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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922357

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#COVID-19 is also referred to as a typical viral septic pulmonary infection by 2019-nCoV. However, little is known regarding its characteristics in terms of systemic inflammation and organ injury, especially compared with classical bacterial sepsis. This article aims to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis between COVID-19-associated sepsis and classic bacterial-induced sepsis.@*METHODS@#In this retrospective cohort study, septic patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a government-designed therapy center in Shenzhen, China between January 14, 2020 and March 10, 2020, and septic patients induced by carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumonia (CrKP) admitted to the ICU of the Second People's Hospital of Shenzhen, China between January 1, 2014 and October 30, 2019 were enrolled. Demographic and clinical parameters including comorbidities, critical illness scores, treatment, and laboratory data, as well as prognosis were compared between the two groups. Risk factors for mortality and survival rate were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression and survival curve, respectively.@*RESULTS@#A total of 107 patients with COVID-19 and 63 patients with CrKP were enrolled. A direct comparison between the two groups demonstrated more serious degrees of primary lung injury following 2019-nCoV infection (indicated by lower PaO@*CONCLUSION@#Critical COVID-19 shares clinical characteristics with classical bacterial sepsis, but the degree of systemic inflammatory response, secondary organ damage and mortality rate are less severe. However, following 2019-nCoV infection, the level of immunosuppression may be increased and thus induce in more death at the later stage of patients' hospitalstay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbapenems , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928573

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To systematically assess the risk factors for the colonization or infection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children.@*METHODS@#PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Wanfang Data, China Biology Medicine disc were searched to obtain the articles on risk factors for the colonization or infection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children published up to May 31, 2021. RevMan 5.3 software was used to perform the Meta analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 13 articles were included, with 1 501 samples in total. The Meta analysis showed that indwelling gastric tube (OR=4.91), tracheal intubation (OR=5.03), central venous catheterization (OR=3.75), indwelling urinary catheterization (OR=4.11), mechanical ventilation (OR=3.09), history of hospitalization in the intensive care unit (OR=2.39), history of surgical operation (OR=3.22), previous use of third-generation cephalosporins (OR=2.62), previous use of carbapenem antibiotics (OR=3.82), previous use of glycopeptide antibiotics (OR=3.48), previous use of β-lactamase inhibitors (OR=2.87), previous use of antifungal drugs (OR=2.48), previous use of aminoglycoside antibiotics (OR=2.54), and Apgar score ≤7 at 1 minute after birth (OR=2.10) were risk factors for the colonization or infection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Invasive operations, history of hospitalization in the intensive care unit, previous use of antibiotics such as carbapenem antibiotics, and Apgar score ≤7 at 1 minute after birth are risk factors for the colonization or infection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Child , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Humans , Risk Factors
3.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 73 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392322

ABSTRACT

O perfil de resistência, que algumas das espécies do complexo Klebsiella pneumoniae podem expressar, representa uma grande ameaça à saúde humana, particularmente quando resistentes aos carbapenêmicos, que são amplamente utilizados no tratamento de infecções graves em pacientes hospitalizados. O principal mecanismo de resistência aos carbapenêmicos é a produção de carbapenemases, particularmente dos tipos KPC e NDM. Um dos compostos desenvolvidos para o tratamento de infecções causadas por cepas produtoras de KPC é a combinação ceftazidimaavibactam (CAZ-AVI), mas que não tem atividade inibitória sobre metalo-betalactamases, a exemplo das NDMs. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a frequência das espécies do complexo K. pneumoniae e da coprodução de KPC, avaliar a clonalidade dos isolados, a sensibilidade ao aztreonam-avibactam (ATM-AVI), o desempenho do disco de meropenem (MEM) com inibidores para detecção de coprodução de NDM e KPC e desenvolver um teste de triagem para prever a sensibilidade ao ATM-AVI. Um total de 113 isolados do complexo K. pneumoniae produtoras de NDM ou coprodutoras de NDM e KPC, provenientes da coleção de bactérias do Grupo Fleury, coletadas períodos pré e pós início do uso de CAZ-AVI no Brasil, foram utilizadas neste estudo. A identificação da espécie e a presença dos genes blaNDM e blaKPC foi confirmada por PCR multiplex. A clonalidade dos isolados foi avaliada por eletroforese em campos pulsados (PFGE) após clivagem com XbaI. A produção de carbapenemases foi confirmada utilizando-se o teste Blue Carba. O desempenho dos discos de meropenem e CAZ-AVI contendo um ou mais inibidores de carbapenemases foi comparado com o teste molecular. A pré-difusão combinada foi realizada pré-incubando-se o ágar não inoculado com disco de CAZ-AVI, e a seguir aplicando-se o inóculo bacteriano e um disco de ATM após remover o disco de CAZ-AVI. Após incubação, os halos foram aferidos e correlacionados com a concentração inibitória mínima para ATM-AVI. As CIMs para ATM e ATM-AVI foram determinadas segundo o EUCAST. A identificação das espécies por PCR evidenciou as seguintes frequências: K. pneumoniae 75,2% (n=85); K. quasipneumoniae 16,8% (n=19), e K. variicola 8% (n=9). Uma fração de 12,4% (n=14) dos isolados apresentaram os genes blaNDM e blaKPC e 87,6% (n=99) apenas blaNDM. A análise dos perfis de PFGE de K. pneumoniae evidenciou a presença de cinco grupos clonais predominantes. Isolados do principal grupo clonal Ap (n=15) foram detectados nas cidades de São Paulo e Porto Alegre durante todo o período analisado. O grupo clonal Lp foi detectado nas cidades de São Paulo e Recife em 2019. Os dois principais grupos clonais no período pré-CAZ-AVI continham maior número de isolados do que aqueles no período de uso do CAZ-AVI. Os perfis de PFGE de K. quasipneumoniae evidenciaram quatro grupos clonais predominantes, e presentes apenas no estado de São Paulo, com persistência do grupo clonal Aq desde 2017. Quanto à K. variicola, foram observados dois grupos clonais predominantes Av e Bv, o primeiro presente apenas em São Paulo desde 2018 e o segundo em Porto Alegre apenas em 2019. Calculando-se a diferença entre os diâmetros de halo do disco MEM contendo EDTA e ácido fenilborônico (AFB) e o maior dos halos obtidos para MEM com EDTA ou AFB, observou-se que todos os isolados com coexpressão de KPC e NDM apresentaram diferença ≥ 5 mm. Uma fração de 42,3% dos isolados positivos apenas para blaNDM apresentaram sensibilidade para ATM (CIM ≤ 4 mg/L). Todos os isolados testados apresentaram CIM para ATM-AVI ≤ 1/4 mg/L, sendo a CIM90 0,125/4 mg/l. No teste de pré-difusão combinada, o menor diâmetro de halo obtido foi de 23 mm. A espécie predominante na amostragem foi K. pneumoniae. A disseminação clonal, observada neste estudo, contrasta com a diversidade clonal descrita em outros locais do mundo para produtores de NDM, exceto Grécia e China. Considerando os pontos de corte atuais para ATM, é provável que haja resposta clínica adequada no uso de ATM-AVI no tratamento de infecções causadas por isolados produtores de NDM e coprodutores de KPC e NDM. Utilizando-se o valor de corte de ≤ 5 mm para a diferença entre halos de inibição, de MEM com AFB e EDTA e o segundo maior halo com inibidor, a sensibilidade foi de 100% e a especificidade foi de 96,1,0%. O método de pré-difusão com CAZ-AVI e ATM é um método simples e o diâmetro ≥ 23 mm tem excelente correlação com a CIM para ATM-AVI ≤ 1/4 mg/L


The resistance profile, which some species of the Klebsiella pneumoniae complex may express, represent a great threat to human health, particularly when resistant to carbapenems, which are widely used in the treatment of severe infections in hospitalized patients. The main mechanism of resistance to carbapenems is the production of carbapenemases, particularly KPCs and NDMs. One of the compounds developed for the treatment of infections caused by KPC-producing strains is the combination ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI), but which has no inhibitory activity on metallobetalactamases, as is the case for NDMs. The objectives of this work were to determine the frequency of K. pneumoniae complex species and KPC co-production, evaluate the clonality of isolates, the susceptibility to aztreonam-avibactam (ATM-AVI), the performance of meropenem (MEM) disks with inhibitors for detecting NDM co-production and KPC and develop a screening test to predict sensitivity to ATM-AVI. A total of 113 NDM-producing or NDM and KPC co-producing K. pneumoniae complexes, from the Fleury Group's bacteria collection, collected in the pre- and post-starting periods of CAZ-AVI use in Brazil, were used in this study. Species identification and the presence of the blaNDM and blaKPC genes were confirmed by multiplex PCR. The clonality of the isolates was evaluated by pulsed field electrophoresis (PFGE) after cleavage with XbaI. Carbapenemase production was confirmed using the Blue Carba test. The performance of MEM and CAZ-AVI disks containing one or more carbapenemase inhibitors was compared with the molecular test. Combined pre-diffusion was performed by preincubating the uninoculated agar with a CAZ-AVI disk, and then applying the bacterial inoculum and na ATM disk after removal of the CAZ-AVI disk. After incubation, halos were measured and correlated with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ATM-AVI. ATM and ATM-AVI MICs were determined according to EUCAST. The identification of species by PCR evidenced the following frequencies: K. pneumoniae 75.2% (n=85); K. quasipneumoniae 16.8% (n=19), and K. variicola 8% (n=9). A fraction of 12.4% (n=14) of the isolates had the blaNDM and blaKPC genes and 87.6% (n=99) had only blaNDM. The analysis of the PFGE profiles of K. pneumoniae evidenced the presence of five predominant clonal groups. Isolates from the main clonal group Ap (n=16) were detected in the cities of São Paulo and Porto Alegre throughout the analyzed period. The clonal group Lp was detected in the cities of São Paulo and Recife 2019. The PFGE profiles of K. quasipneumoniae showed four predominant clonal groups, present only in the state of São Paulo, with persistence of the clonal group Aq since 2017. As for K. variicola, two predominant clonal groups Av and Bv were observed, the first present only in São Paulo since 2018 and the second in Porto Alegre only in 2019. Calculating the difference between the inhibition zone diameters of the MEM disk containing EDTA and phenylboronic acid (AFB) and the largest of the inhibition zone diameters obtained for MEM with EDTA or AFB, it was observed that all isolates with co-expression of KPC and NDM showed a difference 5 ≥mm. A fraction of 42.3% of isolates positive only for blaNDM showed sensitivity to ATM (MIC ≤ 4 mg/L). All tested isolates presented MIC for ATM-AVI ≤ 1/4 mg/L, being the MIC90 0.125/4 mg/l. In the combined pre-diffusion test, the smallest inhibition zone diameter obtained was 23 mm. The predominant species in the sample was K. pneumoniae, but a significant fraction of the other species in the complex was also observed in the sample. The clonal spread observed in this study contrasts with the clonal diversity described elsewhere in the world for NDM-producing isolates, except Greece and China. Considering the current cut-off points for ATM, it is likely that there is an adequate clinical response in the use of ATM-AVI in infections caused by NDM-producing and KPC-NDM co-producing isolates in Brazil. Using the cutoff value of 5 mm for the difference between inhibition zones, of MEM with AFB and EDTA and the second largest zone of MEM with inhibitor, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 96.1%. The pre-diffusion method with CAZ-AVI and ATM is a simple method and the diameter ≥ 23 mm has excellent correlation with the MIC for ATM-AVI ≤ 1/4 mg/L


Subject(s)
Aztreonam/agonists , Diffusion , Klebsiella/metabolism , Methods , Carbapenems/adverse effects , Ceftazidime/pharmacology , Morbidity , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Klebsiella pneumoniae/metabolism
4.
Infectio ; 25(2): 89-92, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250073

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Detectar la presencia de Enterobacterias productoras de carbapenemasas en hisopados rectales de neonatos mediante técnica de nefelometría láser y caracterización del tipo de carbapenemasa mediante test inmunocromatográfico. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Fueron incluidos 57 neonatos, tamizados al ingreso a UCI, mediante hisopado rectal, procesado por nefelometría laser HB&L Carbapenemase (Alifax®) y caracterización del tipo de carbapenemasa por inmunocromatografía rápida RESIST-3 (Coris BioConcept®). Resultados: Encontramos un alto porcentaje de colonización rectal (22.9%) correspondiente a 13 hisopados positivos y 44 (77.1%) fueron negativos por nefelometría láser. Por VITEK 2® se obtuvo identificación de Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a carbapenémicos en los 13 aislamientos y el test inmunocromatográfico reveló la presencia de carbapenemasas blaKPC en estos aislamientos. Discusión: Estudios evidencian el aumento de la colonización por microorganismos productores de carbapenemasas en neonatos. Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que un porcentaje significativo de neonatos que ingresan a las Unidades de Cuidado Neonatal se encuentran colonizados con Enterobacterias productoras de carbapenemasas en tracto intestinal. Lo anterior constituye un riesgo potencial para su diseminación y posterior desarrollo de brotes, en donde surge la importancia de implementar estrategias de vigilancia activa como la tamización rectal para la detección oportuna de neonatos colonizados.


Abstract Objective: To detect the presence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in rectal swabs of neonates by means of laser nephelometry technique and characterization of the type of carbapenemase by immunochromatographic test. Materials and Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study. 57 neonatal patients were included; They underwent rectal screening upon admission to the ICU, using swabs which were processed by HB&L Carbapenemase laser nephelometry (Alifax®) and characterization of the type of carbapenemase by RESIST-3 rapid immu nochromatography (Coris BioConcept®). Results: We found a high percentage of rectal colonization (22.9%) corresponding to 13 positive swabs and 44 samples (77.1%) were negative by laser nephelome try. Identification of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae was obtained by VITEK 2® in the 13 isolates and the immunochromatographic test revealed the presence of blaKPC carbapenemases in these isolates. Discussion: Studies show increased colonization by carbapenemase-producing microorganisms in neonates. The results of this study demonstrate that a significant percentage of neonates who enter Neonatal Care Units are colonized with Enterobacteriaceae that produce carbapenemases in the intestinal tract. This constitu tes a potential risk for its spread and subsequent development of outbreaks, where the importance of implementing active surveillance strategies such as rectal screening for the timely detection of colonized neonates arises.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Carbapenems , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Enterobacteriaceae , Mass Screening , Cross-Sectional Studies , Watchful Waiting , Intensive Care Units , Nephelometry and Turbidimetry
5.
Infectio ; 25(1): 16-21, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154396

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los microorganismos capaces de producir carbapenemasas vienen incrementándose a nivel mundial y se han convertido en un problema de salud pública global. En Colombia actualmente la resistencia a carbapenémicos en las unidades de cuidado intensivo está aumentando y se desconoce su impacto en desenlaces clínicos. Objetivos: Determinar las características demográficas, clínicas, y los desenlaces de los pacientes adultos en estado crítico con infección por microorganismos productores de carbapenemasas en una unidad de cuidado intensivo polivalente de una institución de alta complejidad. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo, incluyendo pacientes con infección por bacterias resistentes a carbapenémicos, ingresados a la unidad de cuidado intensivo entre el 1 de Enero de 2014 y el 1 de Enero de 2018. Se excluyeron los pacientes colonizados. Se evaluaron complicaciones clínicas, estancia en UCI y hospitalaria, así como la mortalidad en UCI y hospitalaria. Resultados: Se incluyó 58 pacientes. La mortalidad global fue de 67,2%, de los cuales 55,17% murió durante su estancia en la unidad de cuidado intensivo y 12.06% en hospitalización. La mediana de estancia en la unidad de cuidado intensivo fue de 18 días (RIQ 4-28). La causa más frecuente de mortalidad fue choque séptico en 51% y las complicaciones más comunes fueron lesión renal aguda y delirium en un 55,2% y 43,1%, respectivamente. La mediana de estancia en la UCI fue de 18 días (RIQ 4-28). Conclusiones: Las infecciones por bacterias resistentes a carbapenémicos en pacientes críticamente enfermos se relacionan con altas tasas de mortalidad, complicaciones y estancia prolongada en UCI


Abstract Introduction: Microorganisms able to produce carbapenemases are spreading worldwide and have become a concerning global public-health problem. In Colombia, the Gram-negative resistance to carbapenems at intensive care units is currently increasing and its impact on clinical outcomes is not well known. Objectives: To determine the demographic, clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill adult patients with infection by carbapenemase producing bacteria in a polyvalent intensive care unit of a highly complex institution. Methods: Single-center retrospective, descriptive observational study including critically ill adult patients infected by carbapenemase-producing bacteria and transferred to a polyvalent intensive care unit from January 1th 2014 to January 1th 2018. Known colonized patients were excluded. Clinical complications, ICU and in-hospital days of stay were evaluated, as ICU and in-hospital mortality. Results: A total of 58 patients were included. Overall mortality was 67.2%, of which 55.17% died during their stay in the intensive care unit and 12.06% in hospitalization. The median stay in the intensive care unit was 18 days (IQR 4-28). The most frequent cause of death was septic shock in 51% and the most common complications were acute renal injury and delirium in 55.2% and 43.1%, respectively. The median stay in the ICU was 18 days (RIQ 4-28). Conclusions: Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant bacteria in critically ill patients are associated with high mortality rates, complications and long stay in ICU.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Hospital Mortality , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Carbapenems , Cross Infection , Colombia , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Infections , Intensive Care Units
6.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e599, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289439

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones de tracto urinario se encuentran entre las infecciones de mayor prevalencia en la parte clínica. Son un problema de salud global y se pueden presentar con o sin síntomas. Los agentes bacterianos aislados en mayor frecuencia son Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp y Proteus spp. Objetivo: Caracterizar las infecciones de tracto urinario producidas por enterobacterias productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en pacientes hospitalizados, Lima 2016-2018. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 2 instituciones prestadoras de salud, en Lima, Perú, durante el periodo 2016-2018, a partir de los aislamientos de patógenos blee asociados a infecciones de tracto urinario. Se tuvieron en cuenta variables sociodemográficas, enfermedades asociadas, agentes aislados, tratamiento y respuesta clínica. Resultados: Se obtuvo un registro de 117 pacientes, con edad promedio de 58,18 ± 11,8 años; 65,0 por ciento fueron mujeres y 89,74 por ciento provenían del área urbana de Lima. Las enfermedades asociadas más frecuentes fueron diabetes (39,3 por ciento) y enfermedad renal moderada o grave (12,8 por ciento), con índice de Charlson medio de 2,70 ± 1,21. Los agentes aislados más comunes fueron Escherichia coli (92,3 por ciento), Klebsiella spp (6,0 por ciento) y Proteus spp (1,7 por ciento). Los tratamientos empíricos usados fueron ampicilina/sulbactam (18,9 por ciento), ciprofloxacino (49,6 por ciento) y nitrofurantoína (16,7 por ciento). El 49,2 por ciento de los pacientes recibió tratamiento dirigido, 22,8 por ciento ertapenem y 13,9 por ciento piperacilina/tazobactam. Conclusiones: Las personas con diabetes y enfermedad renal son un grupo vulnerable a las infecciones de tracto urinario. El agente causal aislado en mayor frecuencia fue Escherichia coli blee+. Los tratamientos de inicio luego de la identificación clínica de la infección urinaria fueron ciprofloxacino y cefalosporinas. Una vez obtenidos los resultados microbiológicos se modificó el tratamiento antibiótico a carbapenémicos y penicilinas. La revaloración de los antibióticos usados en pacientes con enfermedades asociadas es importante para el éxito del tratamiento(AU)


Introduction: Urinary tract infections are among the most prevalent infections in clinical practice. They are a global health problem and may present with or without symptoms. The bacterial agents most commonly isolated are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus spp. Objective: Characterize urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum betalactamase producing enterobacteria in hospitalized patients from Lima in the period 2016-2018. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted at two health institutions from Lima, Peru, in the period 2016-2018, based on isolation of ESBL pathogens associated to urinary tract infections. Attention was paid to sociodemographic variables, associated conditions, agents isolated, treatment and clinical response. Results: A sample was selected of 117 patients; mean age was 58.18 ± 11.8 years; 65.0 percent were women and 89.74 percent came from the urban area of Lima. The most common associated conditions were diabetes (39.3 percent) and moderate or serious kidney disease (12.8 percent), with a mean Charlson index of 2.70 ± 1.21. The most common isolated agents were Escherichia coli (92.3 percent), Klebsiella spp. (6.0 percent and Proteus spp. (1.7 percent). The empirical treatments used were ampicillin/sulbactam (18.9 percent), ciprofloxacin (49.6 percent) and nitrofurantoin (16.7 percent). 49.2 percent of the patients received targeted treatment, 22.8 percent ertapenem and 13.9 percent piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusions: People with diabetes and kidney disease are vulnerable to urinary tract infections. The causative agent most commonly isolated was ESBL Escherichia coli. The initial treatments indicated after clinical identification of urinary infection were ciprofloxacin and cephalosporins. When microbiological results were obtained, antibiotic therapy was changed to carbapenems and penicillins. Reassessment of the antibiotics used in patients with associated conditions is important for the success of the treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Urinary Tract , Carbapenems , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents
7.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 11(1): 26-31, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362111

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii has reached extremely high levels worldwide, and class D OXA-type carbapenemases are the main associated mechanism. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic and molecular profile of clinical carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAb) isolates from a southern Brazilian border region. Methods: A. baumannii species was identified by the presence of the blaOXA-51 gene, and the susceptibility profile was determined by broth microdilution. The main carbapenemases were investigated by PCR and the molecular typing was performed by PFGE. Results: during the study, a total of 36 CRAb were recovered, of which 85.7% were from respiratory tract samples from ICU patients. High level resistance to were found in contrast to 100% of susceptibility for polymyxin B. The blaOXA-23 gene was present in 34 isolates and was the only one detected other than blaOXA-51. Molecular typing revealed the presence of four clonal strains, two of them endemic during the period of the study. Conclusion: to the best of our knowledge, our study brings the first data about resistance profile in Acinetobacter in the western border of southern Brazil and make aware of endemic clones of CRAb-producing-OXA-23 in this region of state, contributing for the construction of the national epidemiologic scenario of CRAb.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: a resistência aos carbapenêmicos em Acinetobacter baumannii atingiu níveis extremamente altos em todo o mundo, e as carbapenemases do tipo OXA classe D são o principal mecanismo associado. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o perfil fenotípico e molecular de isolados clínicos de A. baumannii resistentes aos carbapenêmicos (CRAb) de uma região de fronteira do sul do Brasil. Métodos: a espécie A. baumannii foi identificada através da presença do gene blaOXA-51, e o perfil de sensibilidade foi determinado por microdiluição em caldo. As principais carbapenemases foram investigadas por PCR, e a tipagem dos isolados de CRAb foi realizada por PFGE. Resultados: durante o período do estudo, 36 CRAb foram recuperados, dos quais 85,7% foram provenientes de amostras do trato respiratório de pacientes de UTI. Uma elevada resistência a aminoglicosídeos e fluoroquinolonas foi encontrada em contraste com 100% de sensibilidade a polimixina B. O gene blaOXA-23 foi encontrado em 34 isolados e foi o único detectado além do blaOXA-51. A tipagem molecular revelou a presença de quatro linhagens clonais, duas delas endêmicas ao longo do período do estudo. Conclusão: nosso estudo traz os primeiros dados sobre o perfil de resistência em Acinetobacter na fronteira oeste do sul do Brasil e alerta para a presença de clones endêmicos de CRAb produtores de OXA-23 nessa região, contribuindo para a construção do cenário epidemiológico nacional de CRAb.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: la resistencia a carbapenémicos en Acinetobacter baumannii ha alcanzado niveles extremadamente altos en todo el mundo y las carbapenemases OXA de clase D son el principal mecanismo asociado. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el perfil fenotípico y molecular de los aislados clínicos de A. baumannii resistentes a carbapenémicos (CRAb) de una región fronteriza en el sur de Brasil. Métodos: la especie A. baumannii se identificó a través de la presencia del gen blaOXA-51 y el perfil de sensibilidad se determinó por microdilución en caldo. Las principales carbapenemasas fueron investigadas por PCR y la tipificación se hizo con PFGE. Resultados: durante el período de estudio, se recuperaron 36 CRAb, 85,7% de muestras del tracto respiratorio de pacientes de la UCI. Se encontró una alta resistencia a los aminoglucósidos y las fluoroquinolonas en contraste con 100% de sensibilidad a polimixina B. El gen blaOXA-23 se encontró en 34 aislamientos y fue el único detectado además de blaOXA-51. La tipificación molecular reveló la presencia de cuatro cepas clonales, dos de ellas endémicas durante el período de estudio. Conclusiones: hasta donde sabemos, nuestro estudio trae los primeros datos sobre el perfil de resistencia en Acinetobacter en la frontera oeste del sur de Brasil y reconoce los clones endémicos de CRAb productores de OXA.(AU)


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Carbapenems , Acinetobacter baumannii
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e08612020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288105

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION This systematic review aimed to assess antibiotic use in Brazilian hospitals in the 21st century, as well as to understand the different drug utilization metrics adopted to assess the consumption of these drugs. METHODS We systematically reviewed five databases (MEDLINE [Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online], CENTRAL [The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials], EMBASE® [Excerpta Medica Database], Scopus [Elsevier's abstract and citation database], and LILACS [Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde]) for observational or experimental studies that assessed antibiotic utilization in Brazilian hospitals. The main outcomes were the drug utilization metrics and the consumption of antibiotics. RESULTS We included 23 studies, of which 43.5% were carried out in adult and pediatric care units, 39.1% in adult units, and 17.4% in pediatric units. Regarding the complexity of healthcare, 26.1% of the studies were performed in intensive care units. Two drug utilization metrics were used in these studies: the defined daily dose (DDD) and the percentage of antibiotic prescriptions. The most commonly used antibiotic classes were third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and combinations of penicillins when the DDD was the adopted drug utilization metric. CONCLUSIONS Although few studies have been conducted, existing data indicate a high use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. We found that the lack of standardized antibiotic utilization metrics impaired the mapping of drug consumption at the national level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Penicillins , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Carbapenems , Hospitals
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(2): 101540, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278578

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Carbapenem-resistance in healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) is of great concern, and it is urgent to improve surveillance. We aimed to describe and analyze HCAIs trends on Gram-negative antimicrobial susceptibility in a city from a developing country, following the implementation of an active surveillance program. Methods: This is an aggregated study describing data from 24 hospitals with intensive care units, including a trend analysis by Joinpoint regression between January 2012 and December 2017. Results: There were 23,578 pathogens in 39,832 HCAIs, from which 16,225 were Gram-negatives (68.8%). Carbapenem susceptibility was lowest in A. baumannii (15.4-25.9%), K. pneumoniae (51.0-55.9%), and P. aeruginosa (64.9-84.1%) and highest in E. coli (96.5-99.2%). Only K. pneumoniae showed a significant Joinpoint at 95% confidence interval: −10.71% (−18.02; −2.75) from 2012 to 2014, p = 0.02, and 6.54% (−2.00; 15.83) from 2015 to 2017, p = 0.12, which was most influenced by urinary tract infections: −9.98% (−16.02; −3.48) from 2012 to 2014, p = 0.01, and 9.66% (−1.75; 22.39) from 2015 to 2017, p = 0.09. Conclusion: Although we found a significant change toward an improvement in carbapenem susceptibility in K. pneumoniae, resistance is high for most pathogens. These data should encourage health institutions to improve their prevention and control strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Delivery of Health Care , Escherichia coli , Watchful Waiting , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
10.
Malawi med. j. (Online) ; 33(2): 82-84, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1290527

ABSTRACT

Background Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a significant opportunistic pathogen that is associated with high mortality in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we describe a multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. maltophilia clinical isolate from Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH), Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods: A ceftriaxone and meropenem nonsusceptible isolate (Sm-MW08), recovered in December 2017 at KCH, was referred to theNational Microbiology Reference Laboratory for identification. In April 2018, we identified the isolate using MALDI Biotyper mass spectrometry and determined its antimicrobial susceptibility profile using microdilution methods. Sm-MW08 was analysed by S1-PFGE, PCR, and Sanger sequencing, in order to ascertain the genotypes that were responsible for the isolate`s multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype. Results Sm-MW08 was identified as S. maltophilia and exhibited resistance to a range of antibiotics, including all ß-lactams, aminoglycosides (except arbekacin), chloramphenicol, minocycline, fosfomycin and fluoroquinolones, but remained susceptible to colistin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The isolate did not harbour any plasmid but did carry chromosomally-encoded blaL1 metallo-ßlactamase and blaL2 ß-lactamase genes; this was consistent with the isolate's resistance profile. No other resistance determinants were detected, suggesting that the MDR phenotype exhibited by Sm-MW08 was innate. Conclusion : Herein, we have described an MDR S. maltophilia from KCH in Malawi, that was resistant to almost all locally available antibiotics. We therefore recommend the practice of effective infection prevention measures to curtail spread of this organism


Subject(s)
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Therapeutics , Ceftriaxone , Carbapenems , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
11.
West Indian med. j ; 69(3): 136-139, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341892

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To provide an overview of the development of an institution-specific epidemiological antibiogram. Emphasis was on last-line antibiotics, such as carbapenems. Methods: In 2013, the antibiograms of various organisms were retrieved from the computerized database of the Microscan (Siemens Healthcare) at the Microbiology Laboratory of the Sangre Grande Hospital in East Trinidad, West Indies. These were divided into blood and urine specimen antibiograms. All the wards and hospital clinics were included. A 20% cut-off was used to determine that a particular antibiotic or antibiotic class could be used for empiric therapy. All the organisms were not chosen. Only the most common and clinically relevant organisms were chosen. Results: Blood: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis: Imipenem, mero- penem, ertapenem showed greater than 80% sensitivity, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, levofloxacin and tazobactam/piperacillin showed 100%, 80%, 80%, 100% and 100% sensitivity, respectively. Urines: E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis: Imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, were greater than 80% sensitive. Enterobacter cloacae: Imipenem, meropenem were 92%, 100% sensitive. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: tazobactam-piperacillin and amikacin were both 85% susceptible. Acinetobacter baumanii/haemolyticus: All the antibiotics were above the 20% resistance threshold. Conclusion: Patient-specific antibiograms and unit-specific trends (eg, ICU, surgical wards and outpatient clinic) can be used as a guide in patients with less severe infections. Carbapenems can still be used empirically, in East Trinidad, for sepsis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
12.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 430-440, dez 5, 2020. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357939

ABSTRACT

Objective: evaluation of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative microbiota from ready-to-eat cheese samples. Methodology: this research applied an adapted methodology to select from a food sample viable Gram-negative microbiota displaying antibiotic resistance. The selected food was a cheese that is commonly consumed without thermal processing, the Minas Frescal cheese. The evaluation was followed by a PCR screening in this resistant microbiota, for genes that provide resistance to antibiotics and also to the quaternary ammonium. Results: all cheese samples harbored a resistant microbiota. In 13.3% of the cheese samples analyzed, the resistance reached all ten different antibiotics tested and, in 80%, 8 to 10 different antibiotics. In antibiotics considered critics as the carbapenems: ertapenem presented resistant microbiota in 86.7% of the samples. In cephalosporins, the resistance reached 100% in the third generation (ceftazidime) and almost half of the samples (46.7%) in the fourth generation (cefepime). In genotypic research, seven different resistance genes were found in 69.2% of the bacterial pools, including the beta-lactamase-producing genes ctx, tem, shv, tetracycline-resistant genes, and a high rate of integrons class 1 and 2. Conclusion: the results indicate phenotypically and genotypically that the Minas Frescal cheese can harbor potential resistant microbiota. Therefore, the methodology used is a viable possibility and with a broader answer about the food microbiota role in resistance. This research corroborates the food area as an important sector to be managed to reduce the process of antibiotic resistance.


Objetivo: avaliação da resistência a antibióticos em microbiota Gram-negativa de amostras de queijo prontas para consumo. Metodologia: esta pesquisa aplicou uma metodologia adaptada para selecionar a microbiota Gram-negativa viável apresentando resistência a antibióticos em uma amostra de alimento. O alimento selecionado foi um queijo frequentemente consumido sem processamento térmico, o queijo Minas Frescal. A avaliação foi seguida de uma triagem por PCR, nesta microbiota resistente, para genes que fornecem resistência aos antibióticos e também ao quaternário de amônio. Resultados: todas as amostras de queijo apresentaram microbiota resistente. Em 13,3% dos queijos analisados essa resistência alcançou todos os 10 diferentes antibióticos testados e em 80% entre 8 e 10 antibióticos diferentes. Em antibióticos considerados críticos como os carbapenêmicos: ertapenem apresentou microbiota resistente em 86,7% das amostras. Nas cefalosporinas, a resistência atingiu 100% na terceira geração (ceftazidima) e quase a metade das amostras (46,7%) na quarta geração (cefepime). Na pesquisa genotípica, sete diferentes genes de resistência foram encontrados em 69,2% dos pools bacterianos, incluindo o genes produtores de beta-lactamase, genes de resistência à tetraciclina, ctx, tem, shv e uma alta taxa de integron classe 1 e 2. Conclusão: os resultados indicam fenotipicamente e genotipicamente que o queijo Minas Frescal pode apresentar uma potencial microbiota resistente. Portanto, a metodologia utilizada é uma possibilidade viável e com uma resposta mais ampla sobre o papel da microbiota na resistência. Esta pesquisa corrobora a área de alimentos como um setor importante a ser gerenciado para redução no processo de resistência a antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Microbial , Carbapenems , Cephalosporins , Cheese , Food , Gram-Negative Bacteria
13.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(3): 255-259, 20200930. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280799

ABSTRACT

As Enterobacteriaceae são bactérias Gram-negativas e frequentes causadoras de infecções hospitalares. Os carbapenêmicos (CROs) são considerados as mais recentes linhas de defesa contra infecções por microrganismos multirresistentes, no entanto o desenvolvimento de bactérias multirresistentes a esta classe medicamentosa tem prejudicado o tratamento farmacológico. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo trata-se de uma análise retrospectiva, tendo como objetivo avaliar o perfil de resistência e susceptibilidade de bacilos Gram-negativos fermentadores da glicose aos carbapenêmicos em isolados de hemoculturas positivas no período de janeiro de 2018 a janeiro 2019. Das 5.733 hemoculturas realizadas nesse período, cerca de 5,4% (311 amostras) foram positivas. Dentre essas, 34,4% (107 amostras) positivas para enterobactérias e 65,6% (204 amostras) positivas para outras espécies. Foi observada uma maior incidência de Klebsiella pneumoniae (34,6% dos casos), seguido pela Klebsiella sp. (28,9%) e a Escherichia coli (26,2%). Contudo, três (03) isolados de hemocultura da espécie Klebsiella pneumoniae se mostraram resistentes aos três antibióticos (ertapenem, meropenem e imipenem). Dois isolados de Enterobacter cloaceae também obtiveram resistência aos antibióticos utilizados e uma espécie de Enterobacter aerogenes mostrou-se resistente apenas ao ertapenem e meropenem e sensibilidade ao imipenem.Enterobacteriaceae are Gram-negative bacteria and frequent causes hospital infections. Carbapenemic (CRO) are considered the latest lines of defense against infections by multidrug-resistant microorganisms, however the development of multidrug-resistant bacteria in this drug class has impaired treatment pharmacological. The present study is a retrospective analysis, with the objective of evaluating the resistance and susceptibility profile from isolates in blood cultures from January 2018 to January 2019, from positive blood cultures with enterobacteria growth and analysis of antibiograms performed from fermenter Gram-negative glucose bacilli to carbapenem antimicrobials. Of the 5,733 blood cultures performed from January 2018 to January 2019, about 5.4% (311 samples) were positive. Among these, 34.4% (107 samples) positive for enterobacteria and 65.6% (204 samples) for other species. A higher incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae (34.6% of cases) was observed, followed by Klebsiella sp. (28.9%) and Escherichia coli (26.2%), however, three hemoculture isolates of the species Klebsiella pneumoniae, which were resistant to the three antibiotics (ertapenem, meropenem and imipenem). Two (2) isolates of Enterobacter cloaceae also obtained resistance to the antibiotics used and one (1) species of Enterobacter aerogenes proved resistant only to ertapenem and meropenem and sensitivity to imipenem.


As Enterobacteriaceae são bactérias Gram-negativas e frequentes causadoras de infecções hospitalares. Os carbapenêmicos (CROs) são considerados as mais recentes linhas de defesa contra infecções por microrganismos multirresistentes, no entanto o desenvolvimento de bactérias multirresistentes a esta classe medicamentosa tem prejudicado o tratamento farmacológico. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo trata-se de uma análise retrospectiva, tendo como objetivo avaliar o perfil de resistência e susceptibilidade de bacilos Gram-negativos fermentadores da glicose aos carbapenêmicos em isolados de hemoculturas positivas no período de janeiro de 2018 a janeiro 2019. Das 5.733 hemoculturas realizadas nesse período, cerca de 5,4% (311 amostras) foram positivas. Dentre essas, 34,4% (107 amostras) positivas para enterobactérias e 65,6% (204 amostras) positivas para outras espécies. Foi observada uma maior incidência de Klebsiella pneumoniae (34,6% dos casos), seguido pela Klebsiella sp. (28,9%) e a Escherichia coli (26,2%). Contudo, três (03) isolados de hemocultura da espécie Klebsiella pneumoniae se mostraram resistentes aos três antibióticos (ertapenem, meropenem e imipenem). Dois isolados de Enterobacter cloaceae também obtiveram resistência aos antibióticos utilizados e uma espécie de Enterobacter aerogenes mostrou-se resistente apenas ao ertapenem e meropenem e sensibilidade ao imipenem.


Subject(s)
Carbapenems , Enterobacteriaceae
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(4): 362-370, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138560

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las enterobacterias son una causa principal de infecciones del torrente sanguíneo y su resistencia antimicrobiana se encuentra en aumento. Esto lleva a un incremento de la morbilidad-mortalidad y de los costos en la salud pública. Las enterobacterias resistentes a carbapenems representan un grave desafío a nivel global ya que existen escasas opciones terapéuticas disponibles. Objetivo: Caracterización clínico/microbiológica de las bacteriemias resistentes a carbapenémicos observadas en un período de 4 años. Material y Método: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional y descriptivo, sobre las bacteriemias por enterobacterias resistentes y sensibles a carbapenems. Resultados: Se analizó un total de 84 pacientes con bacteriemia por enterobacterias resistentes y sensibles a carbapenems. Entre las resistentes, observamos una mayor proporción de: tratamiento antimicrobiano previo, hospitalización en unidad de terapia intensiva (UTI), inicio de la bacteriemia en UTI y antecedentes de β-lactamasas de espectro extendido. Además, se detectó un amplio predominio de Klebsiella pneumoniae productor de KPC y una mortalidad atribuible de 52,4%. Discusión: El estudio posibilitó profundizar el conocimiento de una enfermedad emergente de elevada mortalidad, en vistas al diseño y aplicación de estrategias de control de infecciones y de esquemas de tratamiento efectivos adaptados a la epidemiologia local.


Abstract Background: Enterobacteriaceae are a major cause of bloodstream infections and their antimicrobial resistance continues to increase. This leads to higher morbidity-mortality rates and public health costs. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae represent a serious challenge globally, since there are few therapeutic options available. Aim: Clinical/microbiological characterization of the carbapenem-resistant bacteremia observed over a period of 4 years. Methods: Retrospective, observational and descriptive study about bacteremia caused by carbapenem-resistant and susceptible Enterobacteriaceae. Results: A total of 84 patients with bacteremia including carbapenem-resistant and susceptible Enterobacteriaceae were analyzed. We found that patients infected with carbapenem-resistant strains presented a higher proportion of: previous antibiotic treatment, hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU), onset of the bacteremia during hospitalization in ICU and previous infection with extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae. Additionally, we observed a predominance of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and an attributable mortality rate of 52.4%. Discussion: This study allowed for a better understanding of an emerging problem with high mortality, which in turn is useful for the design and adoption of infection control strategies and effective treatment regimens adapted to our local epidemiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , beta-Lactamases , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(4): 389-394, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138563

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Pseudomonas aeruginosa es relevante en infecciones asociadas a la atención de salud, principalmente cuando presenta resistencia a carbapenémicos. Objetivos: Estudiar la producción de carbapenemasas en P. aeruginosa, con susceptibilidad disminuida a carbapenémicos procesadas en el Laboratorio de Microbiología de la Red de Salud UC-CHRISTUS entre 2014-2015, y compararlas con las cepas estudiadas en 2004-2005. Métodos: Entre enero de 2014 y junio de 2015, se aislaron 459 cepas de P. aeruginosa provenientes de muestras clínicas. La susceptibilidad fue determinada por dilución en agar y a las cepas con susceptibilidad disminuida a carbapenémicos se les realizó test de carbaNP. Las cepas positivas fueron estudiadas por RPC para genes blaVIM, blaVIM-1, blaVIM-2, blaIMP, blaNDM, blaKPC, blaOXA y blaIMI. Se realizó en cepas seleccionadas electroforesis de campo pulsado. Resultados: De las 459 cepas estudiadas, 300 presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida a carbapenémicos (65,3%). De éstas, 183 fueron viables para estudio, correspondientes a 164 pacientes. El test de carbaNP fue positivo en 44 cepas de las 183 cepas (24%). Los genes de resistencia encontrados fueron: blaVIM-2 en 35 cepas, blaKPC-2+VIM-2 en 7 cepas y blaKPC-2 en 2 cepas. En las cepas blaKPC-2 se encontró relación clonal entre ellas. Conclusiones: Un 65,3% de P. aeruginosa presentó susceptibilidad disminuida a carbapenémicos, observándose que la presencia de carbapenemasas no es el principal mecanismo de resistencia. Además, se describe la emergencia en Chile de cepas de P. aeruginosa con carbapenemasas del tipo KPC-2 sola o en combinación con VIM-2.


Abstract Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a relevant infectious agent affecting patients within health care setting; this situation is worsening with the appearance of strains resistance to carbapenems. Aims: To study carbapenemase production in P. aeruginosa with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems processed in the microbiology laboratory of the Health Network UC-CHRISTUS in 2014-2015 and compare them with the strains studied in 2004-2005. Methods: Between January 2014 and June 2015, 459 strains of P. aeruginosa from clinical samples were isolated. Susceptibility was determined by dilution in agar and strains with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems were tested for carbaNP. Positive strains were studied by PCR for blaVIM, blaVIM-1, blaVIM-2, blaIMP, blaNDM, blaKPC, blaOXA and blaIMI genes. Pulsed field electrophoresis was performed on selected strains. Results: From 459 strains studied, 300 had reduced susceptibility to carbapenems (65.3%). Of these, 183 were viable for study, corresponding to 164 patients. The carbaNP test was positive in 44 strains of the 183 strains (24%). The resistance genes found were: blaVIM-2 in 35 strains, blaKPC-2+VIM-2 in 7 strains and blaKPC-2 in 2 strains. In the blaKPC-2 strains clonal relation between them was found. Conclusions: A 65.3% of P. aeruginosa presented decreased susceptibility to carbapenems being the presence of carbapenemases not the main resistance mechanism. In addition, the emergence in Chile of P. aeruginosa strains with bla of the KPC-2 type alone or in combination with VIM-2 is described.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
16.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(2): 151-157, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223692

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e objetivos. Programas de gestão de antimicrobianos (PGA) podem contribuir para otimizar o uso de antimicrobianos em unidades de tratamento intensivo neonatais (UTINEO). O objetivo deste estudo foi mensurar o consumo de antimicrobianos, dentre eles os carbapenêmicos e infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde (IRAS), especificamente as causadas por bactérias Gram-negativas resistentes a carbapenêmicos (BGN-CR) em neonatos após a implantação de um PGA. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo descritivo do consumo de antimicrobianos, dentre eles os carbapenêmicos; e das taxas de IRAS em uma UTINEO, durante 1 ano de seguimento. O consumo fo i medido em dias de terapia/1000 pacientes-dia (DOT/1000PD). Resultados: Em setembro de 2017 o PGA foi implementado com os seguintes elementos-chave: auditoria de antibióticos/feedback, restrição de antimicrobianos-alvo, medida do consumo de antimicrobianos e maior rapidez na liberação de resultados de culturas. Entre setembro de 2017 e setembro de 2018 admitimos 308 pacientes, totalizando 2223 pacientes-dia. A mediana de consumo total de antimicrobianos foi de 1580 DOT/1000PD (variação de 1180,7 a 2336,6/mês) sem tendência de aumento e a de carbapenêmicos 12 DOT/1000PD (variação de 0 a 163,2/mês). O consumo de carbapenêmicos foi reduzido entre abril a setembro de 2018 (valor de p =0,07) quando comparado com os primeiros seis meses. Oito IRAS foram registradas, correspondendo a uma densidade de incidência de 3,6/1000 pacientes-dia. Não foram reportadas BGN-CR causando IRAS. Conclusões: O consumo total de antimicrobianos não apresentou aumento ao longo do ano após implantação do PGA. No entanto, houve redução significativa do consumo de carbapenêmicos. Não foram verificadas IRAS por BGN-CR no período do estudo.(AU)


Background and objectives: Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) could contribute to optimize antimicrobial use within neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The aim of this study was to measure the antimicrobial consumption, including carbapenems and healthcare-associated infections (HAI), specifically infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB) in neonates, after implementation of an ASP. Methods: A prospective descriptive study of antimicrobial and carbapenem consumption; and healthcare-associated rate in a NICU, during a one-year follow-up. The consumption was measured in days of therapy /1000 patients-days(DOT/1000PD). Results: In September 2017, the ASP was implemented, with the following core components: antibiotic audit and feedback, restriction of target antimicrobials, measure of antimicrobial consumption and improvement of results from microbiologic laboratory. Between September 2017 and September 2018, we admitted 308 patients, totalizing 2223 patient-days. The median of total antimicrobial consumption was 1580 DOT/1000PD (range from 1180.7 to 2336.6/month and of carbapenems 12 DOT/1000PD (range from 0 to 162.3/month). The carbapenem consumption was reduced between April and September of 2018 (p value=0.07) when we compared the first six months of the study. Eight HAI were detected, corresponding to density of incidence of 3.6/1000 patient-days. No HAI due to CR-GNB was reported. Conclusion: The total antimicrobial consumption did not increase during all the year after the ASP implantation. Although there was a significant reduction of carbapenem consumption. Carbapenem-resistant bacteria was not found in NICU causing HAI.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: Los programas de optimizatión de uso de antimicrobianos (POA) podrían contribuir a optimizar el uso de antimicrobianos dentro de las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales (UCIN). El objetivo de este estudio fue medir el consumo de antimicrobianos incluidos los carbapenems y las infecciones asociadas a la atención de la salud (IAAs), especificamente las infecciones causadas por bacterias Gram negativas resistentes a carbapenems (CR-GNB) en neonatos, después de la implementación de un POA. Métodos: Un estudio descriptivo prospectivo del consumo de antimicrobianos y carbapenems; y la tasa de IAAs en una UCIN durante un año de seguimiento. El consumo se midió en días de terapia (DOT) / 1000 pacientes-días. Resultados: En septiembre de 2017, se implementó el POA con los siguientes componentes principales: auditoría y retroalimentación de antibióticos, restricción de antimicrobianos objetivo, medición del consumo de antimicrobianos y mejora de los resultados del laboratorio microbiológico. Entre septiembre de 2017 y septiembre de 2018, admitimos 308 pacientes, totalizando 2223 días-paciente. La mediana del consumo total de antimicrobianos fue de 1580 DOT / 1000PD (rango de 1180.7 a 2336.6 / mes y de carbapenems 12 (rango de 0 a 162.3 / mes). El consumo de carbapenem se redujo entre abril y septiembre de 2018 (valor p = 0.07) cuando comparamos los primeros seis meses del estudio, se detectaron ocho IAAs, lo que corresponde a la densidad de incidencia de 3.6 / 1000 días-paciente No se informó ningún IAA debido a CR-GNB. Conclusiones: El consumo total de antimicrobianos no aumentó durante todo el año posterior a la implantación de POA. Aunque hubo una reducción significativa del consumo de carbapenem. No se encontraron bacterias resistentes a carbapenem en la UCIN que causa IAA.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Health Programs and Plans , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cross Infection/microbiology , Delivery of Health Care , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Birth Weight , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Infectio ; 24(2): 66-70, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114842

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: The Dominican Republic lacks reliable information on antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which would allow physicians to prescribe the best treatment for common infectious diseases. This study aimed to define the antimicrobial resistance profiles of the more common pathogens from pediatric services, where data is even more important due to the vulnerability of the population. Methods: We collected data from patients admitted in the pediatric unit of three third level hospitals in the city of Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic, showing positive bacterial cultures, during a period of two years. Results: Half of the Gram negative pathogens exhibited third generation cephalosporins (3GC) resistance, 17% were resistant to carbapenems. Serratia marcescens presented an exceptionally high proportion of resistance to 3GC (95.9%). Staphylococcus aureus showed elevated resistance to methicillin (58.4%) and even to clindamycin (35.8%). Conclusion: There are elevated levels of antimicrobial resistance among the Enterobacteriaceae family and the Staphylococcus genus isolated from the pediatric population. Necessary measures should be taken to tackle AMR in the country.


Resumen Objetivos: La República Dominicana carece de información confiable sobre las resistencias antimicrobianas en el país, lo que permitiría al personal médico prescribir los mejores tratamientos para infecciones comunes. El objetivo de este estudio es definir los perfiles de resistencia antimicrobiana de los patógenos más comunes en servicios pediátricos, donde esta información es esencial, debido a la vulnerabilidad de la población. Métodos: Se tomaron los datos de reportes microbiológicos con cultivo bacteriano positivo procedentes de pacientes admitidos en la unidad pediátrica de tres hospitales de tercer nivel en la ciudad de Santiago de los Caballeros, República Dominicana, durante un periodo de dos años. Resultados: La mitad de los patógenos Gram negativos mostraron resistencia a cefalosporinas de tercera generación (3GC), 17% eran resistentes a carbapenémicos. Serratia marcescens presentó una resistencia excepcionalmente elevada a 3GC (95.9%). Staphylococcus aureus mostró alta resistencia a meticilina (58.4%) e incluso a clindamicina (35.8%). Conclusión: Existen elevados niveles de resistencia antimicrobiana entre las enterobacterias y los estafilococos en la población pediátrica dominicana. Es necesario tomar medidas para abordar este problema en el país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Pediatrics , Tertiary Healthcare , Clindamycin , Carbapenems , Dominican Republic , Methicillin
18.
Infectio ; 24(2): 55-56, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114839

ABSTRACT

En Colombia, los Enterobacterales (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp y Enterobacter spp) ocupan los primeros lugares en la epidemiología de las infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud (IAAS) y de las adquiridas en comunidad. Estas bacterias pueden desarrollar resistencia a carbapenemicos (Ertapenem, Imipenem, Meropenem y Doripenem) por una combinación de mecanismos que incluye la producción de enzimas hidrolíticas (como las betalactamasas de espectro extendido o BLEEs, las cefalosporinasas AmpC y las carbapenemasas) y las mutaciones en proteínas de la membrana externa. Desde su aparición en 1996, las carbapenemasas han sido las enzimas más temidas. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) Verona integron-mediated metallo- ß-lactamase (VIM), New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM), Imipenemase (IMP) y oxacillinase-48-like carbapenemase (OXA-48) han sido las más estudiadas por su diseminación y alta mortalidad. En 2006 se reportó por primera vez la presencia de carbapenemasas en Colombia correspondiente a una KPC-24 . Desde entonces, varios reportes de diversas enzimas han sido publicados por grupos de investigación y por el Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) en cuyo último informe 66% de los Enterobacterales resistentes a carbapenémicos expresan KPC, 23% expresan NDM y 6% expresan VIM. Llama la atención un 12% de aislamientos sin carbapenemasas detectables.


In Colombia, Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Enterobacter spp) occupy the first places in the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and community-acquired infections. These bacteria can develop resistance to carbapenemics (Ertapenem, Imipenem, Meropenem and Doripenem) by a combination of mechanisms including the production of hydrolytic enzymes (such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases or BLEEs, AmpC cephalosporinases and carbapenemases) and mutations in outer membrane proteins. Since their emergence in 1996, carbapenemases have been the most feared enzymes. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) Verona integron-mediated metallo- ß-lactamase (VIM), New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM), Imipenemase (IMP) and oxacillinase-48-like carbapenemase (OXA-48) have been the most studied because of their dissemination and high mortality. In 2006, the presence of carbapenemases in Colombia corresponding to a KPC-24 was reported for the first time. Since then, several reports of various enzymes have been published by research groups and by the National Institute of Health (INS) in whose last report 66% of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae express KPC, 23% express NDM and 6% express VIM. It is noteworthy that 12% of isolates had no detectable carbapenemases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Carbapenems , Ceftazidime , Health Care Costs , Colombia , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Substandard Drugs
19.
Infectio ; 24(1): 27-34, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1090540

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Carbapenem resistantAcinetobacter baumannii is an important therapeutic and infection control challenge worldwide. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and distribution of molecular mechanisms of resistance among carbapenem resistant A. baumannii species at a tertiary care setting in South India. Materials and Methods: A total of 89 non-duplicate clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistantA. baumannii were collected from critical care units of St. John's Medical College Hospital, Bengaluru, India. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect blaOXA type carbapenemase blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like and bla OXA-58-like, MBL genes blaNDM, blaIMP, and blaVIM genes. Molecular typing of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains was performed by using Rep-PCR. Results: Eighty-seven of the isolates were found to carry the blaOXA-51 gene and 81 (91%) isolates were found to have blaOXA-51-like gene and blaOXA-23, gene. The bla OXA-24 like gene was detected in two isolates of which one also carried blaOXA-51 like and one isolate carried blaVIM coding gene. The prevalence of blaNDM, blaIMP, bla VIM genes was 12(13%),14 (16%) and 57(64%) respectively. Cluster analyses revealed a 90% similarity and were divided into 5 clusters. Most of the isolates containing carbapenemases coding genes grouped under cluster A, C and UC. Considerable heterogeneity was observed within UC cluster indicating circulation of multiple strains of A. baumannii within our institution. Conclusions: Carbapenemase coding blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24 and blaOXA-51 -like were more common than blaVIM and blaNDM. The presence of blaNDM with other genes coding for carbapenemases indicate the ability of the strains to acquire novel genes despite having its share of the blaOXA like carbapenemase.


Resumen Objetivos: El Acinetobacter baumannii resistente a Carbapenem es un reto importante en todo el mundo para su tratamiento y para el control de infecciones hospitalarias. Nosotros estudiamos la prevalencia y los mecanismos de resistencia en aislados de un centro de atención terciario, en el sur de la India Materiales y Métodos: Se estudiaron 89 aislados clínicos de A. baumannii recolectados en unidades de cuidado crítico del Hospital St. John's Medical College en Bengaluru, India. Se realizó amplificación por PCR (Reacción en Cadena de Polimerasa) y luego tipificación molecular con la técnica Rep-PCR (PCR de elementos repetitivos palindromicos) para detectar los genes de carbapenemasa blaOXA, blaOXA-51, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, MBL, blaNDM, blaIMP y blaVIM. Resultados: Se encontraron 87 aislados que llevaban el gen blaOXA-51 y de ellos en 81 (91%) se encontró blaOXA-51 y blaOXA-23. El blaOXA-24 se detectó en dos aislados de los cuales uno de ellos llevaba blaOXA-51 y otro blaVIM. Los genes blaNDM, blaIMP y blaVIM se encontraron en 12 (13%),14 (16%) y 57(64%) de los aislados, respectivamente. El análisis de agrupamiento reveló un 90% de similitud entre los aislados y que podían asignarse a 5 agrupamientos. La mayoría de aislados llevaban genes de carbapenemasas de los grupos A, C y UC. Se observó mucha heterogeneidad dentro del agrupamiento UC indicando que existe circulación de múltiples cepas de A. baumannii dentro de nuestra institución. Conclusiones: Las carbapenemasas que codifican para blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24 y blaOXA-51 son más comunes que blaVIM y blaNDM en nuestra institución. La presencia de NDM con otros genes codificando para carbapenemasas indica la capacidad que tienen este tipo de aislados para adquirir nuevos genes a pesar de contar con blaOXA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbapenems , Acinetobacter baumannii , Genetic Variation , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cross Infection , India
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