Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 275
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3566-3578, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007977


As specialized intracellular parasite, viruses have no ability to metabolize independently, so they completely depend on the metabolic mechanism of host cells. Viruses use the energy and precursors provided by the metabolic network of the host cells to drive their replication, assembly and release. Namely, viruses hijack the host cells metabolism to achieve their own replication and proliferation. In addition, viruses can also affect host cell metabolism by the expression of auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs), affecting carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur cycles, and participate in microbial-driven biogeochemical cycling. This review summarizes the effect of viral infection on the host's core metabolic pathway from four aspects: cellular glucose metabolism, glutamine metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and viral AMGs on host metabolism. It may facilitate in-depth understanding of virus-host interactions, and provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of viral diseases through metabolic intervention.

Humans , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Virus Diseases , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions , Lipid Metabolism
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 614-624, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970395


Papaya, which is mainly cultivated in the southeastern region of China, is one of the four famous fruits in Lingnan. It is favored by people because of its edible and medicinal value. Fructose-6-phosphate, 2-kinase/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase (F2KP) is a unique bifunctional enzyme with a kinase domain and an esterase domain that catalyzes the synthesis and degradation of fructose-2, 6-bisphosphate (Fru-2, 6-P2), an important regulator of glucose metabolism in organisms. In order to study the function of the gene CpF2KP encoding the enzyme in papaya, it is particularly important to obtain the target protein. In this study, the coding sequence (CDS) of CpF2KP, with a full-length of 2 274 bp, was got from the papaya genome. The amplified sequence of full-length CDS was cloned into the vector PGEX-4T-1 which was double digested with EcoR I and BamH I. The amplified sequence was constructed into a prokaryotic expression vector by genetic recombination. After exploring the induction conditions, the results of SDS-PAGE showed that the size of the recombinant GST-CpF2KP protein was about 110 kDa. The optimum IPTG concentration and temperature for CpF2KP induction were 0.5 mmol/L and 28 ℃, respectively. The purified sin[A1] gle target protein was obtained after purifying the induced CpF2KP protein. In addition, the expression level of this gene was detected in different tissues, and showed that the gene was expressed at the highest level in seeds and the lowest in pulp. This study provides an important basis for further revealing the function of CpF2KP protein and studying the involved biological processes of this gene in papaya.

Humans , Carica/genetics , Recombinant Proteins , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , China
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 11(3): e345, dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1416437


La peroxidación lipídica es un proceso complejo que hace referencia a la degradación oxidativa de los lípidos, a través del cual los radicales libres capturan electrones de los lípidos en las membranas celulares, lo cual compromete la integridad y la función de la membrana. Mediante una serie de reacciones en cadena, se forman los peróxidos lipídicos que se degradan para formar compuestos reactivos como el malondialdehído (MDA) y 4-hidroxinonenal, los cuáles pueden ser cuantificados por diferentes metodologías. Objetivo: El presente trabajo se realizó con la finalidad establecer el grado de oxidación en una población con diabetes tipo 2 (DM2).Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, analítico y transversal; muestra de 55 personas, conformada por 30 controles entre 25-35 años y 25 pacientes con DM2 entre 25-50 años, se les determinó glicemia, triglicéridos, colesterol total, HDL-Colesterol y LDL-Colesterol por método colorimétrico enzimático, así como se determinó la concentración de 4-hidroxinonenal como un marcador de estrés oxidativo Resultados: Los valores de 4-hidroxinonenal en la población control oscilaron entre 2,61y 6,83 µmol/L y en los diabéticos de 28,99 y 73,74 µmol/L., encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambas poblaciones, así como en el perfil lipídico y en la glicemia entre ambos grupos. Conclusión: Los resultados demuestran una elevación de la peroxidación lipídica en pacientes diabéticos, lo cual es indicativo de estrés oxidativo y riesgo adicional en estos pacientes que podrían conllevar a las complicaciones crónicas dela diabetes tipo 2(AU)

Lipid peroxidation is a complexprocess that refers to the oxidative degradation of lipids, through which free radicals capture electrons from lipids incell membranes, which compromises the integrity and functionof the membrane. Trough a series of chain reactions, lipidperoxides are formed that degrade to form reactive compoundssuch as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal, whichcan be quantified by different methodologies. Objective: The present work was carried out with the purpose ofestablishing the degree of oxidation in a population withtype 2 diabetes (DM2). Methods: the sample was 55 people,made up of 30 controls between 25-35 years and 25 patientswith DM2 and between 25-50 years, glycemia, triglycerides,total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol were etermined by colorimetric method. enzymatic, as well as theconcentration of 4-hydroxynonenal was determined as a markerof oxidative stress. Results: The values of 4-hydroxynonenal inthe control population ranged between 2.61 and 6.83 µmol/Land in diabetics 28.99 and 73.74 µmol/L., finding statisticallysignificant differences between both populations, as well as inthe lipid profile and glycemia between both groups. Conclusion:The results show an elevation of lipid peroxidation in diabeticpatients, which is indicative of oxidative stress and additionalrisk in these patients that could lead to chronic complications oftype 2 diabetes(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Lipid Peroxidation , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Oxidation , Triglycerides , Blood Glucose , Cholesterol , Carbohydrate Metabolism
S. Afr. j. clin. nutr. (Online) ; 35(3): 94-99, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398065


Objectives A study was undertaken to determine the perceptions, training and barriers regarding the use of carbohydrate counting in the dietary management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) among dietitians in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Design A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted. Setting Dietitians who were registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA), and working in the province of KZN at the time of the study, were invited to participate. Methods Data were collected using a self-administered electronic questionnaire distributed through SurveyMonkey, an Internet-based survey programme. Results Dietitians agreed that carbohydrate counting was a useful dietary management approach for diabetes (p < 0.05) and that it was essential to manage T1DM (p < 0.05). However, they felt it was a difficult concept for patients with T1DM to understand (p = 0.001) and teaching it to patients was time consuming (p < 0.05). Although dietitians believed that there was a strong evidence base for teaching carbohydrate counting to patients with T1DM (p < 0.05), they indicated a need for further training or education in it (p < 0.05). Barriers to using carbohydrate counting included a lack of training, confidence and experience, financial resources, time, blood glucose records and poor patient motivation and patient illiteracy (p < 0.05). Conclusions Overall, dietitians who participated in the study had a positive perception towards the use of carbohydrate counting in the management of T1DM. However, further training needs to be addressed for carbohydrate counting to be used with confidence by dietitians in KZN to optimize their management of T1DM.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Barriers to Access of Health Services , Perception , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Nutritionists , Mentoring
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(2): e1417, tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280364


Introducción: La asociación de asma y obesidad ha aumentado su prevalencia en los últimos años. Objetivos: Caracterizar a niños y adolescentes asmáticos con obesidad asociada. Métodos: Investigación descriptiva, transversal y prospectiva, 2017-2018, Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Pediátrico Universitario Centro Habana. Se evaluaron 43 pacientes asmáticos entre 5 y 18 años de edad con obesidad exógena asociada. Se exploraron edad, sexo, antecedentes familiares de asma y obesidad, severidad y grado de control del asma. Se realizaron estudios para evaluar el metabolismo lipídico y de los hidratos de carbono. Resultados: La distribución por edades fue similar (escolares, adolescencia temprana y tardía), predominó el sexo masculino en escolares: 11 de 16 (68,7 por ciento) y el femenino en la adolescencia tardía: 12 de 15 (80 por ciento). Se refirieron antecedentes familiares de obesidad en 5 (11,6 por ciento) y asma asociada a obesidad en 26 (60,5 por ciento); la mayoría presentaba asma persistente leve: 38 (88,4 por ciento), no controlados: 28 (65,1 por ciento) y parcialmente controlados 10 (23,3 por ciento). Dos pacientes presentaban intolerancia a los hidratos de carbono (4,7 por ciento), uno de ellos con resistencia a la insulina. La dislipidemia fue el trastorno metabólico más frecuente: colesterol sérico elevado en 23 (53,5 por ciento), LDLc alto en 13 (30,2 por ciento) y HDLc bajo en 10 (23,3 por ciento). Conclusiones: Los niños asmáticos con historia familiar de obesidad tienen alto riesgo de ser también obesos, lo cual puede dificultar el control del asma; son frecuentes en ellos las alteraciones metabólicas(AU)

Introduction: The association of asthma and obesity has increased its prevalence in recent years. Objectives: Characterize asthmatic children and adolescents with associated obesity. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional and prospective research, 2017 - 2018, Pneumology Service, Centro Habana University Pediatric Hospital. 43 asthmatic patients from 5 to 18 years old with associated exogenous obesity were assessed. Age, sex, family history of asthma and obesity, severity and degree of asthma control were studied. Studies were conducted to evaluate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Results: Age distribution was similar (schoolers, early and late adolescence), predominated male sex in schoolchildren (11 of 16 - 68.7 percent) and the female in late adolescence (12 of 15 -80 percent). Family history of obesity was reported in 5 patients (11.6 percent) and obesity-associated asthma in 26 (60.5 percent); most had mild persistent asthma (38 -88.4 percent) poorly controlled: 28 uncontrolled (65.1 percent) and 10 partially controlled (23.3 percent). Two patients had carbohydrate intolerance (4.7 percent), one of them with insulin resistance. Dyslipidemia was the most common metabolic disorder: serum cholesterol increased in 23 - 53.5 percent, high LDLc in 13 - 30.2 percent, and low HDLc in 10 - 23.3 percent. Conclusions: Asthmatic children with a family history of obesity are also at high risk of being obese, which can make difficult to control asthma; metabolic alterations are common in them(Au)

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Asthma , Age Distribution , Dyslipidemias , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Obesity
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 15(1): 66-72, 20210102.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145494


Introducción: el síndrome de Morquio es una rara enfermedad hereditaria autosómica recesiva, caracterizada por la presencia de un trastorno del metabolismo de los glúcidos, generando dismi- nución de la calidad de vida. Caso clínico: recién nacido a término de 37.6 semanas con APGAR 7-9, que minutos después de nacido muestra signos de cianosis distal y bucal, acompañado de disminución en la saturación de oxígeno al 70%. Posteriormente, se identificaron características fenotípicas y manifestaciones clínicas que permitieron la sospecha diagnóstica de esta enferme- dad, lo que se corroboró mediante estudio genético. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de síndrome de Morquio se logró establecer en los primeros momentos del nacimiento, las manifestaciones observadas en el caso que se presenta fueron las clásicas que informa la literatura médica, el estudio genético confirmó el diagnóstico.

Introduction: Morquio syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease, characterized by the presence of a carbohydrate metabolism disorder, generating a decrease in the quality of life. Clinical case: newborn of 37.6 weeks with APGAR 7-9, who shows signs of distal and oral cyanosis, accompanied by a decrease in oxygen saturation to 70% minutes after birth. Subse- quently, the diagnostic suspicion of this disease was identified due to the phenotypic characteris- tics and clinical manifestations, which was corroborated by genetic study. Conclusions: The diagnosis of Morquio syndrome was established in the first moments of birth, the manifestations observed in the case presented were the classic ones reported in the medical literature, the gene- tic study confirmed the diagnosis

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Syndrome , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Infant, Newborn , Disease , Diagnosis
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1858-1868, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887768


Sucrose is a natural product occurs widely in nature. In living organisms such as plants, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is the key rate-limiting enzyme for sucrose synthesis. SPS catalyzes the synthesis of sucrose-6-phosphate, which is further hydrolyzed by sucrose phosphatase to form sucrose. Researches on SPS in recent decades have been focused on the determination of enzymatic activity of SPS, the identification of the inhibitors and activators of SPS, the covalent modification of SPS, the carbohydrate distribution in plants regulated by SPS, the mechanism for promoting plant growth by SPS, the sweetness of fruit controlled by SPS, and many others. A systematic review of these aspects as well as the crystal structure and catalytic mechanism of SPS are presented.

Carbohydrate Metabolism , Glucosyltransferases/metabolism , Plants/metabolism , Sucrose
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(3): 304-308, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038536


Abstract The effect of third and second-generation type of beta-blocker on substrate oxidation especially during high-intensity exercises are scarce. The objective of the study is to explore differences of beta-blocker regimens (vasodilating vs. non-vasodilating beta-blockers) for substrate oxidation during in high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) in chronic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Eighteen CHF males (58.8 ± 9 years), 8 under use of β1 specific beta-blockers+alfa 1-blocker and 10 using β1 non-specific beta-blockers, were randomly assigned to 4 different HIIE, in a cross-over design. The 4 protocols were: 30 seconds (A and B) or 90 seconds (C and D) at 100% peak power output, with passive (A and C) or active recovery (50% of PPO; B and D). Energy expenditure (EE; kcal/min), quantitative carbohydrate (CHO) and lipid oxidation (g/min) and qualitative (%) contribution were calculated. Two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used (p-value ≤ 0.05) to compare CHO and lipid oxidation at rest and at 10min. Total exercise time or EE did not show differences for beta-blocker use. The type of beta-blocker use showed impact in CHO (%) and lipid (g/min and %) for rest and 10 min, but absolute contribution of CHO (g/min) was different just at 10min (Interaction p = 0.029). Higher CHO oxidation was found in vasodilating beta-blockers when comparing to non-vasodilating. According to our pilot data, there is an effect of beta-blocker type on substrate oxidation during HIIE, but no influence on EE or exercise total time in HFrEF patients.

Resumo Os dados sobre efeito do tipo de betabloqueador de terceira e segunda geração na oxidação do substrato, especialmente durante exercícios de alta intensidade, são escassos. O objetivo do estudo é explorar as diferenças de tratamentos com betabloqueadores (betabloqueadores vasodilatadores vs. não-vasodilatadores) na oxidação de substratos durante exercícios intermitentes de alta intensidade (HIIE) na insuficiência cardíaca crônica e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo reduzida (ICFEr). Dezoito pacientes do sexo masculino com ICC (58,8 ± 9 anos), 8 em uso de betabloqueadores β1 específicos + bloqueador α-1 e 10 utilizando betabloqueadores β1 não-específicos, foram aleatoriamente designados para 4 diferentes HIIE, em um desenho cruzado. Os 4 protocolos foram: 30 segundos (A e B) ou 90 segundos (C e D) a 100% da potência de pico de saída (PPO), com recuperação passiva (A e C) ou ativa (50% de PPO; B e D). O gasto energético (GE; kcal/min), a ingestão de carboidratos quantitativos (CHO) e oxidação lipídica (g/min) e qualitativa (%) foram calculados. Anova de dois fatores e teste post-hoc de Bonferroni foram usados (p-valor ≤ 0,05) para comparar a oxidação de CHO e lipídios em repouso e aos 10 minutos. O tempo total de exercício ou GE não mostraram diferenças de acordo com o uso de betabloqueadores. O tipo de betabloqueador mostrou impacto em CHO (%) e lípides (g/min e %) para repouso e aos 10 min, mas a contribuição absoluta de CHO (g/min) foi diferente apenas aos 10 minutos (Interação p = 0,029). Foram encontradas maiores oxidações de CHO com betabloqueadores vasodilatadores quando comparados com os não-vasodilatadores. De acordo com nossos dados piloto, há um efeito do tipo do betabloqueador na oxidação do substrato durante o HIIE, mas nenhuma influência no GE ou no tempo total de exercício nos pacientes com ICFEr.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise/physiology , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/pharmacology , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Carbohydrate Metabolism/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/metabolism , Cross-Over Studies , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Heart Failure/metabolism
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 53-62, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984007


Abstract In this study, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, photosynthetic pigments, proline and carbohydrate contents in Pitcairnia encholirioides under ex vitro conditions of water deficit were evaluated. Results show that plants under progressive water stress, previously in vitro cultured in media supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose and GA3, accumulated more proline and increased peroxidase (POD) activity and the contents of photosynthetic pigments and carbohydrates. For plants previously in vitro cultured with 15 g L-1 sucrose and NAA, no differences were found for proline content and there were reductions in activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and poliphenoloxidase (PPO), and in contents of carbohydrates, with progress of ex vitro water deficit. After rehydration, plants showed physiological recovery, with enzymatic activities and contents of metabolites similar to those found in the controls not submitted to dehydration, regardless of the previous in vitro culture conditions. These results show that micropropagated P. encholirioides has high tolerance to dehydration once in ex vitro conditions, which can ensure the survival of plants from tissue culture when transferred to its natural environment, emphasizing the importance of such biotechnology for the propagation of endangered species.

Resumo Neste estudo, foram avaliadas as atividades de enzimas antioxidantes, pigmentos fotossintéticos, conteúdo de prolina e carboidratos em Pitcairnia encholirioides sob déficit hídrico em condições ex vitro. Os resultados mostraram que as plantas sob estresse hídrico progressivo, previamente cultivadas in vitro em meio de cultura suplementado com 30 g L-1 de sacarose e GA3 acumularam mais prolina e aumentaram a atividade da peroxidase (POD) e os teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos e carboidratos. Para plantas previamente cultivadas in vitro com 15 g L-1 de sacarose e ANA, não foram encontradas diferenças nos conteúdos de prolina e houve reduções nas atividades da peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) e polifenoloxidase (PPO), e no conteúdo de carboidratos, com o progresso do déficit hídrico ex vitro. Após a reidratação, as plantas apresentaram recuperação fisiológica, com atividades enzimáticas e conteúdo de metabólitos semelhantes aos encontrados nos controles não sujeitos à desidratação, independentemente das condições de cultivo in vitro. Estes resultados mostram que P. encholirioides micropropagada tem alta tolerância à desidratação uma vez em condições ex vitro, o que pode garantir a sobrevivência de plantas provenientes da cultura de tecidos quando transferidas para seu ambiente natural, enfatizando a importância desta biotecnologia para a propagação de espécies ameaçadas.

Photosynthesis/physiology , Proline/metabolism , Water/metabolism , Bromeliaceae/physiology , Droughts , Antioxidants/metabolism , Pigments, Biological , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Bromeliaceae/enzymology , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Longevity
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 215-219, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786606


The increasing risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes associated with aging is well established. However, it is difficult to determine whether changes in glucose metabolism result from biological aging itself or due to various environmental factors that occur during the aging process. Many epidemiologic studies have shown that plasma glucose levels after oral glucose tolerance test rise consecutively for every decade of age, but many of these studies also demonstrated the effects of environmental factors including obesity and exercise. In some studies, the development of insulin resistance and insulin secretion defects due to biological aging itself have also been identified as major etiologic factors of glucose intolerance. However, the rate of diabetes development due to these factors is expected to be very slow and largely preventable by addressing environmental risk factors.

Aging , Blood Glucose , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Epidemiologic Studies , Glucose Intolerance , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glucose , Incretins , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Metabolism , Obesity , Risk Factors
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(2): 218-220, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015560


Introduction: Menière's disease was described in 1861, but there are still uncertainties regarding its pathophysiology and treatment. Endolymphatic hydrops is recognized as a fundamental pathological characteristic of the disease, as a result of an inadequate absorption of the endolymph. A milder type of endolymphatic hydrops results from an altered chemical composition of the endolymph, due to disorders of the carbohydrate metabolism. Objective: To describe the association of both types of hydrops in patients with Menière disease. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 98 patients with Menière's disease, 62 of whom also presented disorders of the carbohydrate metabolism, and 5 patients with delayed endolymphatic hydrops, 2 of whom also presented disorders of the carbohydrate metabolism. Results: The follow-up of these patients showed that the correction of the metabolic disorders may help in the clinical treatment of Menière's disease and of delayed endolymphatic hydrops, but this does not happen in the more severe types of the diseases. Conclusion: Patients with Menière's disease may present simultaneous disorders of the carbohydratemetabolism, affecting the inner ear. The correction of these disorders helps the clinical treatment but does not preclude the progression of the more severe cases of Menière disease (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Meniere Disease/complications , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Retrospective Studies , Endolymphatic Hydrops/complications , Endolymphatic Hydrops/physiopathology , Ear, Inner/physiopathology , Meniere Disease/etiology , Meniere Disease/physiopathology , Metabolic Diseases/physiopathology
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 30(supl.1): S39-S43, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116437


Fluctuating abdominal pain and bloating suggest gastrointestinal origin with multiple causes. In adults, patients fulfilling the Rome criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have a low probability of neoplasms or intestinal inflammatory diseases. In these patients it is cost effective to request fecal calprotectin and celiac disease serology. Due to the high probability of nocebo effect, the diagnosis of sensitivity to non celiac and food allergies should require a blind rechallenge. It is recommended to evaluate other non ominous diagnostic options in a second stage if there is not good control of symptoms. In adults that do not fulfil the criteria of IBS or in adults older than 50 it is often necessary to request more studies, including endoscopic examinations. In children, abdominal pain and bloating occur frequently in the context of excessive consumption of sugar (including fructose, lactose and sorbitol). In infants it can occur in the context of congenital malformations, infant colics and food allergies. An active search for symptoms and signs of alarm is recommended. In their absence the performance of an endoscopic study is low. The use of celiac disease serology is also recommended, but the use of fecal calprotectin has the limitation that normal values are not present below age 4, so its use is not recommended under that age.

El dolor abdominal y la distensión abdominal fluctuantes sugieren origen gastrointestinal, con múltiples causas. En adultos, los pacientes que cumplen criterios de Roma para Síndrome de Intestino Irritable (SII) tienen una baja probabilidad de neoplasias o enfermedades inflamatorias intestinales (EII). En estos pacientes, es costoefectivo solicitar calprotectina fecal y serología de enfermedad celiaca. Por la alta probabilidad de efecto nocebo, el diagnóstico de sensibilidad al gluten no celiaca (SGNC) y alergias alimentarias debería requerir un rechallenge ciego. Es recomendable evaluar otras opciones diagnósticas no ominosas en una segunda etapa, si no hay buen control sintomático. En adultos que no cumplen criterios de SII o en adultos mayores de 50 años, suele requerirse más cantidad de estudios, incluyendo endoscópicos. En niños, el dolor abdominal y distensión ocurren frecuentemente en el contexto de consumo excesivo de azúcares (incluyendo fructosa, lactosa y sorbitol). En lactantes puede ocurrir también en el contexto de malformaciones congénitas, cólicos del lactante y alergia alimentaria. Se recomienda la búsqueda activa de signos y síntomas de alarma. En su ausencia el rendimiento del estudio endoscópico es bajo. También se recomienda el uso de serología de enfermedad celíaca, pero el uso de calprotectina fecal tiene la limitación de ausencia de valores de normalidad hasta los 4 años, por lo que su uso no se recomienda bajo esa edad.

Humans , Child , Adult , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Dilatation, Pathologic/diagnosis , Dilatation, Pathologic/etiology , Abdomen/pathology , Celiac Disease/complications , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Food Hypersensitivity , Malabsorption Syndromes/complications
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 68(1): 59-70, mar. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1016815


Buriti pulp flour (BPF) contains significant levels of antioxidants. This study evaluated the effect of BPF on biomarkers of oxidative damage in the liver, heart, and pancreas of diabetic rats. The chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and polyphenol content of BPF were determined. Thirty-six female Fisher rats were divided into four groups: control (C); control + BPF (CB); diabetic (D); diabetic + BPF (DB). Diabetes was induced by treatment with streptozotocin. Thirty days after the induction of diabetes, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerides serum levels, aminotransferase and paraoxonase activities were evaluated. Oxidative damage to lipids and proteins was assessed through thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl analyses, respectively. Histopathological analyses were also performed. BPF contained high concentrations of phenolic compounds, lipids, and fibers, and exhibited a high capacity to neutralize the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Diabetes was evidenced by equivalent high levels of glucose in plasma from rats in the D and DB groups. Diabetic rats in both groups also presented the same increased activity of aminotransferases. Protein carbonyl levels were increased in liver, heart, and pancreas in the D compared with C group. Although treatment with BPF did not result in any histopathological alterations, it reduced significantly the levels of TBARS in the heart and protein carbonyls in the liver and heart. No effect on blood glucose and tissue histology was observed following treatment with BPF. However, BPF diminished oxidative damage in liver and heart, indicating a possible antioxidant potential in vivo, in addition to in vitro(AU)

La harina de pulpa buriti (BPF) contiene niveles significativos de antioxidantes. Este estudio evaluó el efecto del BPF en biomarcadores de daño oxidativo en el hígado, el corazón y el páncreas de ratas diabéticas. Se determino la composición química, la capacidad antioxidante y el contenido de polifenoles del BPF. Treinta y seis ratas Fisher fueron divididas en cuatro grupos: Control (C); Control + BPF (CB); Diabético (D); Diabético + BPF (DB). La diabetes fue inducida por tratamiento con estreptozotocina. Treinta dias después de la inducción de la diabetes, se evaluaron los niveles séricos de glucosa, colesterol total y triacilglicéridos, y las actividades de aminotransferasa y paraoxonasa. El daño oxidativo a lípidos y proteínas se evaluó a través de sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS) y análisis de proteínas carboniladas respectivamente. También se realizaron análisis histopatológicos. El BPF contenía altas concentraciones de compuestos fenólicos, lípidos y fibras, y exhibía una alta capacidad para neutralizar el radical 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil (DPPH). La diabetes se evidenció por altos niveles de glucosa en plasma de ratas en los grupos D y DB. Las ratas diabéticas en ambos grupos también presentaron la misma actividad aumentada de las aminotransferasas. Los niveles de proteínas carboniladas se incrementaron en el hígado, el corazón y el páncreas en el grupo D en comparación con el C. Aunque el tratamiento con BPF no dio lugar a alteraciones histopatológicas, redujo significativamente los niveles de TBARS en el corazón y las proteínas carboniladas en el hígado y el corazón. No se observo ningún efecto sobre la glucosa en la sangre y la histología de tejidos después del tratamiento con BPF. Sin embargo, el BPF disminuyó el daño oxidativo en el hígado y el corazón, lo que indica un posible potencial antioxidante in vivo, además de in vitro(AU)

Rats , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Antioxidants/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Lipids
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2018; 71 (4): 2885-2891
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-192543


Background: Insulin resistance is a pathological condition characterized by inadequate peripheral tissue metabolic response to circulating insulin. High dietary fructose causes insulin resistance syndrome, primarily due to simultaneous induction of genes involved in glucose, lipid and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Rice bran oil [RBO] is a rich source of antioxidants which contribute to higher oxidative stability and longer shelf life than other edible oils

Aim of the work: The current study investigated the effects of the daily intake of RBO on insulin resistant rat liver, as a central organ in carbohydrate metabolism

Materials and methods: Rats were allocated in 5 groups. Animals in groups 1 and 2 received standard diet and standard diet containing RBO, respectively. Group 3: animals fed high fructose diet [HFD], which was categorized into: rats fed HFD either for one month [HFD1] or for 2 months [HFD2]. Group 4, rats were fed HFD containing RBO for one month [HFD1+RBO], while rats in group 5 were fed HFD for 30 days then RBO was added to the diet for another 30 days [HFD2+RBO]

Results and conclusion: addition of RBO to this model improved insulin sensitivity in liver

Animals, Laboratory , Insulin Resistance , Fructose , Liver , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Rats , Glycogen
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(5): e6964, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889089


The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) availability potentiates fat oxidation after an exhaustive high-intensity exercise bout. Eight physically active men underwent a high-intensity exercise (∼95% V̇O2max) until exhaustion under low or high pre-exercise CHO availability. The protocol to manipulate pre-exercise CHO availability consisted of a 90-min cycling bout at ∼70% V̇O2max + 6 × 1-min at 125% V̇O2max with 1-min rest, followed by 48 h under a low- (10% CHO, low-CHO availability) or high-CHO diet (80% CHO, high-CHO availability). Time to exhaustion was shorter and energy expenditure (EE) lower during the high-intensity exercise in low- compared to high-CHO availability (8.6±0.8 and 11.4±1.6 min, and 499±209 and 677±343 kJ, respectively, P<0.05). Post-exercise EE was similar between low- and high-CHO availability (425±147 and 348±54 kJ, respectively, P>0.05), but post-exercise fat oxidation was significantly higher (P<0.05) in low- (7,830±1,864 mg) than in high-CHO availability (6,264±1,763 mg). The total EE (i.e., exercise EE plus post-exercise EE) was similar between low- and high-CHO availability (924±264 and 1,026±340 kJ, respectively, P>0.05). These results suggest that a single bout of high-intensity exercise performed under low-CHO availability increased post-exercise fat oxidation, and even with shorter exercise duration, both post-exercise EE and total EE were not impaired.

Humans , Male , Adult , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism/physiology , Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Adipose Tissue/physiology , Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage , Exercise Test/methods , Oxidation-Reduction , Time Factors
Campinas; s.n; 2018. 121 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916143


Resumo: As doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) estão entre as principais causas de mortalidade global. Nos Estados Unidos as taxas de mortalidade por DCV em mulheres nas faixas de idade de 35-54 anos não têm mostrado a redução esperada. O numero de mulheres nos estudos ainda é pequeno e falta conhecimento sobre o impacto na saúde cardiovascular dos ciclos gestacionais e do uso de compostos hormonais para contracepção/terapias por períodos longos. Objetivos: avaliar o metabolismo de carboidratos e marcadores de DCV em mulheres não obesas saudáveis durante o primeiro ano de uso do contraceptivo de acetato de medroxiprogesterona de depósito (AMPD). Métodos: estudo prospectivo não randomizado, comparativo, conduzido no Ambulatório de Planejamento Familiar e no Serviço de Ecografia do Departamento de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas/UNICAMP, entre 02/2011 e 02/2013. Mulheres com 18-40 anos e índice de massa corporal (IMC) <30 kg/m2, recrutadas a partir de Unidades Básicas de Saúde, realizaram teste de pós-carga com 75 mg glicose via oral (OGTT). Foram incluídas aquelas que apresentaram OGTT normal e assinaram Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Os critérios de exclusão foram diagnóstico/antecedente de Diabete Melittus, período de aleitamento, hipertensão arterial, hiper/hipotiroidismo, insuficiência renal crônica, hirsutismo/hiperandrogenismo, Síndrome do Ovário Policístico, uso crônico de corticosteróides, antipsicóticos, tiazídicos e estatinas, antecedente de transplante de órgão, cirurgia bariátrica e omentectomia. As mulheres puderam escolher utilizar o AMPD ou o dispositivo intrauterino com cobre (DIU) e compuseram dois grupos pareados por idade (±1) e IMC (±1), seguidos durante 12 meses. Realizou-se avaliação de peso, IMC, composição corporal por densitometria (DXA), medidas da cintura, pressão arterial e ultrassonográficas da espessura da intima-media da artéria carótida e dos compartimentos de gordura abdominal (GA), dosagens séricas dos perfis glicêmico e lipídico, ácidos graxos livres, apolipoproteínas A1 e B-100, adipocinas IL-6, TN-alfa, leptina, adiponectina, PCR e cálculo do índice HOMA. Resultados: Apresentaram-se 290 mulheres, 72 com critérios para inclusão e 56 (31 grupo AMPD e 25 DIU) foram analisadas com relação ao metabolismo de carboidratos, semestralmente. O grupo AMPD mostrou elevação nos níveis séricos de insulina, HOMA, circunferência da cintura e IMC, quando comparado ao grupo DIU. Analisando-se as 30 mulheres sem resistência insulínica, o grupo AMPD mostrou aumento de triglicérides aos 12 meses em relação ao grupo DIU. Entre 37 mulheres, as medidas ultrassonográficas de GA, realizadas no basal e aos 12 meses, apresentaram forte correlação com as medidas de composição corporal e antropométricas, e com as concentrações séricas de colesterol total, LDL colesterol, APO B-100 e PCR. Conclusões: Não foram observados efeitos cardiovasculares significativos no primeiro ano de uso do AMPD nesta amostra; o aumento de triglicérides foi interpretado como variação provocada por alterações no metabolismo da glicose. HOMA, peso corporal e circunferência da cintura foram parâmetros clínicos importantes para o monitoramento das usuárias de AMPD. A ultrassonografia poderá ser ferramenta viável para identificar indivíduos com aumento de gordura corporal e risco cardiovascular; sendo necessários estudos futuros para confirmação desses resultados, padronização de locais de aferição e pontos de corte relacionados ao possível risco para DCV(AU)

Abstract: One of the main causes of global death is cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the United State of America the mortality rates have not decreased as expected in women between 35 and 54 years old. In general, the studies are performed with a small number of women in the sample composition and lack knowledge about specifically female characteristics and their interaction in cardiovascular health, such as the use of hormonal contraceptives for a prolonged time. Objectives: To evaluate carbohydrate metabolism and markers of CVD in the first year of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) for contraceptive use. Methods: Prospective, not randomized comparative study conducted in the Family Planning Clinic and Ultrasound Unit of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Campinas Medical School, between 02/2011-02/2013. Women aged 18-40 years and body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m2, recruited from Basic Health Units, performed a post-load test with 75 mg oral glucose (OGTT). Those that presented normal OGTT and agreed to participate were included in the study. The exclusion criteria were diagnosis/history of diabetes mellitus, lactation period, hypertension, hyper/hypothyroidism, chronic renal failure, hirsutism/hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovarian syndrome, chronic use of corticosteroids, antipsychotics, thiazides and statins, history of organ transplantation, bariatric surgery and omentectomy. Women were able to choose to use the DMPA or copper intrauterine device (IUD) and composed two matched groups by age (±1) and BMI (±1), followed for 12 months. Were evaluated weight, BMI, body composition (BC), waist circumference, blood pressure and ultrasound measurements of the carotid intimal medial thickness and abdominal fat compartments (AF), serum levels of lipid and glycemic profiles, free fatty acids, apolipoproteins A-1 and B-100, adipokines IL-6, TN-alpha, leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and HOMA index, at baseline and 12 months. Results: 290 women were enrolled, of which 72 met the criteria for inclusion and only 56 women (31-DMPA group and 25-IUD group) were analyzed with regard to carbohydrate metabolism at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. The DMPA group showed elevated serum levels of insulin, HOMA, waist circumference and BMI when compared to the IUD group. The analysis of 30 women without insulin resistance, diagnosed by hyperinsulemic euglycemic clamp, the DMPA group showed increase of triglycerides at 12 months when compared to the IUD group. Among 37 women, ultrasonography measurements of AF at baseline and 12 months showed a strong correlation with BC and anthropometric measurements, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL- chol, APO B-100 and CRP. Conclusions: No significant cardiovascular effects were observed in the first year of DMPA use in this sample; the increase in triglycerides was interpreted as a variation caused by changes in glucose metabolism. HOMA, body weight and waist circumference were important clinical parameters for the monitoring of DMPA users. Ultrasonography may be a viable tool to identify individuals with increased body fat and cardiovascular risk and future studies are required to confirm these results, to standardize measurement sites and cut-off points related to the possible risk for CVD(AU)

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases , Contraception , Body Fat Distribution , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Contraceptive Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin Resistance , Intrauterine Devices , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(10): 1079-1084, out. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895331


Timpanismo intestinal agudo em cavalos e mulas introduzidos em pastagens de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, cv. Massai e cv. Mombaça são relatados na região norte do Brasil, durante o período das chuvas. As causas são desconhecidas, porém, tem sido sugerido que estão associados a um maior armazenamento de carboidratos não fibrosos na gramínea. Este trabalho teve por objetivos realizar um levantamento epidemiológico dos surtos de cólicas ocorridos no Estado de Rondônia, assim como contribuir com o estudo da ação dos carboidratos de P. maximum na ocorrência da doença. Para isso foram realizadas visitas em 10 propriedades que apresentaram casos da enfermidade. Em duas propriedades foram introduzidos equinos no mês de março e foram coletadas amostras de pastagens para a determinação de energia digestiva, lisina, matéria seca, carboidratos solúveis em água, carboidratos solúveis em éter, carboidratos não fibrosos, fibra de detergente neutra, fibra de detergente ácido, lignina, amido, gordura e proteína bruta. Essas determinações foram realizadas, também, em amostras de pastagens de P. maximum de outras propriedades onde não estavam ocorrendo cólicas e das pastagens de Cynodon dactylon de onde provinham os equinos. Os resultados mostraram que os surtos de cólica ocorrem na época de chuva, quando as pastagens estão rebrotando com uma morbidade de 31,6%, e letalidade de 86,1%. As análises bromatológicas mostraram uma diferença significativa nas concentrações de amido (P=0,0072) do P. maximum que causou cólica (8,3 % e 9,2%), quando comparado com o P. maximum das outras propriedades (0,9% e 4,3%) e com o Tifton, utilizado previamente na alimentação dos mesmos equinos (0,2% e 0,8%). Em outra fazenda a doença foi reproduzida experimentalmente em um equino, no mês de março administrando P. maximum cortado contendo 6,5% de amido. A mesma pastagem não causou cólica quando foi administrada a equinos entre os meses de novembro a fevereiro, com 2,7% a 5,1% de amido. Estes resultados sugerem que a causa das cólicas em equídeos em pastagens de P. maximum, na época de rebrote, é o alto conteúdo de amido das mesmas.(AU)

Acute intestinal bloat occurs in horses and mules introduced into sprouting Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, cv. Massai and cv. Mombaça pastures in northern Brazil during the rainy season. It has been suggested that the disease is due to high concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates in this grass. The paper aimed to study outbreaks of colics in the state of Rondônia, Brazil and contribute to the knowledge of the carbohydrates contained in P. maximum as the cause of the disease. For this, ten farms which had cases of intestinal bloat were visited. On two farms, horses were introduced into such a toxic pasture. Samples of pasture were collected for determination of digestible energy, lysine, dry matter, water soluble carbohydrates, ether soluble carbohydrates, non-fiber carbohydrates, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, starch, and fat. Samples of P. maximum pastures from neighboring farms, where the disease was not occurring, and from Cynodon dactylon pastures where the horses had been grazing before were also collected. The results showed that colics occur in the rainy season in sprouting pasture with a morbidity of 31.6%, and lethality of 86.1%. The pastures which induce colic showed significantly (P=0.0072) higher starch concentration (8,3 and 9,2%) than pastures of P. maximum which did not cause colic (0,9 and 4,3%) as well as the Cynodon dactylon pastures ingested previously by the horses (0.2 and 0.8%. On another farm, the disease was produced experimentally in a horse receiving in the feeder P. maximum collected from a toxic pasture with 6.5% of starch. The same pasture did not cause colic from November to February with starch content of 2.7 to 5.1%. It is suggested that the cause of colic in equids ingesting sprouting pasture of P. maximum is the high starch content of this pasture during the groth period.(AU)

Animals , Starch/toxicity , Pasture/adverse effects , Colic , Equidae , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 54(3): 140-148, set. 2017. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957980


The effects of avocado seeds (A) inclusion (2%, 4% and 8%) in diets on cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism in normal rats Sprague Dawley (SD) fed on basal diet (BD) or high sucrose diet (HSD) and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) fed on BD were studied. The inclusion of avocado seeds in the diet influences the feeding and growth performance in rats. The inclusion of A lowered (p < 0.05) cholesterol at 2% and 4% doses and glucose at 2% in serum of SD rats fed on BD, whereas only serum cholesterol level was reduced at all the three doses in SHR. Increased liver glycogen (p < 0.05) was noted in SD rats fed on BD with 8% A. All avocado seeds doses increased (p < 0.05) liver glycogen storage in SHR fed on BD and SD rats fed on HSD. Avocado seeds can lower blood glucose and cholesterol and enhance liver glycogen storage in rats.

Los efectos de la inclusión de semillas de aguacate (A) (2%, 4% y 8%) en dietas sobre el metabolismo del colesterol y carbohidratos en ratas normales Sprague Dawley (SD) alimentados con dieta basal (BD) o dieta con alto contenido en sacarosa (HSD) se estudiaron las ratas hipertensas (SHR) alimentadas con BD. La inclusión de las semillas de aguacate en la dieta influye en la alimentación y el crecimiento en ratas. La inclusión de A disminuyó (p < 0,05) el colesterol a dosis del 2 y el 4% y glucosa al 2% en suero de ratas SD alimentadas con BD, mientras que solo el nivel de colesterol sérico se redujo en todas las 3 dosis en SHR. Se observó un aumento del glucógeno hepático (p < 0,05) en ratas SD alimentadas con BD con un 8% de A. Todas las dosis de semillas de aguacate aumentaron (p< 0,05) el almacenamiento de glucógeno hepático en SHR alimentado con BD y SD alimentadas con HSD. Las semillas de aguacate pueden reducir la glucosa y el colesterol en la sangre, y aumentar el almacenamiento de glucógeno hepático en ratas.

Animals , Rats , Persea/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Glucose/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycogen/biosynthesis , Anticholesteremic Agents/blood
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 28(2): 0-0, may.-ago. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-901014


Introducción: el índice cintura/talla constituye un parámetro clínico útil para identificar alteraciones del metabolismo de los carbohidratos. Objetivo: determinar el punto de corte del índice cintura/talla como predictor independiente de disglucemias, su utilidad en este sentido, así como su relación con otras variables de riesgo. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal con 523 mujeres y 452 hombres. Se les realizó interrogatorio, examen físico y estudios complementarios. En el procesamiento estadístico se determinaron distribuciones de frecuencia de las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas. Se aplicó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson, el análisis de curvas Receiver Operator Characteristic, así como un análisis de regresión logística, y se utilizó la prueba chi cuadrado para evaluar la significación estadística. Resultados: se encontró en ambos sexos, una correlación directamente proporcional entre el índice cintura/talla y las variables: glucemia en ayunas y a las 2 h, insulinemia en ayunas, colesterol, triglicéridos, ácido úrico y el índice de resistencia a la insulina, con significación estadística. El índice cintura/talla fue la variable con mayor poder predictor de disglucemias, al compararlo con otras variables -colesterol e índice de resistencia a la insulina- en ambos sexos, con un punto de corte de 0,50 en mujeres y 0,49 en hombres. Conclusiones: el punto de corte óptimo del índice cintura/talla como predictor independiente de disglucemias fue de 0,50 en mujeres y 0,49 en hombres. Existió una correlación directamente proporcional entre este índice y las variables de riesgo analizadas. Fue mejor predictor de disglucemias que el colesterol y el índice de resistencia a la insulina(AU)

Introduction: the waist-to-height ratio is a useful clinical indicator to identify impaired metabolism of carbohydrates. Objective: to determine the cutoff value of the waist-to-height ratio as an independent predictor of dysglycemias, its usefulness and association with other risk variables. Methods: descriptive and cross-sectional study conducted in 523 women and in 452 men. They were questioned, physically examined and performed supplementary studies. The statistical processing determined the frequency distributions in qualitative and quantitative variables. Pearson´s correlation coefficient, analysis of Receiver Operator Characteristic curves as well as logistic regression analysis were all applied, in addition to chi-square test for evaluation of the statistical significance. Results: in both sexes, the study found a directly proportional correlation between the waist-to-height ratio and the variables called fasting glycemia and glycemia at 2 hours, fasting insulinemia, cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid values and insulin-resistance index, with statistical significance. The waist-to-height index exhibited the highest predictive power for dysglycemia when compared to other variables such as cholesterol and insulin-resistance index in both sexes, with a cutoff value of 0.50 in women and 0.49 in men. Conclusions: the optimal cutoff value of the waist-to-height ratio, as an independent predictor of dysglycemias, was 0.50 in women and 0.49 in men. There was direct proportional correlation between this ratio and the analyzed risk variables. It was a better predictor than cholesterol and the insulin-resistance index(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Prediabetic State/prevention & control , Glycemic Index , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Waist-Height Ratio , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical