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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 304-309, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957419

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The increasing reports of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus strains (VRS) haves caused concern worldwide, from the laboratory detection to patient management. This study aimed to identify the occurrence of VRS strains among healthcare professionals from a university hospital. METHODS: A total of 102 Staphylococcus sp. isolates from healthcare professionals, obtained in a previous study were evaluated according to standard techniques for VRS detection. RESULTS: After screening inoculation of plates containing 6µg/ml of vancomycin, 19 resistant isolates were identified. The susceptibility profile to other antimicrobials revealed 18 multidrug resistant isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by E-test and broth microdilution. According to E-tests, of 19 isolates grown in BHI-V6, four isolates presented MIC ≥ 128 µg/ml, seven with MIC ranging from 4 to 8 µg/ml, and eight with MIC ≤ 2µg/ml. By broth microdilution, 14 isolates presented MIC ≤ 2 µg/ml and five with MIC ≥ 16µg/ml. The presence of the gene vanA was determined by PCR in the five resistant isolates, and this gene was detected in one of the strains. Furthermore, among the 19 strains, the gene mecA was found in 13 (39,4%) isolates, including the strain carrying the gene vanA. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, we highlight the presence of one strain carrying both vanA and the mecA genes, as well as multidrug-resistant strains colonizing healthcare professionals, and their importance as potential vectors to spread strains carrying resistance genes in the hospital environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus epidermidis/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Methicillin Resistance/genetics , Health Personnel , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , Vancomycin Resistance , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 161-165, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748243

ABSTRACT

Twenty seven isolates of vancomycin resistant Enterococci based on the disk diffusion and E- test have been screened; being found eight (0.3%) clinical isolates of vanA & vanB through Taq Man Real Time PCR assay. This study shows the presence of both vanA & vanB genotypes in vanA phenotypes clinical isolates in the three hospitals in Iran.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/drug effects , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Iran , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34572

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, the iNtRON VRE vanA/vanB real-time PCR (iNtRON; iNtRON Biotechnology, Korea) assay, a multiplex real-time PCR method, was introduced. In this prospective study, we compared the iNtRON assay with the Seeplex VRE ACE detection kit (Seeplex; Seegene, Korea), a conventional multiplex PCR assay. METHODS: A chromogenic agar-based culture, in which pre-selected vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) was grown and subsequently plated on blood agar with vancomycin disks, was regarded as the reference method. A total of 304 consecutive rectal swab specimens were tested for VRE by culture and by iNtRON and Seeplex PCR assays. For the PCR assays, specimens were enriched for 16-24 hr before PCR. RESULTS: VRE were isolated from 44 (14.5%) specimens by chromogenic agar-based culture. The clinical sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the iNtRON assay were 100% (95% confidence interval: 89.8%-100%), 99.2% (96.9%-99.9%), 95.6% (83.6%-99.2%), and 100% (98.2%-100%), respectively, while those of the Seeplex assay were 97.7% (86.2%-99.9%), 99.6% (97.5%-99.9%), 97.7% (86.2%-99.9%), and 99.6% (97.5%-99.9%), respectively. The iNtRON assay had a detection limit of 3,159 copies/microL and 13,702 copies/microL for the vanA and vanB genes, respectively. No cross-reactivity was observed in 11 non-VRE bacterial culture isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The overall performance of the iNtRON assay was comparable to that of a chromogenic agar-based culture method for prompt identification of VRE-colonized patients in hospitals. This assay could be an alternative or supportive method for the effective control of nosocomial VRE infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/metabolism , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/genetics
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate a newly developed PCR-based reverse blot hybridization assay (PCR-REBA), REBA Sepsis-ID (M&D, Wonju, Korea), to rapidly detect the presence of bacteremia and antimicrobial resistance gene in blood culture samples. METHODS: One thousand four hundred consecutive blood culture samples from patients with a delta neutrophil index greater than 2.7% were selected from March to July in 2013. Three hundred positive and 1,100 negative for bacterial growth in blood culture bottles samples were tested by conventional and real-time PCR-REBA, respectively. RESULTS: The overall agreement between the conventional identification test and the REBA Sepsis-ID test was 95.3% (286/300). Agreement for gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and polymicrobials was 94.5% (190/201), 97.3% (71/73), 100% (14/14), and 91.7% (11/12), respectively. The detection rate of the mecA gene from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus isolates was 97.8% (90/92). The vanA gene was detected in one blood culture sample from which vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus was isolated. When the cycle threshold for real-time PCR was defined as 30.0, 2.4% (26/1,100) of negative blood culture samples tested positive by real-time PCR. CONCLUSIONS: The REBA Sepsis-ID test is capable of simultaneously and quickly detecting both causative agents and antimicrobial resistance genes, such as mecA and van, in blood culture positive samples.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Enterococcus/genetics , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Active screening for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) using rectal specimens is recommended to limit the spread of antimicrobial resistance within certain high-risk populations. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of Vancomycin Resistance 3 Multiplexed Tandem PCR assay (AusDiagnostics, Australia), a rapid multiplex real-time PCR assay that detects vanA and/or vanB. METHODS: Two-hundred-and-eleven rectal swabs from Hematology and Oncology unit were submitted for VRE surveillance via direct detection of vanA and/or vanB by culture and by using Vancomycin Resistance 3 Multiplexed Tandem PCR assay. Enterococci were identified to the species level by using standard biochemical tests and BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Diagnostic Systems, USA). Vancomycin susceptibility of enterococci was determined using Etest (BioMerieux, France). RESULTS: Compared to the culture method, Vancomycin Resistance 3 Multiplexed Tandem PCR assay had a sensitivity of 84.0%, specificity of 98.8%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 91.3%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.6%. The assay failed to detect 18 (8.5%) specimens because of the presence of PCR inhibitors; of the remaining 193 specimens, 25 (12.9%) were positive, 23 for vanA, and 2 for vanB. Although both sensitivity and specificity for vanA VRE was 100% compared to the culture method, all vanB-positive specimens tested negative by VRE culture. CONCLUSIONS: Vancomycin Resistance 3 Multiplexed Tandem PCR assay is a rapid and laborsaving option for VRE surveillance for direct use on rectal swabs. However, the high rate of PCR failure owing to the inhibitors in the specimens and the low specificity for vanB should be considered when interpreting the results.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Enterococcus/drug effects , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Rectum/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43981

ABSTRACT

In July 2010, we identified an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in our 26-bed neonatal intensive care unit. We performed an epidemiological investigation after clinical cultures of 2 neonates were positive for VRE. Identification, susceptibility testing, and molecular characterization were performed. Cultures of 3 surveillance stool samples of inpatients and 5 environmental samples were positive for VRE. All isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium containing the vanA gene. Two distinct clones were identified by performing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The 2 clones exhibited different pulsotypes, but they represented identical Tn1546 types. Two sequence types, ST18 and ST192, were identified among all of the isolates with multilocus sequence typing. Our investigation determined that the outbreak in the neonatal intensive care unit was caused by 2 genetically different clones. The outbreak may have occurred through clonal spread and horizontal transfer of the van gene.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Disease Outbreaks , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Feces/microbiology , Genotype , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Male , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Vancomycin Resistance
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(5): 631-632, Sept.-Oct. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602908

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Laboratory-based surveillance is an important component in the control of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE). METHODS: The study aimed to evaluate real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (genes vanA-vanB) for VRE detection on 115 swabs from patients included in a surveillance program. RESULTS: Sensitivity of RT-PCR was similar to primary culture (75 percent and 79.5 percent, respectively) when compared to broth enriched culture, whereas specificity was 83.1 percent. CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR provides same day results, however it showed low sensitivity for VRE detection.


