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1.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 362-366, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982594

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the effect of mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on patients with cardiac arrest with the vertical spatial pre-hospital emergency transport.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The clinical data of 102 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) who were transferred to the emergency medicine department of Huzhou Central Hospital from the Huzhou Emergency Center from July 2019 to June 2021 were collected. Among them, the patients who performed artificial chest compression during the pre-hospital transfer from July 2019 to June 2020 served as the control group, and the patients who performed artificial-mechanical chest compression (implemented artificial chest compression first, and implemented mechanical chest compression immediately after the mechanical chest compression device was ready) during pre-hospital transfer from July 2020 to June 2021 served as the observation group. The clinical data of patients of the two groups were collected, including basic data (gender, age, etc.), pre-hospital emergency process evaluation indicators [chest compression fraction (CCF), total CPR pause time, pre-hospital transfer time, vertical spatial transfer time], and in-hospital advanced resuscitation effect evaluation indicators [initial end-expiratory partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2), rate of restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), time of ROSC].@*RESULTS@#Finally, a total of 84 patients were enrolled, including 46 patients in the control group and 38 in the observation group. There was no significant difference in gender, age, whether to accept bystander resuscitation or not, initial cardiac rhythm, time-consuming pre-hospital emergency response, floor location at the time of onset, estimated vertical height, and whether there was any vertical transfer elevator/escalator, etc. between the two groups. In the evaluation of the pre-hospital emergency process, the CCF during the pre-hospital emergency treatment of patients in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group [69.05% (67.35%, 71.73%) vs. 61.88% (58.18%, 65.04%), P < 0.01], the total pause time of CPR was significantly shorter than that in the control group [s: 266 (214, 307) vs. 332 (257, 374), P < 0.05]. However, there was no significant difference in the pre-hospital transfer time and vertical spatial transfer time between the observation group and the control group [pre-hospital transfer time (minutes): 14.50 (12.00, 16.75) vs. 14.00 (11.00, 16.00), vertical spatial transfer time (s): 32.15±17.43 vs. 27.96±18.67, both P > 0.05]. It indicated that mechanical CPR could improve the CPR quality in the process of pre-hospital first aid, and did not affect the transfer of patients by pre-hospital emergency medical personnel. In the evaluation of the in-hospital advanced resuscitation effect, the initial PETCO2 of the patients in the observation group was significantly higher than that of the patients in the control group [mmHg (1 mmHg ≈ 0.133 kPa): 15.00 (13.25, 16.00) vs. 12.00 (11.00, 13.00), P < 0.01], the time of ROSC was significantly shorter than that in the control group (minutes: 11.00±3.25 vs. 16.64±2.54, P < 0.01), and the rate of ROSC was slightly higher than that in the control group (31.58% vs. 23.91%, P > 0.05). It indicated that continuous mechanical compression during pre-hospital transfer helped to ensure continuous high-quality CPR.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Mechanical chest compression can improve the quality of continuous CPR during the pre-hospital transfer of patients with OHCA, and improve the initial resuscitation outcome of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cohort Studies , Carbon Dioxide , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
2.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 268-271, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982226

ABSTRACT

To comprehensively evaluate the human body's respiratory, circular metabolism and other functions, and to diagnose lung disease, an accurate and reliable pulmonary function test (PFT) is developed. The system is divided into two parts:hardware and software. It realizes the collection of respiratory, pulse oxygen, carbon dioxide, oxygen and other signals, and draws flow-volume curve (FV curve), volume-time curve (VT curve), respiratory waveform, pulse wave, carbon dioxide and oxygen waveform in real time on the upper computer of the PFT system, and conducts signal processing and parameter calculation for each signal. The experimental results prove that the system is safe and reliable, it can accurately measure the basic functions of human body, and provide reliable parameters, and has good application prospects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbon Dioxide , Respiratory Function Tests , Oxygen , Heart Rate
3.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 301-303, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986032

