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Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 673-676, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922240


Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with high incidence rate and mortality rate in China and even the whole world, of which non-small cell lung cancer accounts for about 80%. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene mutation accounts for about 5%. Alectinib, ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ALK-TKI), has great performance in clinical. The early detection and treatment of adverse drug reactions can greatly improve clinical benefits. This paper reports a patient of ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer was admited to Baotou Central Hospital in April 2020. The diagnosis and treatment was retrospectively analyzed, and the literature was reviewed.

Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/secondary , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pleural Neoplasms/secondary , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Acta cir. bras ; 30(12): 831-837, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769499


ABSTRACT PURPOSE : To investigate the analgesic effect of acupuncture (AP) or micro-dose pharmacopuncture (PA), using carprofen or morphine, in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OHE). METHODS: Thirty five dogs were randomly assigned to five groups after sedation with acepromazine IM: AP, 0.5 of morphine subcutaneously (SC), 4 of carprofen SC, and PA with 0.05 of morphine or 0.4 of carprofen. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Pain was assessed after OHE by a blind observer for 24h, by dynamic visual analogue scale (DIVAS), Glasgow (CMPS-SF), Melbourne (UMPS) and Colorado University pain scale (CSU). Animals reaching 33% of the UMPS score received rescue analgesia with morphine IM. Non parametric data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis or Friedman tests where applicable, followed by Dunn´s test. Parametric data were analysed by two way ANOVA, followed by Tukey test. RESULTS: There were no differences among groups in number of rescue analgesia. Except for the DIVAS score where animals treated with morphine had the lowest score compared with AP and carprofen, at 1h after surgery, there were no other differences among groups. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture or pharmacopuncture were equally effective as morphine or carprofen to control postoperative pain in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

Animals , Dogs , Female , Acupuncture Analgesia/veterinary , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Hysterectomy/veterinary , Morphine/therapeutic use , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Pain, Postoperative/veterinary , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Analgesia/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Hysterectomy/adverse effects , Ovariectomy/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Pain Measurement/veterinary , Pain, Postoperative/therapy
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(10): 886-894, Oct. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761604


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of carvedilol treatment and a regimen of supervised aerobic exercise training on quality of life and other clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical variables in a group of client-owned dogs with chronic mitral valve disease (CMVD). Ten healthy dogs (control) and 36 CMVD dogs were studied, with the latter group divided into 3 subgroups. In addition to conventional treatment (benazepril, 0.3-0.5 mg/kg once a day, and digoxin, 0.0055 mg/kg twice daily), 13 dogs received exercise training (subgroup I; 10.3±2.1 years), 10 dogs received carvedilol (0.3 mg/kg twice daily) and exercise training (subgroup II; 10.8±1.7 years), and 13 dogs received only carvedilol (subgroup III; 10.9±2.1 years). All drugs were administered orally. Clinical, laboratory, and Doppler echocardiographic variables were evaluated at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Exercise training was conducted from months 3-6. The mean speed rate during training increased for both subgroups I and II (ANOVA, P>0.001), indicating improvement in physical conditioning at the end of the exercise period. Quality of life and functional class was improved for all subgroups at the end of the study. The N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level increased in subgroup I from baseline to 3 months, but remained stable after training introduction (from 3 to 6 months). For subgroups II and III, NT-proBNP levels remained stable during the entire study. No difference was observed for the other variables between the three evaluation periods. The combination of carvedilol or exercise training with conventional treatment in CMVD dogs led to improvements in quality of life and functional class. Therefore, light walking in CMVD dogs must be encouraged.

Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/veterinary , Physical Conditioning, Animal/statistics & numerical data , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Analysis of Variance , Echocardiography, Doppler/veterinary , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Rate , Lactic Acid/blood , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/therapy , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Prospective Studies , Peptide Fragments/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(4): 690-696, jul.-ago. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-761096


RESUMOInsuficiência cardíaca (IC) é causa frequente de internação exigindo do enfermeiro precisão na conduta clínica e adequado julgamento dos diagnósticos de enfermagem.Objetivo:verificar acurácia na determinação dos diagnósticos de enfermagem fadiga, intolerância à atividade e débito cardíaco diminuído em paciente com IC hospitalizados.Método:estudo descritivo aplicado aos enfermeiros experientes em diagnósticos de enfermagem NANDA-I e/ou IC. Avaliação da acurácia foi realizada a partir do cálculo das medidas: eficácia (E), falso negativo (FN), falso positivo (FP) e tendência (T). Foram aptos os enfermeiros com inspeção aceitável para dois diagnósticos.Resultados:o diagnóstico de enfermagem fadiga foi o mais erroneamente identificado pelos enfermeiros avaliadores.Discussão:a busca pelo aperfeiçoamento da acurácia diagnóstica reafirma a necessidade de treinamento contínuo e específico para a melhora da capacidade diagnosticadora do enfermeiro.Conclusão:o treinamento permitiu o exercício do raciocínio clínico e melhor acurácia dos enfermeiros.

RESUMENInsuficiencia cardíaca (IC) es causa frecuente de ingresos hospitalarios exigindo del enfermero precisión en la conducta clínica y adecuado juzgamiento de los diagnósticos de enfermería.Objetivo:verificar la precisión en la determinación de los diagnósticos de enfermería fatiga, disminuición del gasto cardíaco e intolerancia a la actividad en pacientes con IC ingresos en hospitales.Método:estudio observacional, con enfermeros docentes y experientes en diagnósticos de enfermería NANDA-I y/o IC. Evaluación y precisión fueron realizadas por através del cálculo: eficacia (E), falso negativo (FN), falso positivo (FP) y tendecia (T). Fueron aptos los enfermeros con inspección aceptable para dos diagnósticos.Resultados:el diagnóstico de enfermería fatiga fue identificado erróneamente como por evaluadores enfermeras.Discusión:la búsqueda de la mejora de la precisión diagnóstica reafirma la necesidad de una formación continua y específica a la mejora de la capacidad del diagnosticador enfermera.Conclusión:la capacitación permitió el ejercicio del raciocínio y mejor precisión de los enfermeros.

ABSTRACTHeart failure (HF) is a common cause of hospitalization and requires accuracy in clinical judgment and appropriate nursing diagnoses.Objective:to determine the accuracy of nursing diagnoses of fatigue, intolerance to activity and decreased cardiac output in hospitalized HF patients.Method:descriptive study applied to nurses with experience in NANDA-I and/or HF nursing diagnoses. Evaluation and accuracy were determined by calculating effi cacy (E), false negative (FN), false positive (FP) and trend (T) measures. Nurses who showed acceptable inspection for two diagnoses were selected.Results:the nursing diagnosis of fatigue was the most commonly mistaken diagnosis identifi ed by the nursing evaluators.Discussion:the search for improving diagnostic accuracy reaffi rms the need for continuous and specifi c training to improve the diagnosis capability of nurses.Conclusion:the training allowed the exercise of clinical judgment and better accuracy of nurses.

Animals , Female , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Chickens/injuries , Fractures, Bone/veterinary , Motor Activity/drug effects , Thiazines/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Fractures, Bone/drug therapy
Int. braz. j. urol ; 40(1): 109-117, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704178


Objective: To analyze the oxidative damage and histopathological alterations caused by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and ameliorative effects of carvedilol (CVD) in the rat testis. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one male rats were randomized into 3 groups as follows: Group I (n = 7); control (sham) group, Group II (n = 7); I/R group, in which I/R injury was performed by torsing the left testis 720º clockwise for 2 hours and detorsing for 2 hours. Group III (n = 7); CVD treatment group; in addition to I/R process, one-dose of CVD was administered (2mg/kg, i.p) 30 min. before detorsion. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) were determined in testicular tissues and serum of rats. Testicular tissues were also examined histopathologically and Johnsen scores were determined. Results: Activities of SOD and GSH-Px in serum and testicular tissues were increased by I/R, but administration of CVD decreased these levels (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001). Significantly increased MDA levels in serum and testicular tissues were decreased by CVD treatment (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001). Concerning PC levels in serum and testicular tissues, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.989 and p = 0.428). There was not a statistically significant difference in terms of mean Johnsen scores between the groups (p = 0.161). Conclusions: Administration of CVD decreased oxidative damage biochemically in the rat testis caused by I/R injury, but histopathologically no change was observed between all of the groups. .

Animals , Male , Rats , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Propanolamines/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Testis/blood supply , Testis/pathology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Glutathione Peroxidase/blood , Malondialdehyde/blood , Necrosis , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Protein Carbonylation/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Spermatic Cord Torsion/complications , Spermatic Cord Torsion/drug therapy , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 101(4): 304-310, out. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-690578


FUNDAMENTO: A doença de Chagas continua a ser uma importante doença endêmica no país, sendo o acometimento cardíaco a sua manifestação mais grave. OBJETIVO: Verificar se o uso concomitante de carvedilol potencializará o efeito antioxidante das vitaminas E e C na atenuação do estresse oxidativo sistêmico na cardiopatia chagásica crônica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 42 pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica, agrupados de acordo com a classificação modificada de Los Andes, em quatro grupos: 10 pacientes no grupo IA (eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma normais: sem envolvimento do coração), 20 pacientes do grupo IB (eletrocardiograma normal e ecocardiograma anormal: ligeiro envolvimento cardíaco), oito pacientes no grupo II (eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma anormais, sem insuficiência cardíaca: moderado envolvimento cardíaco) e quatro pacientes no grupo III (eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma anormais com insuficiência cardíaca: grave envolvimento cardíaco). Os marcadores de estresse oxidativo foram medidos no sangue, antes e após um período de seis meses de tratamento com carvedilol e após seis meses de terapia combinada com vitaminas E e C. Os marcadores foram: atividades da superóxido dismutase, catalase, glutationa peroxidase, glutationa S-transferase e redutase, mieloperoxidase e adenosina deaminase, e os níveis de glutationa reduzida, de espécies reativas do ácido tiobarbitúrico, proteína carbonilada, vitamina E e óxido nítrico. RESULTADOS: Após o tratamento com carvedilol, todos os grupos apresentaram diminuições significativas dos níveis de proteína carbonilada e glutationa reduzida, enquanto os níveis de óxido nítrico e atividade da adenosina aumentaram significativamente apenas no grupo menos acometido (IA). Além disso, a maioria das enzimas antioxidantes mostrou atividades diminuídas nos grupos menos acometidos (IA e IB). Com a adição das vitaminas ao carvedilol houve diminuição dos danos em proteínas, nos níveis de glutationa e na maior parte da atividade das enzimas antioxidantes. CONCLUSÕES: A queda dos níveis de estresse oxidativo, verificada pelos marcadores testados, foi mais acentuada quando da associação do fármaco carvedilol com as vitaminas antioxidantes. Os dados sugerem que tanto o carvedilol isoladamente como sua associação com as vitaminas foram eficazes em atenuar o dano oxidativo sistêmico em pacientes com CC, especialmente aqueles menos acometidos, sugerindo a possibilidade de sinergismo entre esses compostos.

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is still an important endemic disease in Brazil, and the cardiac involvement is its more severe manifestation. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the concomitant use of carvedilol will enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamins E and C in reducing the systemic oxidative stress in chronic Chagas heart disease. METHODS: A total of 42 patients with Chagas heart disease were studied. They were divided into four groups according to the modified Los Andes classification: 10 patients in group IA (normal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no cardiac involvement); 20 patients in group IB (normal electrocardiogram and abnormal echocardiogram; mild cardiac involvement); eight patients in group II (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no heart failure; moderate cardiac involvement); and four patients in group III (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram with heart failure; severe cardiac involvement). Blood levels of markers of oxidative stress were determined before and after a six-month period of treatment with carvedilol, and six months after combined therapy of carvedilol with vitamins E and C. The markers analyzed were as follows: activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and reductase, myeloperoxidade and adenosine deaminase; and the levels of reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, vitamin E, and nitric oxide. RESULTS: After treatment with carvedilol, all groups showed significant decrease in protein carbonyls and reduced glutathione levels, whereas nitric oxide levels and adenosine activity increased significantly only in the less severely affected group (IA). In addition, the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes was decreased in the less severely affected groups (IA and IB). By combining the vitamins with carvedilol, a reduction in protein damage, in glutathione levels, and in the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in oxidative stress levels observed by means of the markers tested was more significant when carvedilol was used in combination with the antioxidant vitamins. The findings suggest that both carvedilol alone and in combination with the vitamins were effective in attenuating the systemic oxidative stress in patients with Chagas heart disease, especially those less severely affected, thus suggesting the possibility of synergism between these compounds.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Propanolamines/pharmacology , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Chronic Disease , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Chagas Disease/metabolism , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Prospective Studies , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin E/therapeutic use
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(12): 1209-1214, Dec. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659645


The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) and carprofen (CP) on postoperative incisional pain using the plantar incision (PI) model in rats. A 1-cm longitudinal incision was made through skin, fascia and muscles of a hind paw of male Wistar rats and the development of mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity was determined over 4 days using the von Frey and Hargreaves methods, respectively. Based on the experimental treatments received on the third postoperative day, the animals were divided into the following groups: PI+CP (CP, 2 mg/kg, po); PI+EAST36 (100-Hz EA applied bilaterally at the Zusanli point (ST36)); PI+EANP (EA applied to a non-acupoint region); PI+IMMO (immobilization only); PI (vehicle). In the von Frey test, the PI+EAST36 group had higher withdrawal force thresholds in response to mechanical stimuli than the PI, PI+IMMO and PI+EANP groups at several times studied. Furthermore, the PI+EAST36 group showed paw withdrawal thresholds in response to mechanical stimuli that were similar to those of the PI+CP group. In the Hargreaves test, all groups had latencies higher than those observed with PI. The PI+EAST36 group was similar to the PI+IMMO, PI+EANP and PI+CP groups. We conclude that 100-Hz EA at the ST36 point, but not at non-acupoints, can reduce mechanical nociception in the rat model of incisional pain, and its effectiveness is comparable to that of carprofen.

Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Electroacupuncture/methods , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Time Factors
Clinics ; 67(9): 1063-1069, Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649387


OBJECTIVE: Chagas' disease has spread throughout Latin America because of the high rate of migration among these countries. Approximately 30% of Chagas' patients will develop cardiomyopathy, and 10% of these will develop severe cardiac damage leading to heart failure. Beta-blockade improves symptoms and survival in heart failure patients; however, its efficacy has not been well established in Chagas' disease. We evaluated the role of carvedilol in cardiac remodeling and mortality in a Chagas' cardiomyopathy animal model. METHODS: We studied Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 55 Syrian hamsters that were divided into three groups: control (15), infected (20), and infected + carvedilol (20). Animals underwent echocardiography, electrocardiography, and morphometry for collagen evaluation in ventricles stained with picrosirius red. RESULTS: The left ventricular diastolic diameter did not change between groups, although it was slightly larger in infected groups, as was left ventricular systolic diameter. Fractional shortening also did not change between groups, although it was slightly lower in infected groups. Collagen accumulation in the interstitial myocardial space was significantly higher in infected groups and was not attenuated by carvedilol. The same response was observed in the perivascular space. The survival curve showed significantly better survival in the control group compared with the infected groups; but no benefit of carvedilol was observed during the study. However, in the acute phase (up to 100 days of infection), carvedilol did reduce mortality. CONCLUSION: Carvedilol did not attenuate cardiac remodeling or mortality in this model of Chagas' cardiomyopathy. The treatment did improve survival in the acute phase of the disease.

Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/drug therapy , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/mortality , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Collagen/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Echocardiography , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Mesocricetus , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 95(1): 107-114, jul. 2010. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-554510


FUNDAMENTO: Grandes estudos clínicos empregando os betabloqueadores carvedilol, metoprolol, bisoprolol e nebivolol, demonstraram melhora da sobrevida e dos sintomas em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca. Apesar da falta de evidências científicas, é plausível que o efeito benéfico seja extensível a outros betabloqueadores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca o impacto da substituição do carvedilol por propranolol sobre a função ventricular esquerda, capacidade funcional, qualidade de vida, níveis pressóricos e controle autonômico cardíaco. MÉTODOS: Vinte e nove pacientes com terapêutica medicamentosa otimizada incluindo doses máximas toleradas de carvedilol foram divididos em dois grupos: substituição de carvedilol por propranolol (n = 15) e manutenção de carvedilol (n = 14). Na condição basal, e após 6 meses, foram realizadas avaliações clínica e laboratorial com: ventriculografia nuclear, ecocardiografia, questionário de Minnesota, teste de caminhada, MAPA e Holter. RESULTADOS: As características laboratoriais e demográficas foram similares nos dois grupos na avaliação inicial. Ajuste individualizado da dose do propranolol garantiu grau semelhante de betabloqueio avaliado pela frequência cardíaca em repouso e reserva cronotrópica. A dose média de propranolol usada foi 109 ± 43 mg/dia. Apenas um paciente apresentou intolerância ao propranolol com retorno do carvedilol. Foi registrado um óbito no grupo propranolol. A fração de ejeção apresentou aumento significativo no grupo propranolol. As demais variáveis cardiovasculares não sofreram modificações significativas após troca do betabloqueador. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados indicam que a substituição do carvedilol por propranolol em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca não está associada à deterioração da fração de ejeção, da capacidade funcional, da qualidade de vida e das variáveis cardiovasculares de controle pressórico e autonômico.

BACKGROUND: Large clinical trials using the betablockers carvedilol, metoprolol, bisoprolol and nebivolol have demonstrated improvement of survival and symptoms in patients with heart failure. Despite the lack of scientific evidence, it is plausible that their beneficial effects are extensible to other betablockers. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the replacement of carvedilol for propranolol on left ventricular function, functional capacity, quality of life, pressure levels, and cardiac autonomic control in patients with heart failure. METHODS: Twenty nine patients receiving optimized drug therapy including maximum tolerated doses of carvedilol were divided into two groups: replacement of carvedilol for propranolol (n = 15) and continued carvedilol (n = 14). At baseline and 6 months later, clinical and laboratorial assessments were carried out with radionuclide ventriculography, echocardiography, Minnesota questionnaire, walk test, APBM and Holter monitoring. RESULTS: The clinical and demographic characteristics were similar in the two groups at baseline. Individualized propranolol dose adjustment ensured a similar degree of beta-blockade, as assessed by resting heart rate and chronotropic reserve. The mean propranolol dose used was 109 ± 43 mg/day. Only one patient presented with intolerance to propranolol, thus carvedilol was reintroduced. One death was recorded in group propranolol. Ejection fraction significantly increased in the propranolol group. No significant change was observed in the other cardiovascular variables after betablocker replacement. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that replacement of carvedilol for propranolol in patients with heart failure is not associated with deterioration of the ejection fraction, functional capacity, quality of life, and other cardiovascular variables related to autonomic and blood pressure control., PP.0-0).

Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Drug Substitution , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 94(3): 328-332, mar. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-545818


FUNDAMENTO: Alterações autonômicas na insuficiência cardíaca estão associadas a um aumento da morbimortalidade. Vários métodos não invasivos têm sido empregados para avaliar a função simpática, incluindo a imagem cardíaca com 123I-MIBG. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade simpática cardíaca, por meio da cintilografia com 123I-MIBG, antes e após três meses de terapia com carvedilol em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção do VE <45 por cento (FEVE). MÉTODOS: Foram recrutados para o estudo 16 pacientes, com idade média de 56,3 ± 12,6 anos (11 do sexo masculino), fração de ejeção média de 28 por cento ± 8 por cento e sem uso prévio de betabloqueadores. Realizaram-se imagens da inervação cardíaca com 123I-MIBG, determinando os níveis séricos de catecolaminas (epinefrina, dopamina e norepinefrina), e empreendeu-se a ventriculografia radionuclídica antes e após o uso de carvedilol por três meses. RESULTADOS: Houve melhora da classe funcional dos pacientes: antes do tratamento, metade se encontrava em CF II (50 por cento) e metade em CF III. Após 3 meses, 7 pacientes encontravam-se em CF I (43,8 por cento) e 9 em CF II (56,2 por cento), (p = 0,0001). A FEVE média avaliada pela ventriculografia radionuclídica aumentou de 29 por cento para 33 por cento (p = 0,017). Não houve variação significativa da atividade adrenérgica cardíaca avaliada pelo 123I-MIBG (imagem precoce, tardia e taxa de washout). Não foi observada variação significativa nas dosagens das catecolaminas. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento em curto prazo com carvedilol promoveu a melhora clínica e da FEVE. Entretanto, não foi associado à melhora da atividade adrenérgica cardíaca pela cintilografia com 123I-MIBG, bem como da dosagem das catecolaminas circulantes.

BACKGROUND: Autonomic alterations in heart failure are associated with an increase in morbimortality. Several noninvasive methods have been employed to evaluate the sympathetic function, including the Meta-Iodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy imaging of the heart. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the cardiac sympathetic activity through 123I-MIBG scintigraphy, before and after three months of carvedilol therapy in patients with heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 45 percent. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients, aged 56.3 ± 12.6 years (11 males), with a mean LVEF of 28 percent ± 8 percent and no previous use of beta-blockers were recruited for the study. Images of the heart innervation were acquired with 123I-MIBG, and the serum levels of catecholamines (epinephrine, dopamine and norepinephrine) were measured; the radioisotope ventriculography (RIV) was performed before and after a three-month therapy with carvedilol. RESULTS: Patients' functional class showed improvement: before the treatment, 50 percent of the patients were FC II and 50 percent were FC III. After 3 months, 7 patients were FC I (43.8 percent) and 9 were FC II (56.2 percent), (p = 0.0001). The mean LVEF assessed by RIV increased from 29 percent to 33 percent (p = 0.017). There was no significant variation in cardiac adrenergic activity assessed by 123I-MIBG (early and late resting images and washout rate). No significant variation was observed regarding the measurement of catecholamines. CONCLUSION: The short-term treatment with carvedilol promoted the clinical and LVEF improvement. However, this was not associated to an improvement in the cardiac adrenergic activity, assessed by 123I-MIBG scintigraphy, as well as the measurement of circulating catecholamines.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Heart Failure, Systolic/drug therapy , Heart/drug effects , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Radiopharmaceuticals , Adrenergic Fibers/drug effects , Heart Failure, Systolic , Heart/innervation , Heart/physiopathology , Heart , Prospective Studies , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 55(2): 110-116, 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-514805


OBJETIVO: Avaliar se existe evidência que apóie diferentes intervenções para tratar insuficiência cardíaca baseada na raça ou etnia. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática de ensaios clínicos randomizados que permitiram comparar negros e brancos com insuficiência cardíaca sistólica crônica quanto à eficácia de inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina (ECA), betabloqueadores e combinação hidralazina/nitrato na redução dos riscos de morte e hospitalização. A pesquisa foi baseada em artigos publicados entre 1980 e dezembro de 2006, citados no Medline ou Lilacs. RESULTADOS: Três estudos preencheram os critérios da revisão. No SOLVD, enalapril foi eficaz em reduzir similarmente o risco de morte ou hospitalização em brancos (redução relativa do risco(RRR)=18 por cento) e negros (RRR= 17 por cento). No US Carvedilol, carvediol foi também associado a importante redução do risco de morte ou hospitalização tanto em brancos (RRR=49 por cento) quanto em negros (RRR=43 por cento). No V-HeFT II, enalapril foi superior a hidralazina/nitrato em reduzir o risco de morte apenas em brancos. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com os dados, inibidores da ECA e betabloqueadores devem ser considerados os medicamentos básicos para melhorar o prognóstico da insuficiência cardíaca tanto em negros quanto em brancos. O estudo A-HeFT não foi incluído na revisão por ser restrito a negros; contudo deve ser visto como evidência que a combinação hidralazina e nitrato é eficaz em melhorar a sobrevida de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca avançada. Os dados apóiam o desenvolvimento de um ensaio clinico especialmente desenhado para avaliar se a combinação hidralazina/nitrato é também eficaz em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca avançada não classificados como negros.

OBJECTIVE: To assess if there is evidence to support different interventions for treatment of heart failure based upon race/ethnicity. METHODS: Systematic review of randomized clinical trials permitted comparisons between blacks and whites with systolic heart failure concerning the efficacy of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta blockers and a combination of hydralazine/ nitrate to reduce the risks of death and hospitalization. The literature search was based on articles published between 1980 and December 2006 cited in MEDLINE or LILACS. RESULTS: Three studies fulfilled the criteria of the reiew. In SOLVD, enalapril was efficient in reducing the risks of death or hospitalization similarly in whites (relative risk reduction (RRR) =18 percent) and blacks (RRR=17 percent). In US Carvedilol, carvediol was also associated with significant reduction in the risk of death or hospitalization both in whites (RRR=49 percent) and blacks (RRR=43 percent). In V-HeFT II, enalapril was superior to the combination hydralazine with nitrate in reducing the death risk only in whites. CONCLUSION: According to the data ACE inhibitors and beta blockers should be considered as the essential drugs to improve the prognosis of heart failure both in blacks and whites. The A-HeFT study was not included in the review because it was restricted to blacks; however, it should be viewed as evidence that the combination hydralazine/nitrate is beneficial to improve survival in patients with advanced heart failure. Data support development of a clinical trial especially designed to assess if the combination hydralazine/nitrate is also efficient in patients not classified as blacks, with advanced heart failure.

Humans , Evidence-Based Medicine , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/ethnology , Blacks , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Whites , Enalapril/therapeutic use , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 41(9): 812-817, Sept. 2008. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-492882


The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of â-blockers and exercise training on cardiac structure and function, respectively, as well as overall functional capacity in a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure in mice (alpha2A/alpha2CArKO). alpha2A/alpha2CArKO and their wild-type controls were studied for 2 months, from 3 to 5 months of age. Mice were randomly assigned to control (N = 45), carvedilol-treated (N = 29) or exercise-trained (N = 33) groups. Eight weeks of carvedilol treatment (38 mg/kg per day by gavage) or exercise training (swimming sessions of 60 min, 5 days/week) were performed. Exercise capacity was estimated using a graded treadmill protocol and HR was measured by tail cuff. Fractional shortening was evaluated by echocardiography. Cardiac structure and gastrocnemius capillary density were evaluated by light microscopy. At 3 months of age, no significant difference in fractional shortening or exercise capacity was observed between wild-type and alpha2A/alpha2CArKO mice. At 5 months of age, all alpha2A/alpha2CArKO mice displayed exercise intolerance and baseline tachycardia associated with reduced fractional shortening and gastrocnemius capillary rarefaction. In addition, alpha2A/ alpha2CArKO mice presented cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and ventricular fibrosis. Exercise training and carvedilol similarly improved fractional shortening in alpha2A/alpha2CArKO mice. The effect of exercise training was mainly associated with improved exercise tolerance and increased gastrocnemius capillary density while beta-blocker therapy reduced cardiac myocyte dimension and ventricular collagen to wild-type control levels. Taken together, these data provide direct evidence for the respective beneficial effects of exercise training and carvedilol in alpha2A/alpha2CArKO mice preventing cardiac dysfunction. The different mechanisms associated with beneficial effects of exercise...

Animals , Mice , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/therapy , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Failure/genetics , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Mice, Congenic , Mice, Knockout , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Random Allocation , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiopathology
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 27(1): 57-63, 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-499088


Antecedentes: La disfunción sistólica severa del ventrículo izquierdo, con su secuela de insuficiencia cardiaca(IC) ha aumentado en las dos últimas décadas, pero su mortalidad ha disminuido con la introducción delos inhibidores de la enzima convertidora y beta-bloqueadores de tercera generación. Objetivo: Evaluar la sobrevida de un grupo de pacientes con IC desde su primera crisis Métodos: Seguimiento de una cohorte de 24 pacientes con IC de diversas etiologías (hipertensiva, alcohólica e idiopática), pero con predominio de arterioesclerosis coronaria (16 pac) durante 11 años. Los pacientes fueron tratados con terapia asociada de enalapril y carvedilol en dosis bajas, además del tratamiento clásico de la IC. Resultados: La mortalidad global fue de 8 pac (33 por ciento) y, expresada en años de seguimiento, fue de 1.8 pac/año. Las crisis de descompensación alcanzaron el 54 por ciento y las hospitalizaciones el 46 por ciento. Conclusiones: En nuestra experiencia, el tratamiento con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora y beta-bloqueadores de tercera generación, asociados a la terapia clásica de la IC, permitió una sobrevida satisfactoria a largo plazo.

Background: Severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction leading to congestive heart failure (CHF) has become more prevalent in the last decades, but mortality from this condition has decreased following the introduction of convertingenzymeinhibitors (ACE) and third generation beta blockers. Aim: To evaluate survival in a group of patients with CHF Methods: Twenty-four patients with congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease (n=16), hypertension, alcoholic or idiopathic cardiomyopathy were followed during 11 years. Patients were treated with combined therapy of enalapril and low dose carvedilol, along with other conventional drugs. Results: Eight patients died during follow up (33 percent or 1.8 patients per year). Decompensation of heart failure occurred in 54 percent and rehospitalization in 46 percent of patients. Conclusion: Treatment with an ACE inhibitor and a third generation beta blocker along with conventional drugs was associated to a satisfactory long term survival in patients with CHF.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Enalapril/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/etiology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/mortality , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Survival Rate , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use
Clinics ; 63(4): 479-482, 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-489656


BACKGROUND: Calculating the maximum heart rate for age is one method to characterize the maximum effort of an individual. Although this method is commonly used, little is known about heart rate dynamics in optimized beta-blocked heart failure patients. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate heart rate dynamics (basal, peak and percent heart rate increase) in optimized beta-blocked heart failure patients compared to sedentary, normal individuals (controls) during a treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise test. METHODS: Twenty-five heart failure patients (49±11 years, 76 percent male), with an average LVEF of 30±7 percent, and fourteen controls were included in the study. Patients with atrial fibrillation, a pacemaker or noncardiovascular functional limitations or whose drug therapy was not optimized were excluded. Optimization was considered to be 50 mg/day or more of carvedilol, with a basal heart rate between 50 to 60 bpm that was maintained for 3 months. RESULTS: Basal heart rate was lower in heart failure patients (57±3 bpm) compared to controls (89±14 bpm; p<0.0001). Similarly, the peak heart rate ( percent maximum predicted for age) was lower in HF patients (65.4±11.1 percent) compared to controls (98.6±2.2; p<0.0001). Maximum respiratory exchange ratio did not differ between the groups (1.2±0.5 for controls and 1.15±1 for heart failure patients; p=0.42). All controls reached the maximum heart rate for their age, while no patients in the heart failure group reached the maximum. Moreover, the percent increase of heart rate from rest to peak exercise between heart failure (48±9 percent) and control (53±8 percent) was not different (p=0.157). CONCLUSION: No patient in the heart failure group reached the maximum heart rate for their age during a treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise test, despite the fact that the percentage increase of heart rate was similar to sedentary normal subjects. A heart rate increase in optimized beta-blocked...

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Exercise Test/drug effects , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Rate/drug effects , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Exercise Tolerance/drug effects , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Pulmonary Gas Exchange/drug effects , Treatment Outcome
Acta Med Indones ; 2007 Jan-Mar; 39(1): 44-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-47092


The prognosis remains poor for many patients with congestive heart failure, despite maximal medical treatment with ACE inhibitor, diuretics and digitalis. In heart failure, activation of sympathetic nervous system has been described as one of the most important pathophysiologic abnormalities in patients with congestive heart failure and as one of the most important mechanisms that may be responsible for progression of heart failure. The use of beta blockers which may inhibit sympathetic activity, might reduce the risk of disease progression in heart failure, improve symptoms and increase survival. Several large clinical trials with metoprolol, carvedilol and bisoprolol have shown that long term use of these agents can improve left ventricular function and symptoms of CHF, it may also reduce hospital readmission and decrease mortality. Current guidelines recommend the use of beta blocker in mild, moderate and severe CHF, in the absence of contraindications or tolerance in combination with ACE inhibitor and diuretics. Beta blocker should be initiated in patients after maximal medical therapy with diuretics, ACE inhibitor and digitalis and patients already stabilized and in compensated conditions. Beta blocker should be started in low doses and require slow titration over weeks or months before patients can attain maintenance doses.

Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Bisoprolol/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Humans , Metoprolol/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Propanolamines/therapeutic use
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2002 Nov; 40(11): 1240-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56134


The present study was carried out using mice model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in which mice were forced to swim everyday for 7 days for a 6 min session. There was a significant increase in despair behavior (immobility period) in saline treated mice on successive days. Treatment with potent antioxidants carvedilol (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a significant reduction in immobility period. Similar results were observed with herbal products St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum L) (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and GS-02 (20 mg/kg, p.o.). Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor produced a significant effect only on first and second day of its treatment. Biochemical analysis revealed that chronic swim test significantly increased lipid peroxidation and catalase levels in whole brains of mice. There was a decrease in the levels of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GSH) in the brain. Administration of carvedilol, melatonin, GS-02 and St. John's Wort restored the levels of lipid peroxidation and glutathione. The enzymes SOD and catalase were also restored. Fluoxetine affected the biochemical variables not to the same extent as other treatments. The findings of the present study suggest that oxidative stress might play a significant role in the pathophysiology of CFS. Thus antioxidants and herbal products like St. Johns wort and GS-02 could be useful in the treatment of CFS.

Animals , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Brain/drug effects , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Catalase/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/drug therapy , Fluoxetine/therapeutic use , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Reductase/metabolism , Hypericum , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Phytotherapy , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Swimming
Indian Heart J ; 2001 Jan-Feb; 53(1): 74-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-5097


BACKGROUND: Carvedilol has proven to be beneficial in a majority of adult patients with congestive heart failure. Although the experience from adult patients may be extrapolated to older children, symptomatic infants remain a subset for whom dosage, safety and efficacy need to be established. The purpose of this study was to assess whether treatment with carvedilol is efficacious and safe for infants with dilated cardiomyopathy who do not show satisfactory clinical improvement despite treatment with conventional medications. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight infants with dilated cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction <30%) who were symptomatic despite tailored treatment with decongestive medications, were enrolled in the study. Echocardiographic findings and heart failure symptom scores were analyzed before and after starting carvedilol. Patients were hospitalized and monitored for side-effects during up-titration of carvedilol. At a follow-up of 4.5+/-2.2 months, patients receiving carvedilol showed a significant improvement in the left ventricular ejection fraction (38.5+/-11% v. 24.4+/-5%), and heart failure symptom score (p<0.05). No adverse events related to carvedilol administration occurred. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Carvedilol is well tolerated in infants with dilated cardiomyopathy and there is significant improvement in their functional status. Optimal timing of starting therapy, dosage and long-term effects need to be investigated with multi-institutional trials.

Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Stroke Volume , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects