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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285627

ABSTRACT

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Honey , Bees , Carbohydrates
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 195-202, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1146040

ABSTRACT

Los derivados de juglona, como 2-(4-hidroxifenil) amino-1,4-naftoquinona (Q7), son conocidos agentes antitumorales. Ellos generan especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS), que podrían producir un desbalance de ROS y un metabolismo anormal de lípidos. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto del ascorbato sobre el metabolismo de lípidos y carbohidratos en condición de estrés oxidativo inducido por Q7. A ratas Wistar macho, se les administró oralmente Q7 (10 mg/Kg) y/o ascorbato (500 mg/Kg) durante 20 días. Las ratas tratadas con Q7 mostraron un aumento de los triglicéridos en suero, del colesterol VLDL y de los niveles de peróxidación lipídica. Cuando el tratamiento con Q7 fue seguido de la administración de ascorbato (500 mg/Kg), observamos una disminución de los triglicéridos en suero, del colesterol VLDL y de la peroxidación lipídica. La administración oral de ascorbato redujo el aumento de lípidos inducido por Q7 y la glicemia postprandial. Esto podría estar asociado con la actividad redox del ascorbato, que reduce el estrés oxidativo inducido por Q7. Concluimos que el ascorbato modula el aumento del metabolismo de lípidos y carbohidratos inducido por Q7.


Juglone derivatives like 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) amino-1,4-naphthoquinone (Q7) are used as antitumor agents, and act through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Such may lead to abnormal lipid metabolism and ROS dysregulation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ascorbate on the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates following Q7-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats were administered Q7 (10 mg/Kg) and/or ascorbate (500 mg/Kg) orally for 20 days. Rats treated with Q7 showed an increase in serum triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol and lipid peroxidation levels. When Q7 treatment was followed up by ascorbate (500 mg/Kg) administration, we observed a reduction in serum triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol and lipid peroxidation. The oral administration of ascorbate reduced the Q7-induced increases in lipids, and postprandial glycemia. This could be associated with the redox activity of ascorbate that reduced the oxidative stress induced by Q7. We thus conclude that ascorbate modulates the Q7-induced increase of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid , Lipids , Metabolism , Carbohydrates , Oxidative Stress
3.
Santa Tecla, La Libertad; ITCA Editores; 2021. 52 p. ilus.^c28 cm., graf., tab..
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1352820

ABSTRACT

En esta investigación documental se presentan alternativas viables para utilizar cabezas de pescado, subproductos de la acuicultura, para elaborar harina que sirva como materia prima para la fortificación de productos alimenticios nutritivos. La harina de cabeza de pescado propuesta en esta investigación puede ser integrada exitosamente a alimentos para consumo humano, y usadas en las proporciones adecuadas no causa interferencias en las propiedades sensoriales de los productos formulados. Para masificar la producción de los alimentos fortificados con harina de cabeza de pescado propuestos en este estudio, es indispensable practicarle además una serie de pruebas denominadas "vida de anaquel".


In this documentary research, viable alternatives are presented to use fish heads, by-products of aquaculture, to make flour that serve as raw material for the fortification of nutritious food products. The fish head meal proposed in this research can be successfully integrated into food for human consumption, and used in the appropriate proportions does not cause interference in the sensory properties of the formulated products. To massify the production of foods fortified with fish head meal proposed in this study, it is essential to also perform a series of tests called "shelf life".


Subject(s)
Dietary Carbohydrates , Food, Fortified , Fish Flour , Carbohydrates , Date of Validity of Products , Fish Products
4.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 20: e59966, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1356115

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução: As crianças com síndrome de Down (SD) podem apresentar maior incidência de neofobia e de seletividade alimentar, sobrepeso e obesidade. A alimentação saudável e equilibrada é de suma importância para o crescimento adequado dessas crianças. Objetivo: Avaliar a adequação dos componentes da dieta e o estado nutricional de crianças e adolescentes com síndrome de Down em seguimento no ambulatório de pediatria genética do Hospital das Clínicas de Botucatu. Método: Estudo clínico descritivo transversal, com coleta de dados clínicos e avaliação nutricional, realizadopor meio de dados antropométricos e recordatório alimentar para avaliação da dieta. Análise estatística dos testes de Qui-quadrado e de Tukey. Resultados: Foram incluídos 35 crianças e dois adolescentes. Os diagnósticos nutricionais foram 2,7% de magreza, 81,1% de eutrofia, 8,1% de obesidade e 8,1% em risco ou sobrepeso. Houve excesso de ingestão de lipídeos naqueles com sobrepeso e obesidade, e a dieta deficiente em fibras foi prevalente a partir do primeiro ano de vida, bem como excesso de calorias e adequação de ferro e zinco. Entre os dois adolescentes, predominou a dieta com déficits em macro e micronutrientes, exceto em vitamina C e colesterol. Conclusões: A dieta com excesso de calorias, carboidratos e lipídios, como tambémcom déficit de fibras, aponta uma alimentação pouco balanceada entre crianças e adolescentes com SD, principalmente após o primeiro ano de vida, apesar do seu adequado estado nutricional.


RESUMEN Introducción: los niños consíndrome de Down (SD) pueden presentar mayor incidencia de neofobia yde selectividad alimentaria, sobrepeso y obesidad. La alimentación saludabley equilibradaes de gran importancia para el crecimiento adecuado de estos niños. Objetivo: la adecuación de los componentes de la dieta yel estado nutricional de niños y adolescentes con síndrome de Downasistidosen la clínica médica depediatría genética delHospital das Clínicas de Botucatu. Método: estudio clínico descriptivo transversal, con recolección de datos clínicos yevaluación nutricional, realizado medianteindicadores antropométricos y recordatorio alimentario para la evaluación de la dieta. Análisis estadísticode laspruebas de ji-cuadrado y de Tukey. Resultados: fueron incluidos 35niños ydos adolescentes. Los diagnósticos nutricionales fueron 2,7% de delgadez, 81,1% de eutrofia, 8,1% de obesidady8,1% en riesgo o sobrepeso. Hubo exceso de ingestión delípidosenaquellos con sobrepeso y obesidad, yla dieta deficiente en fibrasfueprevalentea partir del primer año de vida, así como exceso de calorías y adecuación de hierro y zinc. Entre los dos adolescentes, predominóla dieta con déficits en macro y micronutrientes, excepto en vitamina C y colesterol. Conclusiones: la dieta con exceso de calorías, carbohidratosylípidos, como tambiéncondéficit de fibras, señala una alimentación poco balanceada entre niños y adolescentes con SD, principalmente trasel primer año de vida, apesar de su adecuado estado nutricional.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Children with Down syndrome (DS) may have a prevalence of neophobia and food selectivity, overweight, and obesity. A healthy and balanced diet is of utmost importance for the proper growth of these children. Objective: To evaluate the adequacy of diet components and the nutritional status of children and adolescents with Down syndrome followed up at the outpatient care of genetic pediatrics, Hospital das Clínicas de Botucatu. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive clinical study, with a collection of clinical data and nutritional assessment, using anthropometric data and dietary records to evaluate the diet. Statistical analysis of the Chi-square and Tukey tests were performed. Results: A total of 35 children and two adolescents were included. Nutritional diagnoses were 2.7% lean, 81.1% eutrophic, 8.1% obese, and 8.1% at risk or overweight. There was an excess of lipid intake in overweight and obese children, and a fiber-deficient diet was prevalent since the first year of age, as well as extra calories and adequate iron and zinc intake. Among the two adolescents, a diet with deficits in macro and micronutrients, except for vitamin C and cholesterol, stood out. Conclusions: A diet with an excess of calories, carbohydrates, and lipids, as well as a fiber-deficient diet, indicates an unbalanced diet among children and adolescents with DS, especially after one year of age, despite their adequate nutritional status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Nutrition Assessment , Child , Adolescent , Down Syndrome , Diet , Pediatrics , Thinness , Zinc , Carbohydrates , Micronutrients , Overweight , Eutrophication , Food , Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder , Food Fussiness , Genetics , Iron , Lipids , Obesity
5.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(1): e20200589, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154687

