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Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(2): 101-111, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990827


Objective: To compare results of positron emission tomography (PET) with carbon-11-labeled Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PIB) obtained with cerebellar or global brain uptake for voxel intensity normalization, describe the cortical sites with highest tracer uptake in subjects with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), and explore possible group differences in 11C-PIB binding to white matter. Methods: 11C-PIB PET scans were acquired from subjects with AD (n=17) and healthy elderly controls (n=19). Voxel-based analysis was performed with statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Results: Cerebellar normalization showed higher 11C-PIB uptake in the AD group relative to controls throughout the cerebral cortex, involving the lateral temporal, orbitofrontal, and superior parietal cortices. With global uptake normalization, greatest cortical binding was detected in the orbitofrontal cortex; decreased 11C-PIB uptake in white matter was found in the posterior hippocampal region, corpus callosum, pons, and internal capsule. Conclusion: The present case-control voxelwise 11C-PIB PET comparison highlighted the regional distribution of amyloid deposition in the cerebral cortex of mildly demented AD patients. Tracer uptake was highest in the orbitofrontal cortex. Decreased 11C-PIB uptake in white-matter regions in this patient population may be a marker of white-matter damage in AD.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carbon Radioisotopes , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Alzheimer Disease/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Case-Control Studies
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(5): 900-905, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975628


ABSTRACT Objectives: To test the ability of dynamic 11C-PET / CT to discriminate cancerous tissue from background tissue in patients with localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four consecutive patients with prostate cancer were prospectively evaluated with dynamic 11C-choline PET / CT prior to radical prostatectomy. The PET / CT scan was divided into 18 sequences of 5 seconds each, followed by 9 sequences of 60 seconds each. Whole-mount sections of harvested prostates served as reference standards. Volumes of interest were positioned on the dynamic PET / CT images and the following quantitative variables were calculated: perfusion coefficient (K1), washout constant (K2), area under the curve (AUC) at 175 and 630 seconds, and average and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVavg, and SUVmax). Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used to compare benign and cancerous areas of the prostate. Results: Areas of cancerous tissue were characterized by higher SUVavg and SUVmax than areas of benign tissue (3.67 ± 2.7 vs. 2.08 ± 1.3 and 5.91 ± 4.4 vs. 3.71 ± 3.7, respectively, P < 0.001), in addition to a higher K1 (0.95 ± 0.58 vs. 0.43 ± 0.24, P < 0.001) and greater cumulative tracer uptake, represented by the AUC at 175 and 630 seconds (P <0.001). No associations were found between dynamic parameters and preoperative prostate specific antigen level or Gleason score. Conclusions: In this pilot study, 11C-choline PET / CT demonstrated increased tracer uptake with higher values of static and dynamic parameters in areas of prostate cancer compared to areas of benign tissue. Larger studies are warranted to validate these results and examine the potential applicability of 11C-choline dynamic PET / CT for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carbon Radioisotopes/pharmacokinetics , Choline/pharmacokinetics , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(4): 229-231, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759261


ABSTRACTPurpose:To investigate the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection by evaluating for the presence of H. pylori infection in patients with glaucoma using the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT).Methods:Using 14C-UBT, H. pylori infection positivity was compared between a group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and a control group with normal intraocular pressure and a normal optic disc or normal perimetry.Results:The 14C-UBT was positive in 18 (51.42%) out of 35 patients in the glaucoma group and in 15 (42.85%) out of 35 patients in the control group. H. pylori infection positivity rates were similar between the glaucoma and control groups (p>0.05).Conclusion:According to the 14C-UBT, there is no association between primary open-angle glaucoma and H. pylori infection.

RESUMOObjetivo:Investigar a associação entre glaucoma e infecção por H. pyloripor meio do teste para a presença de infecção por H. pylori em pacientes com glaucoma usando o teste de respiração da ureia 14C (14C-UBT).Métodos:Foi feita uma comparação em relação a positividade H. pyloriutilizando 14C-UBT entre um grupo de pacientes com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e um grupo controle com pressão intraocular normal e sem verificação de disco óptico glaucomatosa.Resultados:O 14C-UBT foi positivo em 18 (51,42%) dos 35 pacientes no grupo de glaucoma e em 15 (42,85%) dos 35 pacientes no grupo de controle. As taxas de positividade foram semelhantes entre os grupos de glaucoma e de controle e não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos (p>0,05).Conclusão:De acordo com o 14C-UBT, não há associação entre o glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e H. pylori.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carbon Radioisotopes , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/microbiology , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Urea/analysis , Breath Tests/methods , Case-Control Studies
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(3): 817-834, Sept. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595541


