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1.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-6, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ruta graveolens L. (R. graveolens) is a medicinal plant employed in non-traditional medicines that has various therapeutic properties, including anthelmintic, and vasodilatory actions, among others. We evaluated the trachea-relaxant effects of hydroalcoholic extract of R. graveolens against potassium chloride (KCl)- and carbachol-induced contraction of rat tracheal rings in an isolated organ bath. RESULTS: The results showed that the airway smooth muscle contraction induced by the depolarizing agent (KCl) and cholinergic agonist (carbachol) was markedly reduced by R. graveolens in a concentration-dependent manner, with maximum values of 109 ± 7.9 % and 118 ± 2.6 %, respectively (changes in tension expressed as positive percentages of change in proportion to maximum contraction), at the concentration of 45 µg/mL (half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50: 35.5 µg/mL and 27.8 µg/mL for KCl- and carbachol-induced contraction, respectively). Additionally, the presence of R. graveolens produced rightward parallel displacement of carbachol dose-response curves and reduced over 35 % of the maximum smooth muscle contraction. CONCLUSIONS: The hydroalcoholic extract of R. graveolens exhibited relaxant activity on rat tracheal rings. The results suggest that the trachea-relaxant effect is mediated by a non-competitive antagonistic mechanism. More detailed studies are needed to identify the target of the inhibition, and to determine more precisely the pharmacological mechanisms involved in the observed biological effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Parasympatholytics/pharmacology , Trachea/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ruta/chemistry , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents/pharmacology , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Furocoumarins/analysis , Quercetin/analysis , Rutin/analysis , Trachea/surgery , In Vitro Techniques , Carbachol/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cholinergic Agents/pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Plant Components, Aerial/chemistry , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle Tonus/drug effects
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 10(5): 414-422, sept. 2011. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618822

ABSTRACT

Ruta chalepensis, is used, in traditional medicine, as emmenagogue, abortive, and analgesic. We analyzed, in male Wistar rats, the effects of the chronic intake of an infusion of Ruta chalepensis (20 g/L) on the vasomotor responses of, either intact or endothelium-denuded aortic rings, to phenylephrine or carbachol. Only in rings with endothelium significant effects were observed. The infusion induced a leftward shift of the concentration-response curve to phenylephrine and an increase in maximal tension development. These effects were abolished by indomethacin. In these rings, inhibiting the synthesis of nitric oxide, in the presence of indomethacin, induced a leftward shift of the concentration response curve to phenylephrine, as well as an increase in maximal tension. These results suggest that the chronic ingestion of a Ruta chalepensis infusion induces an endothelium dependent increase in the synthesis/release of cyclooxygenase-dependent vasoconstrictor prostanoids, and an increase in the basal synthesis/release of nitric oxide.


Ruta chalepensis se utiliza en la medicina tradicional como emenagogo, abortivo y analgésico. Se analizaron, en ratas Wistar macho, los efectos de la ingesta crónica de una infusión de Ruta chalepensis (20 g /L), sobre las respuestas vasomotoras de anillos de aorta con y sin endotelio, a la fenilefrina o al carbacol Se observaron efectos significativos sólo en anillos con endotelio. La infusión indujo un desplazamiento a la izquierda de la curva de concentración-respuesta a fenilefrina y un incremento en la tensión máxima desarrollada. Estos efectos fueron abolidos por la indometacina. La inhibición de la síntesis de óxido nítrico, en presencia de indometacina, produjo un desplazamiento a la izquierda de la curva de concentración-respuesta a la fenilefrina, así como un incremento en la tensión máxima. Estos resultados sugieren que la ingesta crónica de una infusión de Ruta chalepensis induce un incremento en la síntesis/liberación de prostanoides vasoconstrictores dependientes de la ciclooxigenasa y un aumento en la síntesis /liberación basal de óxido nítrico.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Aorta , Endothelium, Vascular , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Ruta/chemistry , Carbachol/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide , Rats, Wistar
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(6): 562-572, June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-589981

ABSTRACT

Inhibition of type-5 phosphodiesterase by sildenafil decreases capacitative Ca2+ entry mediated by transient receptor potential proteins (TRPs) in the pulmonary artery. These families of channels, especially the canonical TRP (TRPC) subfamily, may be involved in the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, a hallmark of asthma. In the present study, we evaluated i) the effects of sildenafil on tracheal rings of rats subjected to antigen challenge, ii) whether the extent of TRPC gene expression may be modified by antigen challenge, and iii) whether inhibition of type-5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) may alter TRPC gene expression after antigen challenge. Sildenafil (0.1 µM to 0.6 mM) fully relaxed carbachol-induced contractions in isolated tracheal rings prepared from naive male Wistar rats (250-300 g) by activating the NO-cGMP-K+ channel pathway. Rats sensitized to antigen by intraperitoneal injections of ovalbumin were subjected to antigen challenge by ovalbumin inhalation, and their tracheal rings were used to study the effects of sildenafil, which more effectively inhibited contractions induced by either carbachol (10 µM) or extracellular Ca2+ restoration after thapsigargin (1 µM) treatment. Antigen challenge increased the expression of the TRPC1 and TRPC4 genes but not the expression of the TRPC5 and TRPC6 genes. Applied before the antigen challenge, sildenafil increased the gene expression, which was evaluated by RT-PCR, of TRPC1 and TRPC6, decreased TRPC5 expression, and was inert against TRPC4. Thus, we conclude that PDE5 inhibition is involved in the development of an airway hyperresponsive phenotype in rats after antigen challenge by altering TRPC gene expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Carbachol/pharmacology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Sulfones/pharmacology , TRPC Cation Channels/drug effects , Trachea/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Carbachol/antagonists & inhibitors , Gene Expression , Lactones/pharmacology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/physiology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Ovalbumin/pharmacology , Purines/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , TRPC Cation Channels/genetics , TRPC Cation Channels/metabolism , Trachea/metabolism , Trachea/physiopathology
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 26(supl.2): 74-78, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602648

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess in vitro the correlation between the number of neurons and the sensitivity to cholinergic drugs and acetylcholinesterase activity in chagasic patients. METHODS: A 3x1 cm strip of the muscle layer of the anterior part of the stomach, always close to the angular incisure, was removed from 10 chronic chagasic patients (6 men) submitted to megaesophagus or megacolon surgery and from 10 non-chagasic patients (4 men) submitted to other types of surgery (control group), aged on average 52.3 and 50.1 years, respectively, for histological and pharmacological studies. The action of cholinergic drugs was investigated in isolated preparations according to the superfusion method of Ferreira and Costa, and acetylcholinesterase activity was determined by the method of Ellman. For neuron count, the strips were cut into 8 µm sections according to the method standardized by Alcântara. RESULTS: There was a difference in number of neurons between the chagasic (5,6) and control (7,3) groups. Acetylcholinesterase activity, in moles of hydrolyzed substrate per minute per gram tissue, was reduced in chagasic patients (4,32) compared to the controls (7,30). No hypersensitivity of the gastric musculature to cholinergic drugs was detected, with a reduced maximum response to carbachol and betanechol in the chagasic group. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction of neurons in the myenteric plexus of the stomach of chronic chagasic patients can be demonstrated even in the absence of clinical chagasic gastropathy. The hypersensitivity of the gastric musculature to cholinergic drugs probably depends on intense denervation. The reduced acetylcholinesterase activity demonstrates the involvement of the cholinergic innervation in the stomach of chronic chagasic patients. There was no correlation between number of neurons, sensitivity to cholinergic drugs and acetylcholinesterase activity in the gastric musculature of chagasic and non-chagasic patients.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar in vitro a correlação entre o número de neurônios e a sensibilidade a drogas colinérgicas e a atividade da acetilcolinesterase em pacientes chagásicos. MÉTODOS: Em 10 pacientes chagásicos crônicos (6 homens) submetidos à cirurgia de megaesôfago ou de megacólon e em 10 pacientes não chagásicos (4 homens) submetidos a outros tipos de cirurgia (grupo controle), respectivamente com idade média de 52,3 e 50,1 anos, retirou-se uma tira de 3x1 cm da camada muscular da parede anterior do estômago, sempre junto á cisura angular, que serviu para os estudos histológicos e farmacológicos. A ação de drogas colinérgicas foi feita em preparação isolada de acordo com o método de superfusão de Ferreira e Costa, e a determinação da atividade da acetilcolinesterase pelo método de Ellman. Para a contagem de neurônios a tira muscular foi submetida a cortes de 8 micra segundo método padronizado por Alcântara. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença do número de neurônios entre os grupos chagásico (5,6) e controle (7,3). A atividade da acetilcolinesterase mostrou-se diminuída nos chagásicos (4,32) expressa como número de moles do substrato hidrolisado por minuto por grama de tecido, em relação aos controles (7,30). Não se encontrou hipersensibilidade da musculatura gástrica a drogas colinérgicas, encontrando-se inclusive efeito máximo reduzido ao carbacol e betanecol no grupo chagásico. CONCLUSÕES: A redução de neurônios no plexo mioentérico do estômago de pacientes chagásicos crônicos pode ser demonstrada mesmo na ausência de gastropatia chagásica clínica. A hipersensibilidade da musculatura gástrica a drogas colinérgicas provavelmente depende de desnervação intensa. A redução da atividade da acetilcolinesterase demonstra o comprometimento da inervação colinérgica no estômago de pacientes chagásicos crônicos. Não houve correlação entre número de neurônios, sensibilidade a drogas colinérgicas e atividade da acetilcolinesterase na musculatura gástrica de pacientes chagásicos ou não chagásicos.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Cholinergic Agents/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth/innervation , Myenteric Plexus/pathology , Stomach/innervation , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Case-Control Studies , Cell Count , Carbachol/pharmacology , Chagas Disease/enzymology , Cholinergic Agonists/pharmacology , Esophageal Achalasia/pathology , Esophageal Achalasia/surgery , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/enzymology , Neurons/cytology , Stomach/drug effects , Stomach/enzymology
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 311-321, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30669

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), encoded by ATP2A2, is an essential component for G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-dependent Ca(2+) signaling. However, whether the changes in Ca(2+) signaling and Ca(2+) signaling proteins in parotid acinar cells are affected by a partial loss of SERCA2 are not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In SERCA2(+/-) mouse parotid gland acinar cells, Ca(2+) signaling, expression levels of Ca(2+) signaling proteins, and amylase secretion were investigated. RESULTS: SERCA2(+/-) mice showed decreased SERCA2 expression and an upregulation of the plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase. A partial loss of SERCA2 changed the expression level of 1, 4, 5-tris-inositolphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs), but the localization and activities of IP3Rs were not altered. In SERCA2(+/-) mice, muscarinic stimulation resulted in greater amylase release, and the expression of synaptotagmin was increased compared to wild type mice. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a partial loss of SERCA2 affects the expression and activity of Ca(2+) signaling proteins in the parotid gland acini, however, overall Ca(2+) signaling is unchanged.


Subject(s)
Amylases/metabolism , Animals , Blotting, Western , Calcium/metabolism , Calcium Signaling/drug effects , Carbachol/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Parotid Gland/metabolism , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/genetics , Signal Transduction/drug effects
6.
Biol. Res ; 39(3): 531-539, 2006. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-437385

ABSTRACT

Thymeleatoxin (TMX), an activator of Ca2+-sensitive protein kinase C (cPKC) isoforms, was used to assess the PKC isoform specificity of cholinergic potentiation of glucose (11 mM)-induced pulsatile 5-HT/insulin release (PIR) from single mouse pancreatic islets. TMX (100 nM) and carbachol (Cch, 50 mM) enhanced PIR ~ 3-fold while reducing the underlying [Ca2+]i oscillations (duration and amplitude) by ~ 40-50 percent. Both effects were ablated by the specific PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide and chronic TMX pretreatment. Cch also evoked an initial transient [Ca2+]i rise and surge of 5-HT release, which remained unaffected by chronic TMX pretreatment. It is concluded that the immediate cholinergic responses are insensitive to cPKC. In contrast, specific activation of a cPKC isoform mediates sustained cholinergic potentiation of glucose-induced insulin secretion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Glucose/metabolism , Insulin , Islets of Langerhans , Phorbol Esters/pharmacology , Protein Kinase C/drug effects , Serotonin/metabolism , Calcium Signaling/drug effects , Carbachol/pharmacology , Cholinergic Agonists/pharmacology , Electrochemistry , Fluorometry , Islets of Langerhans/drug effects , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Pulsatile Flow/drug effects
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-641016

ABSTRACT

The relationship between M3 cholinergic receptor agonist (carbachol) hyperstimulation-induced pancreatic acinar cellular injury and trypsinogen activation or NF-kappaB activation in rats was studied in vitro. Rat pancreatic acinar cells were isolated, cultured and treated with carbachol, the active protease inhibitor (pefabloc), and NF-kappaB inhibitor (PDTC) in vitro. Intracellular trypsin activity was measured by using a fluorogenic substrate. The cellular injury was evaluated by measuring the leakage of LDH from pancreatic acinar cells. The results showed that as compared with control group, 10(-3) mol/L carbachol induced a significant increase of the intracellular trypsin activity and the leakage of LDH from pancreatic acinar cells. Pretreatment with 2 mmol/L pefabloc could significantly decrease the activity of trypsin and the leakage of LDH from pancreatic acinar cells (P 0.05). It was concluded that intracellular trypsinogen activation is likely involved in pancreatic acinar cellular injury induced by carbachol hyperstimulation in vitro. NF-kappaB activation may not be involved in pancreatic acinar cellular injury induced by carbachol hyperstimulation in vitro.


Subject(s)
Carbachol/pharmacology , Cholinergic Agonists/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pancreas/metabolism , Pancreas/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Receptor, Muscarinic M3/agonists , Trypsinogen/metabolism
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 70-77, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116917

ABSTRACT

Synaptotagmin is a Ca2+ sensing protein, which triggers a fusion of synaptic vesicles in neuronal transmission. Little is known regarding the expression of Ca2+ - dependent synaptotagmin isoforms and their contribution to the release of secretory vesicles in mouse and rat parotid acinar cells. We investigated a type of Ca2+ - dependent synaptotagmin and Ca2+ signaling in both rat and mouse parotid acinar cells using RT-PCR, microfluorometry, and amylase assay. Mouse parotid acinar cells exhibited much more sensitive amylase release in response to muscarinic stimulation than did rat parotid acinar cells. However, transient [Ca2+]i increases and Ca2+ influx in response to muscarinic stimulation in both cells were identical, suggesting that the expression or activity of the Ca2+ sensing proteins is different. Seven Ca2+ - dependent synaptotagmins, from 1 to 7, were expressed in the mouse parotid acinar cells. However, in the rat parotid acinar cells, only synaptotagmins 1, 3, 4 and 7 were expressed. These results indicate that the expression of Ca2+ - dependent synaptotagmins may contribute to the release of secretory vesicles in parotid acinar cells.


Subject(s)
Synaptotagmins/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Rats , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Parotid Gland/cytology , Muscarinic Agonists/pharmacology , Mice , Exocytosis/drug effects , Carbachol/pharmacology , Calcium/metabolism , Animals , Amylases/metabolism
9.
Acta gastroenterol. latinoam ; 35(1): 13-18, 2005. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-410105

ABSTRACT

El transporte iónico epitelial exige aporte de ATP provisto por el metabolismo aeróbico. En el colon distal de rata, la secreción de cloruro explica la mayor parte del transporte electrogénico medido como corriente de cortocircuito (ISC). La inhibición de la secreción basal de cloruro reduce el consumo epitelial de oxígeno (QO2), mientras que la serotonina aumenta proporcionalmente ISC y QO2. El efecto de la serotonina es mediado por receptores 5HT4 acoplados a adenilato ciclasa medianteproteína G estimulante (GS). En este trabajo seestudió si el aumento del QO2 asociado con la secreción de cloruro es un efecto común a otros agentes que actúan sobre cAMP o Ca2+. Los efectos del inhibidor de la fosfodiesterasa, 3-isobutil-1-metilxantina (IBMX) y del agonista muscarínico carbacol (ambos a 0.1 mmol/L) se evaluaron en la mucosa aislada del colon distal de rata montado en una cámara de Ussing modificada para determinación continua de la concentración de oxígeno, permitiendo medir QO2. Se compararon la ISC y el QO2 basales con las resultantes del añadido de serotonina (control activo), IBMX, carbacol, o IBMX y carbacol. Todos aumentaron proporcionalmente ISC y QO2. Aunque el efecto de IBMX solo fue modesto y el del carbacol fue breve, se observó una sinergia cuando fueron agregados simultáneamente. El análisis de regresión lineal mostró una correlación significativa entre los incrementos de ISC y de QO2 (r2 = 0.746; P menor que 0.0001). Por tanto, la estimulación de la secreción de cloruro aumenta el QO2 independientemente de la vía efectora intracelular involucrada. Estos resultados corroboran el estrecho acoplamiento entre secreción de cloruro y QO2 en este epitelio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Calcium/metabolism , Chlorides/metabolism , Colon/metabolism , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Carbachol/pharmacology , Drug Interactions , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Muscarinic Agonists/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Serotonin/pharmacology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205831

ABSTRACT

The effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on experimental colitis was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 4% acetic acid. EA (2 Hz, 0.05 ms, 2 V for 20min) was applied to bilateral Hoku (LI-4) and Zusanli (ST-36) on 12 hrs and 36 hrs after induction of colitis. EA-treatment significantly reduced the macroscopic damage and the myeloperoxidase activity of colonic samples at 3 days post-induction of colitis. Colitic colon showed a decreased in vitro motility. However, colonic motility of EAtreated group was not significantly different from that of normal group. The anti-inflammatory effect of EA was not inhibited by a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU-486, but suppressed by a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranonol. These results suggest that EA-treatment has a beneficial effect on colitis, and its anti-inflammatory effect is mediated by beta-adrenoceptor activation but not by endogenous glucocorticoiddependent mechanism.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Animals , Carbachol/pharmacology , Cholinergic Agonists/pharmacology , Colitis/chemically induced , Electroacupuncture/veterinary , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Motility/physiology , Hormone Antagonists/pharmacology , Male , Mifepristone/pharmacology , Muscle Contraction/physiology , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Peroxidase/metabolism , Propranolol/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Medical Principles and Practice. 2004; 13 (3): 115-21
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-67695

ABSTRACT

To study reactivity of the ovarian vascular bed to noradrenaline and carbachol during an experimentally induced ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome [OHSS] in rabbits. Materials and Rabbits were treated with human menopausal gonadotropin [75 IU] daily for 6 days, followed by human chorionic gonadotropin [2,500 IU] to induce OHSS. The ovarian vascular bed was isolated and perfused with physiological solution and its reactivity to injected noradrenaline and acetylcholine was examined. The mean weight of the hyperstimulated ovary was 2.85 +/- 0.5 g compared to 0.25 +/- 0.1 g for the control rabbits. There was no significant difference in [a] the basal perfusion pressure of the ovarian vascular bed ex vivo; [b] the potency of, or maximum response to, noradrenaline, and [c] agonist dissociation constant or receptor density. Carbachol induced significantly greater vasodilation in ovarian vascular beds from hormone-treated rabbits, indicating a greater role for nitric oxide in this syndrome, as further supported by the observation that NW-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride [L-NAME] was more effective against carbachol-induced response in hormone-treated rabbits. In the rabbit model of OHSS, carbachol produced an increased ex vivo vascular response but noradrenaline did not


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Ovary/drug effects , Ovary/blood supply , Norepinephrine/pharmacology , Carbachol/pharmacology , Rabbits
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221852

ABSTRACT

We present accidental findings that potassium channel blockers, such as tetraethyl-ammonium (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), inhibit the sustained tonic contraction induced by carbachol in rat detrusor muscle strips. The relatively lower concentrations (5 mM) potentiated phasic contractions. The potentiation of phasic contraction was not observed in nicardipine pretreated condition. In nicardipine pretreated condition, the concentration-response curves for the negative inotropic effect of potassium channel blockers were shifted to the right by the increasing concentration of carbachol from 0.5 micrometer to 5 micrometer. IC50 was changed significantly from 0.19 to 0.64 mM (TEA) and from 0.21 to 0.96 (4-AP). Such inhibitory effects were also observed in Ca2+ depleted condition, where 0.1 mM EGTA and 1 micrometer thapsigargin were added into Ca2+ free solution. In conclusion, inhibitory effects of potasssium channel blockers on carbachol-induced contraction may be ascribed to the direct inhibition of receptor-agonist binding.


Subject(s)
4-Aminopyridine/pharmacology , Animals , Urinary Bladder/metabolism , Calcium/chemistry , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Carbachol/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Guinea Pigs , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Male , Mice , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscles/drug effects , Nicardipine/pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Rabbits , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tetraethylammonium/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78040

ABSTRACT

Muscarinic receptors play key roles in the control of gastrointestinal smooth muscle activity. However, specific physiological functions of each subtype remain to be determined. In this study, the nonselective cation channel activated by carbachol (ICCh) was examined in circular smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig gastric antrum using patch-clamp technique. 4-DAMP inhibited ICCh dose- dependently with IC50 of 1.1 +/- 0.1 nM (n = 6). GTPgS- induced current, however, was not inhibited by 10 nM 4-DAMP. ICCh was not recorded in pertussis- toxin (PTX)-pretreated smooth muscle cells of gastric antrum. ICCh values in response to 10 mM CCh at a holding potential of 60 mV were -330 32 pA (n=4) and -15 +/- 3 pA (n = 6) in the control and PTX-treated cells, respectively (P<0.01). Sensitivities to nanomolar 4-DAMP and PTX suggest the possible involvement of m4 subtype. Using sequence information obtained from cloned guinea pig muscarinic receptor genes, it is possible to amplify the cDNAs encoding m1-m5 from guinea pig brain tissue. Single cell RT-PCR experiments showed that all five subtypes of muscarinic receptor were present in circular smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig gastric antrum. Together with our previous results showing that Go protein is important for activation of ACh-activated NSC channels, our results suggest that ICCh might be activated by acetylcholine through m4 subtype as well as m2 and m3 subtypes in guinea-pig stomach.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , Carbachol/pharmacology , Cations , Cholinergic Agonists/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Guinea Pigs , Ion Channels/drug effects , Muscarinic Antagonists/pharmacology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Piperidines/pharmacology , Receptors, Muscarinic/chemistry , Stomach/drug effects
14.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 2000 Jun; 18(1): 49-53
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-670

ABSTRACT

Recent studies show that enteric nerves are involved in the action of cholera toxin, both in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the influence of carbachol, a cholinergic agonist, on the action of cholera toxin. Cultured HT29-19A cell lines and rat ileal mucosa were used in an Ussing chamber for the measurement of short-circuit current induced by cholera toxin. Cyclic AMP was measured from HT29-19A cell lines by standard radio-immunoassay. Pre-treatment of the HT29-19A cell lines with carbachol potentiated cholera toxin-induced secretory response, and enhanced accumulation of cAMP. Carbachol also potentiated the cholera toxin-secretory response in the rat ileal mucosa, but only following pretreatment with the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin. There was synergistic interaction between cholera toxin and cholinergic neurotransmitter carbachol on the intestinal epithelium. Cholinergic agonists may play a role in regulating the secretory response to the toxin. Such interaction is masked in the intact tissues in vitro due to the release of prostaglandins during isolation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbachol/pharmacology , Cholera Toxin/toxicity , Cholinergic Agonists/pharmacology , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Synergism , HT29 Cells/drug effects , Humans , Ileum/drug effects , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117528

ABSTRACT

Whole gland perfusion technique was applied to rat parotid glands to assess whether amylase affects fluid secretion. Control perfusion without any secretagogue evoked no spontaneous secretion. Carbachol (CCh 1 microM) induced both amylase and fluid secretion with distinctive kinetics. Fluid secretion occurred constantly around 60 microL/g-min, whereas amylase secretion exhibited an initial peak, followed by a rapid decrease to reach a plateau. Isoproterenol (Isop 1 microM) alone did not induce fluid secretion although it evoked amylase secretion as measured in isolated perfused acini. Addition of Isop during CCh stimulation evoked a rapid and large rise in amylase secretion accompanied by small increase in oxygen consumption. Morphological observations carried out by HR SEM and TEM revealed exocytotic profiles following Isop stimulation. CCh stimulation alone seldom showed exocytotic profiles, suggesting a low incidence of amylase secretion during copious fluid secretion. Combined stimulation of CCh and Isop induced both vacuolation and exocytosis along intercellular canaliculi. These findings suggest that control of salivary fluid secretion is independent of the amylase secretion system induced by CCh and/or Isop.


Subject(s)
Amylases/metabolism , Animals , Carbachol/pharmacology , Cholinergic Agonists/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Isoproterenol/pharmacology , Male , Microscopy, Electron , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Parotid Gland/ultrastructure , Parotid Gland/metabolism , Parotid Gland/enzymology , Perfusion , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Saliva/metabolism , Sympathomimetics/pharmacology
17.
Acta physiol. pharmacol. ther. latinoam ; 49(3): 161-9, 1999. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-246055

ABSTRACT

Propinox is an antispasmodic drug frequently used in the treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, the uterus and the galbladder, but little is known about its relaxing activity in gallbladder tissue. The main objective of this study was to determine the antispasmodic activity of propinox, compared to other antispasmodics, in the gallblader and to assess its binding affinity to receptor sites which may be involved in its mechanism of action. Antispasmodic activity of propinox, (-) scopolamine-n-butyl bromide, atropine and verapamil was determined in human gallbladders to reduce the risk of interspecies variability. Inhibitory activities (ED50) of carbachol-induced contraction were: atropine 5.03x10(-8) M>propinox 1.25x10(-7) M> verapamil 6.63x10(-6)M> (-) scopolamine-n-butyl1 bromide 5.4x10(-5) M. pD'2 for propinox was 6.94, indicating non competitive inhibition of carbachol action. Radioligand binding studies were performed to determine if the antisplasmodic action of the drug involved binding to muscarinic receptors or calciumatagonist sites. The inhibition constant (Ki) of proponix for muscarinic receptors of guinea pig ileum smoth muscle, which contains a mixed M2-M3 receptor population, was 1.6x10(-6) M. Ki for brain muscarinic receptors (M1) was 1.0x10(-4) M, for cardiac receptors (M1) was 1.0x10(-4)M, for receptors (M2) 1.2x10(-6)M and from salivary gland receptors (M3) 1.5x10(-6)M. For binding to the dihidropiridine calcium antagonist binding sites, Ki were: 4.9x10(-5)M for propinox and 2.2x10(-7)M for verapamil. For the phenylakylamine binding sites Ki were: 5.0x10(-6)M for propinox and 3.5x10(-8)M for verapamil. For the benzothiacepine binding sites, Ki for propinox was 5.2x10(-6)M. The following may be concluded: 1- The antispasmodic activity of propinox in isolated human galbladder was was comparatively less potent than of atropine and more potent than those verapamil and (-) scopolamine-n-butyl bromide. 2- Propinox showed binding to muscarinic and calcium receptors that can be related to its antisplasmodic activity; suggesting that the drug is an antispasmodic with anticholinergic and musculotropic activity. 3.- The dual mechanism of action, anticholinergic and calcium-blocking, would induce synergism of pharmacodynamic effects and minimize adverse events of pure antimuscarinic drugs or calcium antagonists.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gallbladder/drug effects , Parasympatholytics/pharmacology , Receptors, Muscarinic , Atropine/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Butylscopolammonium Bromide/pharmacology , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Carbachol/pharmacology , Muscarinic Agonists/pharmacology , Muscarinic Antagonists/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 31(7): 937-41, jul. 1998. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-212876

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we report that low concentrations of the glutamate ionotropic agonist kainate decreased the turnover of [3H]-phosphoinositides ([3H]-InsPs) induced by muscarinic receptors in the chick embryonic retina. When 100 muM carbachol was used, the estimated IC50 value for kainate was 0.2 muM and the maximal inhibition of ~50 percent was obtained with 1 muM or higher concentrations of the glutamatergic agonist. Our data also show that veratridine, a neurotoxin that increases the permeability of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, had no effect on [3H]-InsPs levels of the embryonic retina. However, 50 muM veratridine, but not 50 mM KCl, inhibited ~65 percent of the retinal response to carbachol. While carbachol increased [3H]-InsPs levels from 241.2 + 38.0 to 2044.5 + 299.9 cpm/mg protein, retinal response decreased to 861.6 + 113.9 cpm/mg protein when tissues were incubated with carbachol plus veratridine. These results suggest that the accumulation of phosphoinositides induced by activation of muscarinic receptors can be inhibited by the influx of Na+ ions triggered by activation of kainate receptors or opening of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in the chick embryonic retina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chick Embryo , Carbachol/pharmacology , Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists/pharmacology , Kainic Acid/pharmacology , Muscarinic Agonists/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositols/metabolism , Receptors, Muscarinic/metabolism , Retina/embryology , Veratridine/pharmacology , Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists/metabolism , Glutamic Acid/pharmacology , Kainic Acid/metabolism , Potassium Chloride , Receptors, Muscarinic/drug effects , Retina/drug effects , Sodium Channels
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 31(6): 841-6, jun. 1998. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-210975

ABSTRACT

We studied the development of the insulin secretion mechanism in the pancreas of fetal (19- and 21-day-old), neonatal (3-day-old), and adult (90-day-old) rats in response to stimulation with 8.3 or 16.7 mM glucose, 30 mM K + , 5 mM theophylline (Theo) and 200 µM carbamylcholine (Cch). No effect of glucose or high K + was observed on the pancreas from 19-day-old fetuses, whereas Theo and Cch significantly increased insulin secretion at this age (82 and 127 por cento above basal levels, respectively). High K + also failed to alter the insulin secretion in the pancreas from 21-day-old fetuses, whereas 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose significantly stimulated insulin release by 41 and 54 percent above basal levels, respectively. Similar results were obtained with Theo and Cch. A more marked effect of glucose on insulin secretion was observed in the pancreas of 3-day-old rats, reaching 84 and 179 percent above basal levels with 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose, respectively. At this age, both Theo and Cch increased insulin secretion to close to two-times basal levels. In islets from adult rats, 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose, Theo, and Cch increased the insulin release by 104, 193, 318 and 396 percent above basal levels, respectively. These data indicate that pancreatic B-cells from 19-day-old fetuses were already sensitive to stimuli that use either cAMP or IP 3 and DAG as second messengers, but insensitive to stimuli such as glucose and high K + that induce membrane depolarization. The greater effect of glucose on insulin secretion during the neonatal period indicates that this period is crucial for the maturation of the glucose-sensing mechanism in B-cells


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Carbachol/pharmacology , Glucose/pharmacology , Insulin/metabolism , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Potassium/pharmacology , Theophylline/pharmacology , Animals, Newborn , Fetus
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 30(4): 493-6, Apr. 1997. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-191387

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effects of losartan, an AT1-receptor blocker, and ramipril, a converting enzyme inhibitor, on the pressor response induced by angiotensin II (ANG II) and carbachol (a cholinergic receptor agonist). Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g) with a stainless steel cannula implanted into the lateral ventricle (LV) were used. The injection of losartan (50 nmol/l mul) into the LV blocked the pressor response induced by ANG II (12 ng/1 mul) and carbachol (2 nmol/ 1 mul). After injection of ANG II and carbachol into the LV, mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased to 31 + 1 and 28 + 2 mmHg, respectively. Previous injection of losartan abolished the increase in MAP induced by ANG II and carbachol into the LV (2 + 1 and 5 + 2 mmHg, respectively). The injection of ramipril (12 ng/ 1 mul) prior to carbachol blocked the pressor effect of carbachol to 7 + 3 mmHg. These results suggests an interaction between central cholinergic pathways and the angiotensinergic system in the regulation of arterial blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Male , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Carbachol/pharmacology , Cerebral Ventricles/drug effects , Cholinergic Agonists/pharmacology , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Pressoreceptors/drug effects , Ramipril/pharmacology , Receptors, Angiotensin/antagonists & inhibitors , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
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