INTRODUÇÃO: Vigilância com base em detecção laboratorial é um componente importante no controle de enterococos resistentes a vancomicina (ERV). MÉTODOS: Avaliamos procedimento da reação em cadeia da polimerase real time (PCR-RT) (genes vanA-vanB) para detecção de ERV em 115 swabs de pacientes incluídos em um programa de vigilância. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade do RT-PCR foi semelhante a da cultura primária (75 por cento e 79,5 por cento, respectivamente) quando comparada com a cultura em caldo enriquecido, enquanto a especificidade foi de 83,1 por cento. CONCLUSÕES: O RT-PCR fornece resultados no mesmo dia, contudo mostra baixa sensibilidade para a detecção de VRE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , Enterococcus/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Rectum/microbiology , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We developed and evaluated the utility of a multiplex real-time PCR assay that uses melting curve analysis and allows simultaneous identification of vancomycin-resistant genotypes and clinically relevant enterococci. METHODS: The specificity of the assay was tested using 4 reference strains of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and 2 reference strains of vancomycin-susceptible enterococci. Ninety-three clinical isolates of enterococci with different glycopeptide-resistant phenotypes were genotyped and identified using a multiplex real-time PCR assay and melting curve analysis. RESULTS: Representative melting curves were obtained for Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, vanA-containing E. faecium, vanB-containing E. faecalis, Enterococcus gallinarum, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of the isolates revealed same results for 82 enterococcal isolates, while in 4 isolates, the glycopeptide-resistant phenotypes were inconsistent with the glycopeptide-resistant genotypes and in the 4 other isolates, species could not be accurately identified. Three isolates with mixed strains, which were detected by the PCR assay, could not be correctly identified using phenotypic methods. CONCLUSIONS: VRE genotyping and identification of clinically relevant enterococci were rapidly and correctly performed using multiplex real-time PCR assay and melting curve analysis.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Enterococcus/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Genotype , Nucleic Acid Denaturation , Peptide Synthases/genetics , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics
10.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 50(4): 195-198, July-Aug. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-492721

ABSTRACT

E. faecium was the first reported VRE species, carrying the vanA gene in Brazil. In spite of this, vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis has become the predominant species in Brazilian hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic relatedness of VREs isolated in a Brazilian teaching hospital eight years apart from its first isolation. We analyzed 38 VRE strains obtained from 81 surveillance cultures of patients admitted to the four largest intensive care units in Hospital São Paulo in February, 2006. Presence of the vanA gene was assayed by PCR and PFGE analysis was used for molecular characterization. All VRE strains carried the vanA gene. Two distinct clonal groups were observed among vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Vancomycin-resistant E. faecium belonged to five distinct clones were demonstrated by molecular typing. All of these clones were different from the first vancomycin-resistant enterococci clone isolated eight years ago in our hospital.


E. faecium contendo o gene vanA foi a primeira espécie de VRE descrita, no Brasil. Apesar disto, E. faecalis resistente a vancomicina tem se tornado a espécie predominante nos hospitais brasileiros.O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a relação genética de VREs isolados em um hospital de ensino brasileiro após oito anos de seu primeiro isolamento. Analisamos 37 isolados de VRE obtidos de 81 culturas de vigilância de pacientes admitidos nas quatro maiores Unidades de Tratamento Intensivo em Fevereiro de 2006. A presença do gene vanA foi analisada por PCR e a caracterização molecular por PFGE. Todas as amostras VRE carreavam o gene vanA. Entre os E. faecalis vancomicina-resistentes, dois distintos grupos clonais foram observados. E. faecium resistente a vancomicina pertencentes a cinco clones distintos foram demonstrados por tipagem molecular. Todos esses clones foram diferentes do primeiro clone de enterococo resistente a vancomicina isolado oito anos atrás em nosso hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Feces/microbiology , Genotype , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(3): 301-305, May 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-485225

ABSTRACT

Three Enterococcus faecalis and one Enterococcus faecium strains were characterized by plasmid profile, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and determination of antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations. VanA elements were characterized by Long PCR, overlapping PCR and DNA sequencing. Enterococcal strains showed resistance to vancomycin and harbored the vanA gene, and three these were teicoplanin susceptible while one showed intermediate resistance to teicoplanin. Two E. faecalis strains showed indistinguishable PFGE profile while the third was unrelated. E. faecalis strains showed a deletion in the right terminal region of the Tn1546-like element. The E. faecium strain showed an insertion element in the vanXY intergenic region. Mutations in VanA elements were not found. Rearrangements in the VanA element could be responsible for incongruities in genotype and phenotype in these strains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Teicoplanin/pharmacology , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Brazil , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Genotype , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 101(7): 715-719, Nov. 2006. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-439453

ABSTRACT

The isolation of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Brazil has rapidly increased, following the world wide tendency. We report in the present study the first isolation of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) in the Northeast of Brazil. The four VRE isolates were characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility, genotypic typing by macro restriction of chromosomal DNA followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and for characterization of the Tn1546-like element and plasmid contents. The isolates showed resistance to multiple antibiotics and a single genotype profile, suggesting the dissemination of a single clone among the patients. Tn1546 associated to genetic elements as plasmids shows the importance of infection control measures to avoid the spreading of glycopetide resistance by conjugative transfer of VanA elements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , Cross Infection/microbiology , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Vancomycin Resistance , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Brazil , Cross Infection/diagnosis , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Genotype , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
13.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2006 Oct; 49(4): 620-2
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-72667

ABSTRACT

Infection caused by vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) leads to adverse outcome and is a real challenge. Despite increasing reports of VRE in different countries, there is scanty data on this issue from India. A total of 685 enterococci were isolated from various clinical samples from January to December 2004. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed as prescribed by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Vancomycin resistance was confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Resistant phenotype was determined by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 685, 456 (67%) were E. faecalis and 229 (33%) were E. faecium. Resistance to various antibiotics in E. faecalis and E. faecium was as follows: ampicillin 33% and 54%, erythromycin 91% and 86%, ciprofloxacin 69% and 81%, tetracycline 50% and 54% and high level gentamicin resistance in 62% and 77% respectively. Vancomycin resistance was confirmed in 10 (1.4%) cases by MIC and all had Van A phenotype by PCR. Emergence of vancomycin resistant enterococci is of great concern because of its epidemic potential and scanty therapeutic options. Prompt diagnosis and efficient infection control measures can restrict its spread.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191261

ABSTRACT

An increase in vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) bacteremia in hemato-oncological patients (n=19) in our institution from 2000 through 2001 led us to analyze the molecular epidemiologic patterns and clinical features unique to our cases. The pulsed field gel electrophoresis of the isolates revealed that the bacteremia was not originated from a single clone but rather showed endemic pattern of diverse clones with small clusters. A different DNA pattern of blood and stool isolates from one patient suggested exogenous rather than endogenous route of infection. Enterococcus faecium carrying vanA gene was the causative pathogen in all cases. Patients with VRE bacteremia showed similar clinical courses compared with those with vancomycin-susceptible enterococcal (VSE) bacteremia. Vancomycin resistance did not seem to be a poor prognostic factor because of similar mortality (5/8, 62.5%) noted in VSE bacteremia. Initial disease severity and neutropenic status may be major determinants of prognosis in patients with VRE bacteraemia.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterococcus/drug effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vancomycin Resistance
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 37(11): 1669-1671, Nov. 2004. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-385873

ABSTRACT

In 2000, Enterococcus faecalis resistant to vancomycin was first reported at a tertiary hospital in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. The resistance spread to other hospitals and surveillance programs were established by hospital infection committees to prevent the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. In February 2002, an isolate initially identified at the genus level as Enterococcus was obtained by surveillance culture (rectal swab) from a patient admitted to a hospital for treatment of septic arthritis in the shoulder. The isolate proved to be resistant to vancomycin by the disc diffusion method and confirmed by an E-test resulting in a minimal inhibitory concentration of > ou = 256 µg/ml. This isolate was sent to a reference laboratory (Laboratório Especial de Bacteriologia e Epidemiologia Molecular, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, USP) for further study and proved to be an E. gallinarum by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers for the species. Due to the phenotype of unusually high vancomycin resistance, the isolate presumably had the resistance genes (vanA and vanB) and this was confirmed by PCR, which indicated the presence of the vanA gene. A 10.8-kb Tn1546-related transposon was also identified by long-PCR. Interspecies transfer of the vancomycin-resistance gene from the donor E. gallinarum was performed in a successful conjugation experiment in vitro, using E. faecium GE-1 and E. faecalis JH22 as receptors. This is the first report of the detection of a vanA determinant naturally acquired by E. gallinarum in Brazil, indicating the importance of characterizing VRE by both phenotype and genotype methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , Enterococcus/genetics , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics , Brazil , Bacterial Proteins/drug effects , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/drug effects , Enterococcus/classification , Enterococcus/drug effects , Genotype , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction
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