The aim of this work was to generate an inventory of the data on radiocarbon datings obtained from sediments of the São Paulo Bight (southern Brazilian upper margin) and to analyze the data in terms of Late Quaternary sedimentary processes and sedimentation rates. A total of 238 radiocarbon datings from materials collected using differents ampling procedures was considered for this work. The sedimentation rates varied from less than 2 to 68 cm.kyr-1. The highest sedimentation rate values were found in a low-energy (ría type) coastal system as well as in the upwelling zones of Santa Catarina and Cabo Frio. The lowest rates were found on the outer shelf and upper slopes. Our results confirm the strong dependency of the shelf currents, with an emphasis to the terrigenous input from the Río de La Plata outflow which is transported via the Brazilian Coastal Current, as well as of the coupled Brazil Current - Intermediate Western Boundary Current (BC-IWBC) dynamics on the sedimentary processes. At least three indicators ofthe paleo sea level were found at 12200 yr BP (conventional radiocarbon age) (103 meters below sea level - mbsl),8300-8800 cal yr BP (13 mbsl) and 7700-8100 cal yr BP (6 mbsl).

O objetivo deste trabalho foi a geração de um inventário dos dados de datação de radiocarbono obtidos de sedimentos do Embaiamento de São Paulo (Margem Continental Superior do Sul do Brasil) e analisar os dados em termos de processos sedimentares quaternários e taxas de sedimentação. Um total de238 datações ao radiocarbono de materiais coletados com autilização de procedimentos amostrais diferentes foi considerado neste trabalho. As taxas de sedimentação variaram de menor que 2 a 68 cm.kyr-1. As taxas de sedimentação mais altas foram encontradas em um sistema costeiro de baixa energia (tipo ría), bem como nas zonas de ressurgência de Santa Catarina e Cabo Frio. As taxas mais baixas foram encontradas na plataforma externa e talude superior. Nossos resultados confirmam a forte dependência do sistema de correntes de plataforma, com ênfase no aporte terrígeno oriundo do Rio daPrata, transportado através da Corrente Costeira do Brasil, e da dinâmica da Corrente do Brasil - Corrente de Contorno Intermediária (CB-CCI) nos processos sedimentares. Pelo menostrês indicadores de paleo-níveis marinhos foram encontrados a 12200 anos AP (idade radiocarbônica convencional) (103 metros abaixo do nível do mar atual - manm), 8300-8800 cal anos AP (13 manm) e 7700-8100 cal anos BP (6 manm).

Carbon Radioisotopes/analysis , Geologic Sediments , Brazil , Oceans and Seas , Radiometric Dating/methods
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(3): 939-952, Sept. 2011. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595546


Historians claim that European colonizers of the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State found vast herbaceous fields when arrived in this region. Hypotheses about the origin of these fields include forest burning by the Goitacás indians and periodical floods by the Paraíba do Sul River and the lagoon system. The palynologycal analysis of two lake cores obtained in the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes revealed opening episodes of hygrophilous forest and the establishment of field vegetation, recorded at ca. 6,500 and ca. 4,000 14C yr BP. The partial replacement of forest by field vegetation in the first episode was probably caused by floods of the lower areas during the development of the Holocene lagoon phase. During the second episode, successions of vegetational patterns occurred due to lowering of the sea level. Drying and enlarging of the coastal plain have allowed its colonization by herbs and heliophyte plants. The palynological analysis does not provide any evidence that sustains the theories of use of fire and agricultural activities by indigenous groups during these periods.

Os historiadores citam que os europeus colonizadores da costa norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro encontraram vastos campos herbáceos quando chegaram a essa região. As hipóteses sobre a origem desses campos incluem aplicação de "queimada"pelos índios Goitacás e periódicas inundações do rio Paraíba do Sul e sistemas lagunares. A análise palinológica de dois testemunhos de sondagem obtidos no município de Campos dos Goytacazes revelou epsódios de abertura da floresta higrófila e o estabelecimento da vegetação campestre, datado sem ca. 6.500 e 4.000 14C anos AP. O primeiro epsódio de substituição parcial da floresta pela vegetação campestre se deu provavelmente pelas inundações das áreas baixas durante o desenvolvimento da fase lagunar holocênica. No segundo epsódio, os padrões de sucessão da vegetação ocorreram como consequência do abaixamento do nível do mar. O ressecamento e a progressão da planície costeira permitiram sua colonização pelas plantas herbáceas heliófitas. A análise palinológica não forneceu qualquer evidência que apoie as teorias do uso do fogo e da prática de atividades agrícolas por grupos indígenas durante esses períodos.

Carbon Radioisotopes/analysis , Geologic Sediments/analysis , Paleontology , Pollen , Trees , Brazil
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 103-106, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-260458


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The objective of this study was to compare the biodistribution and PET imaging of (11)C-PDT and (18)F-FDG in a mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma, and to evaluate the value of (11)C-PDT as a new tracer for PET imaging of lung cancer.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty four lung adenocarcinoma-bearing mice were randomly divided into two groups, 12 each. The mice received (11)C-PDT or (18)F-FDG injection i.v. respectively. The biodistribution of (11)C-PDT or (18)F-FDG in the mice was measured with a well-gamma detector at 60 min after injection. The PET imagings of mice were performed using either of the two tracers.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Considerable uptake of the both radioactive tracers in the tumors was observed. The tumor uptake of (11)C-PDT [(0.65 +/- 0.20)%ID/g] was significantly lower than that of (18)F-FDG [(7.44 +/- 1.56)%ID/g, P < 0.01]. In the (11)C-PDT group, the highest uptake was observed in the liver, kidney and blood in a successively declining order, while the highest uptake of (18)F-FDG was seen in a order of heart, tumor and kidneys. The tumor/muscle ratio of (11)C-PDT uptake was relatively high (2.02 +/- 0.56), but still lower than that of (18)F-FDG (2.95 +/- 0.49, P < 0.01). All values of other tumor/organ ratios (T/NT) of (11)C-PDT uptake were < 2. High radioactive uptake was showed in the tumor and abdominal organs on PET images in the tumor-bearing mice injected with (11)C-PDT, and (18)F-FDG uptake was showed in the heart, tumor and abdominal organs. The tumor PET images with (11)C-PDT and (18)F-FDG were all clear.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The uptake of (11)C-PDT in lung cancer is higher than that in muscle tissues, and pulmonary cancers can be detected by PET imaging. (11)C-PDT may be a promising PET tracer for lung cancers.</p>

Adenocarcinoma , Diagnostic Imaging , Metabolism , Pathology , Animals , Carbon Radioisotopes , Pharmacokinetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Pharmacokinetics , Kidney , Diagnostic Imaging , Metabolism , Liver , Diagnostic Imaging , Metabolism , Lung Neoplasms , Diagnostic Imaging , Metabolism , Pathology , Mice , Myocardium , Metabolism , Podophyllotoxin , Pharmacokinetics , Positron-Emission Tomography , Tissue Distribution
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-325099


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a protocol of automated synthesis of 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-[(11)C]methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxamide ((11)C-PK11195) as the positron-emitter-labeled ligand for peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) using a commercial synthesizer and explore the quality control methods for the resulting product.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>(11)C-methyl iodide ((11)C-CH(3)I) was synthesized via liquid-phase distillation approach using a (11)C-iodomethane synthesizer. (11)C-PK11195 was prepared by (11)C-methylation of 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxamide (N-demethyl-PK 11195) as the precursor with (11)C-CH(3)I and purified by semi-preparative reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The radiochemical purity, chemical purity and stability of the product were evaluated by HPLC, and the toxicity was assessed in normal mice. The factors that affected (11)C-PK11195 synthesis were also studied.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(11)C-PK11195 was successfully synthesized using the TracerLab FX(F-N) synthesizer. The synthesis time was about 35 min from the end of (11)C-carbon dioxide production by cyclotron to the end of (11)C-PK11195 synthesis (EOS), with a (11)C-methylation reaction time of 3-4 min. The uncorrected radiochemical yield for (11)C-methylation was (33-/+5)%. Analysis with radio-analytical HPLC showed a radiochemical purity and chemical purity of the product both exceeding 99%, with a specific radioactivity of 30-65 GBq/micromol at EOS (from the end of radionuclide production). The (11)C-PK11195 synthesized was radiochemically stable at room temperature and showed low toxicity in normal mice.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The (11)C-PK11195 injection can be conveniently prepared using an automated synthesizer for clinical use in positron emission tomography.</p>

Animals , Carbon Radioisotopes , Contrast Media , Isoquinolines , Mice , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radioligand Assay , Radiopharmaceuticals , Receptors, GABA-A , Metabolism
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 134-138, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-255544


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the value of (18)F-FDG and (11)C-MET PET-CT scan in differentiation of brain ringlike-enhanced lesions on MRI imaging.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty-one brain ringlike-enhanced lesions on MRI imaging including 30 brain tumors and 11 non-neoplastic lesions confirmed pathologically or clinically underwent (18)F-FDG and (11)C-MET PET-CT brain scan. Among them, 15 patients who were suspected to have brain metastasis received body scan by (18)F-FDG PET-CT. Both images were analyzed visually and semi-quantitatively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Visual analysis: for brain tumors the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of (18)F-FDG PET-CT was 53.3%, 72.7%, 58.5%, versus 96.7%, 90.9%, 95.1% of (11)C-MET PET-CT, respectively. All the primary foci in 9 patients with brain metastases were detected by body (18)F-FDG PET-CT scan. Semiquantitative analysis: There was a significant difference in the uptake between highly differentiated malignant and poorly differentiated tumors as well as non-neoplastic lesions for both tracers (P < 0.01), while between low-grade malignant tumors and non-neoplasm lesions, there was a difference in uptake only by (11)C-MET (P < 0.01). No significant difference between the uptakes in brain metastasis and glioblastomas was found by both tracers (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Both (18)F-FDG and (11)C-MET PET-CT are useful in differentiation of brain ringlike-enhanced lesions on MRI imaging. (11)C-MET PET-CT is more helpful than (18)F-FDG PET-CT in differential diagnosis of low-grade neoplastic from non-neoplastic lesions. Combination of (18)F-FDG and (11)C-MET PET-CT scans can improve the accuracy of differential diagnosis for brain ringlike-enhanced lesions on MRI imaging.</p>

Acetates , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brain Abscess , Diagnosis , Brain Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Pathology , Carbon , Carbon Radioisotopes , Child , Craniopharyngioma , Diagnosis , Pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Glioblastoma , Diagnosis , Pathology , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pituitary Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography , Methods , Radiopharmaceuticals , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 80(4): 677-691, Dec. 2008. ilus, graf, tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-497114


The aim of this research was to reconstruct vegetation changes (with climate inferences) that occurred during the Holocene in the Fernando de Noronha Island, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. The research approach included the use of geochemical (mineralogy, elemental), carbon isotopes (δ13C, 14C) and pollen analyses in soil organic matter (SOM) and sediments collected in Lagoa da Viração and Manguezal do Sueste. The carbon isotopes data of SOM indicated that there was no significant vegetation changes during the last 7400 BP, suggesting that the climate was not the determinant factor for the vegetation dynamics. The pollen analysis of the sediment of a core collected in the Lagoa da Viração showed the absence of Quaternary material in the period between 720 BP and 90 BP. The mineralogical analysis of deeper layer showed the presence of diopside indicating this material was developed "in situ". Only in the shallow part of the core were found pollen of similar plant species of the modern vegetation. The geochemistry and isotope results, in association with the sediment type and pollen analyses of sediment samples of Manguezal do Sueste, indicated variations in the vegetation and in its location since the middle Holocene. Such variations can be associated with climatic events and sea level oscillations and also with anthropogenic events considering the last five hundred years.

Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de reconstruir trocas de vegetação (com referências climáticas) que ocorreram durante o Holoceno na ilha de Fernando de Noronha, Estado de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil. Para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa utilizou-se de análises geoquímicas (minerais, elementar), isótopos do carbono (δ13C, 14C) e análises polínicas em solos e sedimentos coletados na Lagoa da Viração e no manguezal do Sueste. Os isótopos do carbono dos solos indicaram que não houve trocas significativas de vegetação durante os últimos 7400 anos AP, sugerindo que o clima não foi um fator determinante para a dinâmica da vegetação. A análise polínica dos sedimentos da Lagoa da Viração mostrou ausência de elementos quaternários no período entre 720 AP e 90 AP. A análise mineralógica das camadas mais profundas mostrou a presença de diopsídeo, indicando que este material foi desenvolvido"in situ". Somente na parte superficial do testemunho foram encontrados palinomorfos de plantas similares à vegetação moderna. Os resultados geoquímicos e isotópicos, em associação com o tipo de sedimento e as análises polínicas das amostras de sedimento do Manguezal do Sueste, indicaram variações na vegetação e na sua localização desde o Holoceno médio. Tais variações podem estar associadas a eventos climáticos e oscilações do nível do mar e também a eventos antrópicos considerando os últimos quinhentos anos.

Pollen , Plants/classification , Brazil , Climate , Carbon Radioisotopes/analysis , Geologic Sediments/analysis , Population Dynamics , Paleontology/methods
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 80(4): 763-770, Dec. 2008. ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-497118


This paper presents unexpectedly early dates for a Tupiguarani settlement in Southeastern Brazil. One radiocarbon dating of 1740 ± 90 yr BP (1820-1390 cal yr BP) was already available for the Morro Grande site (Araruama, southeastern coast of Rio de Janeiro State). Two new dates, obtained from charcoal samples, are reported here. An age of 2920 ± 70 yr BP (3220-2790 cal yr BP) was obtained from a specialized hearth, probably used for cooking ceramics; a funerary hearth at the same archaeological locus was dated at 2600 ± 160 yr BP (3000-2150 cal yr BP). Both measurements were made independently, indifferent laboratories, arguing for their validity. These results considerably age the arrival time of Tupiguarani populations to the coastal region of Southeastern Brazil. They may have important implications to the hypotheses about the origin and dispersion of these populations from Amazonia, supporting the claim of recent authors who consider that their expansion must have begun well before 2000 yrs BP.

Este artigo apresenta datações inesperadamente antigas para umassentamento Tupiguarani no sudeste do Brasil. Uma datação radiocarbono de 1740 ± 90 anos AP (1820-1390 cal anos AP) já existia para o sítio de Morro Grande, situado no município de Araruama, na costa sudeste do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Duas novas datações, obtidas de amostras de carvão, são apresentadas neste trabalho. A data de 2920 ± 70 anos AP (3220-2790 cal anos AP) foi obtida a partir de uma fogueira de uso específico, provavelmente destinada a queimar cerâmica; uma outra provém de uma fogueira funerária do mesmo setor arqueológico, datada em 2600 ± 160 anos AP (3000-2150 cal anos AP). As duas medidas foram feitas independentemente, em laboratórios diferentes, o que reforça sua validade. Estas datações mostram que o momento de chegada de populações Tupiguarani à costa brasileira ocorreu muito antes do que se imaginava. Elas podem ter importantes implicações para as hipóteses sobre a origem e a dispersão dessas populaçõesa partir da Amazônia, corroborando a hipótese de autores recentes que consideram que a expansão Tupi deve ter começado bem antes de 2000 anos AP.

Humans , Archaeology/methods , Carbon Radioisotopes/analysis , Brazil
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 80(3): 531-541, Sept. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-491831


The Poço das Antas National Biological Reserve is located in Rio de Janeiro State, southeast Brazil. This paper presents information on past environmental characteristics of the area through pollen analysis. Two sedimentary columns were collected and five samples were selected for radiocarbon dating. The following ages of the columns from bottom to top were detected: column 1 - 1.20-1.16 m: 6080 ±40 years BP, 0.775-0.735 m: 4090 ±40 years BP, 0.385-0.345 m: 1880 ±80 years BP; column 2 - 1.22-1.18 m: 3520 ±40 years BP, 0.23-0.19 m: 1810 ±40 years BP. Three samples from column 1 and two samples from column 2 were selected for pollen analysis: 1.20 m, 0.77 m and 0.37 m of column1 and 1.22 m and 0.21 m of column 2. Chemical treatment followed standard methodology. The palynological analysis shows that around 6080 years BP the study area was dominated by a rain forest and from around 4090 years BP the vegetation changed to a fragmented forest, restricted to low hills and surrounded by an open area of grassland and pioneer plants, swamps and peat areas. The pollen assemblage of the samples 3520, 1880 and 1810 years BP suggest the permanence of this kind of vegetation between 4000 years BP and the actual.

A Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas localiza-se no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, na região sudeste do Brasil. O presente estudo teve por objetivo fornecer informações a respeito de características ambientais pretéritas da área por meio de análises palinológicas. Foram coletadas duas colunas de sedimentos e cinco amostras foram selecionadas para datação pelo método de radiocarbono, revelando as seguintes idades, da base ao topo dos testemunhos: coluna 1 - 1,20-1,16 m: 6080 ± 40 anos AP, 0,775-0,735 m: 4090 ± 40 anos AP e 0,38-0,34 m: 1880 ± 80 anos AP; coluna 2 - 1,22-1,18 m: 3520 ± 40 anos AP e 0,23-0,19 m, 1810 ± 40 anos AP. Foram retiradas três amostras da coluna 1 e duas da coluna 2 para análise palinológica: 1,20 m, 0,77 e 0,37 m da coluna 1 e 1,22 m e 0,21 m da coluna 2. O tratamento químico foi baseado em metodologia padrão de preparação de amostras palinológicas. A análise palinológica indica que em torno de 6080 anos AP a área de estudo era dominada pela Floresta Ombrófila e que, por volta de 4090 anos AP, a vegetação tinha mudado para uma floresta fragmentada, restrita às baixas colinas circundadas por áreas de campo aberto, pantanosas e turfosas. A permanência desse tipo de vegetação entre 4000 anos AP e o atual é sugerida pelas amostras datadas de 3520,1880 e 1810 anos AP.

Geologic Sediments/analysis , Paleontology , Pollen , Brazil , Carbon Radioisotopes/analysis
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34403


To study the distribution and localization of oil-soluble arteether in experimental mice, we injected C14-labelled arteether (20 microCi/kg body weight) intramuscularly and measured radioactivity in the blood, kidney, and liver. The labelled arteether distributed and localized more to the kidney (819,180.4 +/- 34,134 dpm/cm3) than the liver (288,628.9 +/- 54,954 dpm/cm3) 4 hours post-injection. The main localization of labelled arteether was in the kidney cortex rather than the medulla (p < 0.05). However, the distribution of radioactivity was homogeneous in the liver. The terminal half-life of labelled arteether in the blood was 1.8 hours. The blood:kidney:liver ratio was 1:5:2. These findings show that labelled arteether was distributed quickly and localized in the cytoplasmic cortex of the kidney and homogeneously in the liver.

Animals , Antimalarials/pharmacokinetics , Artemisinins/pharmacokinetics , Carbon Radioisotopes/diagnosis , Half-Life , Kidney/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Male , Mice , Tissue Distribution
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 80(1): 191-203, Mar. 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-477426


Pollen, charcoal, and C14 analyses were performed on a sediment core obtained from Lake Tapera (Amapá) to provide the palaeoenvironmental history of this part of Amazonia. A multivariate analysis technique, Detrended Correspondence Analysis, was applied to the pollen data to improve visualization of sample distribution and similarity. A sedimentary hiatus lasting 5,500 years was identified in the Lake Tapera. Because the timing of the hiatus overlapped with the highest Holocene sea-level, which would have increased the local water table preventing the lake from drying out, it is clear that sea-level was not important in maintaining the lake level. Lake Tapera probably depended on riverine flood waters, and the sedimentary gap was caused by reduced Amazon River discharge, due to an extremely dry period in the Andes (8,000-5,000 years BP), when precipitation levels markedly decreased. The lack of Andean pollen (river transported) in the record after this event supports this interpretation. The pollen analysis shows that when sedimentation resumed in 1,620 cal. years BP, the vegetation around the lake was changed from forest into savanna. This record demonstrates the need to improve our understanding of climate changes and their associated impacts on vegetation dynamics.

Análises de pólen, carvões e datações C foram conduzidas em um testemunho coletado no lago Tapera (Amapá) com o objetivo de interpretar a história paleoambiental desta parte da Amazônia. Uma das técnicas de análises multivariadas, Análise de Correspondência Destendenciada (DCA), foi utilizada a fim de melhor visualizar a distribuição e similaridade das amostras. Foi identificado um hiato sedimentar com duração de 5.500 anos no lago Tapera. Como o hiato ocorreu simultaneamente ao nível do mar mais alto do Holoceno, o que deveria ter aumentado o lençol freático, impedindo assim o lago de secar, é evidente que variações do nível do mar não foram importantes na manutenção do nível do lago. O lago Tapera provavelmente dependia de água das cheias fluviais,e o hiato sedimentar foi causado por uma redução da descarga do Amazonas, devido a um período extremamente seco nos Andes (8.000-5.000 anos cal. AP), quando os níveis de precipitação diminuíram drasticamente. A ausência de pólen transportado dos Andes pelo rio Amazonas no registro sedimentar, após este evento, apóia esta interpretação. A análise palinológica demonstra que quando a sedimentação reiniciou, em 1.620 anos cal. AP, a vegetação em torno do lago havia mudado de floresta para savana. Este registro demonstra a necessidade de melhorar nosso entendimento sobre a extensão e os impactos das mudanças climáticas sobre a evolução da vegetação.

Humans , Climate , Ecosystem , Pollen , Trees , Water Movements , Brazil , Carbon Radioisotopes/analysis , Geologic Sediments/analysis , Population Dynamics , Paleontology/methods
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 343-346, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-357426


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the value of 11C-PD153035 as an EGFR imaging agent in C6 tumor-bearing rat.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The tumor-bearing rats were generated by subcutaneous injection of glioma C6 cells. Positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) scans started as soon as intravenous injection of 11C-PD153035 (15-20 MBq/0.3 ml) was completed, images were collected continuously. The region of interest (ROI) was used to study the percentage of radioactivity in major organs and implanted tumors in the rats. The accumulation and blocking study in vitro was completed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were significant differences in 11C-PD153035 uptake among major organs. The maximum uptake in the organs ranked in the following order: liver > gastrointestinal tract > kidney > lung > brain > muscle. Radioactivity could be also observed in the tumors. The radioactivity ratio (T/NT, target/non-target) peaked (4.15) at 40 - 50 min post injection. The in vitro blocking study showed that 11C-PD153035 uptaken by C6 cells could be blocked by PD153035.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results of this study show that 11C-PD153035 can be uptaken by EGFR-expressing tumors. 11C-PD153035 has a potential as a bioprobe to yield useful information for both diagnosis and therapy of tumors. However, the high concentration of 11C-PD153035 in the gastrointestinal tract is unfavorably affecting the tumor detection in these organs.</p>

Animals , Brain Neoplasms , Diagnostic Imaging , Metabolism , Pathology , Carbon Radioisotopes , Cell Line, Tumor , Gastrointestinal Tract , Metabolism , Glioma , Diagnostic Imaging , Metabolism , Pathology , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Neoplasm Transplantation , Positron-Emission Tomography , Quinazolines , Pharmacokinetics , Rats , Rats, Wistar , ErbB Receptors , Metabolism , Tissue Distribution , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2007 Oct; 25(4): 358-63
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53675