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Biomarkers associated with mucin 1, such as Krebs von den Lungen-6 and carbohydrate antigen (CA) 15-3, are increased in various interstitial lung diseases. Our aim was to determine whether CA 15-3 could be considered a biomarker of disease severity in patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (cHP). Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving adult patients with cHP. Serum levels of CA 15-3 were measured and were correlated with variables related to disease severity and extension. HRCT scans were quantitatively analyzed using a computational platform and an image analysis tool (Computer Aided Lung Informatics for Pathology Evaluation and Rating). CA 15-3 levels were normalized by logarithmic transformation. Results: The sample comprised 41 patients. The mean age of the patients was 60.1 ± 11.6 years. The mean FVC in % of predicted was 70.3% ± 17.3%, and the median of the serum level of CA 15-3 was 48.1 U/mL. CA 15-3 levels inversely correlated with FVC in % of predicted (r = −0,30; p = 0,05), DLCO in % of predicted (r = −0,54; p < 0,01), and SpO2 at the end of a 4-min step test (r = −0,59; p < 0,01), but they directly correlated with total quantitative HRCT scores (r = 0,47; p = 0,004), especially regarding ground-glass opacities (r = 0.58; p < 0,001). Conclusions: CA 15-3 is likely to be a biomarker of disease severity of patients with cHP, particularly regarding gas exchange abnormalities.


RESUMO Objetivo: Biomarcadores associados à mucina-1, tais como Krebs von den Lungen-6 e carbohydrate antigen (CA, antígeno carboidrato) 15-3, encontram-se aumentados em diversas doenças pulmonares intersticiais. Nosso objetivo foi determinar se CA 15-3 poderia ser considerado um biomarcador de gravidade de doença em pacientes com pneumonite de hipersensibilidade crônica (PHc). Métodos: Estudo prospectivo observacional envolvendo pacientes adultos com PHc. Os níveis séricos de CA 15-3 foram medidos e correlacionados com variáveis relacionadas à gravidade e extensão da doença. As imagens de TCAR foram analisadas quantitativamente utilizando uma plataforma computacional e uma ferramenta de análise de imagem (Computer-Aided Lung Informatics for Pathology Evaluation and Rating). Os níveis de CA 15-3 foram normalizados por transformação logarítmica. Resultados: A amostra foi composta por 41 pacientes. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 60,1 ± 11,6 anos. A média da CVF em % do previsto foi de 70,3% ± 17,3%, e a mediana do nível sérico de CA 15-3 foi de 48,1 U/mL. Os níveis de CA 15-3 se correlacionaram inversamente com CVF em % do previsto (r = −0,30; p = 0,05), DLCO em % do previsto (r = −0,54; p < 0,01) e SpO2 ao final de um teste de degrau de 4 minutos (r = −0,59; p < 0,01), mas se correlacionaram diretamente com a pontuação quantitativa total da TCAR (r = 0,47; p = 0,004), especialmente quanto a opacidades em vidro fosco (r = 0,58; p < 0,001). Conclusões: É provável que o CA 15-3 seja um biomarcador de gravidade de doença em pacientes com PHc, particularmente quanto a anormalidades nas trocas gasosas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Mucin-1 , Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Carbohydrates , Biomarkers , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e10782, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249333

ABSTRACT

We explored the cascade effects of a high fat-carbohydrate diet (HFCD) and pioglitazone (an anti-diabetic therapy used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)) on lipid profiles, oxidative stress/antioxidant, insulin, and inflammatory biomarkers in a rat model of insulin resistance. Sixty albino rats (80-90 g) were randomly divided into three dietary groups; 1) standard diet; 2) HFCD diet for 12 weeks to induce an in vivo model of insulin resistance; and 3) HFCD diet plus pioglitazone. Blood and tissue samples were taken to assess hepatic function, lipid profiles, oxidative biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, antioxidant defense biomarkers, including reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrotic factor (TNF-α). HFCD-fed rats had significantly (P≤0.05) increased serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), alanine transaminase (ALT), and bilirubin levels, but decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels compared with the normal group. Moreover, serum leptin, resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were increased significantly in HFCD animals compared with controls. Similarly, HFCD-induced insulin resistance caused antioxidant and cytokine disturbances, which are important therapy targets for pioglitazone. Importantly, administration of this drug ameliorated these changes, normalized leptin and resistin and inflammatory markers by reducing TNF-α levels. Metabolic cascades of elevated lipid profiles, oxidative stress, insulin, and inflammatory biomarkers are implicated in insulin resistance progression. HFCD induced metabolic cascades comprising hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, obesity-associated hormones, and inflammatory biomarkers may be alleviated using pioglitazone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Insulin Resistance , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Carbohydrates/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Diet, High-Fat , Pioglitazone/metabolism , Pioglitazone/pharmacology , Insulin/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
7.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5599, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286284

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate whether the carbohydrate-restricted diet leads to higher levels of food cravings in individuals with binge eating. Methods A total of 146 individuals with binge eating participated in the Low-Carb Diet Group (n=48) and Control Group (n=98). The Binge Eating Scale, Hay's questionnaire, Food Cravings Questionnaire - Trait and State, Cognitive restraint subscale and its adapted version for the cognitive restraint toward carbohydrates, were used as measures. Parametric tests were used for comparison between groups (Student's t test), and Pearson's correlation test to verify correlations between variables of interest. Results No differences were found between groups with and without diet concerning the level of binge eating or food craving total score. The differences found were the higher levels of cognitive restraint (p=0.01), cognitive restraint for carbohydrates (p=0.01) and subscales of 'guilt about food craving' (p=0.04) in the Low-Carb Diet Group. Conclusion Individuals with binge eating and a history of low-carb diet have greater cognitive restraint toward carbohydrates and association with altered eating attitudes (guilt about food craving).


