biofilms formed in vitro. The non-albicans species studied were:Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata andCandida krusei. Single and mixed biofilms (formed by clinical isolates of C. albicans and non-albicans species) were developed from standardized suspensions of each strain (107 cells/mL), on flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plates for 48 hour. These biofilms were analyzed by counting colony-forming units (CFU/mL) in Candida HiChrome agar and by determining cell viability, using the XTT 2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide colorimetric assay. The results for both the CFU/mL count and the XTT colorimetric assay showed that all the species studied were capable of forming high levels of in vitro biofilm. The number of CFU/mL and the metabolic activity of C. albicans were reduced in mixed biofilms with non-albicans species, as compared with a singleC. albicans biofilm. Among the species tested, C. krusei exerted the highest inhibitory action against C. albicans. In conclusion, C. albicans established antagonistic interactions with non-albicans Candida species in mixed biofilms.

Candida/physiology , Candida albicans/physiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Microbial Interactions/physiology , Tetrazolium Salts , Time Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Colony Count, Microbial/methods , Analysis of Variance , Colorimetry/methods
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(5): 459-465, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764506


ABSTRACTThe antifungal activity of some statins against different fungal species has been reported. Thus, at the first moment, the in vitro antifungal activity of simvastatin, atorvastatin and pravastatin was tested againstCandida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. Then, in a second approach, considering that the best results were obtained for simvastatin, this drug was evaluated in combination with antifungal drugs against planktonic growth and tested against biofilms ofCandida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the microdilution broth method, as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The interaction between simvastatin and antifungals against planktonic cells was analyzed by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration index. Regarding biofilm susceptibility, simvastatin was tested against growing biofilm and mature biofilm of one strain of each tested yeast species. Simvastatin showed inhibitory effect against Candida spp. andCryptococcus spp. with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 15.6 to 1000 mg L-1 and from 62.5 to 1000 mg L-1, respectively. The combination of simvastatin with itraconazole and fluconazole showed synergism against Candidaspp. and Cryptococcus spp., while the combination of simvastatin with amphotericin B was synergistic only againstCryptococcus spp. Concerning the biofilm assays, simvastatin was able to inhibit both growing biofilm and mature biofilm ofCandida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. The present study showed that simvastatin inhibits planktonic cells and biofilms ofCandida and Cryptococcus species.

Animals , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida/drug effects , Cryptococcus/drug effects , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida/classification , Candida/physiology , Cryptococcus/classification , Cryptococcus/physiology , Drug Synergism , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1371-1377, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741289


Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo). C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources,in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

Humans , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida/genetics , Candida/physiology , Candidiasis/microbiology , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Brazil , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Public , Tertiary Care Centers
Braz. oral res ; 28(1): 28-32, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696999


Adhesion and colonization of the oral cavity by Candida albicans is an initial step in candidosis. Orthodontic and other oral appliances seem to favor candidal presence. The aim of this work was to compare the presence of Candida species in saliva, their adherence to oral epithelial cells, and the levels of anti-C. albicans IgA in children with or without orthodontic appliances. This study included 30 children 5 to 12 years old (9.1 ± 1.7 years old) who were users of removable orthodontic devices for at least 6 months and 30 control children of similar ages (7.7 ± 1.5 years old). The presence of yeast species in the saliva was evaluated by microbiological methods. Candida species were identified using phenotypic methods. Anti-C. albicans IgA levels in saliva were analyzed by ELISA. The yeasts adhering to oral epithelial cells were assessed by exfoliative cytology. No statistically significant differences were observed for saliva yeast counts and anti-C. albicans IgA levels between the studied groups. Children with orthodontic devices exhibited more yeast cells adhering to oral epithelial cells and a higher percentage of non-albicans species relative to the control group. In conclusion, orthodontic appliances may favor the adherence of Candida to epithelial cells but do not influence the presence of these yeasts in saliva, and the levels of anti-C. albicans IgA do not correlate with yeast adherence or presence of Candida in the oral cavity.

Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Candida/physiology , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Orthodontic Appliances, Removable/microbiology , Saliva/microbiology , Analysis of Variance , Case-Control Studies , Cell Adhesion , Colony Count, Microbial , Candida/isolation & purification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology , Reference Values
J. appl. oral sci ; 20(1): 70-75, Jan.-Feb. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618156


OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8 percent glucose (SDB). Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans) and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination) were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC) than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

Humans , Acrylic Resins , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Colony Count, Microbial , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/physiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Dentures/microbiology , Species Specificity , Surface Properties
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(6): 646-654, Sept. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602046


Candida parapsilosis, currently divided into three distinct species, proliferates in glucose-rich solutions and has been associated with infections resulting from the use of medical devices made of plastic, an environment common in dialysis centres. The aims of this study were (i) to screen for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis (100 environmental isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis), (ii) to test the ability of these isolates to form biofilm and (iii) to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp biofilms to the antifungal agents, fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB). Isolates were obtained from a hydraulic circuit collected from a haemodialysis unit. Based on molecular criteria, 47 strains were re-identified as C. orthopsilosis and 53 as C. parapsilosis. Analyses using a formazan salt reduction assay and total viable count, together with microscopy studies, revealed that 72 strains were able to form biofilm that was structurally similar, but with minor differences in morphology. A microtitre-based colorimetric assay used to test the susceptibility of fungal biofilms to AMB and FLC demonstrated that the C. parapsilosis complex displayed an increased resistance to these antifungal agents. The results from these analyses may provide a basis for implementing quality controls and monitoring to ensure the microbiological purity of dialysis water, including the presence of yeast.

Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida/drug effects , Candida/physiology , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Renal Dialysis , Water Microbiology , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Hemodialysis Solutions , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Species Specificity
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(3): 212-216, Mar. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-576066


Keratinases are enzymes of great importance involved in pathogenic processes of some fungi. They also have a widespread ecological role since they are responsible for the degradation and recycling of keratin. On the one hand, studying them furthers our knowledge of pathogenicity mechanisms, which has important implications for human health, and on the other hand, understanding their ecological role in keratin recycling has biotechnological potential. Here, a wild-type keratinolytic Candida parapsilosis strain isolated from a poultry farm was treated with ethyl methanesulfonate in order to generate mutants with increased keratinase activity. Mutants were then cultured on media with keratin extracted from chicken feathers as the sole source of nitrogen and carbon. Approximately 500 mutants were screened and compared with the described keratinolytic wild type. Three strains, H36, I7 and J5, showed enhanced keratinase activity. The wild-type strain produced 80 U/mL of keratinolytic activity, strain H36 produced 110 U/mL, strain I7, 130 U/mL, and strain J5, 140 U/mL. A 70 percent increase in enzyme activity was recorded for strain J5. Enzymatic activity was evaluated by zymograms with proteic substrates. A peptidase migrating at 100 kDa was detected with keratin, bovine serum albumin and casein. In addition, a peptidase with a molecular mass of 50 kDa was observed with casein in the wild-type strain and in mutants H36 and J5. Gelatinase activity was detected at 60 kDa. A single band of 35 kDa was found in wild-type C. parapsilosis and in mutants with hemoglobin substrate.

Animals , Candida/enzymology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Candida/drug effects , Candida/physiology , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Ethyl Methanesulfonate/pharmacology , Mutagens/pharmacology , Mutation/genetics , Poultry , Substrate Specificity
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 12(2): 116-123, dic. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-590778


El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo para evaluar la eficiencia del medio de cultivo a partir de guayaba agria (Psidium araca) frente a medios comerciales en el crecimiento de tres cepas nativas: Candida guillermondii, Candida famita y Candida sp. Se evaluó el crecimiento microbiano a diferentes concentraciones de fruta, 5, 10, 25 y 50% p/v, tomando como control los medios comerciales: Malta, Sabouraud y agar papa dextrosa (PDA). La productividad y selectividad del medio de guayaba agria fue determinada mediante el método Ecométrico en un tiempo de 48 horas. Los análisis estadísticos aplicados para evaluar y comparar el crecimiento de las cepas en los medios comerciales y en el medio de guayaba agria a diferentes concentraciones demostraron lo siguiente: Candida guillermondii presentó crecimiento mayor o igual a 25 y 50% p/v comparado con los medios comerciales; Candida famata y Candida sp presentaron mejores crecimientos al 5% p/v, con respecto a los diferentes medios comerciales. Los resultados demostraron que el medio de cultivo es altamente productivo y no selectivo, lo que representa una alternativa en la conservación, el mantenimiento y el desarrollo de las levaduras estudiadas.

This work was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of the culture medium from sour guava (Psidium araca) against commercial media in the growth of three native strains: Candida guillermondii, Candida famata and Candida sp. Microbial growth was evaluated at different concentrations of fruit, 5, 10, 25, 50% w /v, using as control the commercial media: Malta, Sabouraud and PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar). The productivity and selectivity of the sour guava medium was determined by the Ecometric method in a time of 48 hours. The applied statistical analysis to evaluate and compare growth of strains in commercial culture medium and in the medium from sour guava at different concentrations showed: Candida guillermondii grew greater than or equal to 25 and 50% w / v compared with commercial medium, Candida famata and Candida sp showed better growth at 5% w / v, with respect to commercial medium. The results showed that the medium is highly productive and non-selective representing an alternative to the conservation, maintenance and development of the yeasts.

Candida/growth & development , Candida/physiology , Candida/immunology , Candida/chemistry , Psidium/growth & development , Psidium/enzymology , Psidium/genetics , Psidium/microbiology , Psidium/chemistry , Yeasts/growth & development , Yeasts/enzymology , Yeasts/immunology , Yeasts/chemistry
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 52(3): 139-143, May-June 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-550344


Phospholipase and proteinase production and the ability of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BEC) of 112 Candida isolates originated from oral cavity of HIV infected patients and from blood and catheter of intensive care unit patients were investigated. The proteinase production was detected by inoculation into bovine serum albumin (BSA) agar and the phospholipase activity was performed using egg yolk emulsion. A yeast suspension of each test strain was incubated with buccal epithelial cells and the number of adherence yeast to epithelial cells was counted. A percentage of 88.1 percent and 55.9 percent of Candida albicans and 69.8 percent and 37.7 percent of non-albicans Candida isolates produced proteinase and phospholipase, respectively. Non-albicans Candida isolated from catheter were more proteolytic than C. albicans isolates. Blood isolates were more proteolytic than catheter and oral cavity isolates while oral cavity isolates produced more phospholipase than those from blood and catheter. C. albicans isolates from oral cavity and from catheter were more adherent to BEC than non-albicans Candida isolates, but the adhesion was not different among the three sources analyzed. The results indicated differences in the production of phospholipase and proteinase and in the ability of adhesion to BEC among Candida spp. isolates from different sources. This study suggests that the pathogenicity of Candida can be correlated with the infected site.

A produção de proteinase e fosfolipase e habilidade de adesão à célula epitelial bucal de 112 isolados de Candida originadas da cavidade bucal de pacientes infectados pelo HIV e de sangue e cateter de pacientes hospitalizados foram investigados. A produção de proteinase foi detectada por inoculação em ágar soro albumina bovina e a atividade de fosfolipase foi realizada usando emulsão de gema de ovo. A suspensão de levedura de cada isolado foi incubada com célula epitelial e o número de leveduras aderidas a célula epitelial foi contada. Uma porcentagem de 88,1 e 55,9 por cento de C. albicans e 69,8 e 37,7 por cento de isolados de Candida não albicans produziram proteinase e fosfolipase, respectivamente. Candida não albicans obtidas do cateter foram mais proteolíticos que isolados de Candida albicans (p < 0,001). Isolados do sangue foram mais proteolíticos do que isolados do cateter e cavidade bucal, enquanto isolados da cavidade bucal produziram mais fosfolipase do que aqueles isolados do sangue e cateter. C. albicans isoladas da cavidade bucal e do cateter foram mais aderentes à célula epitelial bucal do que isolados de Candida não albicans, mas não houve diferença na adesão entre os três locais analisados. Os resultados indicaram diferenças na produção de fosfolipase e proteinase e na habilidade de adesão à célula epitelial bucal entre os isolados de Candida das diferentes fontes. Este estudo sugere que a patogenicidade de Candida spp pode estar correlacionada ao local infectado.

Humans , Aspartic Acid Proteases/biosynthesis , Bacterial Adhesion/physiology , Candida/enzymology , Candida/physiology , Phospholipases/biosynthesis , Candida/isolation & purification , Catheters, Indwelling/microbiology , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , HIV Infections/microbiology , Mouth/microbiology
West Indian med. j ; 58(2): 160-163, Mar. 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672461


BACKGROUND: Diseases produced for Candida species (spp) are called candidiasis and this includes settling, superficial infection, deep tissue invasion and haematogenic dissemination (eyes, the skin, the kidneys and the brain). The species that more usually cause candidiasis are C albicans, C tropicalis and C glabrata. These species usually are found in the normal microbial populations of the mucosae and can be pathogenic due the vulnerability of the host. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to review the factors that influence infection by Candida spp in order to empower health-workers in the management of such infections. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the bibliographical data banks of SCIELO, HIGHWIRE, PUBMED, LILACS and SCIRUS. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about factors such as environment, exoenzymes, preferred infection sites and other factors that are essential for combating Candida infection and the risks associated with infection, will enhance efficient management.

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las enfermedades producidas por las especies de Cándida se denominan candidiásis, e incluyen asentamiento, infección superficial, invasión del tejido profundo y diseminación hematogénica (en los ojos, la piel, los riñones y la piel). Las especies que causan candidiásis con mayor frecuencia son C albicans, C tropicalis y C glabrata. Estas especies usualmente reencuentran en las poblaciones microbianas normales de las mucosas y pueden tornarse patogénicas debido a la vulnerabilidad del huésped. OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este trabajo es examinar los factores que influyen en la infección por Candida spp, a fin de empoderar a los trabajadores de la salud en el tratamiento de este tipo de infección. MÉTODOS: Los datos fueron tomados de los bancos de datos bibliográficos, tales como SCIELO, HIGHWIRE, PUBMED, LILACS y SCIRUS. CONCLUSIONES: El conocimiento acerca de factores tales como el medio ambiente, las exoenzimas, los sitios preferidos de la infección y otros factores esenciales para combatir las infecciones por Cándida y los riesgos asociados con la infección, contribuirá a hacer el tratamiento más eficiente.

Humans , Candida/pathogenicity , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Candida albicans , Candida glabrata , Candida tropicalis , Candida/physiology , Candidiasis/microbiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Risk Factors , Virulence
J. appl. oral sci ; 16(2): 86-94, Mar.-Apr. 2008. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-481303


Despite therapeutic progress, opportunistic oral fungal infectious diseases have increased in prevalence, especially in denture wearers. The combination of entrapment of yeast cells in irregularities in denture-base and denture-relining materials, poor oral hygiene and several systemic factors is the most probable cause for the onset of this infectious disease. Hence colonization and growth on prostheses by Candida species are of clinical importance. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss several key factors controlling the adhesion of Candida species which are relevant to denture-associated stomatitis. Although there is some consensus on the role of surface properties, studies on several other factors, as the use of denture liners, salivary properties and yeast-bacterial interactions, have shown contradictory findings. A comprehensive fundamental understanding is hampered by conflicting findings due to the large variations in experimental protocols, while other factors have never been thoroughly studied. Surface free energy and surface roughness control the initial adherence, but temporal changes have not been reported. Neither have in vivo studies shown if the substratum type is critical in dictating biofilm accumulation during longer periods in the oral environment. The contribution of saliva is unclear due to factors like variations in its collection and handling. Initial findings have disclosed that also bacteria are crucial for the successful establishment of Candida in biofilms, but the clinical significance of this observation is yet to be confirmed. In conclusion, there is a need to standardize experimental procedures, to bridge the gap between laboratory and in vivo methodologies and findings and - in general - to thoroughly investigate the factors that modulate the initial attachment and subsequent colonization of denture-base materials and the oral mucosa of patients subjected to Candida infections. Information...

Humans , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Dentures , Stomatitis, Denture/microbiology , Bacterial Adhesion , Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Biofilms , Candida/physiology , Denture Liners/microbiology , Surface Properties , Saliva/physiology
Braz. oral res ; 21(1): 87-91, Jan.-Mar. 2007. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-444568


The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence capability to HeLa cells, the susceptibility to killer toxins and the in vitro susceptibility to antifungal agents (eTest? method - AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) of 9 Candida dubliniensis isolates recovered from HIV+ and AIDS patients. The adherence test was strongly positive for strain ATCC 777 and positive for all other strains. Typing by killer toxins revealed two different biotypes among the 9 isolates studied: 888 and 688. Only biotype 688 (ATCC 777) was susceptible to the K2 toxin. There was a significant inverse correlation between adherence and killer toxin susceptibility (r = -0.8525 - p = 0.0035). No strains presented resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole, flucytosine or amphotericin-B. With the exception of ATCC 777, all the other isolates presented similar behavior.

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de cepas de Candida dubliniensis recuperadas de pacientes HIV+ e com AIDS por meio da pesquisa de capacidade de adesão a células HeLa, susceptibilidade a toxinas "Killer" e resistência in vitro a antifúngicos (eTest® AB Biodisk, Solna, Suécia). O ensaio de adesão foi fortemente aderente para a amostra padrão ATCC 777, e aderente para os demais isolados. Os testes de tipagem das amostras frente às cepas-padrão produtoras de toxinas "Killer" mostraram dois biótipos diferentes dos 9 isolados estudados: 888 e 688. Somente o biótipo 688 (ATCC 777) de C. dubliniensis foi sensível à toxina K2. Houve correlação inversa significativa entre adesão e sensibilidade a toxinas "killer" (r = -0,8525 - p = 0,0035). Em relação à pesquisa de resistência a antifúngicos, as amostras de C. dubliniensis foram sensíveis ao fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol, voriconazol, à flucitosina e anfotericina B. Com exceção da amostra ATCC 777, todas as demais mostraram comportamento similar.

Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Fungal Proteins/analysis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/microbiology , Cell Adhesion , Candida/classification , Candida/physiology , HIV Infections/microbiology , HeLa Cells/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycological Typing Techniques , Proteins/analysis , Proteins/pharmacology
J Postgrad Med ; 1993 Jan-Mar; 39(1): 22-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-117424


An in vitro assay technique was set up to determine the phagocytic and microbicidal activity of a monocyte-macrophage cell line using Candida species as test organisms. The norms were determined for the activity of peritoneal macrophages of rats (24.69 +/- 2.6% phagocytosis and 35.4 +/- 5.22% ICK) and human (27.89 +/- 3.63% phagocytosis and 50.91 +/- 6.3% ICK). The assay technique was used to test the degree of activation of macrophages induced by metronidazole, Tinospora cordifolia and Asparaqus racemousus and to compare their effects with a standard immunomodulator muramyl-dipeptide. All the three test agents increased the phagocytic and killing capacity of macrophages in a dose dependent manner upto a certain dose, beyond which either these activities were found to have plateaued or decreased. The optimal doses for MDP, Metronidazole, Asparagus racemosus and Tinospora cordifolia were found to be 100 micrograms, 300 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg respectively. Patients with cirrhosis were screened for defects in monocyte function. The depressed monocyte function (20.58 +/- 5% phago and 41.24 +/- 12.19% ICK; P < 0.05) was observed indicating a compromised host defense. The utility of this candidicidal assay in experimental and clinical studies is discussed.

Adult , Animals , Candida/physiology , Humans , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Monocytes/physiology , Phagocytosis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley