Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 90
Filter
1.
Univ. med ; 60(1)2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-995036

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Candida spp. es una levadura comensal de la microbiota humana. Por características del hospedero, las infecciones del torrente sanguíneo pueden aparecer y causar una gran morbimortalidad. Métodos: Estudio restrospectivo transversal analítico de los cultivos positivos para Candida spp. entre 2008 y 2014 en un hospital universitario en Bogotá, Colombia. Se evaluaron las características clínicas y microbiológicas presentes previo a la toma de la primera muestra de sangre positiva y se determinaron asociaciones con infecciones por especies no C. albicans (NCA). Resultados: Se incluyeron 123 casos de candidemia. C. albicans fue la especie más aislada (42 %). Sin embargo, las especies NCA como grupo fueron observadas más frecuentemente. Más del 70 % de los casos presentaron manejo en la unidad de cuidado intensivo, con una mediana de estancia de 14 días previo a la primera muestra de sangre positiva. Se detectaron numerosas características médicas; sin embargo, ninguna estuvo asociada con candidemia por especies NCA. Se observó resistencia a por lo menos un antifúngico en el 29 % de los casos, aunque en una muestra reducida de pruebas de sensibilidad. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados sustentan el viraje mundial hacia la candidemia por especies NCA; pero no encontramos asociaciones clínicas en este grupo. Debe dársele prioridad a la identificación de factores de riesgo y a la optimización de los puntajes de predicción, que permitan identificar pacientes en riesgo que se beneficien de terapia preventiva.


Introduction: Candida species are commensal yeasts of the human microbiota. However, due to several host's conditions, bloodstream infections may arise causing high morbimortality. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional analytical study of positive blood cultures for Candida spp. between 2008'2014 at a university hospital in Bogotá. Colombia. We evaluated clinical and microbiological characteristics prior to the first positive blood sample was obtained and determined associations with non'C. albicans (NCA) species infections. Results: We included 123 candidemia cases. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species (42%). However; NCA species as a group were observed more often. Over 70% of cases were managed at the ICU, with a median stay of 14 days. Several medical factors were frequently observed, however none appeared to be associated with NCA species candidemia. Resistance to at least one antifungal agent was observed in 29% of cases, although a reduced sample of susceptibility tests was available. Conclusions: Our results support a worldwide shift towards NCA candidemia. However, clinical features were not associated with NCA infections. The identification of risk factors and the improvement of prediction scores must be prioritized, in order to identify' patients at high risk who may benefit of pre-emptive therapy.


Subject(s)
Candidiasis/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Candidemia/history
3.
Rev. Col. Méd. Cir. Guatem ; 156(1): 11-14, 2017 jul. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-908634

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades infecciosas crónicas constituyen un problema de salud pública mundial al ser importante causa de mortalidad. En Guatemala no existen estudios postmortem recientes que aborden dicho tema, por lo que se desconoce su prevalencia en autopsias clínicas del país. El presente estudio se delimita las siguientes enfermedades: tuberculosis, candidiasis, neurocisticercosis, aspergilosis, coccidioidomicosis e histoplasmosis. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de las enfermedades infecciosas crónicas en autopsias clínicas. Material y Métodos: investigación descriptiva retrospectiva, basada en los datos de 909 boletas de protocolos completos de autopsias clínicas realizadas del año 2006 al 2015 en el Departamento de patología en el Hospital General San Juan de Dios de Guatemala


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Tuberculosis/mortality , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Neurocysticercosis/epidemiology , Autopsy/statistics & numerical data
4.
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(3): 247-254, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-859840

ABSTRACT

Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant emerging yeast, which was responsible for healthcare-associated infection outbreaks, and was cataloged as a new species in 2009, after being isolated from a patient's ear canal secretion in Japan. Since the notification of this first occurrence, numerous cases have been reported throughout the world, including Brazil. C. auris affects mainly inpatients, patients in intensive care units, exposed to broad-spectrum antifungal medications and who make use of vascular catheters. Currently, this yeast is one of the main responsible for invasive infections in hospitals and has been cause of concern by authorities and organs due to its rapid dissemination and difficult treatment caused by its low susceptibility to antifungal agents traditionally used in clinical practice. As a contributor to the severity of infections associated with C. auris, the transmission mechanism is still unknown, which implies in a lack of control of the microorganism and high mortality rates. Thus, this literature review presents relevant information in order to alert the importance of C. auris as an etiological agent of systemic infections, as well as its epidemiology and the real challenges of the treatment (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/pathogenicity , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida/drug effects , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Candidiasis/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal
5.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 56(6): 478-482, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-830068