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar se a dieta com restrição de carboidratos acarreta níveis elevados de desejos intenso por comida em indivíduos com compulsão alimentar. Métodos Participaram 146 indivíduos com compulsão alimentar divididos nos Grupos Dieta Low Carb (n=48) e Grupo Controle (n=98). Foram utilizados como medidas: Escala de Compulsão Alimentar Periódica, Questionário de Hay, Questionário de Desejos Intensos por Comida - Traço e Estado, Subescala de restrição cognitiva e sua versão adaptada para a restrição cognitiva direcionada aos carboidratos. Foram utilizados testes paramétricos para comparação entre grupos (teste t de Student) e o teste de correlação de Pearson para verificar correlações entre variáveis de interesse. Resultados Não foram encontradas diferenças entre grupos com e sem prática de dieta em relação ao nível de compulsão alimentar ou ao escore total para desejos intensos por comida. As diferenças encontradas foram os maiores níveis de restrição cognitiva (p=0,01), restrição cognitiva para carboidratos (p=0,01) e subescalas de 'culpa por causa dos desejos' (p=0,04) no Grupo Dieta Low Carb. Conclusão Indivíduos com compulsão alimentar e histórico de dieta com restrição de carboidratos (low carb) possuem maior restrição cognitiva direcionada aos carboidratos e associação com atitudes alimentares alteradas (culpa pelos desejos).


Subject(s)
Humans , Binge-Eating Disorder , Craving , Carbohydrates , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cognition , Diet , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Guilt
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200631, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345487

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lectins are proteins that form a heterogeneous group, capable of binding specifically and reversibly to carbohydrates. They occur in various types of organisms, having different functions, in plants they are present in almost all structures, however with greater proportion in seeds roots and rhizomes. This review aims to provide a more detailed understanding of the antibacterial action of lectins and their biotechnological potential against pathogenic bacteria in the last ten years. Several mechanisms of action are described for the antibacterial activity of these proteins among which the best known occurs due to the interaction between the binding site of the lectin and the carbohydrates exposed on the bacterial cell surface. In vivo studies demonstrate that lectins act on the cascade of cytokines and influencing the level of nitric oxide as ways to decrease bacterial infection. To date, lectins have performed a wide antibacterial activity, emphasizing that each lectin acts according to its carbohydrate specificity, in this way, it is possible to have a distinct performance according to the plant species that are extracted. Thus, being an alternative to the antibacterial resistance that occurs in response to antibiotics. Furthermore, more studies with this theme are necessary for clinical application.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Carbohydrates , Plant Lectins , Anti-Infective Agents
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 518-522, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132416

ABSTRACT

Abstract A feeding trial was carried out to assess the effect of dietary chromium supplementation on apparent nutrient digestibility coefficient (%) of gelatinized and non-gelatinized corn in Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings for 90 days. Using various levels of chromium chloride hexahydrate six test diets designated as T1 (G/0.0 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1), T2 (NG/0.0 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1), T3 (G/0.2 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1), T4 (NG/0.2 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1), T5 (G/0.4 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1) and T6 (NG/0.4 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1) were prepared. Results showed highest apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of nutrients dry matter, crude lipid and gross energy in test diet T5 that was gelatinized and supplemented with chromium 0.4 mg/Kg while, for crude protein higher value of nutrient digestibility was recorded in T3 test diet (G/0.2 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg/Kg). It was concluded that chromium supplementation with gelatinized corn in fish (Cirrhinus mrigala) diet can improve the nutrients digestibility more efficiently.


Resumo Um experimento referente à alimentação foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietética de cromo, no coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente do nutriente (%) do milho gelatinizado e não gelatinizado em alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala por 90 dias. Usando vários níveis de cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado, seis dietas testes foram designadas e preparadas como: T1 (G/0,0 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1); T2 (NG/0,0 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1); T3 (G/0,2 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1); T4 (NG/0,2 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1); T5 (G/0,4 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1) e T6 (NG/0,4 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1). Os resultados mostraram maior coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) em matéria seca de nutrientes, lipídios brutos e energia bruta na dieta teste T5, que foi gelatinizada e suplementada com cromo 0,4 mg / Kg; enquanto que para a proteína bruta, foi registrada maior digestibilidade dos nutrientes na dieta teste T3 (G/0,2 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg/Kg). Concluiu-se que a suplementação de cromo com milho gelatinizado na dieta de peixes (Cirrhinus mrigala) pôde melhorar a digestibilidade dos nutrientes de forma mais eficiente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zea mays , Animal Feed/analysis , Carbohydrates , Nutrients , Chlorides , Chromium , Chromium Compounds , Dietary Supplements , Diet , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
10.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 782-791, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138615

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Una dieta vegetariana se define por la exclusión total o parcial de alimentos de origen animal. Cuando es planificada adecuadamente puede prevenir y tratar enfermedades. Sin embargo, una dieta restrictiva en ciertos alimentos debe ser evaluada. El propósito de esta investigación fue describir parámetros antropométricos, hábitos de alimentación y de estilo de vida en ovo-lácteo-vegetarianos y veganos y explorar diferencias en la ingesta de nutrientes críticos entre ambos grupos. Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, realizado en ovo-lácteo-vegetarianos y veganos de Asunción, Paraguay, durante el 2015. Se evaluaron parámetros antropométricos,, ingesta y hábitos de estilo de vida saludable. Participaron 17 ovo-lácteo-vegetarianos y 14 veganos. El 67,7 % (n= 21) se encontró normopeso, el 29 % (n= 9) presentó exceso de peso, y el 3,2% (n=1) bajo peso. Se presentó una ingesta inferior a los requerimientos en energía, carbohidratos, proteínas y grasas en ambos grupos de vegetarianos, e ingesta muy limitada de calcio y vitamina B12 en veganos. Las mujeres presentaron ingesta muy por debajo de las recomendaciones para hierro y calcio. Ninguna mujer vegana cumplió con la recomendación dietaria de vitamina B12. Al comparar grupos, se hallaron diferencias significativas en proteínas, calcio (menor consumo en veganos) y fibra (menor en ovo-lácteo-vegetarianos). La suplementación con vitaminas y suplementos también fue muy baja. Los resultados resaltan la importancia de una evaluación constante de la ingesta de nutrientes en una dieta vegetariana, a modo de evitar deficiencias o excesos, y la insoslayable tarea del nutricionista para el asesoramiento alimentario-nutricional a los individuos que expresen interés en adoptar este tipo de dieta.


ABSTRACT A vegetarian diet is defined by the total or partial exclusion of foods of animal origin. When properly planned it can prevent and treat disease. However, a restrictive diet in certain foods must be evaluated. The purpose of this research was to describe anthropometric parameters, eating and lifestyle habits of lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans, and to explore differences in critical nutrient intake between both groups. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study, carried out among lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans in the city of Asunción, Paraguay, during 2015. Anthropometric parameters,, intake and healthy lifestyle habits were evaluated. Seventeen lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 14 vegans participated. 67.7% (n= 21) were normal weight, 29.1% (n= 9) were overweight, and 3.2% (n= 1) were underweight. There was an intake lower than the requirements in terms of energy, carbohydrates, proteins and fats in both groups of vegetarians, and very limited intake of calcium and vitamin B12 in vegans. Women particularly had intake well below the recommendations for iron and calcium. No woman on a vegan diet met the dietary recommendation for vitamin B12. When comparing groups, significant differences were found in terms of protein and calcium, (lower consumption in vegans), fiber (lower in lacto-ovo-vegetarians). Vitamin supplementation was also very low. The results highlight the importance of constant evaluation of nutrient intake in a vegetarian diet in order to avoid deficiencies or excesses, and the very important work of the nutritionist for food and nutritional advice for individuals who express interest in adopting this type of diet.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diet, Vegetarian , Nutrients , Nutritional Status , Carbohydrates , Proteins , Life Style
11.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(5): 1498-1506, 01-09-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147328

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ammoniation by urea on the nutritional value of elephant grass hay harvested after flowering. A completely randomized design, in double factorial designs with an additional treatment: 4 urea doses (2, 4, 6 and 8%) x 2 treatment periods (30 and 45 days) + 1 (Control) with four replicates each, was employed. Dry matter, ash, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, lignin, neutral detergent fiber corrected for the ash and the protein, total nitrogen, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, in vitro gas production and carbohydrates fractionation were analyzed. The treatments influenced the contents of DM, EE, NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose, NDFap, fraction A + B1, fraction B2, fraction C, TN, NPN, ADIN, NDIN, L and Vf2. There was a positive linear effect of urea dose for NDF, ADIN, NDIN and L, positive linear effect on fraction A + B1, NT and NPN, and positive quadratic effect for Vf2, with absolute maximum point of 4.5%. Elephant grass hay harvested after flowering has its nutritional value improved, with a minimum dose of 4.5% urea on a dry matter basis.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da amonização com ureia sobre o valor nutritivo do feno de capim elefante colheitado após florescimento. O estudo foi delineado, em esquema fatorial duplo com um tratamento adicional: 4 doses de ureia (2, 4, 6 e 8%) x 2 período de tratamento (30 e 45 dias) + 1 tratamento controle, com 4 repetições cada. As variáveis analisadas foram: matéria seca (MS), cinzas, extrato etéreo (EE), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e ácido (FDA), FDN corrigida para cinzas e proteínas (FDNcp), celulose, lignina, nitrogênio total (NT), nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA) e neutro (NIDN), nitrogênio não proteico (NNP). Produção de gases in vitro proveniente dos carboidratos não fibrosos (Vf1) e fibrosos (Vf2), taxa de fermentação dos carboidratos não fibrosos (k1) e fibrosos (k2) e tempo de colonização bacteriana do substrato (L), além do fracionamento de carboidratos. Os tratamentos influenciaram os teores de MS, EE, FDN, FDA, lignina, celulose, FDNcp, fração A + B1, fração B2, fração C dos carboidratos, NT, NNP, NIDA, NIDN, L e Vf2. Houve efeito linear decrescente de dose de ureia para FDNcp, NIDA, NIDN e L, crescente para fração A+B1, NT e NNP, e, quadrático crescente de dose de ureia para Vf2, com ponto máximo absoluto de 4,5% de ureia obtido após derivar a equação de regressão aos 45 dias de tratamento do feno. Concluindo que feno de capim elefante colheitado após florescimento tem seu valor nutricional melhorado, com dose mínima de 4,5% de ureia em base da matéria seca.(AU)


Subject(s)
Urea , Pennisetum , Nutritive Value , In Vitro Techniques , Carbohydrates , Gases , Nitrogen
12.
Univ. salud ; 22(3): 280-287, set.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1139849

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Actualmente, los efectos del enjuague bucal con carbohidratos sobre el rendimiento son controvertidos, algunos estudios plantean efectos ergogénicos, mientras que otros no han reportado efecto luego de suministrar enjuague bucal con carbohidratos. Objetivo: Determinar si existe evidencia científica que avale los distintos protocolos de enjuagues bucales con carbohidratos y su efecto sobre el rendimiento deportivo en carreras de ciclismo contrarreloj. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica entre el 2015 y 2019 en las bases de datos Medline, Biblioteca Cochrane y Scopus utilizando los términos Carbohydrates, Mouth rinse y Athletic performance. Resultados: Se revisaron 96 estudios y se seleccionaron 7 en diversos grupos poblacionales, con diferentes métodos de evaluación y diversas dosis de enjuague con carbohidratos. Los resultados obtenidos fueron controversiales, en algunos casos se demostró efecto ergogénico y en otros no. Conclusiones: Los efectos de los enjuagues bucales con carbohidratos son controvertidos, por lo que no se puede asegurar que provoquen mejoras de rendimiento en carreras de ciclismo contrarreloj. Se requiere de más estudios aleatorizados controlados que logren homogeneizar e identificar los mecanismos de acción específicos mediante el cual los enjuagues bucales con carbohidratos actúan sobre distintas poblaciones de estudio.


Abstract Introduction: Currently, the effects of carbohydrate mouthwash use on sports performance are controversial. While some studies have shown ergogenic effects, others have not demonstrated any advantage. Objective: To determine whether there is scientific evidence to support the different protocols for carbohydrate mouthwashes use and their effect on sports performance in cycling races time trial. Materials and methods: A search of literature published between 2015 and 2019 was conducted in the Medline, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases using the terms Carbohydrates, Mouth rinses and Athletic performance. Results: 7 out of 96 reviewed studies were selected, which included different population groups, evaluation methods, and doses of rinsing carbohydrates. The results obtained on the impact of carbohydrate mouthwashes on sport performance were controversial as only some studies demonstrated an ergogenic effect. Conclusions: As the effects of carbohydrate mouthwashes are debatable, it cannot be assured that they improve performance in different cycling races time-trial. More randomized controlled studies are required to homogenize and identify the specific action mechanisms through which carbohydrate mouthwashes act on different study populations.


Subject(s)
Sports Medicine , Mouthwashes , Carbohydrates , Dietary Supplements , Athletic Performance
13.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(3): 191-204, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1223591

ABSTRACT

Los déficits nutricionales en la mujer deportista causan numerosos problemas de salud, así como un empeoramiento en el rendimiento deportivo, como consecuencia de estas deficiencias nutricionales. El conocimiento de estos déficits y su prevención deben ser un aspecto principal para cualquier responsable deportivo. Establecer la importancia del estudio de los déficits de energía, proteínas, minerales (Fe, Ca y Mg) y vitaminas (Vitamina D, ácido fólico y vitamina B12) que pueden desarrollar las mujeres deportistas y su relación con la prevalencia de la tríada femenina y constatar la importancia del conocimiento por parte de los responsables deportivos de los problemas derivados de los déficits nutricionales. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica de artículos, entre 2013-2020, relevantes para el objetivo de estudio. Se usaron bases de datos científicas como PubMed y Pennutrition, siguiendo los criterios de exclusión e inclusión elegidos para este estudio. 51 artículos fueron encontrados. Los resultados mostraron la prevalencia de energía, Fe, vitamina D y Ca, así como un suficiente aporte proteico, faltan estudios para determinar los niveles de vitamina B12 y ácido fólico. Se observó, además la prevalencia de mujeres que cumplen con uno o varios factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de la tríada de la deportistas femenina. Es imprescindible la prevención o, el tratamiento, de los déficits nutricionales en las mujeres deportistas para asegurar un correcto estado de salud y un rendimiento deportivo óptimo(AU)


Nutritional deficiencies in women athletes cause numerous health problems, as well as a worsening of sports performance, as a result of these nutritional deficiencies. Awareness of these deficiencies and their prevention should be a major aspect for any sports manager. The aim of the study was to establish the importance of studying the deficits of energy, protein, minerals (Fe, Ca and Mg) and vitamins (Vitamin D, folic acid and vitamin B12) that can be developed by female athletes and their relationship with the prevalence of the female triad and to establish the importance of knowledge by sports managers of the problems arising from nutritional deficiencies. 51 papers were found. A bibliographic search of relevant articles for the study objective was carried out (2013-2020). Scientific databases such as PubMed and Pennutrition were used, following the exclusion and inclusion criteria chosen for this study. The results showed the prevalence of energy, Fe, vitamin D and Ca, as well as sufficient protein intake and a lack of studies to determine the levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid. In addition, the prevalence of women meeting one or more risk factors for the development of the female sports triad was observed. It is essential the prevention or, treatment, of nutritional deficits in female athletes to ensure proper health status and optimal sports performance(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Sports , Avitaminosis , Women , Deficiency Diseases , Mineral Deficiency , Osteoporosis , Carbohydrates , Amenorrhea , Metabolism
14.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 281-285, abr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115499

ABSTRACT

Synthetic preservatives are widely present in processed foods, but most of them have carcinogenic potential, requiring the development of new natural alternatives such as fruit extracts, for microbial control. The objective of the study was to evaluate the chemical characterization, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the sugar apple pulp (Annona squamosa L.). Physicochemical characteristics were evaluated, an extract was prepared, and its antioxidant activity by DPPH method and antimicrobial by disk diffusion. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration against strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. The physicochemical analysis revealed that sugar apple pulp had 75.0% moisture, 3.0% ash, 4.0% protein, 0.2% lipids, 3.3% fibers, and 14.5% carbohydrates. The antioxidant activity of the extract by the DPPH method was 20.6%. The pulp extract from the sugar apple had inhibition zone for Staphylococcus aureus, satisfactory inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium, but did not present a bactericidal effect. Sugar apple pulp presents adequate levels of nutrients and potential for food application due to its microbiological activity and antioxidant properties.


Los conservantes sintéticos están ampliamente presentes en los alimentos procesados, pero la mayoría tienen potencial carcinogénico, lo que requiere el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas naturales para el control microbiano, como los extractos de frutas. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la caracterización química, la actividad antioxidante y antimicrobiana de la pulpa de manzana de azúcar (Annona squamosa L.). Se evaluaron las características fisicoquímicas, y se evaluó su actividad antioxidante mediante el método DPPH y antimicrobiano por difusión en disco, concentración inhibitoria mínima y concentración bactericida mínima contra cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Staphylococcus aureus. El análisis fisicoquímico reveló que la pulpa de manzana de azúcar tiene 75.0% de humedad, 3.0% de cenizas, 4.0% de proteínas, 0.2% de lípidos, 3.3% de fibras y 14.5% de carbohidratos. La actividad antioxidante del extracto por el método DPPH fue del 20.6%. El extracto de pulpa de la manzana de azúcar tenía zona de inhibición para Staphylococcus aureus, efecto inhibidor satisfactorio contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Salmonella Typhimurium, pero no presenta efecto bactericida. La pulpa de manzana de azúcar presenta niveles adecuados de nutrientes y potencial para la aplicación de alimentos debido a su actividad microbiológica y propiedades antioxidantes.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Annona/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Carbohydrates/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Proteins/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Lipids/analysis , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
15.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): 43534, jan.- mar.2020. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097303

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, por meio de uma revisão da literatura, evidências da utilização de dietas com restrição de carboidratos no manejo do diabetes mellitus (DM). As buscas eletrônicas e manuais foram até abril de 2019, e incluíram trabalhos publicados a partir de 2008. Foram excluídos estudos de pesquisas in vitro e em animais, revisões de literatura, livros, monografias, dissertações, teses, estudos de caso e relatos de caso. Os artigos remanescentes foram submetidos à análise de sua qualidade metodológica pela Escala JADAD cinco pontos. Um total de 19 estudos randomizados e com qualidade média de três pontos foram selecionados e analisados quanto aos tipos de dieta utilizadas, adesão, tipo de DM, tempo de intervenção, consumo reportado de carboidratos e resultados observados para os grupos controle e intervenção. Dentre os parâmetros escolhidos para mensurar os possíveis efeitos das dietas, destacaram-se alteração de peso e IMC, Hb1Ac, variabilidade ou controle glicêmico, perfil lipídico e alteração nas doses de insulina ou medicação utilizadas. Em quatro estudos não foram observadas vantagens significativas de uma dieta restrita em carboidratos, e 15 trabalhos relataram melhoras em um ou mais parâmetros. Tais resultados podem representar uma grande vantagem na adoção desta estratégia alimentar no manejo do DM e na prevenção de complicações da doença. Contudo, existem limitações nos estudos, que precisam ter suas hipóteses verificadas no longo prazo, e pesquisas adicionais devem ser realizadas para configurar uma estratégia oficial no controle do DM. (AU)


This study aimed to evaluate, through a literature review, evidence of the use of diets with carbohydrate restriction in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). Electronic and manual searches were conducted until April 2019, including works published from 2008 onwards. Studies on in vitro and animal research, literature reviews, books, monographs, dissertations, theses, case studies and case reports were excluded. The remaining articles were submitted to analysis of their methodological quality by the five-point JADAD Scale. Nineteen randomized studies with an average quality of three points were selected and analyzed regarding the types of diet used, adherence, type of DM, time of intervention, reported consumption of carbohydrates and results observed for the control and intervention group. Among the parameters chosen to measure the possible effects of diets, weight and BMI changes, Hb1Ac, variability or glycemic control, lipid profile and changes in insulin doses or medication used stood out. In four studies, no significant advantages were observed from a carbohydraterestricted diet, and 15 studies reported improvements in one or more parameters. Such results can represent a great advantage in adopting this dietary strategy in the management of DM and in preventing complications of the disease. However, there are limitations in the studies, which need to have their hypotheses verified in the long term, and additional research must be carried out to configure an official strategy in the control of DM. (AU)


Subject(s)
Carbohydrates , Diabetes Mellitus , Diet, High-Protein Low-Carbohydrate , Dietary Carbohydrates , Diet, Fat-Restricted , Diet Therapy , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted
16.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 57-66, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092744

ABSTRACT

The potential use of babassu (Orbignya phalerata Mart.) in several activities is large. In view of these facts, this study aimed to determine the physicochemical composition of the babassu almond (OpAM) and evaluate the chemical, physical and physicochemical aspects of babassu coconut oil isolated by different methods of extraction. Babassu nut oil was removed by extraction with a hot solvent (Soxhlet) (OpS), hydraulic pressure (OpHP) and cold extraction (Blight and Dyer) (OpBD). Two artisanal samples from the states of Pará (OpP) and Maranhão (OPM) were also tested. OpAM presented 2% protein, 49.5% fat, 42.4% carbohydrates and water activity of 0.670. No statistical differences were found between the babassu coconut extraction techniques which presents saturated fatty acids as major oil fatty acids, especially lauric (41.6%), myristic (14.6%) and unsaturated oleic (15.7%). No samples tested positive in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test, and they also showed low levels of acidity. Babassu coconut oil showed good oxidative stability with a high induction period. The samples tended to green and yellow colors, and the babassu oil extracted by Soxhlet was less viscous than the others.


El uso potencial de babassu (Orbignya phalerata Mart.), en varias actividades es amplio. En vista de esto, este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la composición fisicoquímica de la almendra de babassu (OpAM) y evaluar los aspectos químicos, físicos y físicoquímicos del aceite de coco de babassu aislado mediante diferentes métodos de extracción. El aceite de coco de babasú se aisló mediante extracción con un disolvente caliente (Soxhlet) (OpS), mediante presión hidráulica (OpHP) y utilizando un disolvente frío (Blight and Dyer) (OpBD). También se analizaron dos muestras artesanales de los estados de Pará (OpP) y Maranhão (OPM). OpAM presentó 2% de proteína, 49,5% de grasa, 42,4% de carbohidratos y una actividad de agua de 0,670. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticas entre las técnicas de extracción de babassu de coco que presentan ácidos grasos saturados como los principales ácidos grasos oleosos, especialmente láurico (41,6%), mirístico (14,6%) y oleico insaturado (15,7%). Ninguna muestra resultó positiva en la prueba de sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico, y también mostraron niveles bajos de acidez. El aceite de coco Babassu mostró una buena estabilidad oxidativa con un alto período de inducción. Las muestras tendían a los colores verde y amarillo, y el aceite de babassu extraído por Soxhlet era menos viscoso que los otros.


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/chemistry , Plant Extracts , Arecaceae/chemistry , Nutritive Value , Carbohydrates/analysis , Proteins/analysis , Fats/analysis
17.
Santa Tecla, La Libertad; ITCA Editores; ene. 2020. 58 p. ^c28 cm.ilus., tab..
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1179129

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación de campo se enfocó en hacer un estudio sobre la alimentación de las personas celiacas en El Salvador asociadas en ACELYSES. Se propuso un recetario de alimentos libres de gluten como fuente de carbohidratos complejos, a base de yuca, camote y otros vegetales inocuos para contribuir en la dieta de personas con intolerancia al gluten (celíacos). Para la elaboración de las 27 recetas fue necesario dar prioridad a la inocuidad y control de la contaminación cruzada, es decir, que los alimentos no hayan sido contaminados con gluten en ningún proceso. Otro aspecto importante fue analizar la trazabilidad de las materias primas que se deben utilizar para preparar los alimentos, así como los utensilios con los que se preparan, a fin de evitar riesgos a las personas con esta patología. Se realizaron pruebas sensoriales y hedónicas a través de focus group para obtener la opinión de aceptación de las recetas propuestas; igualmente, se elaboró una tabla con el contenido nutricional de cada receta, lo cual permitirá al usuario informarse del consumo de grasas, carbohidratos y otros minerales en beneficio de su salud.


This field research was focused on conducting a study of the diet of people with celiac disease in El Salvador associated with ACELYSES. A recipe book for gluten-free foods was proposed as a source of complex carbohydrates, based on yucca, sweet potato and other harmless vegetables to contribute to the diet of people with gluten intolerance (celiacs). For the preparation of the 27 recipes, it was necessary to give priority to safety and control of cross contamination, that means that the food had not been contaminated with gluten in any process. Another important aspect was to analyze the traceability of the raw materials that should be used to prepare food, as well as the utensils with which they are prepared, in order to avoid risks to people with this pathology. Sensory and hedonic tests were carried out through focus groups to obtain the opinion of acceptance of the proposed recipes; Likewise, a table was prepared with the nutritional content of each recipe, which can allow the user to find out about the consumption of other fats, carbohydrates and minerals for the benefit of their health.


Subject(s)
Celiac Disease , Yucca , Ipomoea batatas , Diet , Glutens , Research , Carbohydrates , Food
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878788

ABSTRACT

Evaporative light scattering detector(ELSD) and charged aerosol detector(CAD) methods were established in this study for the content determination of four kinds of sugars in Zhusheyong Yiqi Fumai(YQFM), and the factors affecting the accuracy of CAD methods were discussed. HPLC-ELSD chromatographic separation was performed on a Shodex Asahipak NH2 P-50 column with acetonitrile-water(75∶25)as the mobile phase, with a flow rate of 0.8 mL·min~(-1), drift tube temperature of 80 ℃. The analysis by HPLC-CAD was performed on the same column with acetonitrile-water as mobile phase for gradient elution, with a flow rate of 0.8 mL·min~(-1), a neb temperature of 45 ℃, and power function(PF) of 1.3. The samples of YQFM were detected by ELSD and CAD respectively. It was found that YQFM was composed of fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose. The linear relationship of the two methods was good, and the recoveries, reproducibility and stability of these four kinds of sugars measured by the two methods satisfied the requirements of methodology. Both CAD and ELSD detectors were accurate and reliable in detecting saccharides components in YQFM. In addition, it was revealed in this study for the first time that the PF parameter of CAD had an important influence on the accuracy of sugar determination and acted as the key parameter of CAD method. It was also found that for CAD, a non-linear detector, there was no significant difference between the results of linear regression and logarithmic regression.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Carbohydrates , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Light , Reproducibility of Results , Scattering, Radiation , Sugars
19.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 33: e190143, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101406

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effects of macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and/or lipid) in the diet of young adult (72 days) and adult (182 days) Wistar rats treated ad libitum and with 30% restriction from birth on anxiety in the elevated plus-maze. Methods We used 238 rats treated from birth, composing the groups: Control, Protein, Carbohydrate, Lipid, Carbohydrate and Lipid, Control Restriction, Protein Restriction, Carbohydrate Restriction, Lipid Restriction and Carbohydrate and Lipid Restriction. The animals were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the experiment and tested in the elevated plus-maze. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, followed by the Newman-Keuls Test (p<0.05). Results Among the animals treated ad libitum, the Control, Carbohydrate plus Lipid and Lipid gained more weight than the Carbohydrate and Protein; ad libitum animals gained more weight than those on restriction; among the restrictions, Carbohydrate Restriction rats were the ones that gained less weight. Diet-restricted animals exhibited reduced first-entry latency, greater percentage of entries and time spent, frequency of open arm extremity visits, head dipping (protected and unprotected), and length of stay in the central area of the elevated plus-maze. The animals with 182 days presented greater latency for first entry, reduced frequency of false entries and visits to the ends of the open arms and protected head dipping. Conclusion Food restricted animals, regardless of the macronutrient present in the diet, were less anxious and/or increased their impulsivity and those at 182 days were more anxious and/or with reduced impulsivity.


RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo buscou avaliar os efeitos dos macronutrientes (proteína, carboidrato e/ou lipídeos) na alimentação de ratos Wistar adultos jovens (72 dias) e adultos (182 dias) tratados ad libitum e com restrição a 30% desde o nascimento quanto à ansiedade através do labirinto em cruz elevado. Métodos Foram utilizados 238 ratos tratados desde o nascimento, compondo os grupos Controle, Proteína, Carboidrato, Lipídeos, Carboidrato e Lipídeos, Restrição Controle, Restrição Proteína, Restrição Carboidrato, Restrição Lipídeos e Restrição Carboidrato e Lipídeos. Os animais foram pesados no início e no final do experimento e testados no labirinto em cruz elevado. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, seguida do teste de Newman-Keuls (p<0,05). Resultados Entre os animais tratados ad libitum, os dos grupos Controle, Carboidrato e Lipídeos, e Lipídeos ganharam mais peso do que os Carboidrato e Proteína; os ad libitum ganharam mais peso do que os de restrição; os Restrição Carboidrato foram os que ganharam menos peso. Animais alimentados com restrição de dieta apresentaram menor latência de primeira entrada, maior porcentagem de entradas e de tempo gasto, frequência de visitas às extremidades dos braços abertos, de mergulho (protegido e desprotegido) e tempo de permanência na área central do labirinto em cruz elevado. Os animais com 182 dias demonstraram maior latência para primeira entrada, menor frequência de falsas entradas e visitas às extremidades dos braços abertos e mergulho protegido. Conclusão Os animais em restrição alimentar, independentemente do macronutriente presente na dieta, foram menos ansiosos e/ou mais impulsivos, e os com 182 dias foram mais ansiosos e/ou menos impulsivos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anxiety , Carbohydrates , Dietary Carbohydrates , Nutrients , Rats, Wistar , Caloric Restriction , Diet, High-Fat , Diet, High-Protein
20.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 187 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147573

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Há necessidade de métodos para avaliar a qualidade de alimentos à base de cereais a fim de promover a conscientização dos consumidores, a reformulação de alimentos e esforços políticos como diretrizes, rotulagem e alegações de saúde. Nesse sentido, a presença de 1 g de fibra em 10 g de carboidrato (razão ≤10:1) tem sido proposta na identificação de alimentos à base de cereais com melhor qualidade nutricional. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a aplicação da razão ≤10:1 na identificação de alimentos à base de cereais saudáveis, sua associação com fatores de risco cardiometabólico, avaliar o panorama do consumo desses alimentos e seus determinantes, assim como o potencial impacto nutricional de estratégias para aumentar o seu consumo na população do município de São Paulo. Métodos: Foram utilizados dados provenientes do Inquérito de Saúde de São Paulo de 2003, 2008 e 2015. Trata-se de um estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra representativa de indivíduos de 12 anos ou mais residentes na área urbana do município. Participantes responderam a um questionário semiestruturado, a pelo menos um recordatório alimentar de 24 horas, e tiveram coletadas amostras de sangue, antropometria e medidas de pressão arterial. Alimentos do grupo dos cereais que atenderam à razão ≤10:1 tiveram o valor nutricional comparado aos alimentos que não se enquadraram nesse critério por meio de regressão linear com variância robusta. Investigamos a associação entre o consumo de alimentos ≤10:1 e fatores de risco cardiometabólico por meio de regressão linear múltipla (primeiro manuscrito). O consumo desses alimentos nos anos 2003, 2008 e 2015 foi comparado por meio de testes de tendência e sua associação com características sociodemográficas foi investigada por meio de regressão logística, assim como a predição de consumo para os próximos anos (segundo manuscrito). O impacto nutricional da substituição do arroz branco e do pão branco por seus correspondentes integrais foi avaliado por meio de mudanças na média de ingestão de alimentos que atenderam à razão ≤10:1, energia e nutrientes (terceiro manuscrito). Resultados: Alimentos que atenderam à razão ≤10:1 apresentaram menor carboidrato disponível (-3,0 g/porção), açúcar total (-7,4 g/porção), açúcar de adição (-7,2 g/porção) e gordura saturada (-0,7 g/porção); e maior fibra alimentar (+3,5 g/porção), proteína (+2,1 g/porção), potássio (+100,1 mg/porção), ferro (+0,9 mg/porção), selênio (+4,2 µg/porção), magnésio (+38,7 mg/porção) e zinco (+1,1 mg/porção). Cada aumento de 1% de energia (E) desses alimentos foi associado a níveis sanguíneos mais baixos de triacilglicerol (-10,7%), razão triacilglicerol/HDL-c (-14,9%), insulinemia de jejum (-13,6%) e HOMA-IR (-14,0%). De 2003 a 2015, houve aumento no consumo cereais que atenderam à razão ≤10:1 (de 0,9%E para 1,5%E) e na proporção da população consumindo esses alimentos (de 8,7% para 15,8%). Estima-se que 19,9% da população consumirá algum tipo de cereal atendendo ao critério ≤10:1 em 2030. Maior chance de consumo desses alimentos foi observada entre indivíduos mais velhos (+78%), mulheres (+28%), pessoas com ensino superior (+137%) e níveis mais altos de renda familiar (+135%), enquanto participantes que relataram etnia negra, parda ou indígena apresentaram menor chance (-30%). A substituição do arroz branco e do pão branco por arroz integral e pão integral, respectivamente, resultaria em aumento da ingestão de zinco (9,1%), cálcio (9,3%), vitamina E (18,8%), fibra alimentar (27,0%) e magnésio (52,9%), e na diminuição de carboidratos totais (-6,1%), folato (-6.6%), carboidratos disponíveis (-8,5%), vitamina B6 (-12,5%), vitamina B2 (-17,4%), e vitamina B1 (-20,7%). A ingestão de alimentos que atenderam à razão ≤10:1 pré e pós-modelagem foi de 4,0% e 69,4% da ingestão de cereais totais, respectivamente, um aumento de 220 g/d. Conclusões: A razão ≤10:1 identificou alimentos à base cereais com maior qualidade nutricional e a maior ingestão desses alimentos foi associada à redução de fatores de risco cardiometabólico relacionados à dislipidemia aterogênica e resistência à insulina. De 2003 a 2015, houve aumento no consumo de cereais que atenderam à razão ≤10:1, mas esse consumo permanece abaixo dos níveis recomendados. Menor probabilidade de ingestão de alimentos que atenderam à razão ≤10:1 foi observada entre mais jovens, sexo masculino, com menor escolaridade e renda familiar e de etnia negra, parda e indígena, nesse período. A substituição de alimentos à base de cereais por opções equivalentes que atenderam à razão ≤10:1 pode levar a mudanças favoráveis no conteúdo nutricional da dieta, além de notável aumento na proporção de cereais que atenderam à razão ≤10:1 em relação aos cereais totais.


Introduction: There is a pressing need for methods to assess the healthfulness of grain foods to promote consumer awareness, evidence-informed industry reformulations, and policy efforts such as guidelines, labeling, and health claims. In this sense, the presence per 10 g of carbohydrate of at least 1 g of fiber (≤10:1-ratio) has been proposed as a pragmatic metric to identify healthier grain products. Objective: To investigate the application of the ≤10:1-ratio to identify healthful grain foods, and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors, to evaluate trends and determinants of this intake, as well as to estimate the potential nutritional impact of strategies to increase the consumption of these foods in São Paulo population. Methods: Data came from the population-based study Health Survey of São Paulo (2003, 2008 and 2015). This is a cross-sectional, population-based study including a probabilistic sample of urban residents in São Paulo. Participants aged 12+ years answered a structured questionnaire, at least one 24-h dietary recall, had blood sample, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements collected. The nutritional value of grain foods meeting the ≤10:1-ratio was compared to grain foods not meeting this criterion using univariate linear regressions with robust variance. The association between the intake of grain foods meeting the ≤10:1-ratio and cardiometabolic risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear regression models (First manuscript). The consumption of grain foods meeting the ≤10:1-ratio from 2003 to 2015 was investigated using linear regression models. Determinants of these intakes and prediction of the prevalence of intake for the next years were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models (Second manuscript). We estimated the potential nutritional impact of replacing white rice and white bread with healthful equivalent options in mean change of healthful grain foods, energy and nutrients intake (Third manuscript). Results: Foods meeting the ≤10:1-ratio had lower available carbohydrate (-3.0 g/serving), total sugar (-7.4 g/serving), added sugar (-7.2 g/serving) and saturated fatty acids (-0.7 g/serving), as well as more dietary fiber (+3.5 g/serving), protein (+2.1 g/serving), potassium (+100.1 mg/serving), iron (+0.9 mg/serving), selenium (+4.2 µg/serving), magnesium (+38.7 mg/serving) and zinc (+1.1 mg/serving). Each increase in 1% of energy (E) of these foods was associated with lower levels of blood triacylglycerol (-10.7%), the triacylglycerol/HDL-c ratio (-14.9%), fasting insulin (-13.6%), and HOMA-IR (-14.0%). From 2003 to 2015, a growing trend in the intake of grain foods meeting the ≤10:1-ratio (from 0.9 %E to 1.5%E) was observed. Also, the proportion of the population consuming at least one-grain food meeting the ≤10:1-ratio increased from 8,7% in 2003 to 15,8% in 2015, and 19,9% of the population would be consuming some kind of healthful gain food by 2030. Older individuals (+78%), females (+28%), those with higher education (+137%), and higher family income (+135%) were more likely to consume grain foods meeting the ratio, whereas participants who self-reported black, brown or indigenous ethnicity were less likely to consume these foods (-30%). The substitution of white rice and white bread for brown rice and whole wheat bread, respectively, would result in increased intake of zinc (9.1%), calcium (9.3%), vitamin E (18.8%), dietary fiber (27.0%) and magnesium (52,9%), while decreased intake of total carbohydrate (-6.1%), available carbohydrate (-8.5%), vitamin B6 (-12,5%), vitamin B2 (-17,4%), and vitamin B1 (-20,7%) would be seen. Pre- and post-modeled healthful grain foods intake were 4,0% and 69,4% of total grain intake, respectively, an increase of 220 g/d. Conclusion: The ≤10:1-ratio identified grain foods with higher nutritional quality, and higher intakes of these foods were associated with cardiometabolic risk factors related to atherogenic dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. There was a growing trend to consume grain foods meeting the ≤10:1-ratio from 2003 to 2015, but this consumption continues to be far from recommended levels. Overall, younger individuals, males, those with lower education levels, lower family income, and who self-reported black, brown or indigenous ethnicity were less likely to consume grain foods meeting the ≤10:1-ratio from 2003 to 2015. Shifting consumption from usually eaten grain foods to healthful equivalent options may lead to favorable changes in nutrient content of the diet, in addition to a remarkable increase in healthful grain foods intake.


Subject(s)
Socioeconomic Factors , Insulin Resistance , Carbohydrates , Dietary Fiber , Whole Foods , Nutritional Sciences , Lipoproteins
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