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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828067

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate whether psoralen can aggravate hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride(CCl_4) by inducing hepatocyte cycle arrest and delaying liver regeneration. Female C57 BL/6 mice aged 6-8 weeks were randomly divided into control group, model group(CCl_4 group), combined group(CCl_4+PSO group) and psoralen group(PSO group). CCl_4 group and CCl_4+PSO group were given CCl_4 intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 μL·kg~(-1) once; olive oil of the same volume was given to control group and PSO group intraperitoneally; 12 h, 36 h and 60 h after CCl_4 injection, PSO group and CCl_4+PSO group were administrated with PSO intragastrically at a dose of 200 mg·kg~(-1); 0.5% CMC-Na of the same volume was administrated to control group and PSO group intragastrically. The weight of mice was recorded every day. Serum alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) were measured at 36 h, 60 h and 84 h after CCl_4 injection. Mice were sacrificed after collection of the last serum samples. Liver samples were collected, and liver weight was recorded. Histopathological and morphological changes of liver were observed by haematoxylin and eosin staining. The mRNA levels of HGF, TGF-β, TNF-α, p53 and p21 in liver were detected by RT-qPCR. Western blot was used to detect the levels of cell cycle-related proteins. According to the results, significant increase of serum ALT and AST and centrilobular necrosis with massive inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in CCl_4+PSO group. After PSO administration in CCl_4 model, the mRNA levels of HGF(hepatocyte growth factor) and TNF-α were reduced, while the mRNA expressions of TGF-β, p53 and p21 was up-regulated. The expression of PCNA(proliferating cell nuclear antigen) was significantly increased in CCl_4 and CCl_4+PSO group, while the relative protein level in CCl_4+PSO group was slightly lower than that in CCl_4 group. Compared with control and CCl_4 group, the expression of p27(cyclic dependent kinase inhibitor protein p27) was prominently increased in CCl_4+PSO group. These results indicated that hepatotoxicity induced by CCl_4 could be aggravated by intraperitoneal administration with PSO, and the repair process of liver could be delayed. The preliminary mechanism may be related to the inhibition of PCNA and regulation of some cell cycle-associated protein by psoralen, in which the significant up-regulation of p27, p53 and p21 may play important roles.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Carbon Tetrachloride , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Female , Ficusin , Liver , Liver Regeneration , Mice
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pilea umbrosa (Urticaceae) is used by local communities (district Abbotabad) for liver disorders, as anticancer, in rheumatism and in skin disorders.@*METHODS@#Methanol extract of P. umbrosa (PUM) was investigated for the presence of polyphenolic constituents by HPLC-DAD analysis. PUM (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) was administered on alternate days for eight weeks in rats exposed with carbon tetrachloride (CCl). Serum analysis was performed for liver function tests while in liver tissues level of antioxidant enzymes and biochemical markers were also studied. In addition, semi quantitative estimation of antioxidant genes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induced stress markers, pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis related genes were carried out on liver tissues by RT-PCR analysis. Liver tissues were also studied for histopathological injuries.@*RESULTS@#Level of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione (GSH) decreased (p < 0.05) whereas level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), HO and nitrite increased in liver tissues of CCl treated rat. Likewise increase in the level of serum markers; alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin was observed. Moreover, CCl caused many fold increase in expression of ER stress markers; glucose regulated protein (GRP-78), x-box binding protein1-total (XBP-1 t), x-box binding protein1-unspliced (XBP-1 u) and x-box binding protein1-spliced (XBP-1 s). The level of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was aggregated whereas suppressed the level of antioxidant enzymes; γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLC), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf-2). Additionally, level of fibrosis markers; transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), Smad-3 and collagen type 1 (Col1-α) increased with CCl induced liver toxicity. Histopathological scrutiny depicted damaged liver cells, neutrophils infiltration and dilated sinusoids in CCl intoxicated rats. PUM was enriched with rutin, catechin, caffeic acid and apigenin as evidenced by HPLC analysis. Simultaneous administration of PUM and CCl in rats retrieved the normal expression of these markers and prevented hepatic injuries.@*CONCLUSION@#Collectively these results suggest that PUM constituted of strong antioxidant chemicals and could be a potential therapeutic agent for stress related liver disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Fibrosis , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Urticaceae , Chemistry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878834

ABSTRACT

This paper was to investigate the effect of total flavonoids of Lichi Semen(TFL) on carbon tetrachloride(CCl_4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats, analyze and predict its mechanism of action and potential quality markers(Q-marker). Firstly, male SD rats were taken and injected subcutaneously with a 40% CCl_4-vegetable oil solution twice a week for 8 consecutive weeks to establish a rat model of liver fibrosis. The rats with liver fibrosis were randomly divided into model group, silybin group(43.19 mg·kg~(-1)), Fuzheng Huayu Capsules group(462.75 mg·kg~(-1)), and TFL groups(100 mg·kg~(-1) and 25 mg·kg~(-1)), with normal rats as a blank group, 10 rats in each group. Except for the blank group, the rats in the other groups were subcutaneously injected with 40% CCl_4-vegetable oil solution of a maintenance dose, once a week. The rats in various treatment groups received corresponding doses of drugs, while the rats in the blank group and model group received the same volume of normal saline once a day for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood was collected from the abdominal aorta and the liver tissues were collected. The levels of total bilirubin(TBiL), direct bilirubin(DBiL), indirect bilirubin(IBiL), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in serum were detected by using an automatic biochemical detector. Masson staining was used to observe the histopathological changes of rat liver. Then, the chemical compositions of TFL were collected, and the action targets of these chemical compositions were predicted through SWISS database and reverse molecular docking server(DRAR-CPI). After screening of disease targets of liver fibrosis by Gene Cards database, the protein-protein interaction was analyzed with use of STRING database, and GO(gene ontology) analysis and KEGG(Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) enrich analysis were also carried out. Moreover, an iTRAQ proteomics technology was used to determine protein expression in liver tissues of rats in TFL, model and blank groups to verify the targets. Furthermore, Cytoscape software was used to establish and visualize the network of chemical components, targets and pathways, and predict the potential Q-marker of TFL. The results showed that the levels of TBiL, DBiL, IBiL, ALT, and AST in the model group were significantly higher than those in the blank normal group(P<0.05), and the above levels in the treatment groups were lower than those in the model group, but with no significant differences. Masson staining showed that the liver damage and the degree of fibrosis were severe in the model group, and were relieved to different degrees in the treatment groups. Then, 74 chemical components were screened, which could act on 865 targets such as EGFR and SRC, participating in the regulation of cancer pathways, PI3 K-Akt signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway and other signaling pathways closely related to liver fibrosis. Pinocembrin, quercetin, epicatechin, procyanidin A2, naringenin, nobiletin, phlorizin and rutin showed the highest correlation with liver fibrosis-related targets and pathways. Proteomics results showed that a total of 18 proteins among the 45 proteins predicted by internet pharmacology were identified, among which 6 proteins were significantly expressed, including 5 up-regulated proteins and 1 down-regulated protein. The protein expression of ALB, PLG, HSP90 AA1, EGFR and MAP2 K1 was significantly returned to a normal state in the TFL treatment groups. In conclusion, TFL may demonstrate the anti-hepatic fibrosis and potential hepatoprotective effects by regulating the expression of ALB, PLG, HSP90 AA1, EGFR and MAP2 K1, which may be associated with the regulation of multiple signaling pathways related to liver fibrosis such as PI3 K-Akt pathway. Pinocembrin, quercetin, epicatechin, procyanidin A2, naringenin, nobiletin, phlorizin and rutin could be regarded as potential Q-markers of TFL for quality control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Flavonoids , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Semen
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773422

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study was designed to evaluate hematological disorders and the orchestrating roles of hepcidin and IL-6 in rat models of thioacetamide (TAA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) hepatotoxicity.@*METHODS@#Rats were intraperitoneally injected with TAA (10 mg/100 g rat weight dissolved in isosaline) or CCl4 (100 μL/100 g rat weight diluted as 1:4 in corn oil) twice weekly for eight consecutive weeks to induce subchronic liver fibrosis. Blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#CCl4 but not TAA significantly decreased the RBCs, Hb, PCV, and MCV values with minimal alterations in other erythrocytic indices. Both hepatotoxins showed leukocytosis, granulocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. By the end of the experiment, the erythropoietin level increased in the CCl4 model. The serum iron, UIBC, TIBC, transferrin saturation%, and serum transferrin concentration values significantly decreased, whereas that of ferritin increased in the CCl4 model. TAA increased the iron parameters toward iron overload. RT-PCR analysis revealed increased expression of hepatic hepcidin and IL-6 mRNAs in the CCl4 model and suppressed hepcidin expression without significant effect on IL-6 in the TAA model.@*CONCLUSION@#These data suggest differences driven by hepcidin and IL-6 expression between CCl4 and TAA liver fibrosis models and are of clinical importance for diagnosis and therapeutics of liver diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Chemical Analysis , Carbon Tetrachloride , Toxicity , Hepcidins , Pharmacology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Interleukin-6 , Pharmacology , Iron , Blood , Metabolism , Leukocytosis , Therapeutics , Liver Cirrhosis , Therapeutics , Male , Rats , Thioacetamide , Toxicity , Thrombocytopenia , Therapeutics , Transferrin , Metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773203

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to investigate the mechanism of hepatoprotective effect of C-21 steroidal glucosides from Cynanchum auriculatum( Baishouwu) on oxidative stress in mice with liver injury. Mice were randomly divided into normal group,model group,positive control group,Baishouwu high group and Baishouwu low group. The liver injury model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 peanut oil solution. All mice were sacrificed to collect blood and liver specimens. The activities of serum levels of ALT and AST were detected. The content of MDA and the activity of SOD in liver homogenate were examined by colorimetry method. Tissues were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histological examination. The hepatic protein expressions of NF-κB p65,p-IκBα,i NOS and COX-2 were detected by Western blot. The mRNA expressions of TNF-α and IL-6 were determined by RT-PCR. It was found that treatment with C-21 steroidal glucosides from Baishouwu successfully attenuated liver injury induced by CCl4,as shown by decreased levels of serum biochemical indicators( AST,ALT)( P<0. 01). Administration of total C-21 steroidal glucosides enhanced the activity of SOD( P<0. 01) and decreased the content of MDA( P<0. 01) in liver homogenate. Microscopic features suggested that treatment with C-21 steroidal glucosides from Baishouwu was effective in inhibiting CCl4-induced hepatocyte edema and degeneration. Further studies showed that NF-κB p65 overexpression induced by CCl4 was decreased by C-21 steroidal glucosides,leading to the markedly down-regulated protein expression levels of p-IκBα,i NOS and COX-2,as well as the depression of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expressions. In conclusion,total C-21 steroidal glucosides from Baishouwu exhibited potent effect on oxidative stress pathway in mice with liver injury induced by CCl4,with enhanced activity of SOD,decreased content of MDA,and down-regulated levels of NF-κB p65,p-IκBα,i NOS and COX-2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug Therapy , Cynanchum , Chemistry , Glucosides , Pharmacology , Hepatocytes , Liver , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Random Allocation
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The liver is an organ with remarkable regenerative capacity; however, once chronic fibrosis occurs, liver failure follows, with high mortality and morbidity rates. Continuous exposure to proinflammatory stimuli exaggerates the pathological process of liver failure; therefore, immune modulation is a potential strategy to treat liver fibrosis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with tissue regenerative and immunomodulatory potential may support the development of therapeutics for liver fibrosis. METHODS: Here, we induced hepatic injury in mice by injecting carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) and investigated the therapeutic potential of conditionedmedium from tonsil-derivedMSCs (T-MSCCM). In parallel, we used recombinant human IL-1Ra,which, as we have previously shown, is secreted exclusively from T-MSCs and resolves the fibrogenic activation of myoblasts. Hepatic inflammation and fibrosis were determined by histological analyses using H&E and Picro-Sirius Red staining. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that T-MSC CM treatment significantly reduced inflammation as well as fibrosis in the CCl₄-injured mouse liver. IL-1Ra injection showed effects similar to T-MSC CM treatment, suggesting that T-MSC CM may exert anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects via the endogenous production of IL-1Ra. The expression of genes involved in fibrosis was evaluated, and the results showed significant induction of alpha-1 type I collagen, transforming growth factor beta, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases 1 upon CCl₄ injection, whereas treatment with T-MSC CM or IL-1Ra downregulated their expression. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these data support the therapeutic potential of T-MSC CM and/or IL-1Ra for the alleviation of liver fibrosis, as well as in treating diseases involving organ fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Collagen Type I , Culture Media, Conditioned , Fibrosis , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Failure , Liver , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Metalloproteases , Mice , Mortality , Myoblasts , Transforming Growth Factor beta
7.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 355-361, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Painters in the automotive sector are routinely exposed to volatile organic solvents, and the levels vary depending on the occupational health and safety controls enforced at the companies. This study investigates the levels of exposure to organic vapors and the existence of controls in the formal economy sector in southern Colombia. METHODS: This is an exploratory study of an observational and descriptive character. An analysis of solvents is conducted via the personal sampling of painters and the analysis of samples using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 1501 method. The amount of solvents analyzed varied according to the budget allocated by the companies. The person in charge of the occupational safety and health management system was interviewed to learn about the exposure controls implemented at the companies. RESULTS: A medium exposure risk for toluene was found in one company. Another presented medium risk for carbon tetrachloride, xylene, ethylbenzene, and n-butanol. The others showed low risk of exposure and that the controls implemented were not sufficient or efficient. CONCLUSION: These results shed light on the working conditions of these tradespeople. The permissible limits established by Colombian regulations for the evaluated chemical contaminants were not exceeded. However, there were contaminants that exceeded the limits of action. The analysis of findings made it possible to propose improvements in occupational safety and health management systems to allow the optimization of working conditions for painters, prevent the occurrence of occupational diseases, and reduce costs to the country's health system.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Carbon Tetrachloride , Colombia , Humans , Methods , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Health , Social Control, Formal , Solvents , Toluene , Xylenes
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785834

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The release of microvesicles (MVs) from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been implicated in intercellular communication, and may contribute to beneficial paracrine effects of stem cell-based therapies. We investigated the effect of administration of MSC-MVs on the therapeutic potential of carbon tetrachloride (CCL₄) induced liver fibrosis in rats.METHODS: Our work included: isolation and further identification of bone marrow MSC-MVs by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by CCl4 followed by injection of prepared MSC-MVs in injured rats. The effects of MSC-MVs were evaluated by biochemical analysis of liver functions, RNA gene expression quantitation for collagen-1α, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by real time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) techniques. Finally histopathological examination of the liver tissues was assessed for all studied groups.RESULTS: BM-MSC-MVs treated group showed significant increase in serum albumin levels, VEGF quantitative gene expression (p < 0.05), while it showed a significant decrease in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) enzyme levels, quantitative gene expression of TGF-β, collagen-1α, IL-1β compared to CCL₄ fibrotic group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the histopathological assessment of the liver tissues of BM-MSC-MVs treated group showed marked decrease in the collagen deposition & improvement of histopathological picture in comparison with CCL₄ fibrotic group.CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that BM-MSC-MVs possess anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and pro-angiogenic properties which can promote the resolution of CCL₄ induced liver fibrosis in rats.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Animals , Bone Marrow , Carbon Tetrachloride , Collagen , Gene Expression , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Reverse Transcription , RNA , Serum Albumin , Transforming Growth Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728029

ABSTRACT

Swertiamarin (STM) is an iridoid compound that is present in the Gentianaceae swertia genus. Here we investigated antiapoptotic effects of STM on carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced liver injury and its possible mechanisms. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group, an STM 200 mg/kg group, a CCl₄ group, a CCl₄+STM 100 mg/kg group, and a CCl₄+STM 200 mg/kg group. Rats in experimental groups were subcutaneously injected with 40% CCl₄ twice weekly for 8 weeks. STM (100 and 200 mg/kg per day) was orally given to experimental rats by gavage for 8 consecutive weeks. Hepatocyte apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay and the expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 proteins were evaluated by western blot analysis. The expression of TGF-β1, collagen I, collagen III, CTGF and fibronectin mRNA were estimated by qRT-PCR. The results showed that STM significantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells compared with the CCl₄ group. The levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 proteins, and TGF-β1, collagen I, collagen III, CTGF, and fibronectin mRNA were significantly reduced by STM compared with the CCl₄ group. In addition, STM markedly abrogated the repression of Bcl-2 by CCl₄. STM also attenuated the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the liver. These results suggested that STM ameliorated CCl₄-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in rats.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Carbon Tetrachloride , Carbon , Caspase 3 , Collagen , Fibronectins , Gentianaceae , Hepatocytes , Humans , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Liver , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Repression, Psychology , RNA, Messenger , Swertia
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(8): 1570-1576, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-976473

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo avaliou a hepatotoxicidade induzida pelo CCl4 durante o efeito glicocorticoide da dexametasona (DEX) na fisiopatologia da reação inflamatória aguda em tilápias do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, correlacionando a funcionalidade hepática à cinética de acúmulo celular em aerocistite infecciosa. Para tal, utilizou-se 84 tilápias do Nilo distribuídas em 4 tratamentos: controle, CCl4, DEX e CCl4+DEX. Sendo amostrados 7 animais por tratamento em três períodos, isto é: seis, 24 e 48h após indução de inflamação. Utilizou-se CCl4 em dose única de 0,5mL/kg, via intraperitoneal para causar o transtorno hepático. Para indução da aerocistite utilizou-se inóculo de Aeromonas hydrophila. A dexametasona foi administrada via intramuscular na dose de 2 mg/kg de peso vivo. Os resultados revelaram que quanto maior foi à atividade sérica de aspartato aminotransferase (AST) maior foi a alteração somática do fígado, sendo estes achados inversamente proporcionais ao acúmulo celular no foco inflamatório, demonstrando menor número de células inflamatórias nos animais acometidos com maior grau de distúrbios hepáticos induzidos pelo CCl4. O estudo histopatológico revelou alterações degenerativas transitórias na fase mais aguda, pois os fígados das tilápias revelaram o acúmulo lipídeos nos hepatócitos 6h após administração de CCl4, sendo esta degeneração gordurosa não mais observada nos tempos de 24 e 48h. Contudo, a administração de CCl4 em tilápias do Nilo resultou em degeneração hepática aguda e transitória, caracterizada pelo acúmulo de gordura nos hepatócitos, aumento de AST no sangue e hepatomegalia. Com a disfunção hepática houve comprometimento do recrutamento celular em aerocistite infecciosa, indicando que há participação do fígado na resposta imune inata em peixes.(AU)


The study evaluated the hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 during the glucocorticoid effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on the pathophysiology of the acute inflammatory reaction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, correlating hepatic functionality with cellular accumulation kinetics in infectious aerocystitis. Eighty- four Nile tilapia were distributed into four treatments: control, CCl4, DEX and CCl4 + DEX. Seven tilapia were sampled per treatment in three periods: 6, 24 and 48h after induction of inflammation. CCl4 was used in a single dose of 0.5mL/kg intraperitoneally to cause hepatic disorder. Aeromonas hydrophila inoculum was used to induce aerocystitis. Dexamethasone was administered intramuscularly at the dose of 2mg/kg b. w. The results revealed a higher serum aspartate transaminase (AST) activity associated with greater somatic liver alteration, being these findings inversely proportional to the cellular accumulation in the inflammatory focus, demonstrating a lower number of inflammatory cells in the animals affected with a higher degree of hepatic disorders induced by CCl4. The histopathological study revealed transient degenerative changes in the most acute phase, as livers of tilapia showed accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes 6 hours after administration of CCl4, and this fatty degeneration was no longer observed in 24 and 48h. However, administration of CCl4 in Nile tilapia resulted in acute and transient liver degeneration, characterized by accumulation of fat in hepatocytes, increased AST in the blood and hepatomegaly. With liver dysfunction there was compromise of cellular recruitment in infectious aerocystitis, indicating that there is liver involvement in the innate immune response in tilapia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Cichlids/physiology , Cichlids/blood , Fatty Liver/physiopathology
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 750-757, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954181

ABSTRACT

Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) has been used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antibacterial, antifungal agent. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oil against CC14- induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Thirty-five mice were divided into five groups as follows; positive control received olive oil 1 mL/ kg/ip, negative control received CC14 1 mg/kg/ip + 0.5 mL distilled water orally and tree treatment groups which received CC14 similar to the negative control and 200, 800 and 1600 µg/kg of T. ammi essential oil, respectively. All treatments were done twice a week (Saturday and Wednesday) for 45 days. On the last day, blood was sampled for urea and creatinine assessment and the left kidney was removed for stereological estimations. Essential oil of T. ammi at high dose significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased serum levels of creatinine and urea in comparison with CC14-treated group. Total volume of the kidney, cortex, proximal convoluted tubules (PC), glomerulus, vessels and interstitial tissue as well as total length of PC and vessel were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased following CC14 administration and were restored toward normal levels at high dose of T. ammi. Also, high dose of T. ammi improved glomerular loss significantly (p ≤ 0.05) as compared with CC14-treated group. Due to the chemical composition of T. ammi essential oil such as tymol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene which are antioxidant, it can be concluded that the essential oil of T. ammi can ameliorated renal injury induced following CC14 toxicity via its antioxidant components.


En la medicina popular se ha utilizado el aceite esencial de Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) como agente antiinflamatorio, antipirético, antibacteriano y anti fúngico. El presente estudio se realizó para investigar el efecto protector de Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) aceite esencial contra la nefrotoxicidad inducida en ratones. Treinta y cinco ratones fueron divididos en cinco grupos de la siguiente manera; el control positivo recibió 1 mL / kg / ip de aceite de oliva, el control negativo recibió 1 mg / kg / ip + 0,5 mL de agua destilada por vía oral y grupos de tratamiento arbóreo que recibieron un control similar al negativo y 200, 800 y 1600 mg / kg de T. aceite esencial de T. ammi, respectivamente. Todos los tratamientos se realizaron dos veces por semana (sábado y miércoles) durante 45 días. En el último día de tratamiento, se tomaron muestras de sangre para evaluar la urea y la creatinina, y se extrajo el riñón izquierdo para realizar estimaciones estereológicas. El aceite esencial de T. ammi a dosis altas significativamente (p ≤ 0,05) disminuyó los niveles séricos de creatinina y urea en comparación con el grupo tratado. El volumen total del riñón, la corteza, los túbulos contorneados proximales (PC), el glomérulo, los vasos y el tejido intersticial, así como la longitud total de la PC y el vaso aumentaron significativamente (p ≤ 0,05) después de la administración y se restablecieron a niveles normales con dosis altas de T. ammi. Además, una dosis alta de T. ammi mejoró significativamente la pérdida glomerular (p ≤ 0,05) en comparación con el grupo tratado. Debido a la composición química del aceite esencial de T. ammi como timol, p-cimeno, 𝛾-terpineno con propiedades antioxidantes, se puede concluir que el aceite esencial de T. ammi puede mejorar la lesión renal inducida después de la toxicidad a través de sus componentes antioxidantes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Carbon Tetrachloride/toxicity , Apiaceae , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Mice, Inbred BALB C
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690947

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To express and purify the mouse endothelial cell-targeted recombinant Notch ligand protein mD1R, and to investigate its effect on hematopoiesis after carbon tetrachloride damage.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>PCR was performed to clone and construct the expression vector pET22b(+)-mD1R. The mD1R successfully transformed into E. coli was induced by IPTG, and purified with Ni-beads affinity chromatography. The target protein was detected by SDS-PAGE. The fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis (FACS), cell adhesion test, immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR were employed to detect the endothelial cell-targeted and Notch signaling-activated biological characteristics of mD1R. The carbon tetrachloride mouse model was established to observe the effects of mD1R on the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), myeloid cells and lymphoid cells by flow cytometry. The LinScal-1c-Kit cells were sorted by magnetic bead, FACS was performed to analyze the cell cycle, and RT-PCR was employed to observe the expression of interleukin (IL)-10.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The prokaryotic expression vector was successfully cloned and constructed. The purity and the activity were confirmed in mD1R recombinant protein. The purified mD1R activated the Notch signaling pathway of hematopoietic stem cells in carbon tetrachloride damaged mouse, and internally elevated the number of HSC and long-term HSC to 2.96-fold and 6.18-fold. In addition, mD1R improved the amplification of the myeloid progenitor cells and the myeloid-derived suppressor cells, particularly the granulocyte/monocyte into blood. Mechanistically, the further analyses suggested that Notch pathway could increase the proliferation of HSC and enhance expression of IL-10 after stress injury.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>A new and activated recombinant Notch ligand protein has been obtained successfully to communicate hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic microenvironment. The Notch- mediated intrinsic hematopoiesis has been regulated by the anti-inflammatory factor after stress injury.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Escherichia coli , Hematopoiesis , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Ligands , Mice , Receptors, Notch , Signal Transduction
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713617

ABSTRACT

The liver is an essential organ for the detoxification of exogenous xenobiotics, drugs and toxic substances. The incidence rate of non-alcoholic liver injury increases due to dietary habit change and drug use increase. Our previous study demonstrated that Ecklonia stolonifera (ES) formulation has hepatoprotective effect against alcohol-induced liver injury in rat and tacrine-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells. This present study was designated to elucidate hepatoprotective effects of ES formulation against carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced liver injury in Sprague Dawley rat. Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups. The rats were treated orally with ES formulation and silymarin (served as positive control, only 100 mg/kg/day) at a dose of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day for 21 days. Seven days after treatment, liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl₄ (1.5 ml/kg, twice a week for 14 days). The administration of CCl₄ exhibited significant elevation of hepatic enzymes (like AST and ALT), and decrease of antioxidant related enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) and glutathione. Then, it leaded to DNA damages (8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde). Administration of ES formulation inhibited imbalance of above factors compared to CCl₄ induced rat in a dose dependent manner. Real time PCR analysis indicates that CYP2E1 was upregulated in CCl₄ induced rat. However, increased gene expression was compromised by ES formulation treatment. These findings suggests that ES formulation could protect hepatotoxicity caused by CCl₄ via two pathways: elevation of antioxidant enzymes and normalization of CYP2E1 enzyme.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 , DNA Damage , Feeding Behavior , Gene Expression , Glutathione , Glutathione Peroxidase , Hep G2 Cells , Incidence , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Silymarin , Xenobiotics
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The current study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of Sasa veitchii extract (SE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl)-induced liver fibrosis in mice.@*METHODS@#Male C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl dissolved in olive oil (1 g/kg) twice per week for 8 weeks. SE (0.1 mL) was administered orally once per day throughout the study, and body weight was measured weekly. Seventy-two hours after the final CCl injection, mice were euthanized and plasma samples were collected. The liver and kidneys were collected and weighed.@*RESULTS@#CCl administration increased liver weight, decreased body weight, elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase and increased liver oxidative stress (malondialdehyde and glutathione). These increases were attenuated by SE treatment. Overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-α was also reversed following SE treatment. Furthermore, CCl-induced increases in α-smooth muscle actin, a marker for hepatic fibrosis, were attenuated in mice treated with SE. Moreover, SE inhibited CCl-induced nuclear translocation of hepatic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK).@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggested that SE prevented CCl-induced hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Toxicity , Liver Cirrhosis , Drug Therapy , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Sasa , Chemistry
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775398

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to observe the function of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation in process of liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) and the intervention effect of Yiguanjian (YGJ), a compound of Chinese herbal medicine. Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal group, model group, cell transplantation (CT) group, YGJ group and cell transplantation plus Yiguanjian (CTY) group. Liver injury was induced through subcutaneous injection with CCl₄ at a dose of 3 mL·kg⁻¹ body weight for 4 weeks, twice a week. They were injected for a total of 9 times. After the first injection with CCl₄, rats in the CT group and CTY group were injected with the third-generation BMSCs at dose 1×10⁶ (suspended in 1 mL saline solution) via tail vein. Rats in the YGJ and CTY groups were also intragastrically administered with Yiguanjian once a day. Rat serum ALT and AST activities were increased significantly on the second day after injection with CCl₄, while BMSC transplantation and Yiguanjian decreased their activities. After 4 weeks of injection with CCl₄, serum ALT, AST and -GT activities, and serum TNF- and IL-6 expressions were increased, while TBIL were decreased in model rats compared with normal rats. Meanwhile, liver cells edema, plasmatic loose, and numerous lipid droplets were observed in rats of the model group. BMSC transplantation aggravated liver injury compared with model rats, which was manifested by decreasing SOD activity, increased MDA, TG, TNF- and IL-6 levels, and aggravated necrosis level of hepatocytes, fusion of lipid droplets, and collagen deposition in liver tissue. Yiguanjian decreased liver injury induced by CCl₄ alone and CCl₄ plus BMSC transplantation. SRY gene hybridization method was used to detect the positive SRY expressions in heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney, especially in liver, while Yiguangjian decreased liver SRY expression. Wnt and -catenin showed high expressions in rats of normal group, which were decreased significantly in rats of models group, while Yiguanjian increased their expressions. In conclusion, BMSC transplantation could exacerbate liver injury, while Yiguanjian could protect liver injury induced by CCl₄ and BMSC transplantation, which was related to decreasing the homing of BMSCs to liver and up-regulating Wnt/-catenin signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Marrow , Carbon Tetrachloride , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Therapeutics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental , Therapeutics , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Wnt Signaling Pathway
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775370

ABSTRACT

At present, there were few studies about the effects of cultivation measures on the quality and pharmacological activity of medicinal plants. To explore the hepetoprotective activity of Sedum sarmentosum aqueous extracts after different water treatments, S. sarmentosum were planted under five water treatments for 60 days, namely 15%-20% FC (field capacity, S1), 35%-40% FC (S2), 55%-60% FC (S3), 75%-80% FC(S4), and 95%-100% FC (S5) and CCl₄ drug-induced liver injury model in vitro was used. Cell viability, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis were individually detected by MTT, PI single staining, and Annexin-V FITC/PI double staining assays. Additionally, ALT, AST and antioxidant index in supernatant were determined by colorimetry. The results showed that, compared with the model group, S. sarmentosum aqueous extract could significantly improve the HepG2 cell viability. Among the five S. sarmentosum groups, the cell viability of S4 (75%-80% FC) treatment was the highest, and the cell apoptosis was the least. Meanwhile, the level of ALT, AST, and MDA in S4 was the lowest, but it achieved the highest level of SOD and GSH. Taken together, different water treatments had great influence on hepatoprotective effect of S. sarmentosum, and the soil moisture of the 75%-80% FC is beneficial to the hepetoprotective activity of S. sarmentosum.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Metabolism , Carbon Tetrachloride , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Sedum , Chemistry , Soil , Water
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773780

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To observe the preventive and therapeutic action of Yuyin Ruangan Granule (YRG, Traditional Chinese Medicine) in hepatic fibrosis rats model and its effect on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression.@*METHODS@#The Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 group (=10), and the model of hepatic fibrosis rats was established by subcutaneous injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4), fed on high-fat diet and 20% ethanol for 6 weeks, to survey the effect and mechanism of YRG preventing hypatic fibrosis by detecting liver function (the activity of alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), etc.) of liver fibrosis rats, liver fibrosis indicators (hyaluronic acid, Ⅲ procollagen, type IV collagen, laminin and hepatic pathology, etc.), and TGF-β1 expression in liver tissue after 6 weeks treated with YRG through intragastric administration (q. d.).@*RESULTS@#At the 7 week, fibrotic lesions appears distinctly in liver tissue of model group compared with control group (<0.01), YRG of 6.2~28.8 g/kg could significantly decrease hepatic index, ALT and AST activities, content of hyaluronic acid(HA), Ⅲ procollagen (PCⅢ), type Ⅳ collagen(C-Ⅳ), laminin (LN) in serum, relieve liver fibrosis pathological changes and inhibit TGF-β1 expression in fibrotic liver tissue (<0.05, <0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#YRG has significantly preventive effects on liver fibrosis rats model, and it may be one of its mechanisms to inhibit expression of TGF-β1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Liver , Metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Metabolism
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773614

ABSTRACT

Tanreqing (TRQ), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, can alleviate liver injury and improve liver function. Its pharmacological mechanisms of actions are still unclear due to its complex components and multi-target natures. Metabolomic study is an effective approach to investigating drug pharmacological actions, new diagnostic markers, and potential mechanisms of actions. In the present study, a new strategy was used to evaluate the protective effect of TRQ capsule against carbon tetrachloride (CCl)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, by analyzing metabolic profiling of endogenous bile acids (BAs) along with biochemical and histological analyses. BAs concentrations were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were then employed to analyze the UPLC-MS results and compare the hepatoprotective effect of TRQ capsule in different groups at the doses of 0.36, 1.44, and 2.88 g·kg body weight, respectively. Moreover, our results suggested that taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurohyodesoxycholic acid (THDCA) were the most important biochemical markers, which were indicative of CCl-induced acute hepatic damage and hepatoprotective effect of TRQ capsule. Therefore, this new strategy would be an excellent alternative method for evaluating hepatoprotective effect and proposing potential mechanisms of action for other drugs as well.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Bile Acids and Salts , Blood , Metabolism , Biomarkers , Blood , Carbon Tetrachloride , Pharmacology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Liver , Pathology , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Taurocholic Acid , Blood , Taurodeoxycholic Acid , Blood
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812404

ABSTRACT

Tanreqing (TRQ), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, can alleviate liver injury and improve liver function. Its pharmacological mechanisms of actions are still unclear due to its complex components and multi-target natures. Metabolomic study is an effective approach to investigating drug pharmacological actions, new diagnostic markers, and potential mechanisms of actions. In the present study, a new strategy was used to evaluate the protective effect of TRQ capsule against carbon tetrachloride (CCl)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, by analyzing metabolic profiling of endogenous bile acids (BAs) along with biochemical and histological analyses. BAs concentrations were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were then employed to analyze the UPLC-MS results and compare the hepatoprotective effect of TRQ capsule in different groups at the doses of 0.36, 1.44, and 2.88 g·kg body weight, respectively. Moreover, our results suggested that taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurohyodesoxycholic acid (THDCA) were the most important biochemical markers, which were indicative of CCl-induced acute hepatic damage and hepatoprotective effect of TRQ capsule. Therefore, this new strategy would be an excellent alternative method for evaluating hepatoprotective effect and proposing potential mechanisms of action for other drugs as well.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Bile Acids and Salts , Blood , Metabolism , Biomarkers , Blood , Carbon Tetrachloride , Pharmacology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Liver , Pathology , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Taurocholic Acid , Blood , Taurodeoxycholic Acid , Blood
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e17449, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001568

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to illustrate the effects of swertiamarin (STM), a natural iridoid from herbal medicines, on hepatic inflammation induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to CCl4 with or without STM co-administration for 8 weeks. Our results revealed that STM administration (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) significantly attenuated inflammation in livers of CCl4-treated rats. STM remarkably reduced the production of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1a (MIP-1α), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in liver tissue of CCl4-treated rats. In addition, STM treatment downregulated connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and ser307pIRS-1 expression, which was induced by CCl4 exposure. In the process of exploring the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of STM action, we demonstrated that STM significantly inhibited Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 expression in the liver. In conclusion, these results suggested that the inhibition of CCl4-induced inflammation by STM was, at least in part, due to its regulation of the TLR4 /NF-κB signaling pathway


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Carbon Tetrachloride/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , NF-kappa B , Gentianaceae/classification , Glycosides/adverse effects , Inflammation/drug therapy
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