PURPOSE: This study compares the results of radiorespirometric Buddemeyer assay with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay and mouse foot pad (MFP) test to validate the sensitivity of Buddemeyer assay in detecting viable M. leprae in clinical samples. METHODS: Viability was assessed using all the three methods in 60 skin biopsy specimens, including 20 untreated lepromatous leprosy (BL-LL), 13 treated BL-LL, 12 untreated borderline tuberculoid to mid borderline (BT-BB) and 15 treated BT-BB cases. RESULTS: Of the 20 untreated BL-LL cases tested, positivity indicating the presence of viable M. leprae was detected in 85, 60 and 85% with Buddemeyer, ATP and MFP test, respectively. Among the 13 treated BL-LL cases, scores were 61, 54 and 0%; among the 12 untreated BT-BB cases, the scores were 58, 16 and 16% and among the 15 treated BT-BB cases, the scores were 46, 20, 0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The detection sensitivity (positive scores) with three tests were closely comparable in the two untreated groups of cases. On the other hand, in the two treated groups, a good proportion of cases scored positive in the in vitro tests but none in the MFP test. Among the two in vitro methods, the Buddemeyer assay emerged as a better test, in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Animals , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Carbon Radioisotopes/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Leprosy/diagnosis , Mice , Microbial Viability , Mycobacterium leprae/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(3): 305-307, Mar. 2007.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-441770


Disorders of the lipid metabolism may play a role in the genesis of abdominal aorta aneurysm. The present study examined the intravascular catabolism of chylomicrons, the lipoproteins that carry the dietary lipids absorbed by the intestine in the circulation in patients with abdominal aorta aneurysm. Thirteen male patients (72 ± 5 years) with abdominal aorta aneurysm with normal plasma lipid profile and 13 healthy male control subjects (73 ± 5 years) participated in the study. The method of chylomicron-like emulsions was used to evaluate this metabolism. The emulsion labeled with 14C-cholesteryl oleate and ³H-triolein was injected intravenously in both groups. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals over 60 min to determine the decay curves. The fractional clearance rate (FCR) of the radioactive labels was calculated by compartmental analysis. The FCR of the emulsion with ³H-triolein was smaller in the aortic aneurysm patients than in controls (0.025 ± 0.017 vs 0.039 ± 0.019 min-1; P < 0.05), but the FCR of14C-cholesteryl oleate of both groups did not differ. In conclusion, as indicated by the triglyceride FCR, chylomicron lipolysis is diminished in male patients with aortic aneurysm, whereas the remnant removal which is traced by the cholesteryl oleate FCR is not altered. The results suggest that defects in the chylomicron metabolism may represent a risk factor for development of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

Humans , Male , Aged , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/metabolism , Cholesterol Esters/pharmacokinetics , Chylomicrons/pharmacology , Lipolysis , Triolein/pharmacokinetics , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/blood , Body Mass Index , Carbon Radioisotopes , Case-Control Studies , Cholesterol Esters/administration & dosage , Chylomicrons/administration & dosage , Emulsions , Injections, Intravenous , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Triolein/administration & dosage
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337372


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the biodistribution of L-[S-methyl-(11)C]-methioine ((11)C-MET) and explore its clinical application in positron emission tomography (PET) for brain tumor detection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty-four Wistar rats and divided into 6 equal groups and injected with (11)C-MET through the tail vein and killed by decollation at 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 min after injection, respectively. The liver, brain, blood, heart, lung, kidney, and spleen were harvested to measure the radioactivity and calculate the biodistribution of (11)C-MET. PET imaging with (11)C-MET was performed in 6 normal volunteers and 30 patients with pathologically confirmed brain gliomas.</p><p><b>RESULTS AND CONCLUSION</b>(11)C-MET showed high blood uptake and a long retention in the tumor mass, therefore can be a valuable tracer for PET imaging of brain tumor and the hypophysis.</p>

Adult , Aged , Animals , Brain , Diagnostic Imaging , Metabolism , Pathology , Brain Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Metabolism , Carbon Radioisotopes , Female , Glioma , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Metabolism , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography , Methods , Radiopharmaceuticals , Pharmacokinetics , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tissue Distribution , Vitamin U , Pharmacokinetics
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 960-964, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-240292


<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>(11)C-4-N-(3-bromoanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline ((11)C-PD153035) has been reported as a tracer for imaging human tumors that overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However it is still unclear whether (11)C-PD153035 uptake correlates with EGFR expression levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between (11)C-PD153035 accumulation and EGFR expression levels.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Synthesis of (11)C-PD153035 was performed in the Tracerlab FXc system. Accumulation of (11)C-PD153035 by MDA-MB-468, A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells was measured in vitro. There were six tumor-bearing mice in each group. (11)C-PD153035 uptake in tumors was determined by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Tumor/normal muscle tissue (T/NT) analysis in PET images was applied to quantify the PET data. Sixty minutes after PET/CT scanning, the nude mice were sacrificed and the tumors were excised. The (11)C-PD153035 accumulation in different tumors was determined by a gamma counter.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Close correlation existed between the uptake and the level of EGFR expression both in vitro and ex vivo (r(2) = 0.72, P < 0.001; r(2) = 0.63, P = 0.003). When the static T/NT analysis method was applied to analyze the PET data, the observed correlation was again excellent (r(2) = 0.70, P = 0.001).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The uptake of PET tracer (11)C-PD153035 closely correlates with the EGFR expression levels in tumor cells. (11)C-PD153035 has the potential to yield useful information for both cancer diagnosis and therapy.</p>

Animals , Carbon Radioisotopes , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Humans , Ligands , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Positron-Emission Tomography , Quinazolines , Metabolism , ErbB Receptors , Metabolism
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 634-639, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267071


<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Middle mediastinal masses comprise a wide variety of tumors but may also reflect lymphadenopathy, and thus remain an interesting diagnostic challenge. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) of mediastinal masses in order to evaluate the ability of PET to predict the malignancy of these tumors. We compared histologic findings, videomediastinoscopy, computed tomography (CT), and PET-CT in patients with mediastinal disease.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-two patients were evaluated with CT, PET-CT and videomediastionoscopy, and all studies were performed within four weeks in each patient. (11)C-choline as a PET tracer was used to visualize masses. PET data were evaluated using the standardized uptake value (SUV) and were compared with pathologic data.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were 13 men and 19 women aged from 21 to 74 (mean 45.2) years. Among the patients with mediastinal diseases, sarcoidosis was diagnosed in 12 patients, tuberculosis in 5 patients, lymphoma in 5 patients, and noncaseating granulomata without classical "sarcoid" finding in 3 patients. N2 or N3 nodal metastasis was revealed in 6 of 7 patients who had non-small cell lung cancer or suspected lung cancer, and one was negative (the pathological diagnosis was reactive hyperplasia). The accuracies for correctly diagnosing mediastinal masses for CT, PET-CT and videomediastinoscopy were 38% (12/32), 63% (20/32), and 91% (29/32) respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of videomediastinoscopy was superior to that of PET-CT (chi(2) = 11.130, P < 0.001). The SUVs were similar among these diseases. On the other hand, if the diagnostic classification was benign vs malignancy, the accuracies for CT, PET-CT and videomediastinoscopy were 53% (17/32), 75% (24/32), 100% (32/32) respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of videomediastinoscopy was superior to that of PET-CT (chi(2) = 22.042, P < 0.001). The SUV of malignant lesions (6.9, 3.2 - 9.8; n = 11) appeared to be higher than that of benign lesions (4.9, 2.9 - 8.3; n = 21), however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.054).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>To diagnose lesions located in the middle mediastinum, videomediastinoscopy possesses the highest diagnostic accuracy, and therefore remains the gold standard. PET-CT is valuable for differential diagnosis of benign vs malignant lesions, CT alone or PET alone (SUV) may provide misdiagnosis in a substantial proportion of patients with mediastinal masses.</p>

Adult , Aged , Carbon Radioisotopes , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Diseases , Diagnosis , Mediastinoscopy , Methods , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Video Recording
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 405-408, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-317142


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To assess the value of carbon-11 choline (CH) positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with pulmonary nodules.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From September 2002 to December 2004, 39 patients with pulmonary nodules were imaged with CH-PET. CH-PET data was analyzed by visual method and semiquantitative method. When pulmonary nodules with abnormal CH uptake appeared in PET scans confirmed by visual method, their maximum and mean standard uptake value (SUVmax and SUVmean) were measured using semiquantitative method. Diagnoses were confirmed by surgery or biopsy and follow-up survey.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Twenty-four cancerous and 3 inflammatory nodules and 1 bronchogenic cyst were detected by CH-PET and were diagnosed malignant with visual method. Three bronchial alveolar carcinoma, 2 metastatic tumor from kidney and colon, 3 fibrous nodules, 1 cryptococcosis, 1 hamartoma and 1 sclerosing hemangioma showed nothing abnormal in PET scans. For identification of pulmonary nodules with CH-PET, the sensitivity was 89% (24/29), the specificity was 60% (6/10), and the accuracy was 77% (30/39). There were differences in SUV between 8 squamous cell carcinomas and 9 adenocarcinomas (Z = -2.937, -2.887, P < 0.01). In diagnosing 70 resected enlarged lymph nodes beyond 1 cm in 17 lung cancer patients, CH-PET had the sensitivity of 86% (25/29), the specificity of 90% (37/41), and the accuracy of 89% (62/70). CH-PET confirmed 7 distant metastases in 25 lung cancer patients. In 5 cases suspected brain metastases CH-PET identified 2 cases positive correctly.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>CH-PET can confirm malignant pulmonary nodules, but still there were false positive and false negative cases. CH-PET can evaluate N stage effectively in patients with lung cancer. CH-PET can depict brain metastases accurately.</p>

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carbon Radioisotopes , Choline , Female , Humans , Lung , Diagnostic Imaging , Pathology , Lung Diseases , Diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography , Methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity