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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2435-2442, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887809

ABSTRACT

The stability of virus-like particles (VLPs) is currently the main factor affecting the quality of foot-and-mouth disease VLPs vaccines. In order to further improve the quality of the VLPs vaccine of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), three amino acid modification sites were designed and screened through kinetic analysis software, based on the three-dimensional structure of FMDV. The three mutant recombinant plasmids were successfully prepared by the point mutation kit, transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21 and expressed in vitro. After purification by Ni ion chromatography column, SDS-PAGE proved that the three amino acid mutations did not affect the expression of the target protein. The results of the stability study of three FMD mutant VLPs obtained by in vitro assembly show that the introduction of internal hydrophobic side chain amino acids made the morphology of VLPs more uniform (N4017W), and their stability was significantly improved compared to the other two VLPs. The internal hydrophobic force of the capsid contributes to the formation of VLPs and helps to maintain the stability of the capsid, providing new experimental ideas for improving the quality of VLPs vaccines, and helping to promote the development of VLPs vaccines.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Animals , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/prevention & control , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/genetics , Kinetics , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics
2.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 157 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291880

ABSTRACT

A L-Asparaginase (L-ASNase) de Erwinia chrysathemi (ErA) é uma enzima amplamente utilizada para o tratamento da leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA). Embora o seu uso como segunda linha de tratamento para a LLA tenha proporcionado consideráveis benefícios clínicos, reações de hipersensibilidade e rápida depuração plasmática ainda são problemas recorrentes. Ademais, extensivos e custosos processos de produção da ErA são necessários para a obtenção da enzima pura. Com base nesses problemas, o presente trabalho propõe (1) o estudo de viabilidade de expressão da ErA em um sistema de síntese proteica livre de células (SPLC) e (2) a conjugação da proteína em bacteriófagos como ferramenta alternativa para o isolamento e monitoramento da depuração plasmática da ErA. Foram utilizados extratos celulares de Escherichia coli suplementados com solução energética contendo creatina fosfato (CP) como fonte de energia para síntese in vitro de ErA. Para conjugação da ErA a bacteriófagos, o sistema SpyTag/SpyCatcher foi implementado: SpyCatcher foi fusionado à porção N-terminal da ErA e bacteriófagos filamentosos da linhagem M13 e fd foram modificados de modo a expressar SpyTag nas proteínas de capsídeo pIII e pVIII, respectivamente. Em relação ao primeiro objetivo, o sistema de SPLC foi capaz de expressar a ErA com atividade. A proteína foi expressa na fração solúvel e apresentou atividade enzimática significativamente superior em relação à reação controle (7,07 ± 0,68 U/mL vs. 1,83 ± 0,14 U/mL). Tempo necessário para obtenção do extrato celular foi reduzido de 45 para 26 hrs, e sete componentes da solução energética foram removidos da composição original sem implicações negativas na eficiência de expressão da ErA, simplificando desta forma o processo de SPLC. Em relação ao segundo objetivo, ErA fusionada à SpyCatcher (SpyCatcher_ErA) foi conjugada com êxito em bacteriófagos capazes de expressar SpyTag fusionadas na porção N-terminal das proteínas pIII (SpyTag_pIII) e pVIII (SpyTag_pVIII). A porcentagem de formação dos conjugados entre SpyCatcher_ErA e SpyTag_pIII ((ErA)5-pIII) foi de 6% enquanto formação dos conjugados entre SpyCatcher_ErA e SpyTag_pVIII ((ErA)50-pVIII) foi de 46%, valores estes confirmados por atividade enzimática. Solução contendo conjugados foram injetados em camundongos e sequenciados/titulados com êxito. Não houve diferença de depuração plasmática entre (ErA)5-pIII e bacteriófago controle, mas houve maior taxa de eliminação de (ErA)50-pVIII em relação ao mesmo bacteriófago não conjugado à SpyCatcher_ErA. Os resultados aqui apresentados confirmam ser possível expressar ErA com atividade biológica em sistemas de SPLC. Além disso, o sistema de conjugação da ErA a bacteriófagos aqui desenvolvido foi capaz de monitorar a concentração de ErA presente na circulação em função do tempo, tornando-se uma potencial plataforma de desenvolvimento de novas proteoformas da ErA com características clínicas melhoradas


L-Asparaginase (L-ASNase) from Erwinia chrysanthemi (ErA) is a widely used enzyme for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although its use as a second-line treatment has provided significant clinical benefits, hypersensitivity reactions and a fast clearance rate are recurring L-ASNase-related problems. In addition, extensive and costly production processes are required for the manufacturing of pure ErA. Based on these drawbacks, this current work proposes (1) the study of the use of a cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) system as a viable platform for the synthesis of ErA and (2) the conjugation of the protein on bacteriophages as an alternative tool for the isolation and monitoring of ErA clearance. Escherichia coli-derived cell extracts supplemented with a creatine phosphate-based energy solution were used to synthesize ErA in vitro. To conjugate ErA on bacteriophages, the SpyTag/SpyCatcher system was implemented: SpyCatcher was fused to the N-terminus of the ErA while filamentous phage strains M13 and fd were engineered in order to display SpyTag on their pIII and pVIII capsid proteins, respectively. Regarding the first goal, the CFPS system was able to express an active ErA. The protein was expressed in the soluble fraction and there presented a significant higher enzymatic activity compared to the control reaction (7.07 ± 0.68 U/mL vs. 1.83 ± 0.14 U/mL). Time required to obtain the cell extract was reduced from 45 to 26 hours, and seven energy solution reagents were removed from the original solution without compromising the efficiency of ErA expression, thus simplifying the CFPS process. With respect to the second goal, ErA fused to SpyCatcher (SpyCatcher_ErA) was sucessfully conjugated on bacteriophages capable of displaying SpyTag fused to the Nterminus of the pIII (SpyTag_pIII) or pVIII (SpyTag_pVIII) proteins. Percentage of conjugate formation between SpyCatcher_ErA and SpyTag_pIII (ErA)5-pIII was 6% whereas conjugate formation between SpyCatcher_ErA and SpyTag_pVIII (ErA)50-pVIII was 46%, values that were confirmed by enzymatic activity. Sample containing conjugates were injected into mice and sucessfully sequenced/titrated. No clearance differences were observed between (ErA)5- pIII and a control bacteriophage, but a higher clearance rate was observed for (ErA)50-pVIII compared to SpyTag_VIII non conjugated to SpyCatcher_ErA. The results here presented confirm the expression of a biologically active ErA from a CFPS system. Besides, the development of a conjugation system capable of linking ErA to bacteriophages could be used as a means to monitor the ErA concentration in the blood as a function of time and also as a potential platform to be used in the development of novel ErA proteoforms with improved clinical properties


Subject(s)
Asparaginase/analysis , Biological Products/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Efficiency , Enzymes , Erwinia/classification , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/classification , Cells , Dickeya chrysanthemi/classification , Monitoring , Capsid Proteins , Growth and Development , Escherichia coli/classification , Control/methods
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2076-2082, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878467

ABSTRACT

The special nucleic acid fragments, 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) and internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which interact with the capsid proteins, were selected as scaffolds to investigate the assembly efficiency of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus-like particles (VLPs). The assembled product was characterized by evaluation of particle size, surface potential, gel retardation assay, nuclease digestion experiments, size-exclusion chromatography, transmission electron microscopy and circular dichroism analysis. The results confirmed that the 5' UTR and IRES of FMDV co-assembled with the FMD VLPs and facilitated the assembly efficiency of FMD-VLPs. It demonstrates that the assembly efficiency of 75S particles of VLPs-5'UTR was significantly higher than those of the VLPs (P<0.001) and VLPs-IRES group (P<0.01). Comparatively the assembly efficiency of 12S particles of VLPs-IRES was significantly higher than those of the VLPs (P<0.000 1) and VLPs-5'UTR (P<0.000 1). It showed that the 5' UTR represented more effective in facilitating the assembly of VLPs. This study proposes an optimized strategy for improving the assembly efficiency of VLPs for the development of VLPs vaccine.


Subject(s)
5' Untranslated Regions , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/physiology , Internal Ribosome Entry Sites , Nucleic Acids/metabolism , Virus Assembly
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878347

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop RT-nPCR assays for amplifying partial and complete VP1 genes of human enteroviruses (HEVs) from clinical samples and to contribute to etiological surveillance of HEV-related diseases.@*Methods@#A panel of RT-nPCR assays, consisting of published combined primer pairs for VP1 genes of HEV A-C and in-house designed primers for HEV-D, was established in this study. The sensitivity of each RT-nPCR assay was evaluated with serially diluted virus stocks of five serotypes expressed as CCID @*Results@#The sensitivity of RT-nPCR assays for amplifying partial VP1 gene of HEVs was 0.1 CCID @*Conclusion@#This RT-nPCR system is capable of amplifying the partial and complete VP1 gene of HEV A-D, providing rapid, sensitive, and reliable options for molecular typing and molecular epidemiology of HEVs in clinical specimens.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins/genetics , Enterovirus A, Human/genetics , Enterovirus B, Human/genetics , Enterovirus C, Human/genetics , Enterovirus D, Human/genetics , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology/methods , Molecular Typing/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
5.
Infectio ; 23(4): 376-381, Dec. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1040009

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las proteínas no capsidales del virus de la fiebre aftosa se utilizan como marcadoras en la evaluación de animales que han estado en contacto con el virus, a diferencia de los inmunizados, ya que la vacuna no debe tener estas proteínas, por lo tanto los animales no deben presentar anticuerpos contra ellas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue la caracterización de la proteína no capsidal 3D y la producción de anticuerpos policlonales in vivo. La proteína se purificó del cultivo de virus inactivo, por cromatografía de intercambio iónico. La elución de los picos fue sometida a electroforesis uni-bidimensional; demostrándose un alto grado de pureza (>90%) en el pico tres, donde se identifico la proteína 3D, por la técnica de MALDI-TOF y electroespray de trampa iónica. La proteína purificada, se inoculó en cabras y el suero hiperinmune fue precipitado y sometido a cromatografía de afinidad para la obtención de inmunoglobulinas; la reacción inmunitaria se confirmó por medio de inmunodifusión y Western blot. El proceso de purificación demostró ser eficiente y útil para la obtención de anticuerpos específicos, los cuales tendrán utilidad en la elaboración de un ensayo inmunoenzimático que mida la pureza de la vacuna frente al contenido de estas proteínas.


Abstract The noncapsid proteins of the foot and mouth disease are used as markers in the evaluation of animals that have been in contact with the virus, to discriminated the immunized animals, because the vaccine should not have these proteins, therefore animals should not present antibodies against them. The aim of this investigation was the characterization of the 3D non-capsid protein and the production of polyclonal antibodies in vivo. The protein was purified from the culture of inactivated virus, by ion exchange chromatography. The elution of the peaks were submit an one-two-dimensional electrophoresis; Demonstrated a high degree of purity (> 90%) in peak three, where the 3D protein was identified, by the MALDI-TOF technique and ion trap electrospray. The purified protein, inoculated in goats and the hyperimmune serum, was precipitate out and submitted to affinity chromatography to obtain immunoglobulins; the immune reaction was confirmed by means of immunodiffusion and Western blot. The purification process proved to be efficient and useful for obtaining specific antibodies, which will be useful in the preparation of an immunoenzymatic assay that measures the purity of the vaccine against to the content of these proteins.


Subject(s)
Humans , Capsid Proteins , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Viruses , Electrophoresis , Animal Diseases , Antibodies
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 281-289, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771378

ABSTRACT

In previous studies, we found that truncated rotavirus VP4* (aa 26-476) could be expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli and confer high protection against rotavirus in the mouse mode. In this study, we further improved the immunogenicity of VP4* by polymerization. The purified VP4* was polymerized through incubation at 37 ℃ for 24 h, and then the homogeneity of the particles was analyzed by HPLC, TEM and AUC, while the thermal stability and antigenicity was analyzed by DSC and ELISA, respectively. Finally, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the polymers analyzed by a mouse maternal antibody model. The results showed that VP4* aggregated into homogeneous polymers, with high thermostability and neutralizing antibody binding activity. In addition, VP4* polymers (endotoxin <20 EU/dose) stimulated higher neutralizing antibodies and confer higher protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhoea compared with the VP4* trimers when immunized with aluminium adjuvant. In summary, the study in VP4* polymers provides a new strategy for the development of recombinant rotavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, Viral , Capsid , Capsid Proteins , Mice , Polymerization , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758930

ABSTRACT

The major immunogenic protein capsid (Cap) of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is critical to induce neutralizing antibodies and protective immune response against PCV2 infection. This study was conducted to investigate the immune response of recombinant adenovirus expressing PCV2b Cap and C-terminal domain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin (Cap-InvC) fusion protein in pigs. The recombinant adenovirus rAd-Cap-InvC, rAd-Cap and rAd were generated and used to immunize pigs. The phosphate-buffered saline was used as negative control. The specific antibodies levels in rAd-Cap-InvC and ZJ/C-strain vaccine groups were higher than that of rAd-Cap group (p < 0.05), and the neutralization antibody titer in rAd-Cap-InvC group was significantly higher than those of other groups during 21–42 days post-immunization (DPI). Moreover, lymphocyte proliferative level, interferon-γ and interleukin-13 levels in rAd-Cap-InvC group were increased compared to rAd-Cap group (p < 0.05). After virulent challenge, viruses were not detected from the blood samples in rAd-Cap-InvC and ZJ/C-strain vaccine groups after 49 DPI. And the respiratory symptom, rectal temperature, lung lesion and lymph node lesion were minimal and similar in the ZJ/C-strain and rAd-Cap-InVC groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that rAd-Cap-InvC was more efficiently to stimulate the production of antibody and protect pigs from PCV2 infection. We inferred that InvC is a good candidate gene for further development and application of PCV2 genetic engineering vaccine.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Adenovirus Vaccines , Antibodies , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Capsid , Capsid Proteins , Circovirus , Genetic Engineering , Immunization , Interleukin-13 , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Lymphocytes , Swine , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 777-784, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974285

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to perform the molecular characterization of conserved and variable regions of feline calicivirus capsid genome in order to investigate the molecular diversity of variants in Brazilian cat population. Twenty-six conjunctival samples from cats living in five public short-term animal shelters and three multicat life-long households were analyzed. Fifteen cats had conjunctivitis, three had oral ulceration, eight had respiratory signs (cough, sneeze and nasal discharge) and nine were asymptomatic. Feline calicivirus were isolated in CRFK cells and characterized by reverse transcription PCR target to both conserved and variable regions of open reading frame 2. The amplicons obtained were sequenced. A phylogenetic analysis along with most of the prototypes available in GenBank database and an amino acid analysis were performed. Phylogenetic analysis based on both conserved and variable region revealed two clusters with an aLTR value of 1.00 and 0.98 respectively and the variants from this study belong to feline calicivirus genogroup I. No association between geographical distribution and/or clinical signs and clustering in phylogenetic tree was observed. The variants circulating in public short-term animal shelter demonstrated a high variability because of the relatively rapid turnover of carrier cats constantly introduced of multiple viruses into this location over time.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cat Diseases/virology , Calicivirus, Feline/isolation & purification , Calicivirus, Feline/genetics , Caliciviridae Infections/veterinary , Pets/virology , Phylogeny , Brazil , Open Reading Frames , Genome, Viral , Calicivirus, Feline/classification , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Capsid Proteins/genetics
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 351-357, Apr.-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889245

ABSTRACT

Abstract Economic losses with high mortality rate associated with Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is reported worldwide. PCV2 commercial vaccine was introduced in 2006 in U.S. and in 2008 in Brazil. Although PCV2 vaccines have been widely used, cases of PCV2 systemic disease have been reported in the last years. Eleven nursery or fattening pigs suffering from PCV2 systemic disease were selected from eight PCV2-vaccinated farms with historical records of PCV2 systemic disease in Southern Brazil. PCV2 genomes were amplified and sequenced from lymph node samples of selected pigs. The comparison among the ORF2 amino acid sequences of PCV2 isolates revealed three amino acid substitutions in the positions F57I, N178S and A190T, respectively. Using molecular modeling, a structural model for the capsid protein of PCV2 was built. Afterwards, the mutated residues positions were identified in the model. The structural analysis of the mutated residues showed that the external residue 190 is close to an important predicted region for antibodies recognition. Therefore, changes in the viral protein conformation might lead to an inefficient antibody binding and this could be a relevant mechanism underlying the recent vaccine failures observed in swine farms in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Circovirus/chemistry , Capsid Proteins/chemistry , Protein Conformation , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Brazil , Models, Molecular , Circovirus/isolation & purification , Circovirus/genetics , Circoviridae Infections/veterinary , Circoviridae Infections/virology , Amino Acid Substitution , Capsid Proteins/genetics
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 68-75, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974318

ABSTRACT

Abstract Serological testing and culling infected animals are key management practices aiming eradication of bovine leukemia virus infection. Here, we report the development of an indirect ELISA based on BLV recombinant capsid protein (BLVp24r) to detect anti-BLV antibodies in cattle serum. The BLVp24r was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography, and then used to set up the ELISA parameters. The Polysorp ® plate coated with 50 ng of antigen/well and bovine serum diluted 1:100 gave the best results during standardization. Using sera from infected and non-infected cattle we set up the cutoff point at 0.320 (OD450 nm) with a sensitivity of 98.5% and specificity of 100.0%. Then, we tested 1.187 serum samples from dairy (736 samples) and beef cattle (451 samples) with unknown status to BLV. We found that 31.1% (229/736) and 9.5% (43/451) of samples amongst dairy and beef cattle, respectively, had IgGs to BLV. The rate of agreement with a commercial competitive ELISA was 84.3% with a κ value of 0.68. Thus, our BLVp24r iELISA is suitable to detect BLV infected animals and should be a useful tool to control BLV infection in cattle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Serologic Tests/methods , Enzootic Bovine Leukosis/diagnosis , Leukemia Virus, Bovine/immunology , Capsid Proteins/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Recombinant Proteins/analysis , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Sensitivity and Specificity , Enzootic Bovine Leukosis/blood , Enzootic Bovine Leukosis/virology , Leukemia Virus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Leukemia Virus, Bovine/genetics , Capsid Proteins/analysis , Capsid Proteins/genetics
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775282

ABSTRACT

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare and lethal central nervous demyelinating disease caused by JC polyomavirus (JCV), particularly in patients with impaired immune system. The variation of JCV plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PML, including the recombination of non-coding regulatory region (NCCR), which is closely related to binding sites of transcription factors and affect the level of gene transcription. Nucleotide mutations in VP1 region determine the antigenicity and receptor specificity of JCV, play an important role in cell adsorption, immune-mediation and pathogenicity. In addition, immune cells are also involved in the pathogenesis of PML. T lymphocytes can recognize virus antigens, clear JCV, which are directly related to the prognosis of PML. B lymphocytes can serve as latent sites of JCV, and participate in viral transmission, replication, and coordination of the expression of transcription factors. This paper summarizes the roles of JCV variation and immune cells in pathogenesis of PML.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Capsid Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , JC Virus , Allergy and Immunology , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal , Pathology , Virology , Mutation , T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Virology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758859

ABSTRACT

Porcine parvovirus 7 (PPV7) was first detected in Korean pig farms in 2017. The detection rate of PPV7 DNA was 24.0% (30/125) in aborted pig fetuses and 74.9% (262/350) in finishing pigs, suggesting that PPV7 has circulated among Korean domestic pig farms. Phylogenetic analysis based on capsid protein amino acid sequences demonstrated that the nine isolated Korean strains (PPV-KA1-3 and PPV-KF1-6) were closely related to the previously reported USA and Chinese PPV7 strains. In addition, the Korean strains exhibit genetic diversity with both insertion and deletion mutations. This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular epidemiology of PPV7 in Korea.


Subject(s)
Aborted Fetus , Agriculture , Amino Acid Sequence , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Capsid Proteins , DNA , Fetus , Genetic Variation , Humans , Korea , Molecular Epidemiology , Parvovirus, Porcine , Sequence Deletion , Sus scrofa , Swine
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741510

ABSTRACT

The capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) encoded by open reading frame 2 (ORF2) is important for neutralizing activity against PCV2 infection. This study investigated the heterogeneity of the ORF2 gene of PCV2 isolated in Korea during 2016–2017. The results revealed that PCV2d is currently the predominant genotype. Moreover, comparison of ORF2 from 17 PCV2 isolates revealed 88.3–100% homology at the nucleotide (deduced amino acid 86.3–100%) level. Interestingly, 61.5% (8/13) of the PCV2d isolates had glycine at position 210. These data provide a useful information for PCV2 epidemiology in Korea.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins , Circovirus , Epidemiology , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Glycine , Korea , Open Reading Frames , Population Characteristics
14.
Immune Network ; : e19-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715079

ABSTRACT

Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 capsid proteins were used for HPV quadrivalent recombinant vaccine. The HPV quadrivalent vaccine is administrated in a 3-dose regimen of initial injection followed by subsequent doses at 2 and 6 months to prevent cervical cancer, vulvar, and vaginal cancers. The type 6, 11, 16, or 18 of HPV infection is associated with precancerous lesions and genital warts in adolescents and young women. The HPV vaccine is composed of viral L1 capsid proteins are produced in eukaryotic expression systems and purified in the form of VLPs. Four different the L1 protein of 3 different subtypes of HPV: HPV11, HPV16, and HPV18 were expressed in Escherichia coli divided into 2 fragments as N- and C-terminal of each protein in order to examine the efficacy of HPV vaccine. Vaccinated sera failed to recognize N-terminal L1 HPV type 16 and type 18 by western blot while they detected N-terminal L1 protein of HPV type 11. Moreover, the recombinant C-terminal L1 proteins of type 16 was non-specifically recognized by the secondary antibody conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. This expression and purification system may provide simple method to obtain robust recombinant L1 protein of HPV subtypes to improve biochemical analysis of antigens with immunized sera.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Blotting, Western , Capsid Proteins , Condylomata Acuminata , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Escherichia coli , Female , Horseradish Peroxidase , Humans , Methods , Papillomaviridae , Recombinant Proteins , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Vaginal Neoplasms
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714692

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 is the most carcinogenic HPV genotype. We investigated if HPV16 L1 capsid protein and E2/E6 ratio, evaluated by cervical cytology, may be used as biomarkers of ≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 lesions. METHODS: Cervical specimens were obtained from 226 patients with HPV16 single infection. Using cytology specimen, L1 capsid protein and E2/E6 ratio were detected and the results were compared with those of the conventional histologic analysis of cervical tissues (CIN1–3 and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]) to evaluate the association. RESULTS: The L1 positivity of CIN2/3 was significantly lower than that of normal cervical tissue (p < 0.001) and SCC demonstrated significantly lower L1 positivity than CIN1 (p < 0.001). The mean E2/E6 ratios of specimens graded as SCC (0.356) and CIN2/3 (0.483) were significantly lower than those of specimens graded as CIN1 (0.786) and normal (0.793) (p < 0.05). We observed that area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for E2/E6 ratio (0.844; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.793–0.895) was higher than that for L1 immunochemistry (0.636; 95% CI=0.562–0.711). A combination of E2/E6 ratio and L1 immunocytochemistry analyses showed the highest AUC (0.871; 95% CI=0.826–0.917) for the prediction of ≥CIN2 lesions. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to validate HPV L1 capsid protein expression and decreased HPV E2/E6 ratio as valuable predictive markers of ≥CIN2 cervical lesions. Cervical cytology may be analyzed longitudinally on an outpatient basis with noninvasive procedures as against invasive conventional histologic analysis.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Biomarkers , Capsid Proteins , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Epithelial Cells , Genotype , Humans , Immunochemistry , Immunohistochemistry , Outpatients , ROC Curve , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Virus Integration
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes epidemics in developing countries and is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route. There have been recent reports on the zoonotic spread of the virus, and several animal species, primarily pigs, have been recognized as reservoirs of HEV. Because of its possible spread, there is an urgent need of a method for the cost-effective production of HEV proteins that can be used as diagnostic antigens for the serological detection of anti-HEV antibodies. METHODS: The HEV open reading frame (ORF)2 protein was purified from plant tissue by using immobilized metal-anion chromatography (IMAC). The recombinant protein was used to develop an in-house ELISA for testing anti-HEV antibodies in both human and swine sera. Thirty-six serum samples collected from patients with serologically proven HEV infection with commercial kits were tested for anti-HEV IgG antibodies by using the plant-expressed protein. Forty-five serum samples collected from apparently healthy pigs in Bulgarian farms were also tested. RESULTS: We confirmed the transient expression and purification of a truncated version of the HEV genotype 3 capsid protein in Nicotiana benthamiana and its usefulness as a diagnostic antigen. ELISA showed the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies in 29 of the 36 human samples. The in-house ELISA showed anti-HEV IgG antibodies in 34 of the 45 pigs. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a method for the production of HEV ORF2 protein in N. benthamiana and the usefulness of this protein for the serological detection of anti-HEV antibodies in both humans and swine.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Animals , Antibodies , Capsid Proteins , Capsid , Chromatography , Developing Countries , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Genotype , Hepatitis E virus , Hepatitis E , Hepatitis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Methods , Open Reading Frames , Plants , Swine , Tobacco
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71194

ABSTRACT

It was previously observed that recombinant flock house virus (FHV) RNA1 was efficiently packaged into turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV), provided that the TYMV coat protein (CP) sequence was present at the 3′-end. FHV RNA encapsidated by TYMV CPs also had a four-nucleotide extension at the 5′-end. Since even a short extension at the 5′- and 3′-ends of FHV RNA1 inhibits replication, we examined whether the recombinant FHV RNA is indeed capable of replication. To this end, we introduced constructs expressing recombinant FHV RNAs into the plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Northern blot analysis of inoculated leaves suggested abundant production of recombinant FHV RNA1 and its subgenomic RNA. This demonstrated that recombinant FHV RNA with terminal extensions at both ends was competent for replication. We also showed that the recombinant FHV RNA can express the reporter gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Northern , Brassica napus , Capsid Proteins , Genes, Reporter , Plants , RNA , Tobacco , Tymovirus
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence and etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vary widely according to race and geographic regions. The insertional mutagenesis of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) has recently been considered a new viral etiology of HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and clinical characteristics of AAV2 in Korean patients with HCC. METHODS: A total of 289 unrelated Korean patients with HCC, including 159 Hepatitis-B-related cases, 16 Hepatitis-C-related cases, and 114 viral serology-negative cases, who underwent surgery at the Samsung Medical Center in Korea from 2009 to 2014 were enrolled in this study. The presence of AAV2 in fresh-frozen tumor tissues was investigated by DNA PCR and Sanger sequencing. The clinical and pathological characteristics of AAV2-associated HCC in these patients were compared with previous findings in French patients. RESULTS: The AAV2 detection rate in Korean patients (2/289) was very low compared with that in French patients (11/193). Similar to the French patients, the Korean patients with AAV2-related HCC showed no signs of liver cirrhosis. The Korean patients were younger than the French patients with the same AAV2-associated HCC; the ages at diagnosis of the two Korean patients were 47 and 39 yr, while the median age of the 11 French patients was 55 yr (range 43-90 yr). CONCLUSIONS: AAV2-associated HCC was very rare in Korean patients with HCC. Despite a limited number of cases, this study is the first to report the clinical characteristics of Korean patients with AAV2-associated HCC. These findings suggest epidemiologic differences in viral hepatocarcinogenesis between Korean and European patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/etiology , DNA, Viral/chemistry , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Dependovirus/genetics , Female , Humans , Incidence , Inverted Repeat Sequences/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Parvoviridae Infections/complications , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Viral Proteins/genetics
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1194-1203, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310548

ABSTRACT

To reveal the innate immunity of mast cells against recombinant VP1-VP4 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), mouse peritoneal mast cells (PMCs) were pulsed with recombinant VP1-VP4 protein. The supernatants harvested from PMCs cultures were applied to the high throughput ELISA array. Our results show that the expression levels of CCL19, L-selectin, CCL17, and TNF alpha released from PMCs pulsed with recombinant VP1-VP4 were significantly down-regulated compared with PMCs alone (P<0.001). Surprisingly, in comparison with PMCs alone, the expression levels of CCL19, IL-15, IL-9, G-CSF, and Galectin-1 in PMCs with the mannose receptor (MR) inhibitor were significantly up-regulated (Plt;0.01), and the expression level of IL-10 was also remarkably up-regulated (Plt;0.05). Importantly, the protein expression levels in PMCs treated with MR inhibitor were higher than PMCs pulsed with VP1-VP4, including IL-10, IL-17, CCL20, IL-15, IL-9, L-selectin, CCL17, TNF alpha, and CCL19 (Plt;0.01) as well as CCL21, and G-CSF (Plt;0.05). Differential expression analysis in bioinformatics shows that both L-selectin and CCL17 were recognized as differentially expressed protein molecules (Log2(ratio)≤-1) when compared with PMCs alone. Furthermore, the up-regulation of the expression levels of CCL20, CCL19, L-selectin, and IL-15 in PMCs treated with MR inhibitor was defined as differential expression (Log2(ratio)≥1). These data indicate that PMCs are capable of secreting CCL19, L-selectin, CCL17, and TNF alpha spontaneously and the recombinant VP1-VP4 has an inhibitive potential to PMCs during their performance of innate immune response. Given the protein expression levels from PMCs pre-treated with MR inhibitor were significantly increased, it can be deduced that immunosuppression of FMDV is presumably initiated by the VP1 recognition of MR on mast cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Capsid Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines , Allergy and Immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Interleukins , Allergy and Immunology , Mast Cells , Allergy and Immunology , Mice , Proteome , Allergy and Immunology , Recombinant Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , Viral Structural Proteins , Allergy and Immunology
20.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 398-401, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237534

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To understand the molecular characteristics of a dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region, Yunnan province, 2015 and provide etiological evidence for the disease control and prevention.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Semi-nested RTPCR was conducted to detect the capsid premembrane (CprM) gene of RNA of dengue virus by using dengue virus NS1 positive serum samples collected in Mengdin township, Gengma county, Yunnan province in July, 2015. Some positive samples were then detected by using PCR with specific primers to amplify the full E gene. The positive PCR products were directly sequenced. Then sequences generated in this study were BLAST in NCBI website and aligned in Megalign in DNAstar program. Multiple sequence alignments were carried out by using Mega 5.05 software based on the sequences generated in this study and sequences downloaded from GenBank, including the representative strains from different countries and regions. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using Neighbor-Joining tree methods with Mega 5.05 software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Twenty one of 25 local cases and 10 of 14 imported cases from Myanmar were positive for DENV-1. Eight serum samples were negative for dengue virus. A total of 13 strains with E gene (1485 bp), including 8 local strains and 5 imported strains, were sequenced, which shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities. Twelve strains with CprM gene (406 bp) from 9 local cases and 3 imported cases shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities. Phylogenetic analyses based on E gene showed that the new 13 strains clustered in genotype I of dengue virus and formed a distinct lineage.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>This outbreak was caused by genotype I of DENV-1, which had the closest phylogenetic relationships with dengue virus from neighboring Burma area. Comprehensive measures of prevention and control of dengue fever should be strengthened to prevent the spread of dengue virus.</p>


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins , China , Epidemiology , DNA Primers , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Dengue , Epidemiology , Virology , Dengue Virus , Genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Genotype , Humans , Myanmar , Epidemiology , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Alignment , Software
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