ABSTRACT

Carbon dioxide is a simple asphyxial gas, with low concentrations having an excitatory effect on the respiratory center, while high concentrations have an inhibitory effect on the respiratory center. Simple carbon dioxide poisoning is rarely seen clinically. This article reviews and analyzes the treatment process of 9 cases of acute inhalation carbon dioxide poisoning in a cargo ship carbon dioxide leakage accident in May 2019, summarizes clinical treatment experience, and provides timely and effective treatment for acute pulmonary edema caused by acute inhalation carbon dioxide poisoning. In particular, the application of hormones has a good prognosis, improving clinicians' understanding of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbon Dioxide , Ships , Accidents , Pulmonary Edema , Treatment Outcome , Poisoning , Accidents, Occupational
4.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 488-494, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the association between short-term exposure to indoor total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) among young female adults.@*METHODS@#This panel study recruited 50 young females from one university in Beijing, China from December 2021 to April 2022. All the participants underwent two sequential visits. During each visit, real time indoor TVOC concentration was monitored using an indoor air quality detector. The real time levels of indoor temperature, relative humidity, noise, carbon dioxide and fine particulate matter were monitored using a temperature and humidity meter, a noise meter, a carbon dioxide meter and a particulate counter, respectively. HRV parameters were measured using a 12-lead Holter. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the association between the TVOC and HRV parameters and establish the exposure-response relationships, and two-pollutant models were applied to examine the robustness of the results.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of the 50 female subjects was (22.5±2.3) years, and the mean body mass index was (20.4±1.9) kg/m2. During this study, the median (interquartile range) of indoor TVOC concentrations was 0.069 (0.046) mg/m3, the median (interquartile range) of indoor temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, noise level and fine particulate matter concentration were 24.3 (2.7) ℃, 38.5% (15.0%), 0.1% (0.1%), 52.7 (5.8) dB(A) and 10.3 (21.5) μg/m3, respectively. Short-term exposure to indoor TVOC was associated with significant changes in time-domain and frequency-domain HRV parameters, and the exposure metric for most HRV parameters with the most significant changes was 1 h-moving average. Along with a 0.01 mg/m3 increment in 1 h-moving average concentration of indoor TVOC, this study observed decreases of 1.89% (95%CI: -2.28%, -1.50%) in standard deviation of all normal to normal intervals (SDNN), 1.92% (95%CI: -2.32%, -1.51%) in standard deviation of average normal to normal intervals (SDANN), 0.64% (95%CI: -1.13%, -0.14%) in percentage of adjacent NN intervals differing by more than 50 ms (pNN50), 3.52% (95%CI: -4.30%, -2.74%) in total power (TP), 5.01% (95%CI: -6.21%, -3.79%) in very low frequency (VLF) power, and 4.36% (95%CI: -5.16%, -3.55%) in low frequency (LF) power. The exposure-response curves showed that indoor TVOC was negatively correlated with SDNN, SDANN, TP, and VLF when the concentration exceeded 0.1 mg/m3. The two-pollutant models indicated that the results were generally robust after controlling indoor noise and fine particulate matter.@*CONCLUSION@#Short-term exposure to indoor TVOC was associated with significant negative changes in nocturnal HRV of young women. This study provides an important scientific basis for relevant prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Air Pollutants/analysis , Heart Rate/physiology , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Carbon Dioxide , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2410-2429, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981209

ABSTRACT

The current linear economy model relies on fossil energy and increases CO2 emissions, which contributes to global warming and environmental pollution. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop and deploy technologies for carbon capture and utilization to establish a circular economy. The use of acetogens for C1-gas (CO and CO2) conversion is a promising technology due to high metabolic flexibility, product selectivity, and diversity of the products including chemicals and fuels. This review focuses on the physiological and metabolic mechanisms, genetic and metabolic engineering modifications, fermentation process optimization, and carbon atom economy in the process of C1-gas conversion by acetogens, with the aim to facilitate the industrial scale-up and carbon negative production through acetogen gas fermentation.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Gases/metabolism , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Carbon/metabolism
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2390-2409, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981208

ABSTRACT

The use of light energy to drive carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction for production of chemicals is of great significance for relieving environmental pressure and solving energy crisis. Photocapture, photoelectricity conversion and CO2 fixation are the key factors affecting the efficiency of photosynthesis, and thus also affect the efficiency of CO2 utilization. To solve the above problems, this review systematically summarizes the construction, optimization and application of light-driven hybrid system from the perspective of combining biochemistry and metabolic engineering. We introduce the latest research progress of light-driven CO2 reduction for biosynthesis of chemicals from three aspects: enzyme hybrid system, biological hybrid system and application of these hybrid system. In the aspect of enzyme hybrid system, many strategies were adopted such as improving enzyme catalytic activity and enhancing enzyme stability. In the aspect of biological hybrid system, many methods were used including enhancing biological light harvesting capacity, optimizing reducing power supply and improving energy regeneration. In terms of the applications, hybrid systems have been used in the production of one-carbon compounds, biofuels and biofoods. Finally, the future development direction of artificial photosynthetic system is prospected from the aspects of nanomaterials (including organic and inorganic materials) and biocatalysts (including enzymes and microorganisms).