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of systemic and localized infection by Candida species and its possible association with demographic, clinical and laboratory manifestations and therapy in patients with rheumatic diseases taking TNF blockers. Methods: Consecutive patients with rheumatic diseases receiving anti-TNF agents were included. The following risk factors up to four weeks prior to the study were analyzed: use of antibiotics, immunosuppressant drugs, hospitalization and invasive procedures. All subjects were evaluated for clinical complaints; specific blood cultures were obtained for fungi and blood samples were collected for Candida spp. detection by polymerase chain reaction. Results: 194 patients [67 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 47 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 36 with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), 28 with psoriatic arthritis and 16 with other conditions] were included. The average age of patients was 42 ± 16 years, with 68 (35%) male and mean disease duration of 15 ± 10 years. Sixty-four (33%) patients were receiving adalimumab, 59 (30%) etanercept and 71 (36%) infliximab. Eighty-one percent of patients were concomitantly taking immunosuppressant drugs. At the time of the study, only one (0.5%) patient had localized fungal infection (vaginal candidiasis). None of the patients included had systemic candidiasis with positive blood cultures for fungi or PCR positive for Candida spp. in peripheral blood sample. Conclusions: This was the first study to assess the prevalence of invasive and localized fungal disease by Candida in a significant number of patients with rheumatic diseases on anti-TNF therapy, and demonstrated low risk of candidiasis, despite the high prevalence of immunosuppressive drug use.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de infecção sistêmica e localizada por Candida spp. e sua possível associação com dados demográficos, manifestações clínicas e laboratoriais e terapêutica em pacientes com doenças reumatológicas em uso de anti-TNF. Métodos: Foram incluídos pacientes consecutivos com doenças reumatológicas em uso de agentes anti-TNF. Foram analisados os seguintes fatores de risco até quatro semanas antes do estudo: uso de antibioticoterapia, imunossupressores, hospitalização e procedimentos invasivos. Todos foram avaliados para queixas clinicas, coletaram hemocultura específica para fungos e amostras de sangue para pesquisa de Candida spp. por reação em cadeia de polimerase. Resultados: Foram incluídos 194 pacientes [67 com artrite reumatoide (AR), 47 espondilite anquilosante (EA), 36 artrite idiopática juvenil (AIJ), 28 artrite psoriásica e 16 outros]. A média de idade era de 42 ± 16 anos, com 68 (35%) do sexo masculino e média de duração de doença de 15 ± 10 anos; 64 (33%) pacientes usavam adalimumabe, 59 (36%) etanercepte e 71 (36%) infliximabe; 81% faziam uso concomitante de imunossupressores. No momento do estudo, apenas um (0,5%) paciente apresentou infecção fúngica localizada (candidíase vaginal). Nenhum dos pacientes incluídos apresentou candidíase sistêmica com hemocultura positiva para fungos ou PCR positiva para Candida spp. em amostra de sangue periférico. Conclusões: Este foi o primeiro estudo que avaliou prevalência de doença fúngica invasiva e localizada por Candida em um expressivo número de pacientes reumatológicos em terapia anti-TNF e demonstrou baixo risco de candidíase, apesar da alta prevalência de uso de imunossupressores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Prevalence , Immunocompromised Host , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(4): 315-319, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787767

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: The prevalence of nosocomial fungemia has increased worldwide, and mortality caused by this disease is high. Objective: To assess progress in the last decade, and the prevalence and profile of fungal agents isolated in blood cultures performed in a tertiary university hospital. Method: All the results of blood cultures processed at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG), in the time intervals 2001-2003 and 2011-2013 were analyzed retrospectively. For each three-year period, the number of collected blood cultures, the overall positivity rate and the percentage of fungemia were recorded. In addition, all identified fungal species were cataloged. All blood samples were incubated in the BacT/ALERT® (bioMérieux) automation system. Results: In 2001-2003, 34,822 samples were evaluated, with 5,510 (15.8%) positive results. In 2011-2013, the number of blood cultures processed increased to 55,052 samples, with 4,873 (8.9%) positive results. There was an increase in the number of positive cultures for fungi in the analyzed period (2001-2003: 4.16%; 2011-2013: 5.95%; p<0.001). Among the agents, candidemias were predominant, especially those caused by non-albicans Candida species (2001-2003: 57.64%; 2011-2013: 65.17%; p<0.05). There was also an increase in fungemia caused by other genera (2001-2003: 2.62%; 2011-2013: 4.48%; p<0.01). Conclusion: There was an increase in the prevalence of fungemia in the last decade at HC-UFMG. Although candidemias have been responsible for most of the cases, there has been an increase in fungemias caused by other species.


Resumo Introdução: a prevalência de fungemia hospitalar tem aumentado em todo o mundo e a mortalidade por essa afecção é elevada. Objetivo: avaliar a evolução, na última década, da prevalência e do perfil dos agentes fúngicos isolados em hemoculturas realizadas em um hospital universitário terciário. Método: foram analisados retrospectivamente todos os resultados de hemocultura processados no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG), entre os períodos de 2001-2003 e de 2011-2013. Para cada triênio foram registrados o número de hemoculturas coletadas, o percentual de positividade geral e o percentual de fungemia. Também foram catalogadas todas as espécies fúngicas identificadas. Todas as amostras sanguíneas foram incubadas no sistema de automação BacT/ALERT® (bioMérieux). Resultados: entre 2001-2003, foram avaliadas 34.822 amostras, sendo 5.510 (15,8%) positivas. Entre 2011-2013, o número de hemoculturas processadas aumentou para 55.052 amostras, sendo 4.873 (8,9%) positivas. Observou-se um aumento do número de culturas positivas para fungos no período analisado (2001-2003: 4,16%; 2011-2013: 5,95%; p<0,001). Dentre os agentes, as candidemias foram predominantes, principalmente por espécies de Candida não albicans (2001-2003: 57,64%; 2011-2013: 65,17%; p<0,05). Houve também aumento da fungemia por outros gêneros (2001-2003: 2,62%; 2011-2013: 4,48%; p<0,01). Conclusão: houve aumento da prevalência de fungemia na última década no HC-UFMG. Embora as candidemias tenham sido responsáveis pela maioria dos casos, houve aumento de fungemias causadas por outras espécies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Fungemia/epidemiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Fungemia/microbiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Hospitals, University
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 367-372, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780823

ABSTRACT

Abstract The incidence of the species Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida was evaluated in a Brazilian Tertiary Hospital from the environment and health practitioners. In a 12-month period we had a total positivity of 19.65% of Candida spp. The most recurring non-albicans Candida species was C. glabrata (37.62%), generally considered a species of low virulence, but with a higher mortality rate than C. albicans. Subsequently, C. parapsilosis (25.74%) and C. tropicalis (16.86%) were the second and third most commonly isolated species. Considering the total samples collected from the emergency room and from the inpatient and the pediatric sector, 19.10% were positive for Candida spp., with the predominance of non-albicans Candida species (89.42%). The high percentage of positivity occurred in the hands (24.32%) and the lab coats (21.88%) of the health care assistants. No sample of C. albicans presented a profile of resistance to the drugs. All the non-albicans Candida species presented a decreased susceptibility to miconazole and itraconazole, but they were susceptible to nystatin. Most of the isolates were susceptible to fluconazole and amphotericin B. As expected, a high resistance rate was observed in C. glabrata and C. krusei, which are intrinsically less susceptible to this antifungal agent. The contamination of environmental surfaces by Candida spp. through hand touching may facilitate the occurrence of Candida infections predominantly in immunocompromised patients. In addition to that, the antifungal agents used should be carefully evaluated considering local epidemiologic trends in Candida spp. infections, so that therapeutic choices may be better guided.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross Infection/microbiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Candida glabrata/isolation & purification , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/microbiology , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/classification , Candida/drug effects , Candida/genetics , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Candida glabrata/classification , Candida glabrata/drug effects , Candida glabrata/genetics , Hospitals , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 477-484, Apr-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749709

ABSTRACT

One hundred and forty-one Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2002 to 2007, were analized in order to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility of these species to fluconazole. Candida albicans was the most frequent species (45.4%), followed by C. parapsilosis sensu lato (28.4%), C. tropicalis (14.2%), C. guilliermondii (6.4%), C. famata (2.8%), C. glabrata (1.4%), C. krusei (0.7%) and C. lambica (0.7%). The sources of fungal isolates were blood (47.5%), respiratory tract (17.7%), urinary tract (16.3%), skin and mucous membrane (7.1%), catheter (5.6%), feces (2.1%) and mitral valve tissue (0.7%). The susceptibility test was performed using the methodology of disk-diffusion in agar as recommended in the M44-A2 Document of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The majority of the clinical isolates (97.2%) was susceptible (S) to fluconazole, although three isolates (2.1%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and one of them (0.7%) was resistant (R). The S-DD isolates were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. tropicalis. One isolate of C. krusei was resistant to fluconazole. This work documents the high susceptibility to fluconazole by Candida species isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/classification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Drug Resistance, Fungal
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(4): 436-441, 03/07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716301

ABSTRACT

Over the last decades, Candida spp have been responsible for an increasing number of infections, especially in patients requiring intensive care. Knowledge of local epidemiology and analysis of the spread of these pathogens is important in understanding and controlling their transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of 31 Candida albicans and 17 Candida glabrata isolates recovered from intensive care unit patients from the tertiary hospital in Krakow between 2011-2012. The strains were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymerase chain reaction using five primers (CD16AS, HP1247, ERIC-2, OPE-3 and OPE-18). The results of the present investigation revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among the isolates. No clonal relationship was found among the C. albicans strains, whereas two C. glabrata isolates were identical. The source of Candida infection appeared to be mostly endogenous; however, the presence of two clonal C. glabrata strains suggested the possibility of cross-transmission of these pathogens. Our study confirmed the high discriminatory power of the RAPD technique in the molecular typing of Candida clinical isolates. This method may be applied to the evaluation of transmission routes of pathogenic fungi on a local level.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida glabrata/genetics , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida glabrata/drug effects , Candidiasis/microbiology , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Intensive Care Units , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Typing , Poland/epidemiology , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
11.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2014; 35 (10): 1210-1214
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-148892

ABSTRACT

To isolate, identify, and determine the prevalence of Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study involving retrospective analysis of 6100 samples submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory, Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia between 2011 and 2012, and prospective isolation and identification of 84 isolates recovered from various clinical specimens presented to the Microbiology Laboratory between 2012 and 2013 using the classic morphological schemes and the Vitek 2 automated system. The results of the retrospective analysis [2011-2012] indicated that of the 6100 various clinical specimens submitted to the routine microbiology analysis, 143 [2.35%] revealed the presence of Candida spp. The distribution of the 143 Candida spp. according to specimens was as follows: urine 72%, sputum 10.5%, endotracheal tube 7%, blood 4.2%, catheter tip 2.1%, throat swab 2.1%, eye swab 0.7%, wound exudates 0.7%, and cerebrospinal fluid 0.7%. The results of the prospective study [2012-2013], which involved the identification of yeast recovered from 84 specimens indicated that Candida albicans 28.6% was the predominant species, followed by Candida parapsilosis 21.4%, Candida tropicalis 14.3%, and Candida lusitaniae 9.5%. Along with the commonly encountered Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida lusitaniae were detected with significant rates. Many other Candida species and some other pathogenic yeasts have been detected for the first time in the region. Urinary tract samples were the main source of Candida species


Subject(s)
Humans , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Yeasts/isolation & purification
12.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 11(1): 71-75, jan.-mar. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-670307

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Investigar a prevalência de candidíase invasiva em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal e avaliar alterações bucais e colonização bucal por Candida spp. em recém-nascidos prematuros com baixo peso. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico descritivo em duas etapas. Na primeira, analisou-se prevalência de candidíase invasiva em base de dados de 295 prematuros com tempo de internação superior a 10 dias e peso ao nascer inferior a 2.000g. Na segunda etapa, avaliaram-se alterações bucais e colonização por Candida spp. em 65 pacientes com peso inferior a 2.000g, com até 4 semanas de idade, internados há mais de 10 dias e apresentando alterações bucais compatíveis com lesões fúngicas. Coletaram-se amostras com swab bucal e identificou-se a colonização fúngica. RESULTADOS: Na análise da base de dados, constatou-se que a prevalência de candidíase foi de 5,4%. Houve correlação com o tempo prolongado de internação (p<0,001), que foi, em média, de 31 dias, com risco de desenvolver infecção de 85% nos primeiros 25 dias. Houve correlação com o baixo peso ao nascer (p<0,001), com média de 1.410g. No exame dos pacientes, constatou-se que as alterações bucais mais frequentes foram placas brancas, moles, destacáveis localizadas na mucosa jugal e língua. Houve colonização bucal expressiva por Candida spp. (80%). CONCLUSÃO: A frequência de candidíase invasiva foi baixa e teve correlação com baixo peso ao nascer e tempo de internação prolongado. As alterações bucais mais frequentes foram placas brancas compatíveis com candidíase pseudomembranosa e a colonização por Candida spp. foi acima da média.


OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence of invasive candidiasis in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and to evaluate oral diseases and Candida spp. colonization in low birth weight preterm newborns. METHODS: A descriptive epidemiological study performed in two stages. First, prevalence of candidiasis was analyzed in a database of 295 preterm patients admitted to hospital for over 10 days and birth weight less than 2,000g. In the second stage, oral changes and Candida spp. colonization were assessed in 65 patients weighing less than 2,000g, up to 4 week-old, hospitalized for over 10 days and presenting oral abnormalities compatible with fungal lesions. Swab samples were collected in the mouth to identify fungi. RESULTS: Prevalence of candidiasis was 5.4% in the database analyzed. It correlated with prolonged hospital length of stay (p<0.001), in average, 31 days, and 85% risk of developing infection in the first 25 days. It correlated with low birth weight (p<0.001), with mean of 1,140g. The most frequent alterations were white soft plaques, detachable, in oral mucosa and tongue. Intense oral colonization by Candida spp was observed (80%). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of invasive candidiasis was low and correlated with low birth weight and prolonged hospital stay. The most common oral changes were white plaques compatible with pseudomembranous candidiasis and colonization by Candida spp. was above average.


Subject(s)
Candidiasis, Oral/diagnosis , Candidiasis, Oral/epidemiology , Candidiasis/epidemiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At present, the clinical breakpoints (CBPs) of both fluconazole and voriconazole are available only for 3 common Candida species in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) methods. Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were recently applied to both methods to detect the emergence of acquired resistance (i.e., non-wild-type isolates) among 5 common Candida species. METHODS: We performed a nationwide study to determine the fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates (BSIs) using both the CLSI and EUCAST methods. A total of 423 BSIs of 5 Candida species were collected from 8 hospitals. The azole susceptibilities were assessed on the basis of the species-specific CBPs and ECVs. RESULTS: Of the 341 BSIs of 3 common Candida species (i.e., C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis), 0.3% and 0.9%, 0.0% and 1.5% of isolates were categorized as fluconazole and voriconazole resistant according to the CLSI and EUCAST CBPs, respectively. Of 423 total BSIs, 1.4% and 2.6% had fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) exceeding the ECVs according to the CLSI and EUCAST, respectively; 1.0% and 2.1% had voriconazole MICs exceeding the ECVs according to the CLSI and EUCAST, respectively. Categorical agreement between the methods using ECVs was 98.3% for fluconazole and 98.3% for voriconazole. CONCLUSIONS: The EUCAST and CLSI methods using ECVs provide highly concordant results. Moreover, non-wild-type isolates with possibly acquired azole resistance were rare among the BSIs of 5 common Candida species in Korea.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Republic of Korea , Triazoles/pharmacology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At present, the clinical breakpoints (CBPs) of both fluconazole and voriconazole are available only for 3 common Candida species in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) methods. Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were recently applied to both methods to detect the emergence of acquired resistance (i.e., non-wild-type isolates) among 5 common Candida species. METHODS: We performed a nationwide study to determine the fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates (BSIs) using both the CLSI and EUCAST methods. A total of 423 BSIs of 5 Candida species were collected from 8 hospitals. The azole susceptibilities were assessed on the basis of the species-specific CBPs and ECVs. RESULTS: Of the 341 BSIs of 3 common Candida species (i.e., C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis), 0.3% and 0.9%, 0.0% and 1.5% of isolates were categorized as fluconazole and voriconazole resistant according to the CLSI and EUCAST CBPs, respectively. Of 423 total BSIs, 1.4% and 2.6% had fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) exceeding the ECVs according to the CLSI and EUCAST, respectively; 1.0% and 2.1% had voriconazole MICs exceeding the ECVs according to the CLSI and EUCAST, respectively. Categorical agreement between the methods using ECVs was 98.3% for fluconazole and 98.3% for voriconazole. CONCLUSIONS: The EUCAST and CLSI methods using ECVs provide highly concordant results. Moreover, non-wild-type isolates with possibly acquired azole resistance were rare among the BSIs of 5 common Candida species in Korea.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Republic of Korea , Triazoles/pharmacology
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145799

ABSTRACT

Fungal infections in humans occur as a result of defects in the immune system. An increasing emergence in oral Candidal and non-Candidal fungal infections is evident in the past decade owing to the rise in the immunodeficient and immunocompromised population globally. Oral Candidal infection usually involves a compromised host and the compromise may be local or systemic. Local compromising factors include decreased salivation, poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures among others while systemic factors include diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiency, HIV infection/AIDS and others. Oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection and rarely appears as a systemic fungal disease whereas oral non-Candidal fungal infections are usually signs of disseminated disease. Some of the non-Candidal fungi that were once considered exotic and geographically restricted are now seen worldwide, beyond their natural habitat, probably attributed to globalization and travels. Currently infections from these fungi are more prevalent than before and they may present either as primary oral lesions or as oral manifestations of systemic mycoses. This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa.


Subject(s)
Candidiasis/drug therapy , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Candidiasis/etiology , Candidiasis/microbiology , Candidiasis/therapy , Humans , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Mycoses/epidemiology , Mycoses/etiology , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/therapy , Oral Hygiene
17.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 65(3): 508-513, maio-jun. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-650645

ABSTRACT

Estudo descritivo exploratório que teve por objetivos descrever o perfil da população menor de um ano atendida na consulta de enfermagem em Puericultura em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde, em Rio Grande-RS, e avaliar a associação entre situação nutricional e presença de candidíase oral, candidíase perineal e dermatite irritativa das fraldas. A amostra foi constituída por 96 prontuários das crianças menores de um ano que realizaram consulta de enfermagem em puericultura. A maioria das crianças era do sexo feminino e encontrava-se eutrófica; todas as que necessitaram de avaliação pediátrica foram encaminhadas; a dermatite irritativa das fraldas foi a alteração mais frequente e esteve associada à situação nutricional desfavorável; o aleitamento materno foi realizado, no máximo, até o sétimo mês de vida do bebê. O estudo aponta a necessidade de sensibilizar a população a respeito da importância da puericultura para a prevenção de agravos e promoção da saúde das crianças.


Descriptive exploratory study that aimed to describe the profile of a population less than one year old of age, assisted in the nursing appointment in Childcare at a Health Basic Unit, in Rio Grande-RS; and to evaluate the association between the nutritional situation and the presence of oral candidiasis, perineal candidiasis and irritative dermatitis due to the diapers. The sample was constituted by all the children's charts (96 overall) who were less than one year old and who were assisted in a nursing appointment in Childcare. Most of the children were girls and were found eutrophic; all the ones who needed a pediatric evaluation were sent to the proper evaluation; the irritative dermatitis of the diapers was the most frequent alteration, and it was associated to the unfavorable nutritional situation; breastfeeding took place, at most, up to the seventh month of the baby. The study indicates the need to sensitize the population to about the importance of childcare for the prevention of injuries and promotion of child health.


Estudio descriptivo-exploratorio que tuvo como objetivo describir el perfil de la población con edad menor que un año, atendida en una consulta de enfermería en el Cuidado del Niño en una Unidad Básica de Salud, en Rio Grande (RS), y evaluar la asociación entre el estado nutricional y la presencia de candidiasis bucal, candidiasis perineal y dermatitis causadas por pañales. La muestra se ha constituido por 96 relatos clínicos de los niños menores de un año que realizaron consulta de enfermería en el Cuidado del Niño. La mayoría de los niños eran del sexo femenino y estaban bien nutridos; todos los que necesitaron de evaluación pediátrica fueron encaminados; la dermatitis causada por el uso de pañales fue la alteración más frecuente y estaba asociado con el estado nutricional desfavorable; la lactancia materna fue realizada, hasta el séptimo mes de vida del bebé. El estudio pone de relieve la necesidad de sensibilizar la población acerca de la importancia del Cuidado del Niño para la prevención de enfermedades y promoción de la salud de los niños.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pediatric Nursing , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Malnutrition/epidemiology
18.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 18(7): 618-622, nov. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-654080

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar a incidência de candidemia nosocomial, as espécies prevalentes de Candida, as populações susceptíveis e o perfil de sensibilidade das espécies de Candida aos antifúngicos testados. Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo prospectivo, observacional, de base laboratorial, para avaliar a incidência de candidemia, as espécies/ distribuição de susceptibilidade e condições clínicas entre julho de 2007 e julho de 2008 em dois hospitais terciários privados em Recife, Brasil. Um caso de candidemia foi definido como o isolamento de Candida spp da cultura de sangue e um caso incidente como a primeira hemocultura positiva para Candida independente da espécie. Foram realizadas identificação das espécies e testes de susceptibilidade. As taxas de incidência foram calculadas por 1000 admissões. Resultados: Um total de 20870 pacientes foi admitido nos dois hospitais durante o período de estudo (hospital A: 17426 pacientes/192 leitos; hospital B: 3444 pacientes/50 leitos). Foram observados 41 episódios de candidemia (hospital A: 26; hospital B: 15) em 28 pacientes (hospital A: 16; hospital B: 12). A faixa etária foi de 26 dias a 92 anos (mediana de 60.8 anos). Cateter central esteve presente em 85.7% e em todos os episódios (100%) foi observado tratamento prévio com antibióticos. Candida albicans (n = 14), Candidaparapsilosis (n = 15), Candida tropicalis (n = 11) e Candida glabrata (n = 1) foram as espécies mais isoladas. Antifúngicos foram administrados em 37 episódios de candidemia (91.9% profilático e 75.7% tratamento). Todos os isolados foram sensíveis à anfotericina B, 43.9% ao voriconazol e 36.6% ao fluconazol. A taxa de incidência de candidemia foi de 1.34 episódios por 1 000 admissões (hospital A = 0.92; hospital B = 3.48). Treze pacientes (46.4%) morreram (84.6% > 60 anos). Conclusões: Candidemiafoi causada predominantemente por espécies não-albicans. A incidência de candidemia foi inferior ao observado em estudos multicêntricos brasileiros


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Brazil , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Candidiasis/prevention & control , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/transmission
19.
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(4): 675-680, jul.-ago. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-600608

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTOS: Alguns fungos são habitantes do organismo humano e podem vir a causar alguma doença, quando há condições propícias para seu desenvolvimento. Infecções por leveduras são comuns e frequentes em pele e mucosas; contudo, espécies emergentes têm alterado o perfil epidemiológico. A habilidade de colonizar diversos sítios anatômicos tem sido associada à patogenicidade do gênero Candida, quando as condições ambientais são particularmente favoráveis. No caso de climas quentes e úmidos, os atritos sofridos pela pele ou as defesas imunitárias debilitadas podem fazer com que as leveduras deixem de ser comensais para se tornarem organismos patógenos. OBJETIVO: Diagnosticar candidíases em profissionais militares e avaliar a frequência dessas infecções nesses indivíduos. MÉTODOS: Os materiais clínicos analisados foram semeados em duplicata nos meios Sabouraud Dextrose-ágar (Difco) e Mycosel (Difco). Identificaram-se os agentes etiológicos por meio da observação de tubo germinativo, microcultivo e caracteres fisiológicos, assimilação de fontes de carbono (auxanograma) e fermentação de fontes de carbono (zimograma). RESULTADOS: De um total de 197 pacientes estudados, 91 (46,2 por cento) apresentaram quadros clínicos de candidíases. A região genitocrural foi considerada a mais acometida (47,7 por cento), seguida pelas regiões interdactilares (mãos e pés, 27,8 por cento). C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata e espécies emergentes, como C. krusei e C. guilliermondii, foram identificadas. CONCLUSÃO: No ambiente de trabalho, o uso de calçados e de uniformes por longos períodos de tempo, associado ao estresse e à sudorese, foi considerado fator predisponente para o desenvolvimento das infecções fúngicas.


BACKGROUNDS: Some fungi are natural inhabitants of the human body but may result in disease when conditions are conducive to their development. Yeast infections are common and often occur in the skin and mucous membranes; however emerging species have changed this epidemiological profile. The ability to colonize different anatomical sites has been associated with the pathogenicity of Candida when environmental conditions are particularly favorable. In the case of hot, humid climates, the attrition suffered by the skin and weakened immune defenses may result in yeasts becoming pathogenic rather than commensal organisms. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to diagnose yeast infections in military personnel and to evaluate the frequency of these infections in the individuals evaluated. METHODS: The clinical material analyzed was seeded in duplicate in Sabouraud dextrose agar (Difco™) and Mycosel medium (Difco™). The etiological agents were identified by observing the germ tubes, microculture and physiological characteristics, assimilation of carbon sources (auxanogram) and fermentation of carbon sources (zymogram). RESULTS: Of a total of 197 patients evaluated, 91 (46.2 percent) had episodes of candidiasis. The genitocrural region was the most commonly affected area (47.7 percent) followed by the interdigital regions (between the toes or fingers) (27.8 percent). Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and emergent species such as Candida krusei and Candida guilliermondii were found. CONCLUSIONS: In the work environment, having to use shoes and uniforms for extended periods of time, in addition to stress and perspiration, were considered predisposing factors for the development of fungal infections.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Age Distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/classification , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Risk Factors
20.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2011 Jul-Sept 54(3): 552-555
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142041

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Urinary tract infection (UTI) as a result of Candida spp. is becoming increasingly common in hospitalized setting. Clinicians face dilemma in differentiating colonization from true infection and whether to treat candiduria or not. The objective of the present study was to look into the significance of candiduria in catheterized patients admitted in the ICUs and perform microbiological characterization of yeasts to guide treatment protocols. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive isolates of Candida spp. from the urine sample of 70 catheterized patients admitted in the ICU were collected and stocked for further characterization. A proforma was maintained containing demographic and clinical details. Blood cultures were obtained from all these 70 patients and processed. Species identification of yeasts was done on VITEK. Results: Candiduria was more common at extremes of age. The mean duration of catheter days was 11.1 ± 6 days. Other associated risk factors such as diabetes mellitus and antibiotic usage were seen in 38% and 100% of our study group. Concomitant candidemia was seen in 4.3% of cases. Non-albicans Candida spp. (71.4%) emerged as the predominant pathogen causing nosocomial UTI. Conclusion: The present study reiterates the presence of candiduria in catheterized patients, especially in the presence of diabetes and antibiotic usage. Non-albicans Candida spp. are replacing Candida albicans as the predominant pathogen for nosocomial UTI. Hence, we believe that surveillance for nosocomial candiduria should be carried out in hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidemia/epidemiology , Candidemia/microbiology , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Candidiasis/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/complications , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urine/microbiology , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL