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1.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(2): e1417, tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280364

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La asociación de asma y obesidad ha aumentado su prevalencia en los últimos años. Objetivos: Caracterizar a niños y adolescentes asmáticos con obesidad asociada. Métodos: Investigación descriptiva, transversal y prospectiva, 2017-2018, Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Pediátrico Universitario Centro Habana. Se evaluaron 43 pacientes asmáticos entre 5 y 18 años de edad con obesidad exógena asociada. Se exploraron edad, sexo, antecedentes familiares de asma y obesidad, severidad y grado de control del asma. Se realizaron estudios para evaluar el metabolismo lipídico y de los hidratos de carbono. Resultados: La distribución por edades fue similar (escolares, adolescencia temprana y tardía), predominó el sexo masculino en escolares: 11 de 16 (68,7 por ciento) y el femenino en la adolescencia tardía: 12 de 15 (80 por ciento). Se refirieron antecedentes familiares de obesidad en 5 (11,6 por ciento) y asma asociada a obesidad en 26 (60,5 por ciento); la mayoría presentaba asma persistente leve: 38 (88,4 por ciento), no controlados: 28 (65,1 por ciento) y parcialmente controlados 10 (23,3 por ciento). Dos pacientes presentaban intolerancia a los hidratos de carbono (4,7 por ciento), uno de ellos con resistencia a la insulina. La dislipidemia fue el trastorno metabólico más frecuente: colesterol sérico elevado en 23 (53,5 por ciento), LDLc alto en 13 (30,2 por ciento) y HDLc bajo en 10 (23,3 por ciento). Conclusiones: Los niños asmáticos con historia familiar de obesidad tienen alto riesgo de ser también obesos, lo cual puede dificultar el control del asma; son frecuentes en ellos las alteraciones metabólicas(AU)


Introduction: The association of asthma and obesity has increased its prevalence in recent years. Objectives: Characterize asthmatic children and adolescents with associated obesity. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional and prospective research, 2017 - 2018, Pneumology Service, Centro Habana University Pediatric Hospital. 43 asthmatic patients from 5 to 18 years old with associated exogenous obesity were assessed. Age, sex, family history of asthma and obesity, severity and degree of asthma control were studied. Studies were conducted to evaluate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Results: Age distribution was similar (schoolers, early and late adolescence), predominated male sex in schoolchildren (11 of 16 - 68.7 percent) and the female in late adolescence (12 of 15 -80 percent). Family history of obesity was reported in 5 patients (11.6 percent) and obesity-associated asthma in 26 (60.5 percent); most had mild persistent asthma (38 -88.4 percent) poorly controlled: 28 uncontrolled (65.1 percent) and 10 partially controlled (23.3 percent). Two patients had carbohydrate intolerance (4.7 percent), one of them with insulin resistance. Dyslipidemia was the most common metabolic disorder: serum cholesterol increased in 23 - 53.5 percent, high LDLc in 13 - 30.2 percent, and low HDLc in 10 - 23.3 percent. Conclusions: Asthmatic children with a family history of obesity are also at high risk of being obese, which can make difficult to control asthma; metabolic alterations are common in them(Au)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Asthma , Age Distribution , Dyslipidemias , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Obesity
2.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 15(1): 66-72, 20210102.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145494

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el síndrome de Morquio es una rara enfermedad hereditaria autosómica recesiva, caracterizada por la presencia de un trastorno del metabolismo de los glúcidos, generando dismi- nución de la calidad de vida. Caso clínico: recién nacido a término de 37.6 semanas con APGAR 7-9, que minutos después de nacido muestra signos de cianosis distal y bucal, acompañado de disminución en la saturación de oxígeno al 70%. Posteriormente, se identificaron características fenotípicas y manifestaciones clínicas que permitieron la sospecha diagnóstica de esta enferme- dad, lo que se corroboró mediante estudio genético. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de síndrome de Morquio se logró establecer en los primeros momentos del nacimiento, las manifestaciones observadas en el caso que se presenta fueron las clásicas que informa la literatura médica, el estudio genético confirmó el diagnóstico.


Introduction: Morquio syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease, characterized by the presence of a carbohydrate metabolism disorder, generating a decrease in the quality of life. Clinical case: newborn of 37.6 weeks with APGAR 7-9, who shows signs of distal and oral cyanosis, accompanied by a decrease in oxygen saturation to 70% minutes after birth. Subse- quently, the diagnostic suspicion of this disease was identified due to the phenotypic characteris- tics and clinical manifestations, which was corroborated by genetic study. Conclusions: The diagnosis of Morquio syndrome was established in the first moments of birth, the manifestations observed in the case presented were the classic ones reported in the medical literature, the gene- tic study confirmed the diagnosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Syndrome , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Infant, Newborn , Disease , Diagnosis
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(3): 304-308, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038536

ABSTRACT

Abstract The effect of third and second-generation type of beta-blocker on substrate oxidation especially during high-intensity exercises are scarce. The objective of the study is to explore differences of beta-blocker regimens (vasodilating vs. non-vasodilating beta-blockers) for substrate oxidation during in high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) in chronic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Eighteen CHF males (58.8 ± 9 years), 8 under use of β1 specific beta-blockers+alfa 1-blocker and 10 using β1 non-specific beta-blockers, were randomly assigned to 4 different HIIE, in a cross-over design. The 4 protocols were: 30 seconds (A and B) or 90 seconds (C and D) at 100% peak power output, with passive (A and C) or active recovery (50% of PPO; B and D). Energy expenditure (EE; kcal/min), quantitative carbohydrate (CHO) and lipid oxidation (g/min) and qualitative (%) contribution were calculated. Two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used (p-value ≤ 0.05) to compare CHO and lipid oxidation at rest and at 10min. Total exercise time or EE did not show differences for beta-blocker use. The type of beta-blocker use showed impact in CHO (%) and lipid (g/min and %) for rest and 10 min, but absolute contribution of CHO (g/min) was different just at 10min (Interaction p = 0.029). Higher CHO oxidation was found in vasodilating beta-blockers when comparing to non-vasodilating. According to our pilot data, there is an effect of beta-blocker type on substrate oxidation during HIIE, but no influence on EE or exercise total time in HFrEF patients.


Resumo Os dados sobre efeito do tipo de betabloqueador de terceira e segunda geração na oxidação do substrato, especialmente durante exercícios de alta intensidade, são escassos. O objetivo do estudo é explorar as diferenças de tratamentos com betabloqueadores (betabloqueadores vasodilatadores vs. não-vasodilatadores) na oxidação de substratos durante exercícios intermitentes de alta intensidade (HIIE) na insuficiência cardíaca crônica e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo reduzida (ICFEr). Dezoito pacientes do sexo masculino com ICC (58,8 ± 9 anos), 8 em uso de betabloqueadores β1 específicos + bloqueador α-1 e 10 utilizando betabloqueadores β1 não-específicos, foram aleatoriamente designados para 4 diferentes HIIE, em um desenho cruzado. Os 4 protocolos foram: 30 segundos (A e B) ou 90 segundos (C e D) a 100% da potência de pico de saída (PPO), com recuperação passiva (A e C) ou ativa (50% de PPO; B e D). O gasto energético (GE; kcal/min), a ingestão de carboidratos quantitativos (CHO) e oxidação lipídica (g/min) e qualitativa (%) foram calculados. Anova de dois fatores e teste post-hoc de Bonferroni foram usados (p-valor ≤ 0,05) para comparar a oxidação de CHO e lipídios em repouso e aos 10 minutos. O tempo total de exercício ou GE não mostraram diferenças de acordo com o uso de betabloqueadores. O tipo de betabloqueador mostrou impacto em CHO (%) e lípides (g/min e %) para repouso e aos 10 min, mas a contribuição absoluta de CHO (g/min) foi diferente apenas aos 10 minutos (Interação p = 0,029). Foram encontradas maiores oxidações de CHO com betabloqueadores vasodilatadores quando comparados com os não-vasodilatadores. De acordo com nossos dados piloto, há um efeito do tipo do betabloqueador na oxidação do substrato durante o HIIE, mas nenhuma influência no GE ou no tempo total de exercício nos pacientes com ICFEr.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise/physiology , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/pharmacology , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Carbohydrate Metabolism/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/metabolism , Cross-Over Studies , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Heart Failure/metabolism
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 53-62, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984007

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, photosynthetic pigments, proline and carbohydrate contents in Pitcairnia encholirioides under ex vitro conditions of water deficit were evaluated. Results show that plants under progressive water stress, previously in vitro cultured in media supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose and GA3, accumulated more proline and increased peroxidase (POD) activity and the contents of photosynthetic pigments and carbohydrates. For plants previously in vitro cultured with 15 g L-1 sucrose and NAA, no differences were found for proline content and there were reductions in activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and poliphenoloxidase (PPO), and in contents of carbohydrates, with progress of ex vitro water deficit. After rehydration, plants showed physiological recovery, with enzymatic activities and contents of metabolites similar to those found in the controls not submitted to dehydration, regardless of the previous in vitro culture conditions. These results show that micropropagated P. encholirioides has high tolerance to dehydration once in ex vitro conditions, which can ensure the survival of plants from tissue culture when transferred to its natural environment, emphasizing the importance of such biotechnology for the propagation of endangered species.


Resumo Neste estudo, foram avaliadas as atividades de enzimas antioxidantes, pigmentos fotossintéticos, conteúdo de prolina e carboidratos em Pitcairnia encholirioides sob déficit hídrico em condições ex vitro. Os resultados mostraram que as plantas sob estresse hídrico progressivo, previamente cultivadas in vitro em meio de cultura suplementado com 30 g L-1 de sacarose e GA3 acumularam mais prolina e aumentaram a atividade da peroxidase (POD) e os teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos e carboidratos. Para plantas previamente cultivadas in vitro com 15 g L-1 de sacarose e ANA, não foram encontradas diferenças nos conteúdos de prolina e houve reduções nas atividades da peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) e polifenoloxidase (PPO), e no conteúdo de carboidratos, com o progresso do déficit hídrico ex vitro. Após a reidratação, as plantas apresentaram recuperação fisiológica, com atividades enzimáticas e conteúdo de metabólitos semelhantes aos encontrados nos controles não sujeitos à desidratação, independentemente das condições de cultivo in vitro. Estes resultados mostram que P. encholirioides micropropagada tem alta tolerância à desidratação uma vez em condições ex vitro, o que pode garantir a sobrevivência de plantas provenientes da cultura de tecidos quando transferidas para seu ambiente natural, enfatizando a importância desta biotecnologia para a propagação de espécies ameaçadas.


Subject(s)
Photosynthesis/physiology , Proline/metabolism , Water/metabolism , Bromeliaceae/physiology , Droughts , Antioxidants/metabolism , Pigments, Biological , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Bromeliaceae/enzymology , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Longevity
5.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 215-219, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786606

ABSTRACT

The increasing risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes associated with aging is well established. However, it is difficult to determine whether changes in glucose metabolism result from biological aging itself or due to various environmental factors that occur during the aging process. Many epidemiologic studies have shown that plasma glucose levels after oral glucose tolerance test rise consecutively for every decade of age, but many of these studies also demonstrated the effects of environmental factors including obesity and exercise. In some studies, the development of insulin resistance and insulin secretion defects due to biological aging itself have also been identified as major etiologic factors of glucose intolerance. However, the rate of diabetes development due to these factors is expected to be very slow and largely preventable by addressing environmental risk factors.


Subject(s)
Aging , Blood Glucose , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Epidemiologic Studies , Glucose Intolerance , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glucose , Incretins , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Metabolism , Obesity , Risk Factors
6.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(2): 218-220, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015560

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Menière's disease was described in 1861, but there are still uncertainties regarding its pathophysiology and treatment. Endolymphatic hydrops is recognized as a fundamental pathological characteristic of the disease, as a result of an inadequate absorption of the endolymph. A milder type of endolymphatic hydrops results from an altered chemical composition of the endolymph, due to disorders of the carbohydrate metabolism. Objective: To describe the association of both types of hydrops in patients with Menière disease. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 98 patients with Menière's disease, 62 of whom also presented disorders of the carbohydrate metabolism, and 5 patients with delayed endolymphatic hydrops, 2 of whom also presented disorders of the carbohydrate metabolism. Results: The follow-up of these patients showed that the correction of the metabolic disorders may help in the clinical treatment of Menière's disease and of delayed endolymphatic hydrops, but this does not happen in the more severe types of the diseases. Conclusion: Patients with Menière's disease may present simultaneous disorders of the carbohydratemetabolism, affecting the inner ear. The correction of these disorders helps the clinical treatment but does not preclude the progression of the more severe cases of Menière disease (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Meniere Disease/complications , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Retrospective Studies , Endolymphatic Hydrops/complications , Endolymphatic Hydrops/physiopathology , Ear, Inner/physiopathology , Meniere Disease/etiology , Meniere Disease/physiopathology , Metabolic Diseases/physiopathology
7.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 30(supl.1): S39-S43, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116437

ABSTRACT

Fluctuating abdominal pain and bloating suggest gastrointestinal origin with multiple causes. In adults, patients fulfilling the Rome criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have a low probability of neoplasms or intestinal inflammatory diseases. In these patients it is cost effective to request fecal calprotectin and celiac disease serology. Due to the high probability of nocebo effect, the diagnosis of sensitivity to non celiac and food allergies should require a blind rechallenge. It is recommended to evaluate other non ominous diagnostic options in a second stage if there is not good control of symptoms. In adults that do not fulfil the criteria of IBS or in adults older than 50 it is often necessary to request more studies, including endoscopic examinations. In children, abdominal pain and bloating occur frequently in the context of excessive consumption of sugar (including fructose, lactose and sorbitol). In infants it can occur in the context of congenital malformations, infant colics and food allergies. An active search for symptoms and signs of alarm is recommended. In their absence the performance of an endoscopic study is low. The use of celiac disease serology is also recommended, but the use of fecal calprotectin has the limitation that normal values are not present below age 4, so its use is not recommended under that age.


El dolor abdominal y la distensión abdominal fluctuantes sugieren origen gastrointestinal, con múltiples causas. En adultos, los pacientes que cumplen criterios de Roma para Síndrome de Intestino Irritable (SII) tienen una baja probabilidad de neoplasias o enfermedades inflamatorias intestinales (EII). En estos pacientes, es costoefectivo solicitar calprotectina fecal y serología de enfermedad celiaca. Por la alta probabilidad de efecto nocebo, el diagnóstico de sensibilidad al gluten no celiaca (SGNC) y alergias alimentarias debería requerir un rechallenge ciego. Es recomendable evaluar otras opciones diagnósticas no ominosas en una segunda etapa, si no hay buen control sintomático. En adultos que no cumplen criterios de SII o en adultos mayores de 50 años, suele requerirse más cantidad de estudios, incluyendo endoscópicos. En niños, el dolor abdominal y distensión ocurren frecuentemente en el contexto de consumo excesivo de azúcares (incluyendo fructosa, lactosa y sorbitol). En lactantes puede ocurrir también en el contexto de malformaciones congénitas, cólicos del lactante y alergia alimentaria. Se recomienda la búsqueda activa de signos y síntomas de alarma. En su ausencia el rendimiento del estudio endoscópico es bajo. También se recomienda el uso de serología de enfermedad celíaca, pero el uso de calprotectina fecal tiene la limitación de ausencia de valores de normalidad hasta los 4 años, por lo que su uso no se recomienda bajo esa edad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Dilatation, Pathologic/diagnosis , Dilatation, Pathologic/etiology , Abdomen/pathology , Celiac Disease/complications , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Food Hypersensitivity , Malabsorption Syndromes/complications
8.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 68(1): 59-70, mar. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1016815

ABSTRACT

Buriti pulp flour (BPF) contains significant levels of antioxidants. This study evaluated the effect of BPF on biomarkers of oxidative damage in the liver, heart, and pancreas of diabetic rats. The chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and polyphenol content of BPF were determined. Thirty-six female Fisher rats were divided into four groups: control (C); control + BPF (CB); diabetic (D); diabetic + BPF (DB). Diabetes was induced by treatment with streptozotocin. Thirty days after the induction of diabetes, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerides serum levels, aminotransferase and paraoxonase activities were evaluated. Oxidative damage to lipids and proteins was assessed through thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl analyses, respectively. Histopathological analyses were also performed. BPF contained high concentrations of phenolic compounds, lipids, and fibers, and exhibited a high capacity to neutralize the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Diabetes was evidenced by equivalent high levels of glucose in plasma from rats in the D and DB groups. Diabetic rats in both groups also presented the same increased activity of aminotransferases. Protein carbonyl levels were increased in liver, heart, and pancreas in the D compared with C group. Although treatment with BPF did not result in any histopathological alterations, it reduced significantly the levels of TBARS in the heart and protein carbonyls in the liver and heart. No effect on blood glucose and tissue histology was observed following treatment with BPF. However, BPF diminished oxidative damage in liver and heart, indicating a possible antioxidant potential in vivo, in addition to in vitro(AU)


La harina de pulpa buriti (BPF) contiene niveles significativos de antioxidantes. Este estudio evaluó el efecto del BPF en biomarcadores de daño oxidativo en el hígado, el corazón y el páncreas de ratas diabéticas. Se determino la composición química, la capacidad antioxidante y el contenido de polifenoles del BPF. Treinta y seis ratas Fisher fueron divididas en cuatro grupos: Control (C); Control + BPF (CB); Diabético (D); Diabético + BPF (DB). La diabetes fue inducida por tratamiento con estreptozotocina. Treinta dias después de la inducción de la diabetes, se evaluaron los niveles séricos de glucosa, colesterol total y triacilglicéridos, y las actividades de aminotransferasa y paraoxonasa. El daño oxidativo a lípidos y proteínas se evaluó a través de sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS) y análisis de proteínas carboniladas respectivamente. También se realizaron análisis histopatológicos. El BPF contenía altas concentraciones de compuestos fenólicos, lípidos y fibras, y exhibía una alta capacidad para neutralizar el radical 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil (DPPH). La diabetes se evidenció por altos niveles de glucosa en plasma de ratas en los grupos D y DB. Las ratas diabéticas en ambos grupos también presentaron la misma actividad aumentada de las aminotransferasas. Los niveles de proteínas carboniladas se incrementaron en el hígado, el corazón y el páncreas en el grupo D en comparación con el C. Aunque el tratamiento con BPF no dio lugar a alteraciones histopatológicas, redujo significativamente los niveles de TBARS en el corazón y las proteínas carboniladas en el hígado y el corazón. No se observo ningún efecto sobre la glucosa en la sangre y la histología de tejidos después del tratamiento con BPF. Sin embargo, el BPF disminuyó el daño oxidativo en el hígado y el corazón, lo que indica un posible potencial antioxidante in vivo, además de in vitro(AU)


Subject(s)
Rats , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Antioxidants/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Lipids
9.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2018; 71 (4): 2885-2891
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-192543

ABSTRACT

Background: Insulin resistance is a pathological condition characterized by inadequate peripheral tissue metabolic response to circulating insulin. High dietary fructose causes insulin resistance syndrome, primarily due to simultaneous induction of genes involved in glucose, lipid and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Rice bran oil [RBO] is a rich source of antioxidants which contribute to higher oxidative stability and longer shelf life than other edible oils


Aim of the work: The current study investigated the effects of the daily intake of RBO on insulin resistant rat liver, as a central organ in carbohydrate metabolism


Materials and methods: Rats were allocated in 5 groups. Animals in groups 1 and 2 received standard diet and standard diet containing RBO, respectively. Group 3: animals fed high fructose diet [HFD], which was categorized into: rats fed HFD either for one month [HFD1] or for 2 months [HFD2]. Group 4, rats were fed HFD containing RBO for one month [HFD1+RBO], while rats in group 5 were fed HFD for 30 days then RBO was added to the diet for another 30 days [HFD2+RBO]


Results and conclusion: addition of RBO to this model improved insulin sensitivity in liver


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Insulin Resistance , Fructose , Liver , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Rats , Glycogen
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(5): e6964, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889089

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) availability potentiates fat oxidation after an exhaustive high-intensity exercise bout. Eight physically active men underwent a high-intensity exercise (∼95% V̇O2max) until exhaustion under low or high pre-exercise CHO availability. The protocol to manipulate pre-exercise CHO availability consisted of a 90-min cycling bout at ∼70% V̇O2max + 6 × 1-min at 125% V̇O2max with 1-min rest, followed by 48 h under a low- (10% CHO, low-CHO availability) or high-CHO diet (80% CHO, high-CHO availability). Time to exhaustion was shorter and energy expenditure (EE) lower during the high-intensity exercise in low- compared to high-CHO availability (8.6±0.8 and 11.4±1.6 min, and 499±209 and 677±343 kJ, respectively, P<0.05). Post-exercise EE was similar between low- and high-CHO availability (425±147 and 348±54 kJ, respectively, P>0.05), but post-exercise fat oxidation was significantly higher (P<0.05) in low- (7,830±1,864 mg) than in high-CHO availability (6,264±1,763 mg). The total EE (i.e., exercise EE plus post-exercise EE) was similar between low- and high-CHO availability (924±264 and 1,026±340 kJ, respectively, P>0.05). These results suggest that a single bout of high-intensity exercise performed under low-CHO availability increased post-exercise fat oxidation, and even with shorter exercise duration, both post-exercise EE and total EE were not impaired.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism/physiology , Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Adipose Tissue/physiology , Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage , Exercise Test/methods , Oxidation-Reduction , Time Factors
11.
Campinas; s.n; 2018. 121 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916143

ABSTRACT

Resumo: As doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) estão entre as principais causas de mortalidade global. Nos Estados Unidos as taxas de mortalidade por DCV em mulheres nas faixas de idade de 35-54 anos não têm mostrado a redução esperada. O numero de mulheres nos estudos ainda é pequeno e falta conhecimento sobre o impacto na saúde cardiovascular dos ciclos gestacionais e do uso de compostos hormonais para contracepção/terapias por períodos longos. Objetivos: avaliar o metabolismo de carboidratos e marcadores de DCV em mulheres não obesas saudáveis durante o primeiro ano de uso do contraceptivo de acetato de medroxiprogesterona de depósito (AMPD). Métodos: estudo prospectivo não randomizado, comparativo, conduzido no Ambulatório de Planejamento Familiar e no Serviço de Ecografia do Departamento de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas/UNICAMP, entre 02/2011 e 02/2013. Mulheres com 18-40 anos e índice de massa corporal (IMC) <30 kg/m2, recrutadas a partir de Unidades Básicas de Saúde, realizaram teste de pós-carga com 75 mg glicose via oral (OGTT). Foram incluídas aquelas que apresentaram OGTT normal e assinaram Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Os critérios de exclusão foram diagnóstico/antecedente de Diabete Melittus, período de aleitamento, hipertensão arterial, hiper/hipotiroidismo, insuficiência renal crônica, hirsutismo/hiperandrogenismo, Síndrome do Ovário Policístico, uso crônico de corticosteróides, antipsicóticos, tiazídicos e estatinas, antecedente de transplante de órgão, cirurgia bariátrica e omentectomia. As mulheres puderam escolher utilizar o AMPD ou o dispositivo intrauterino com cobre (DIU) e compuseram dois grupos pareados por idade (±1) e IMC (±1), seguidos durante 12 meses. Realizou-se avaliação de peso, IMC, composição corporal por densitometria (DXA), medidas da cintura, pressão arterial e ultrassonográficas da espessura da intima-media da artéria carótida e dos compartimentos de gordura abdominal (GA), dosagens séricas dos perfis glicêmico e lipídico, ácidos graxos livres, apolipoproteínas A1 e B-100, adipocinas IL-6, TN-alfa, leptina, adiponectina, PCR e cálculo do índice HOMA. Resultados: Apresentaram-se 290 mulheres, 72 com critérios para inclusão e 56 (31 grupo AMPD e 25 DIU) foram analisadas com relação ao metabolismo de carboidratos, semestralmente. O grupo AMPD mostrou elevação nos níveis séricos de insulina, HOMA, circunferência da cintura e IMC, quando comparado ao grupo DIU. Analisando-se as 30 mulheres sem resistência insulínica, o grupo AMPD mostrou aumento de triglicérides aos 12 meses em relação ao grupo DIU. Entre 37 mulheres, as medidas ultrassonográficas de GA, realizadas no basal e aos 12 meses, apresentaram forte correlação com as medidas de composição corporal e antropométricas, e com as concentrações séricas de colesterol total, LDL colesterol, APO B-100 e PCR. Conclusões: Não foram observados efeitos cardiovasculares significativos no primeiro ano de uso do AMPD nesta amostra; o aumento de triglicérides foi interpretado como variação provocada por alterações no metabolismo da glicose. HOMA, peso corporal e circunferência da cintura foram parâmetros clínicos importantes para o monitoramento das usuárias de AMPD. A ultrassonografia poderá ser ferramenta viável para identificar indivíduos com aumento de gordura corporal e risco cardiovascular; sendo necessários estudos futuros para confirmação desses resultados, padronização de locais de aferição e pontos de corte relacionados ao possível risco para DCV(AU)


Abstract: One of the main causes of global death is cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the United State of America the mortality rates have not decreased as expected in women between 35 and 54 years old. In general, the studies are performed with a small number of women in the sample composition and lack knowledge about specifically female characteristics and their interaction in cardiovascular health, such as the use of hormonal contraceptives for a prolonged time. Objectives: To evaluate carbohydrate metabolism and markers of CVD in the first year of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) for contraceptive use. Methods: Prospective, not randomized comparative study conducted in the Family Planning Clinic and Ultrasound Unit of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Campinas Medical School, between 02/2011-02/2013. Women aged 18-40 years and body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m2, recruited from Basic Health Units, performed a post-load test with 75 mg oral glucose (OGTT). Those that presented normal OGTT and agreed to participate were included in the study. The exclusion criteria were diagnosis/history of diabetes mellitus, lactation period, hypertension, hyper/hypothyroidism, chronic renal failure, hirsutism/hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovarian syndrome, chronic use of corticosteroids, antipsychotics, thiazides and statins, history of organ transplantation, bariatric surgery and omentectomy. Women were able to choose to use the DMPA or copper intrauterine device (IUD) and composed two matched groups by age (±1) and BMI (±1), followed for 12 months. Were evaluated weight, BMI, body composition (BC), waist circumference, blood pressure and ultrasound measurements of the carotid intimal medial thickness and abdominal fat compartments (AF), serum levels of lipid and glycemic profiles, free fatty acids, apolipoproteins A-1 and B-100, adipokines IL-6, TN-alpha, leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and HOMA index, at baseline and 12 months. Results: 290 women were enrolled, of which 72 met the criteria for inclusion and only 56 women (31-DMPA group and 25-IUD group) were analyzed with regard to carbohydrate metabolism at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. The DMPA group showed elevated serum levels of insulin, HOMA, waist circumference and BMI when compared to the IUD group. The analysis of 30 women without insulin resistance, diagnosed by hyperinsulemic euglycemic clamp, the DMPA group showed increase of triglycerides at 12 months when compared to the IUD group. Among 37 women, ultrasonography measurements of AF at baseline and 12 months showed a strong correlation with BC and anthropometric measurements, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL- chol, APO B-100 and CRP. Conclusions: No significant cardiovascular effects were observed in the first year of DMPA use in this sample; the increase in triglycerides was interpreted as a variation caused by changes in glucose metabolism. HOMA, body weight and waist circumference were important clinical parameters for the monitoring of DMPA users. Ultrasonography may be a viable tool to identify individuals with increased body fat and cardiovascular risk and future studies are required to confirm these results, to standardize measurement sites and cut-off points related to the possible risk for CVD(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases , Contraception , Body Fat Distribution , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Contraceptive Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin Resistance , Intrauterine Devices , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(10): 1079-1084, out. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-895331

ABSTRACT

Timpanismo intestinal agudo em cavalos e mulas introduzidos em pastagens de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, cv. Massai e cv. Mombaça são relatados na região norte do Brasil, durante o período das chuvas. As causas são desconhecidas, porém, tem sido sugerido que estão associados a um maior armazenamento de carboidratos não fibrosos na gramínea. Este trabalho teve por objetivos realizar um levantamento epidemiológico dos surtos de cólicas ocorridos no Estado de Rondônia, assim como contribuir com o estudo da ação dos carboidratos de P. maximum na ocorrência da doença. Para isso foram realizadas visitas em 10 propriedades que apresentaram casos da enfermidade. Em duas propriedades foram introduzidos equinos no mês de março e foram coletadas amostras de pastagens para a determinação de energia digestiva, lisina, matéria seca, carboidratos solúveis em água, carboidratos solúveis em éter, carboidratos não fibrosos, fibra de detergente neutra, fibra de detergente ácido, lignina, amido, gordura e proteína bruta. Essas determinações foram realizadas, também, em amostras de pastagens de P. maximum de outras propriedades onde não estavam ocorrendo cólicas e das pastagens de Cynodon dactylon de onde provinham os equinos. Os resultados mostraram que os surtos de cólica ocorrem na época de chuva, quando as pastagens estão rebrotando com uma morbidade de 31,6%, e letalidade de 86,1%. As análises bromatológicas mostraram uma diferença significativa nas concentrações de amido (P=0,0072) do P. maximum que causou cólica (8,3 % e 9,2%), quando comparado com o P. maximum das outras propriedades (0,9% e 4,3%) e com o Tifton, utilizado previamente na alimentação dos mesmos equinos (0,2% e 0,8%). Em outra fazenda a doença foi reproduzida experimentalmente em um equino, no mês de março administrando P. maximum cortado contendo 6,5% de amido. A mesma pastagem não causou cólica quando foi administrada a equinos entre os meses de novembro a fevereiro, com 2,7% a 5,1% de amido. Estes resultados sugerem que a causa das cólicas em equídeos em pastagens de P. maximum, na época de rebrote, é o alto conteúdo de amido das mesmas.(AU)


Acute intestinal bloat occurs in horses and mules introduced into sprouting Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, cv. Massai and cv. Mombaça pastures in northern Brazil during the rainy season. It has been suggested that the disease is due to high concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates in this grass. The paper aimed to study outbreaks of colics in the state of Rondônia, Brazil and contribute to the knowledge of the carbohydrates contained in P. maximum as the cause of the disease. For this, ten farms which had cases of intestinal bloat were visited. On two farms, horses were introduced into such a toxic pasture. Samples of pasture were collected for determination of digestible energy, lysine, dry matter, water soluble carbohydrates, ether soluble carbohydrates, non-fiber carbohydrates, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, starch, and fat. Samples of P. maximum pastures from neighboring farms, where the disease was not occurring, and from Cynodon dactylon pastures where the horses had been grazing before were also collected. The results showed that colics occur in the rainy season in sprouting pasture with a morbidity of 31.6%, and lethality of 86.1%. The pastures which induce colic showed significantly (P=0.0072) higher starch concentration (8,3 and 9,2%) than pastures of P. maximum which did not cause colic (0,9 and 4,3%) as well as the Cynodon dactylon pastures ingested previously by the horses (0.2 and 0.8%. On another farm, the disease was produced experimentally in a horse receiving in the feeder P. maximum collected from a toxic pasture with 6.5% of starch. The same pasture did not cause colic from November to February with starch content of 2.7 to 5.1%. It is suggested that the cause of colic in equids ingesting sprouting pasture of P. maximum is the high starch content of this pasture during the groth period.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Starch/toxicity , Pasture/adverse effects , Colic , Equidae , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary
13.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 54(3): 140-148, set. 2017. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957980

ABSTRACT

The effects of avocado seeds (A) inclusion (2%, 4% and 8%) in diets on cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism in normal rats Sprague Dawley (SD) fed on basal diet (BD) or high sucrose diet (HSD) and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) fed on BD were studied. The inclusion of avocado seeds in the diet influences the feeding and growth performance in rats. The inclusion of A lowered (p < 0.05) cholesterol at 2% and 4% doses and glucose at 2% in serum of SD rats fed on BD, whereas only serum cholesterol level was reduced at all the three doses in SHR. Increased liver glycogen (p < 0.05) was noted in SD rats fed on BD with 8% A. All avocado seeds doses increased (p < 0.05) liver glycogen storage in SHR fed on BD and SD rats fed on HSD. Avocado seeds can lower blood glucose and cholesterol and enhance liver glycogen storage in rats.


Los efectos de la inclusión de semillas de aguacate (A) (2%, 4% y 8%) en dietas sobre el metabolismo del colesterol y carbohidratos en ratas normales Sprague Dawley (SD) alimentados con dieta basal (BD) o dieta con alto contenido en sacarosa (HSD) se estudiaron las ratas hipertensas (SHR) alimentadas con BD. La inclusión de las semillas de aguacate en la dieta influye en la alimentación y el crecimiento en ratas. La inclusión de A disminuyó (p < 0,05) el colesterol a dosis del 2 y el 4% y glucosa al 2% en suero de ratas SD alimentadas con BD, mientras que solo el nivel de colesterol sérico se redujo en todas las 3 dosis en SHR. Se observó un aumento del glucógeno hepático (p < 0,05) en ratas SD alimentadas con BD con un 8% de A. Todas las dosis de semillas de aguacate aumentaron (p< 0,05) el almacenamiento de glucógeno hepático en SHR alimentado con BD y SD alimentadas con HSD. Las semillas de aguacate pueden reducir la glucosa y el colesterol en la sangre, y aumentar el almacenamiento de glucógeno hepático en ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Persea/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Glucose/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycogen/biosynthesis , Anticholesteremic Agents/blood
14.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 28(2): 0-0, may.-ago. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-901014

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el índice cintura/talla constituye un parámetro clínico útil para identificar alteraciones del metabolismo de los carbohidratos. Objetivo: determinar el punto de corte del índice cintura/talla como predictor independiente de disglucemias, su utilidad en este sentido, así como su relación con otras variables de riesgo. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal con 523 mujeres y 452 hombres. Se les realizó interrogatorio, examen físico y estudios complementarios. En el procesamiento estadístico se determinaron distribuciones de frecuencia de las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas. Se aplicó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson, el análisis de curvas Receiver Operator Characteristic, así como un análisis de regresión logística, y se utilizó la prueba chi cuadrado para evaluar la significación estadística. Resultados: se encontró en ambos sexos, una correlación directamente proporcional entre el índice cintura/talla y las variables: glucemia en ayunas y a las 2 h, insulinemia en ayunas, colesterol, triglicéridos, ácido úrico y el índice de resistencia a la insulina, con significación estadística. El índice cintura/talla fue la variable con mayor poder predictor de disglucemias, al compararlo con otras variables -colesterol e índice de resistencia a la insulina- en ambos sexos, con un punto de corte de 0,50 en mujeres y 0,49 en hombres. Conclusiones: el punto de corte óptimo del índice cintura/talla como predictor independiente de disglucemias fue de 0,50 en mujeres y 0,49 en hombres. Existió una correlación directamente proporcional entre este índice y las variables de riesgo analizadas. Fue mejor predictor de disglucemias que el colesterol y el índice de resistencia a la insulina(AU)


Introduction: the waist-to-height ratio is a useful clinical indicator to identify impaired metabolism of carbohydrates. Objective: to determine the cutoff value of the waist-to-height ratio as an independent predictor of dysglycemias, its usefulness and association with other risk variables. Methods: descriptive and cross-sectional study conducted in 523 women and in 452 men. They were questioned, physically examined and performed supplementary studies. The statistical processing determined the frequency distributions in qualitative and quantitative variables. Pearson´s correlation coefficient, analysis of Receiver Operator Characteristic curves as well as logistic regression analysis were all applied, in addition to chi-square test for evaluation of the statistical significance. Results: in both sexes, the study found a directly proportional correlation between the waist-to-height ratio and the variables called fasting glycemia and glycemia at 2 hours, fasting insulinemia, cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid values and insulin-resistance index, with statistical significance. The waist-to-height index exhibited the highest predictive power for dysglycemia when compared to other variables such as cholesterol and insulin-resistance index in both sexes, with a cutoff value of 0.50 in women and 0.49 in men. Conclusions: the optimal cutoff value of the waist-to-height ratio, as an independent predictor of dysglycemias, was 0.50 in women and 0.49 in men. There was direct proportional correlation between this ratio and the analyzed risk variables. It was a better predictor than cholesterol and the insulin-resistance index(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prediabetic State/prevention & control , Glycemic Index , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Waist-Height Ratio , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(3): 535-541, July-Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888779

ABSTRACT

Abstract Golden trumpet, Tabebuia chrysotricha, is a native tree from the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest, with a broad latitudinal distribution. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of short-term changes in micro-weather conditions on structural features, and total protein and carbohydrate content of golden trumpet leaves, using structural and histochemical approaches. Leaves were harvested in four different micro-weather conditions: 1. Afternoon, after a hot, sunny day; 2. at dawn, after a previously hot, sunny day; 3. at noon, of a hot, sunny day; and 4. at noon, of a cold, cloudy day. Leaflets exposed to low light irradiance showed flattened chloroplasts, uniformly distributed within the cells, throughout the palisade parenchyma. Conversely, leaflets exposed to high light irradiance presented flattened and rounded chloroplasts, in the upper and lower palisade parenchyma cells, respectively. The strongest protein staining was found for leaves harvested at the coldest period, whereas the weakest protein staining was found for leaves harvested after a hot, sunny day. The largest and most numerous starch grains were found for leaves harvested in the afternoon, after a hot, sunny day. Conversely, the smallest and less numerous starch grains were found for leaves harvested at dawn. Analysis of the data reported herein suggests that the leaflet responses to transient changes in micro-weather conditions are likely to contribute to the golden trumpet successful establishment in the broad latitudinal distribution in which the species is found.


Resumo Ipê amarelo é uma árvore nativa da floresta Atlântica brasileira, encontrada em uma ampla distribuição latitudinal. Neste estudo, nós investigamos os efeitos potenciais de alterações de curto prazo nas condições micro-climáticas sobre características estruturais, proteína e carboidratos histoquimicamente marcados, de folhas de ipê amarelo, usando estratégias de análise estrutural e histoquímicas. As folhas foram marcadas em quatro condições microclimáticas distintas: 1. Tarde, após um dia quente e ensolarado; 2. Amanhecer, após um dia quente e ensolarado; 3. Ao meio-dia, de um dia quente e ensolarado; e 4. Ao meio-dia, de um dia frio e nublado. Folíolos expostos à baixa irradiância luminosa apresentaram cloroplastos achatados, uniformemente distribuídos no interior das células, por todo o parênquima paliçádico, enquanto que folíolos expostos à alta irradiância apresentaram cloroplastos achatados e arredondados, nas células superiores e inferiores do parênquima paliçádico, respectivamente. A marcação mais intensa para proteína foi observada para folhas coletadas no momento mais frio de coleta, enquanto que a marcação mais fraca foi observada para folhas coletadas após um dia quente e ensolarado. Os grãos de amido maiores e mais numerosos foram observados em folhas coletadas durante a tarde de dia quente e ensolarado, enquanto que os menores e menos numerosos grãos de amido foram observados em folhas coletadas ao amanhecer.


Subject(s)
Plant Proteins/metabolism , Weather , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Tabebuia/anatomy & histology , Tabebuia/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Brazil , Chloroplasts/metabolism , Rainforest , Microclimate
16.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 28(1): 1-15, Jan.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-901005

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la circunferencia de la cintura es un parámetro clínico útil para identificar alteraciones en el metabolismo de los carbohidratos, pero la Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda que cada país o región debe establecer sus propios valores de corte. Objetivo: determinar el punto de corte de la circunferencia de cintura como predictor de disglucemia en una población cubana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal basado en 982 pacientes (457 hombres y 525 mujeres) que asistieron a las consultas del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología por sospecha de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, entre abril de 2008 y abril de 2013. La metodología consistió en la realización de un interrogatorio y un examen físico, que incluyó la medición de la circunferencia de cintura y estudios de laboratorio que se completaron con una prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa oral. Se determinaron distribuciones de frecuencia de las variables cualitativas y de las cuantitativas, media y desviación estándar. Además se utilizaron el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson, regresión lineal simple, el análisis de las curvas Receiver Operator Characteristics y la prueba de chi cuadrado. Resultados: se halló una correlación positiva entre la circunferencia de cintura y los valores de glucemia, insulinemia, ácido úrico y el índice Homeostasis Model Assessment Estimate of Insulin Resistance. La circunferencia de la cintura en ambos sexos fue la variable con mayor poder predictor de disglucemia, con un punto de corte de cintura de 86,75 cm en hombres y 80,5 cm en las mujeres. Conclusiones: el punto de corte óptimo de la circunferencia de cintura como predictor de disglucemia en hombres es de 86,75 cm (87) y en mujeres de 80,5 cm (81) en una población cubana(AU)


Introduction: waist circumference is a useful clinical parameters to identify alterations in carbohydrate metabolism; however the World Health Organization recommends that each country or region should set its own cut off point values. Objective: to determine the cut-off point of the waist circumference as a predictor of dysglycemias in a Cuban population. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 982 patients (457 men and 525 females) who went to the medical offices of the National Institute of Endocrinology on suspicion of diabetes mellitus type 2 from April 2008 to April 2013. The methodology consisted of administration of questionnaires and physical examination including the measurement of waist circumference and lab studies that were completed with the oral glucose tolerance test. Frequency distributions of the qualitative and quantitative variables, the median and standard deviation were all determined. Additionally, Pearson´s correlation coefficient, the simple linear regressions, analysis of Receiver Operator Characteristic curves and the Chi-square test were also used. Results: positive correlation was found between the waist circumference and the glycemia, insulinemia, uric acid and the homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance. Waist circumference in both sexes was the variable with greatest predictive power for dysglycemia, with a cutoff point of 86.75 cm for men and 80.5 cm for women. Conclusions: the optimal cutoff point of waist circumference as a dysglycemia predictor in men is 86.75 cm (87) and in women is 80.5 (81) in a Cuban population(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physical Examination/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Waist Circumference , Glucose Tolerance Test/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Carbohydrate Metabolism
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(1): 234-242, jan.-fev. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-836706

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se neste estudo fracionar os carboidratos e as proteínas e avaliar a cinética de degradação ruminal de rações contendo 0; 24; 48 e 72% de torta de girassol. Os carboidratos foram fracionados em A+B1, B2 e C, e as proteínas em A, B1+B2, B3 e C. Os parâmetros de cinética de degradação ruminal das rações foram estimados a partir do método semiautomático de produção cumulativa de gases in vitro. Foram utilizados quatro animais 1/2 Gir x 1/2 Holandês, machos e castrados, fistulados no rúmen, mantidos em pastagem e recebendo 1kg de ração concentrada, como doadores de inócuo ruminal. O ensaio foi realizado em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro rações e quatro períodos, e os resultados obtidos foram interpretados de acordo com a análise de variância e de regressão a 5% de significância. Houve efeito linear decrescente para o fracionamento de carboidratos totais e a fração A+B1, e efeito linear crescente sobre as frações B2 e C. Para as frações nitrogenadas, houve efeito linear crescente sobre a fração A, e efeito linear decrescente sobre as frações B1+B2 e C. Em relação à cinética de degradação ruminal in vitro, houve efeito decrescente sobre o parâmetro "a", e efeito quadrático sobre os parâmetros "b" e "c", com pontos de máxima, respectivamente, de 61,84 e 66,77% de torta de girassol. A inclusão da torta de girassol nas rações suplementares, nos teores estudados, influenciou nas frações dos carboidratos, das proteínas e nos parâmetros de degradação ruminal. Caso haja a disponibilidade desse ingrediente, ele pode ser adicionado à ração suplementar de bovinos sem prejuízo nos parâmetros nutricionais e metabólicos.(AU)


This work aimed to fractionate carbohydrates and protein and to evaluate ruminal degradation kinetics of rations containing 0; 24; 48 and 72% of inclusion of sunflower cake. The carbohydrates were fractionate in A+B1, B2 and C fraction, and protein in A, B1+B2, B3 and C. Rations ruminal degradation kinetics were realized with the "in vitro" semiautomatic gas production technique. Four male, castrated, 1/2 Gir x 1/2 Holstein were used, all of them fistulated in the rumen. This study was done in randomized block design with four rations and four periods. The results obtained were interpreted according to variance and regression analysis at 5% significance level. There is a decreasing effect for total carbohydrates fractionation and A+B1 fraction, and there is an increasing effect for B2 and C fraction. For nitrogen fractions there is an increasing effect on fraction A and negative linear effect on B1+B2 and C fractions. For "In vitro" ruminal degradation kinetics there is a decreasing effect for "a" parameter, and quadratic effect for "b" and "c" parameters with maximum points respectively 61.84 and 66.77% of sunflower seed meal. The inclusion of sunflower cake in supplementary feeding, the studied levels, influenced the fractions of carbohydrates, proteins and degradation parameters. If there is the availability of this ingredient, it can be added to the supplemental feed cattle subject to the nutritional and metabolic parameters.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Feed , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Kinetics , Rumen/metabolism , Ruminants/metabolism
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765889

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of the vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogs of these hormones that are synthesized in the laboratories. Two main classes of corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids, are involved in a wide range of physiologic processes, including stress response, immune response, and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior. Corticosteroids have been used for almost 60 years in medicine and their roles in patients have always been discussed by researchers and clinicians dedicated in the related field. Currently, they are still used in the treatment of patients with neurological disorders. Usually, corticosteroids are used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases and conditions. In this review, we present five key indications, i.e., neuromyelitis optica, acute spinal cord injury, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, myasthenia gravis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis for the systemic use of corticosteroids in neurology based on a mix of quality of evidence, prevalence, and impact on disease management.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Disease Management , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Inflammation , Metabolism , Mineralocorticoids , Myasthenia Gravis , Nervous System Diseases , Neurology , Neuromyelitis Optica , Polyneuropathies , Prevalence , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Vertebrates
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812053

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to characterize the polyphenols isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark crude extract (B) and fractions (B1-B7) obtained by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and evaluate their anti-inflammatory and carbolytic enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) inhibitory activities. Fractions B4, B5, B6, B7 (total phenolics 850.3, 983.0, 843.9, and 572.5 mg·g, respectively; proanthocyanidins 75.7, 90.5, 95.0, and 44.8 mg·g, respectively) showed significant activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) production, and expression of pro-inflammatory genes interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. All the extracts suppressed α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities, two primary enzymes responsible for carbohydrate digestion. A. mearnsii bark samples possessed significantly stronger inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase enzyme (IC of 0.4-1.4 μg·mL) than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC 141.8 μg·mL). B6 and B7 (IC 17.6 and 11.7 μg·mL, respectively) exhibited α-amylase inhibitory activity as efficacious as acarbose (IC 15.4 μg·mL). Moreover, B extract, at 25 µg·mL, significantly decreased the non-mitochondrial oxidative burst that is often associated with inflammatory response in human monocytic macrophages.


Subject(s)
Acacia , Chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Inflammation , Metabolism , Interleukin-1beta , Metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Macrophages , Mice , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Metabolism , Plant Bark , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Polyphenols , Pharmacology , Proanthocyanidins , Pharmacology , alpha-Amylases , alpha-Glucosidases , Metabolism
20.
Mycobiology ; : 226-231, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729666

ABSTRACT

Coprinopsis cinerea was employed to investigate the fungal response to gravity. Mycelium growth revealed a consistent growth pattern, irrespective of the direction of gravity (i.e., horizontal vs. perpendicular). However, the fruiting body grew in the direction opposite to that of gravity once the primordia had formed. For the proteomic analysis, only curved-stem samples were used. Fifty-one proteins were identified and classified into 13 groups according to function. The major functional groups were hydrolases and transferases (16%), signal transduction (15%), oxidoreductases and isomerases (11%), carbohydrate metabolism (9%), and transport (5%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a proteomic approach to evaluate the molecular response of C. cinerea to gravity.


Subject(s)
Carbohydrate Metabolism , Fruit , Gravitation , Hydrolases , Isomerases , Mycelium , Oxidoreductases , Proteome , Signal Transduction , Transferases
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