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Photosynthesis , Metabolic Engineering
7.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 53-58, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971149

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical effects of fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with minimally invasive scar release in the treatment of post-acne atrophic scars. Methods: A retrospectively observational study was conducted. From January to June 2021, 60 patients with grade 3 and 4 post-acne atrophic scars who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. According to the adopted treatment methods, 30 patients treated with fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with minimally invasive scar release were included in combined treatment group (19 males and 11 females, aged (26±4) years), and 30 patients treated with fractional carbon dioxide laser alone were included in laser alone group (18 males and 12 females, aged (25±6) years). All the patients received the treatment once every two months, totally 3 times. Before the first treatment and 2 months after the last treatment, the scars were assessed by échelle d'évaluation clinique des cicatrices d'acné (ECCA). In 2 months after the last treatment, the curative effect was evaluated and the total effective rate was calculated according to the ECCA score. The adverse reactions of patients during the treatment were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed with independent sample t test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact probability test. Results: Before the first treatment, the ECCA scores of patients in the two groups were similar (P>0.05). In 2 months after the last treatment, the ECCA scores of patients in combined treatment group were significantly lower than those of laser alone group (Z=-2.89, P<0.05). The ECCA scores of patients in combined treatment group and laser alone group in 2 months after the last treatment were both significantly lower than those before the first treatment (with Z values of -4.81 and -4.79, respectively, P<0.05). In 2 months after the last treatment, the treatment in laser alone group cured the scars in 2 patients, and were markedly effective in 13 patients, effective in 7 patients, and ineffective in 8 patients; the treatment in combined treatment group cured the scars in 4 patients, and were markedly effective in 22 patients, effective in 3 patients, and ineffective in one patients. The total effective rate of scar treatment in combined treatment group (96.67%, 29/30) was significantly higher than 73.33% (22/30) in laser alone group (P<0.05). During treatment, in combined treatment group, 3 patients had pain, one patient had redness and swelling, and one patient had pigmentation. In laser alone group, one patient had pain, and 2 patients had pigmentation. No infection occurred in the wounds of all the patients in the two groups. Conclusions: Compared with fractional carbon dioxide laser alone, fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with minimally invasive scar release for post-acne atrophic scars can result in a higher total effective rate, with simple operation and good effect, so it is worthy of clinical application.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Cicatrix/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Lasers, Gas/therapeutic use , Acne Vulgaris , Atrophy , Pain , Carbon Dioxide
8.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 205-209, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971061

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal is an artificial lung auxiliary technique based on extrapulmonary gas exchange and can effectively remove carbon dioxide and provide oxygenation to a certain extent, and it is one of the effective treatment techniques for hypercapnia developed after mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in recent years and has wide application prospect. This article elaborates on the development, working principle, advantages, classification, complications, and clinical application of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal, so as to provide a new choice for extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbon Dioxide , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Renal Dialysis , Respiration, Artificial
9.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 282-286, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TEAS) at Neiguan (PC 6) on general anesthesia under preserving spontaneous breathing in thoracoscopic lobectomy.@*METHODS@#A total of 66 patients of primary lung cancer undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomy were divided to an observation group (33 cases, 1 case discontinued) and a control group (33 cases). In the observation group, TEAS at Neiguan (PC 6) was used 30 min before anesthesia induction till the end of surgery. The surgery time, maximum value of partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) and minimum value of oxygen saturation (SpO2) of the two groups were recorded. The dosage of propofol, sufentanil, remifentanil and dexmedetomidine were analyzed. Separately, before induction (T0), at the start of surgery (T1), thoracic exploration (T2) and lobectomy (T3), as well as 30 min (T4) and 60 min (T5) after lobectomy, the mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), serum cortisol (Cor) and norepinephrine (NE) were measured. The time of post anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay, ambulation, flatus, chest drainage and the incidence of nausea and vomiting were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The maximum value of PETCO2, the dosage of propofol and remifentanil in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), the minimum value of SpO2 in the observation group was higher than that of the control group (P < 0.01). At T1-T5, the MAP, HR, serum Cor and NE levels in the observation group were all lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The ambulation time, the time for the flatus, chest drainage time, and the incidence of nausea and vomiting in the observation group were all lower than those in the control group (P<0.001, P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#For the general anesthesia under preserving spontaneous breathing in thoracoscopic surgery, TEAS at Neiguan (PC 6) relieves stress response, reduces opioids dosage and promotes postoperative recovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Carbon Dioxide , Flatulence , Propofol , Remifentanil , Anesthesia, General , Nausea , Norepinephrine , Electric Stimulation
10.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 69(1): 46-62, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1389167

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El objetivo del estudio fue la caracterización productiva y de emisiones modeladas de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) en 61 sistemas lecheros localizados en cinco regiones de Honduras. Durante las fases inicial (FI) y final (FF), con encuestas aplicadas individualmente a los productores, se identificaron aspectos técnicos y de productividad. Variables numéricas expresadas en Microsoft Excel ® permitieron, con el modelo FAO de evaluación ambiental de la ganadería global-interactivo (GLEAM-i, por sus siglas en inglés) de ciclo de vida, estimar emisiones anuales de metano (CH4), óxido nitroso (N2O) y dióxido de carbono (CO2) en cada finca. Cálculos intermedios (GEI/animal) fueron derivados de la modelización GLEAM-i en Excel®. Durante la FI las fincas conjuntamente emitieron 25.038 t CO2 equivalente (CO2-eq), mientras que dichas emisiones fueron 10,5% menores en la FF. Emisiones de GEI/animal (2,85 ± 0,08 t CO2-eq) y de GEI/kg de proteína láctea (96,91 ± 4,50 kg CO2-eq) durante la FI fue-ron 13 y 21% menores en la FF, respectivamente. Valores de 52,82 ± 1,64 (CH4) y 2,66 ± 0,10 (N2O) kg/animal en la FI fueron 13% y 17% menores en la FF, respectivamente. La región Centro-Sur-Oriente emitió la menor cantidad de CH4 (42,95 ± 2,37 kg/animal) y N2O (1,82 ± 0,15 kg/animal, mientras las regiones Occidente y Norte experimentaron una reducción del 27% en GEI/kg proteína láctea entre la FI y FF. Se concluyó que la metodologia usada identificó los impactos productivos y medioambientales, derivados de alternativas técnicas implementadas en sistemas de producción lechera de Honduras.


ABSTRACT The study aimed to characterize production dynamics and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 61 dairy farms in five regions in Honduras. Farm data were collected through individual surveys during the initial and final phases (IP; FP). Using Microsoft Excel, data was incorporated into the global livestock environmental assessment model-interactive (GLEAM-i, FAO) life cycle framework to estimate annual emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) at the farm system level. Animal emissions (GHG/animal) were derived in Excel® from the GLEAM-i predictions. Together, farms during the IP emitted 25.038 t CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) while these emissions were 10,5% lower in the FP. Emissions of GHG/animal (2,85 ± 0,08 t CO2-eq) and GHG/kg of milk protein (96,91 ± 4,50 kg CO2-eq) during the IP were 13% and 21% lower in the FP, respectively. Methane and N2O emission values (52,82 ± 1,64 vs. 2,66 ± 0,10 kg/animal) were 13% and 17% higher in the IP than in FP. The South-Central region emitted the lowest amount of CH4 and N2O (42,95 ± 2,37 kg/animal vs. 1,82 ± 0,15 kg/animal) while 27% lower GHG/kg milk protein was observed between the IP and FP of the Western and Northern regions. It was concluded that the used methodology identified productive and environmental impacts derived from implemented technical interventions in dairy production systems in Honduras.


Subject(s)
Animals , Meat Industry , Dairying , Paspalum , Diagnosis , Environment , Greenhouse Gases , Carbon Dioxide , Food Production , Efficiency , Fermentation , Methane , Nitrous Oxide
11.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(4): 856-868, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1416640

ABSTRACT

El ambiente es el lugar donde vive, trabaja y se desarrolla el hombre, compuesto básicamente por dos sistemas interrelacionados e independientes: por una parte, es el hombre conviviendo en una sociedad con características muy diferentes, y por el otro lado, los elementos de la naturaleza siendo transformados por los hombres donde viven inmersos. En ese sentido, la degradación y contaminación ambiental, tienen efectos notables en la vidad de los seres humanos, siendo responsable de la muerte de cientos de millones de personas que sufren de enfermedades respiratorias asociadas con la contaminación externa e interior del aire. En ese sentido, ya a partir de las últimas décadas, las emisiones de dióxido de carbono han alcanzado cifras record superando las 10 gigatoneladas. Este incremento está asociado al sector energético (47%), la industria (30%) y el transporte (11%) principalmente, lo que ha logrado un calentamiento global progresivo de la superficie terrestre con las consecuencias típicas asociadas al derretimiento de los glaciares, cambios en los ciclos hidrológicos, falta de alimentos, aumento de los fenómenos meteorológicos, migraciones descontroladas, enfermedades y pandemias. De este modo, surge la economía ambiental, una disciplina que intenta dar repuestas integrales entre ambos tópicos, medio ambiente y economía, donde diversas teorías tratan de explicar los fenómenos observados. El concepto de las Curvas de Kuznets Ambientales (CKA), señala una relación dinámica entre el PIB y la calidad del medio ambiente. El objetivo del artículo ha sido determinar si en el Perú, durante el periodo 1990-2015, ha habido una relación en forma de U invertida entre la producción interna y la contaminación del aire. La investigación prueba que, en el Perú, durante el periodo 1990-2015, no ha habido una relación en forma de U invertida entre la producción interna y la contaminación del aire, sino que la producción interna ha tenido un impacto positivo y lineal sobre el dióxido de carbono y el óxido de nitrógeno(AU)


The environment is the place where man lives, works and develops, basically composed of two interrelated and independent systems: on the one hand, it is man living together in a society with very different characteristics, and on the other hand, the elements of the nature being transformed by men where they live immersed. In this sense, environmental degradation and pollution have notable effects on the lives of human beings, being responsible for the death of hundreds of millions of people who suffer from respiratory diseases associated with external and internal air pollution. In this sense, already in recent decades, carbon dioxide emissions have reached record figures, exceeding 10 gigatons. This increase is mainly associated with the energy sector (47%), industry (30%) and transport (11%), which has achieved a progressive global warming of the earth's surface with the typical consequences associated with the melting of glaciers, changes in hydrological cycles, lack of food, increased weather events, uncontrolled migrations, diseases and pandemics. In this way, environmental economics arises, a discipline that tries to provide comprehensive answers between both topics, environment and economy, where various theories try to explain the observed phenomena. The concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC), indicates a dynamic relationship between GDP and the quality of the environment. The objective of the article has been to determine if in Peru, during the period 1990-2015, there has been an inverted U-shaped relationship between internal production and air pollution. The research proves that, in Peru, during the period 1990-2015, there has not been an inverted U-shaped relationship between domestic production and air pollution, but rather that domestic production has had a positive and linear impact on air pollution. carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Environmental Health , Environmental Economics , Environmental Pollution , Carbon Dioxide , Carbon Monoxide , Air , Air Pollution , Electricity , Global Warming
12.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 17(3): 72-75, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417541

ABSTRACT

La sangre normalmente transporta pequeñas cantidades de oxígeno (O2) disuelto en el plasma y altas cantidades combinadas en forma química con la hemoglobina. La presión parcial depende solo del oxígeno disuelto físicamente, lo que determina cuánto oxígeno se combinará con hemoglobina. La curva de disociación de la hemoglobina describe la reversibilidad de la reacción entre oxígeno y hemoglobina. Los factores habituales que aumentan o disminuyen la afinidad de la hemoglobina por el oxígeno son el pH, presión parcial de CO2, temperatura y 2,3 difosfoglicerato. La sangre también transporta grandes cantidades en forma de bicarbonato y bajas cantidades de CO2 disuelto en plasma y combinado con proteínas como compuestos carbamino. La desoxihemoglobina favorece la formación de compuestos carbamínicos y promueve el transporte del CO2 como bicarbonato uniéndose al hidrógeno proveniente de la disociación del ácido carbónico. A continuación se describe en forma detallada los mecanismos fisiológicos del transporte de gases en sangre.


Blood normally carries small amounts of oxygen dissolved in plasma and large amounts chemically combined with hemoglobin. Partial pressure of oxygen depends only on physically dissolved oxygen which determines how much oxygen will combine with hemoglobin. The oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve (or oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve) describes the reversibility of the reaction between oxygen and hemoglobin. The usual factors that increase or decrease the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen are pH, CO2 partial pressure, temperature, and 2,3 diphosphoglycerate. Blood also carries large amounts of CO2 as bicarbonate and low amounts dissolved in plasma and combined with proteins as carbamino compounds. Deoxyhemoglobin favors the formation of carbamino compounds and promotes the transport of CO2 as bicarbonate by joining the hydrogen from the dissociation of carbonic acid. The physiological mechanisms of gas transport in blood are described in detail below.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygen/blood , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Oxygen Transfer
13.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 17(1): 6-8, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379370

ABSTRACT

El principal objetivo del sistema respiratorio es permitir un adecuado aporte de oxígeno y remoción del dióxido de carbono. Para esto, debe ocurrir una adecuada difusión de gases en la membrana alvéolo-capilar, proceso pasivo en el que el oxígeno se mueve hacia el capilar y el dióxido de carbono hacia el alvéolo. La ley de Fick establece los determinantes de la difusión, los que están dados por propiedades de la membrana alvéolo-capilar y de los gases. Las características únicas de la membrana alvéolo-capilar favorecen la difusión de gases, pero es el gradiente de presión parcial de los gases el principal determinante. El oxígeno pasa fácilmente por la membrana alvéolo-capilar y se une rápidamente a la hemoglobina, saturándola, cuando se iguala la presión parcial de oxígeno alveolar y la capilar se detiene la difusión de este gas; por lo que la difusión de oxígeno en reposo está limitada por perfusión. El dióxido de carbono difunde 20 veces más rápido que el oxígeno en la membrana alvéolo-capilar, y aunque su gradiente de presión sea menor, el equilibrio se logra aproximadamente en el mismo tiempo. La difusión del oxígeno es más lenta que la del dióxido de carbono debido a su menor solubilidad. En condiciones patológicas tanto el oxígeno como el dióxido de carbono pueden ser limitados por difusión. Para medir la capacidad de difusión la técnica más utilizada es la capacidad de difusión de monóxido de carbono, ya que este gas solo está limitado por difusión.


The main objective of the respiratory system is allowing an adequate supply of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide from the tissues. To achieve this, an adequate diffusion of gases must occur in the alveolus-capillary membrane, which is a passive process in which oxygen moves towards the capillary and carbon dioxide towards the alveolus. Fick's law establishes the determinants of diffusion, which are given by properties of the alveolar-capillary membrane and properties of gases. The unique characteristics of the capillary-alveolar membrane favor the diffusion of gases, but it is the partial pressure gradient of the gases the main determinant. Oxygen passes easily through the alveolar-capillary membrane and rapidly binds to hemoglobin, saturating it. When the partial pressure of alveolar oxygen is matched, the diffusion of this gas stops; therefore, the diffusion of oxygen is limited by perfusion. Carbon dioxide diffuses 20 times faster than oxygen in the capillary-alveolar membrane, and although its pressure gradient is less than oxygen, equilibrium is achieved in approximately the same time. The diffusion of oxygen is slower than that of carbon dioxide due to its lower solubility. Under pathological conditions both oxygen and carbon dioxide can be diffusion-limited. To measure the diffusion capacity, the most used technique is the carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, since this gas is only limited by diffusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Carbon Dioxide , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity
14.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 507-514, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984144

ABSTRACT

At present, the death cases of simple asphyxiant gas acute poisoning are increasing sharply. Common asphyxiant gases in death cases include nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, methane, propane, laughing gas, etc. Simple asphyxiant gas has no affinity for biological matrices and escapes quickly, which puts forward new requirements for autopsy procedures, selection and collection of samples, laboratory analysis and identification. This paper reviews the research and development process of death cases caused by simple asphyxiant gas acute poisoning and put forwards the collection and analysis strategy of the samples in such cases. The most valuable biological samples in such cases should be lung tissues associated with the airways, followed by brain tissue and cardiac blood. Gaseous samples from the esophageal cavity, tracheal cavity, pulmonary bronchi, gastric and cardiac areas are also recommended as valuable samples. In the case of postmortem examination, the gas should be injected into gas sample bag directly. Biological materials such as tissue and blood should be directly sealed in head-space vials and analyzed by using the headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Autopsy , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Methane/analysis , Nitrogen
15.
Philippine Journal of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; : 30-33, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961096

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To describe the initial outcomes of endoscopic CO2 laser posterior cordectomy and partial arytenoidectomy among patients with bilateral vocal cord paralysis in our institution.@*Methods@# Design: Case Series Setting: Tertiary National University Hospital Participants: 17 Patients @*Results@#Seventeen (17) patients who underwent transoral posterior cordectomy and partial arytenoidectomy using carbon dioxide laser were included in the study consisting of 14 females and 3 males. Iatrogenic injury was the most common cause of bilateral vocal cord paralysis in this subset of patients. Five patients who tolerated decannulation and another six who had no preoperative tracheostomy all reported subjective improvement in breathing. All of them were also observed to have resolution of stridor and increased respiratory comfort compared to their preoperative condition. The most common postoperative complication was granuloma formation at the medial arytenoidectomy site occurring only in 4 patients. None of the patients complained of aspiration episodes or dysphagia during the postoperative period. @*Conclusion@#Our initial experience with transoral endoscopic posterior cordectomy and partial arytenoidectomy using carbon dioxide laser has good postoperative outcomes among patients with bilateral vocal cord paralysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Paralysis , Vocal Cord Paralysis , Vocal Cords , Carbon Dioxide , Tracheostomy , Voice Quality
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1-6, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927905

ABSTRACT

Carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality have become hot issues of political and economic activities in China and abroad. The structure and development of various industries in China will be profoundly affected in the process of accomplishing "Dual Carbon" goals. Eco-agriculture of Chinese medicine(EACM) highlights the balance and sustainable development of the ecosystem while producing high-quality medicinal materials. With chemically synthesized fertilizers, pesticides, and growth regulators prohibited, EACM emphasizes the recycling of agricultural and sideline products and the reduction of waste output, which results in the minimal negative impact on the ecological environment. Therefore, it is typical agriculture with low-carbon sources and high-carbon sinks. This study reviewed the mechanism and potential of EACM in carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality, analyzed the specific ways of EACM in reducing carbon sources and increasing carbon sinks based on the typical ecological planting pattern, and proposed the point of view to strengthen EACM as well as the "Dual Carbon" theory and research methods, so as to direct low-carbon and efficient deve-lopment. Furthermore, this study advocated to comprehensively promote the transformation of Chinese medicine production from chemical agriculture to eco-agriculture to improve the comprehensive benefits of contribution rate of carbon neutrality, explore and establish carbon sink compensation mechanism to ensure the sustainable and healthy development of EACM, and strengthen the training of EACM and "Dual Carbon" theory and technologies to continuously improve the capacity of EACM in sustainable development. This study is expected to provide a reference for the development of ecological functions in EACM and the development of economic functions through ecological functions.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Carbon Dioxide , China , Ecosystem , Fertilizers , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
17.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 208-212, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927867

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the influence of recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor as an adjuvant therapy on scar alleviation and inflammatory cytokines in patients with atrophic acne scar. Methods The random number table was employed to randomly assign 120 patients with atrophic acne scar into a test group and a control group.Both groups of patients were treated with CO2 lattice laser.After the operation,the control group was routinely smeared with erythromycin ointment and the test group was coated with recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor gel.The clinical efficacy,clinical indicators,scar alleviation,and inflammatory cytokine levels before and after treatment were compared,and adverse reactions were counted. Results The test group had higher total effective rate(P=0.040) and lower total incidence of adverse reactions(P=0.028) than the control group.Compared with the control group,the test group showcased short erythema duration after treatment(P=0.025),early scab forming(P=0.002),and early edema regression(P<0.001).After treatment,the proportion of grade 1 scars graded by Goodman and Baron's acne scar grading system in the test group and control group increased(P=0.001,P=0.027),and the proportion of grade 4 scars decreased(P<0.001,P=0.034).Moreover,the proportion of grade 1 scars in the test group was higher than that in the control group(P=0.031) after treatment,and the proportion of grade 4 scars presented an opposite trend(P=0.031).After treatment,the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) in both groups declined(all P<0.001),and the test group had lower TNF-α and IL-1β levels than the control group(all P<0.001). Conclusion The recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor gel as an adjuvant therapy of CO2 lattice laser can effectively alleviate the atrophic acne scar,relieve local inflammatory reaction,and has good curative effect and less adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Atrophy/complications , Carbon Dioxide , Cicatrix/pathology , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
18.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 273-277, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928903

ABSTRACT

A high-precision human metabolic measurement system is designed. The system uses STM32F103 as the main control chip to acquire oxygen, carbon dioxide and flow signals to calculate four quantitative indicators: oxygen consumption(VO2), carbon dioxide production(VCO2), respiratory entropy(RQ) and resting energy metabolism(REE), and finally uses an upper computer to display the calculation results.In this paper, the signal acquisition circuit design was carried out for the oxygen sensor, carbon dioxide sensor and flow sensor, and the validity of the device was verified with the American machine MGCDiagnositcs using Bland-Altman analysis method, and the results showed that the four parameters of VO2,VCO2, RQ and REE of both devices fell in the agreement interval of more than 95%. The device thus provides accurate metabolic measurements and offers an effective tool for the field of general health and clinical nutrition support in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calorimetry, Indirect , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Oxygen , Oxygen Consumption
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1904-1912, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928187

ABSTRACT

This study selected three typical Chinese herbs with cold property(Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, and Coptidis Rhizoma) and another three with heat property(Cinnamomi Cortex, Zingiberris Rhizoma, and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata) to observe their regulatory effects on metabolism in animal organism, especially on lipid and energy metabolism in mice after a short-(7 d) and long-term(35 d) intervention. The mRNA expression levels of lipid metabolism genes in epididymal adipose tissue and liver were determined by real-time PCR. The oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and energy consumption were detected by metabolic system. After the short-term intervention, the Chinese herbs with heat property significantly reduced epididymal adipose tissue index and elevated the expression levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase(ACC), lipoprotein lipase(LPL), and carnitine-palmityl transferase 1(CPT-1) in liver and epididymal adipose tissues. However, those with cold property promoted the expression of above-mentioned genes in epididymal adipose tissue. After the long-term intervention, cold and heat Chinese herbs had no significant effect on epididymal adipose tissue index of animals, while cold Chinese herbs could increase carbon dioxide production and energy consumption and reduce activity. These findings demonstrated that the short-term intervention effects of cold and heat Chinese herbs on animal metabolism were significantly stronger than the long-term intervention effects. Specifically, the short-term intervention with cold Chinese herbs enhanced the lipid metabolism in epididymal adipose tissue, while the heat Chinese herbs promoted lipid metabolism in epididymal adipose tissue and liver. The long-term intervention with cold and heat Chinese herbs resulted in no obvious change in lipid level, but long-term intervention with cold Chinese herbs accelerated energy consumption of the body. This study preliminarily observed the effects of cold and heat Chinese herbs on normal animal physiology from lipid and energy metabolism, which would provide reference for explaining the biological basis of Chinese herbs with cold or heat property based on biological response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Aconitum , Carbon Dioxide , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Energy Metabolism , Hot Temperature , Lipids
20.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 288-291, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935794

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the occupational hazards caused by three kinds of welding operations, and to provide data support for individual protection. Methods: In October 2020, the welding fumes, metal elements and welding arc generated by three welding operations of argon gas shielded welding (JS80 welding wire) , manual welding (ZS60A welding rod) and carbon dioxide shielded welding (907A flux cored wire) were collected and measured in the welding laboratory. The samples were analyze and compare in the laboratory, and the differences of the occupational hazard factors of the three welding operations were judged. Results: The concentration of welding fume produced by carbon dioxide shielded welding, manual welding (ZS60A electrode) , and argon gas shielded welding (JS80 welding wires) were 6.80 mg/m(3), 6.17 mg/m(3), and 3.13 mg/m(3), respectively. The effective irradiance of the welding arc outside the welding mask from high to low is manual welding (ZS60A electrode) , carbon dioxide shielded welding (907A flux-cored welding wire) , and argon shielded welding (JS80 welding wire) , respectively 1 010.7, 740.9, 589.5 μW/cm(2). The long-wave ultraviolet UVA intensity generated by argon shielded welding (JS80 welding wire) is the largest, which is 1 500 μW/cm(2). The content of Mn in the three welding operations is the highest, and JS80 welding wire has the highest Mn content of 128493.2 mg/kg. 907A flux cored wire has the highest Ti content, which is 24355.5mg/kg. The electrode ZS60A has the highest Cu content, which is 24422.12 mg/kg. Conclusion: The intensity of occupational hazards is different in the three kinds of welding operations, so the methods of personal protective equipment, field exposure assessment and health monitoring should be more targeted.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Argon/analysis , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Gases/analysis , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Welding/methods
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