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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246002, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285612

ABSTRACT

Abstract Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Resumo A valoração econômica dos serviços ecossistêmicos é um novo conceito no manejo florestal. A avaliação econômica fornece base para o pagamento por serviços ecossistêmicos (PES). Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o ecoturismo e os serviços de estoque de carbono do vale de Miandam, distrito Swat, Paquistão. Para o cálculo do estoque de carbono, um tamanho de amostra de 155 parcelas de 0,1 hectare (ha) foi tirado, usando pesquisa preliminar com intervalo de confiança de 95% e erro admissível de 10%. Os dados para serviços de turismo foram coletados de proprietários de todos os hotéis, 100 turistas e informantes-chave da área em 10% de intensidade de amostragem em questionário pré-testado para um período de 20 anos (1997-2017). Os resultados mostraram que o vale de Miandam tem estoque de carbono no valor de US$ 16.306.000, enquanto o valor do ecoturismo foi de US$ 1.578.458 anualmente. Os resultados também mostraram que a tendência do turismo diminuiu drasticamente para estrangeiros e locais após o incidente de 11 de Setembro, e a situação se agravou ainda mais durante a era da talibanização ou militância de 2008-2011. Este estudo recomenda a implementação da estratégia de PES na taxa de 5%, portanto um total de US$ 78.922 pode ser ganho com ecoturismo e crédito de carbono na área de estudo anualmente, o que pode desempenhar um papel importante no manejo florestal sustentável.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Conservation of Natural Resources , Pakistan , Carbon/analysis , Forests
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190537, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142508

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main destination of manure is the application to croplands near livestock farms as nutrient source to enhance crop production. The aim of this study was to define the dairy liquid manure (DLM) dose, complementary to the mineral fertilizer, for higher crops yield, in rotation black oat-maize-wheat-soybean, and to identify the soil chemical variables improved by the manure that most affect the yield, in long-term. The experiment was conducted from 2006 to 2015, in no-tillage system, at Paraná State, Brazil. The soil was a Latossolo Bruno Distrófico típico, clayey texture. The treatments consisted by doses of DLM (0, 60, 120 and 180 m3 ha-1 year-1), complementary to the mineral fertilizer (applied in the same amount for all DLM doses). Crops yield and soil chemical variables were evaluated at six depths (0-10; 10-20; 20-30; 30-40; 40-50 and 50-60 cm). The DLM application increased the yield of all crops, but not in all harvests. The DLM even applied at soil surface improved the soil chemical variables in deep layers, resulting in high positive correlation between yield and exchange bases, P, Zn and Mn contents, and high negative correlation with Ca/Mg ratio and potential acidity at depth 0-10 cm. The DLM dose, complementary to the mineral fertilization, that provided higher soybean and wheat yield was about 130 m3 ha-1 year-1, while for maize this dose was equal to or greater than 180 m3 ha-1 year-1. This effect was not attributed to a single chemical variable but the improvement of all chemical variables evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Soil/chemistry , Fertilizers , Crop Production/methods , Manure , Phosphorus/analysis , Soybeans , Triticum , Carbon/analysis , Avena , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays , Farms , Minerals/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190520, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142513

ABSTRACT

Abstract Conservation agriculture practices can contribute to changes in soil nutrient dynamics over time. This experiment evaluated the changes in total stocks and distribution of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur concentrations in soil, during 60 months, in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) due to anticipated fertilization of sources and doses phosphates applied in soil surface. The experiment was conducted over a period of five years, under Typic Dystrudept, using a randomized block design, in an incomplete factorial scheme (3×3+1), with four replications. Treatments consisted of three sources of P [triple superphosphate (TSP), rock phosphate - Arad (RP) and magnesium thermophosphate (MTP)], along with four doses of P (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 P2O5 total). Samples of soil were collected in 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm layers at 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after beggining of experiment where the following chemical attributes were evaluated: (i) total organic carbon (TOC); (ii) total nitrogen Kjeldahl (TNK); (iii) available P by ion exchange resin method (P-IER); and (iv) available S-SO4 2-. The ICLS conditions provided increased total stocks and concentrations of TOC, TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- over time. The applications of different phosphates had no influence on soil TOC concentrations during the five years of experimentation. The concentrations of TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- showed an increase in different layers of soil, with the application of sources and doses of P. The P fertilization practice that was anticipated can consist of an efficient management of soil fertility, using properly managed conservation systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Phosphates/administration & dosage , Soil/chemistry , Agricultural Cultivation , Soil Analysis , Fertilizers , Animal Husbandry , Phosphorus/analysis , Sulfur/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190651, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142512

ABSTRACT

Abstract To accelerate the recovery of degraded environments, it is necessary to use ecological restoration techniques, which require validation according to the ecosystem conditions where are implemented. This work aimed to evaluate soil microbiological attributes under different ecological restoration technologies in a subtropical forest. The study was conducted at UTFPR-DV, southwest of Paraná, in an ecotone between Mixed Ombrophilous Forest and Semideciduous Seasonal Forest and on an Oxisol. In December 2010, a tillage area of at least 17 years old was isolated and the passive restoration, tree planting and nucleation treatments were installed in 40x54 m plots and four replications. In November 2018 the soil was sampled in these plots and in a native forest area as a reference. There were calculated soil organic carbon content (OCC) and microbiological attributes such as microbial biomass N and C (NMIC and CMIC), basal respiration, fungal spore content and the metabolic (qCO2) and microbial quotient (MICq). It can be concluded that nucleation technology can restore soil microbiological attributes but has not yet reached the conditions of a natural environment. Passive restoration is not a good technology for restoring soil microbiological attributes. The higher contents of CMIC, NMIC, OCC, MICq and fungal spores in the soil under native forest compared to ecological restoration technologies indicate that eight years of adoption of these techniques have not yet been enough to fully recover soil microbiological activity.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Forests , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Spores, Fungal , Tropical Climate , Brazil , Carbazoles , Carbon/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 589-593, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001490

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability to degrade organic matter by edaphic macrofauna (worms), carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and hydrogenation potential (pH) during the vermicomposting process in different organic residues. The treatments were constituted by organic residues of animal origin (bovine, ovine and equine manure) and vegetable (herb-checkmate and coffee drag), which were conditioned in plastic pots with a capacity of 10 liters, comprising five treatments in a completely randomized experimental design, with five replications. Were inoculated 150 earthworms of the species Eisenia foetida, into each plot. After 87 days, the evaluation of the multiplication of the earthworms was carried out, through its manual count and its cocoons. At the beginning and at the end of the experiment, the samples were submitted to analysis of humidity at 60 °C, pH, volumetric density, chemical analysis of macronutrients and C/N ratio. There was a dominance of worms and cocoons in the process of vermicomposting in the residues of ovine manure and herb-checkmate. The macronutrients (P, K and Mg) and C/N ratio were higher in the vegetal residues, while for N higher values were found in ovine manure and coffee drag treatments, and for Ca higher value among treatments was observed in the coffee drag treatment at the end and the lowest value at initiation. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the importance of the edaphic macrofauna to the vermicomposting process, since it allows more information about its influence on the continuity of soil organic matter decomposition processes.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou avaliar a capacidade de degradar a matéria orgânica pela macrofauna edáfica (minhocas), a relação carbono/nitrogênio (C/N) e o potencial hidrogeniônico (pH), durante o processo da vermicompostagem em diferentes resíduos orgânicos. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por resíduos orgânicos de origem animal (esterco bovino, ovino e equino) e vegetal (resíduo de erva-mate e borra-de-café), os quais foram acondicionados em vasos plásticos com capacidade de 10 litros, compondo cinco tratamentos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualisado, com cinco repetições. Foram inoculadas 150 minhocas da espécie Eisenia foetida, em cada recipiente. Após 87 dias, foi realizada a avaliação da multiplicação das minhocas, através da sua contagem manual e seus casulos. Os resíduos foram submetidos, ao inicio e ao final do experimento, a análises de umidade a 60 °C, pH, densidade volumétrica, análise química de macronutrientes e relação C/N. Houve uma dominância de minhocas e casulos no processo da vermicompostagem nos resíduos de esterco ovino e erva-mate. Observou-se para os macronutrientes (P, K e Mg) e para a relação C/N uma maior quantidade nos resíduos vegetais, enquanto que para N valores maiores foram encontrados nos tratamentos esterco ovino e borra-de-café, e para Ca o maior valor entre os tratamentos foi observado no tratamento com borra de café ao final e o menor valor no inicio. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo demonstram a importância da macrofauna edáfica para o processo da vermicompostagem por possibilitar maiores informações sobre sua influência na continuidade dos processos de decomposição da matéria orgânica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligochaeta/physiology , Soil/chemistry , Composting , Garbage , Manure/analysis , Biodegradation, Environmental , Brazil , Cattle , Carbon/analysis , Sheep, Domestic , Horses , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Nitrogen/analysis
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 333-341, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886880

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fertilization in areas of forest plantations is needed to supplement plants´ nutritional needs until harvest. An experiment was performed to check the influence of fertilization on levels of ash, carbon and C/N relation in Schizolobium amazonicum. Soil liming was performed and fertilization occurred after 15 days of incubation. S. amazonicum seedlings were produced and submitted to fertilization with N, P and K: N = 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1; P2O5 = 0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha-1; K2O = 0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha-1. The plants were measured after 180 days. The seedlings of 20 treatments with the highest increase in height and diameter were transplanted to the field. Soil was fertilized and limestone was spread; seedlings were distributed into randomized blocks, with six replications. After 12 months, the plants were removed to determine ash, organic carbon, C/N relation contents. The ashes were submitted to digestion to determine nutrient concentrations. Fertilization influenced the levels of ash and organic carbon and C/N relation in S. amazonicum. Results indicate that the species has a potential for energy production.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Carbon/analysis , Fertilizers , Coal Ash/analysis , Fabaceae/drug effects , Fabaceae/chemistry , Nitrogen/analysis , Phosphorus/chemistry , Potassium/chemistry , Reference Values , Time Factors , Carbon/chemistry , Forests , Reproducibility of Results , Coal Ash/chemistry , Fabaceae/physiology , Nitrogen/chemistry
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 108-116, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888831

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although Planktothrix agardhii often produces toxic blooms in eutrophic water bodies around the world, little is known about the fate of the organic matter released by these abundant Cyanobacteria. Thus, this study focused in estimating the bacterial consumption of the DOC and DON (dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen, respectively) produced by axenic P. agardhii cultures and identifying some of the bacterial OTUs (operational taxonomic units) involved in the process. Both P. agardhii and bacterial inocula were sampled from the eutrophic Barra Bonita Reservoir (SP, Brazil). Two distinct carbon degradation phases were observed: during the first three days, higher degradation coefficients were calculated, which were followed by a slower degradation phase. The maximum value observed for particulate bacterial carbon (POC) was 11.9 mg L-1, which consisted of 62.5% of the total available DOC, and its mineralization coefficient was 0.477 day-1 (t½ = 1.45 days). A similar pattern of degradation was observed for DON, although the coefficients were slightly different. Changes in the OTUs patterns were observed during the different steps of the degradation. The main OTUs were related to the classes Alphaproteobacteria (8 OTUs), Betaproteobacteria (2 OTUs) and Gammaproteobacteria (3 OTUs). The genus Acinetobacter was the only identified organism that occurred during the whole process. Bacterial richness was higher at the slower degradation phase, which could be related to the small amounts of DOM (dissolved organic matter) available, particularly carbon. The kinetics of the bacterial degradation of P. agardhii-originated DOM suggests minimal loss of DOM from the Barra Bonita reservoir.


Resumo Embora Planktothrix agardhii frequentemente forme florações tóxicas em corpos d'água pelo mundo, pouco ainda se sabe sobre o destino da matéria orgânica liberada por essa abundante Cyanobacteria. Assim, este estudo foi focado na estimativa do consumo bacteriano do carbono orgânico dissolvido (DOC) e nitrogênio orgânico dissolvido (DON) produzido por culturas axênicas de P. agardhii e identificação de algumas das unidades taxonômicas operacionais (OTUs) bacterianas envolvidas no processo. Ambos a linhagem de P. agardhii e o inóculo bacteriano foram amostrados do reservatório eutrófico de Barra Bonita (SP, Brasil). Foram observadas duas fases distintas da degradação do DOC: durante os três primeiros dias, coeficientes mais altos de degradação foram calculados, que foram então seguidos por uma fase mais lenta da degradação do carbono. O valor máximo calculado para o carbono bacteriano particulado (POC) foi de 11,9 mgL-1, o que equivale a aproximadamente 62,5% do DOC disponível para consumo, e o seu coeficiente de mineralização foi de 0,477 dia-1 (t1/2 = 1,45 dias). Um padrão similar de degradação foi observado para DON, embora os coeficientes sejam ligeiramente diferentes. Foram observadas mudanças nos padrões de OTUs durante os diferentes passos da degradação. As principais OTUs foram relacionadas às classes Alphaproteobacteria (8 OTUs), Betaproteobacteria (2 OTUs) e Gammaproteobacteria (3 OTUs). O gênero Acinetobacter foi o único organismo identificado que ocorreu durante todo o processo. A maior riqueza bacteriana foi observada durante a fase lenta de degradação, o que pode estar relacionado às pequenas quantidades de matéria orgânica dissovida (DOM) disponíveis, particularmente o carbono. A cinética da degradação bacteriana da MOD de P. agardhii, quando comparada ao tempo de retenção do reservatório, sugere que existe uma perda mínima após sua liberação em Barra Bonita.


Subject(s)
Carbon/metabolism , Cyanobacteria/metabolism , Cyanobacteria/chemistry , Proteobacteria/metabolism , Humic Substances/analysis , Nitrogen/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Carbon/analysis , Eutrophication , Nitrogen/analysis
8.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1761-1771, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886729

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata) subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization) in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees) represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.


Subject(s)
Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Carbon/analysis , Forests , Conservation of Natural Resources , Fabaceae/classification , Fabaceae/drug effects , Soil , Brazil , Biomass , Fabaceae/chemistry
9.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1579-1589, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886727

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Studies on belowground roots biomass have increasingly reported the importance of the contribution of this compartment in carbon stock maintenance in mangrove forests. To date, there are no estimates of this contribution in Brazilian mangrove forests, although the country has the second largest area of mangroves worldwide. For this study, trenches dug in fringing forests in Guaratiba State Biological Reserve (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) were used to evaluate the contribution of the different classes of roots and the vertical stratification of carbon stock. The total carbon stock average in belowground roots biomass in these forests was 104.41 ± 20.73 tC.ha−1. From that, an average of 84.13 ± 21.34 tC.ha−1 corresponded to the carbon stock only in fine roots, which have diameters smaller than 5 mm and are responsible for over 80% of the total belowground biomass. Most of the belowground carbon stock is concentrated in the first 40 cm below the surface (about 70%). The root:shoot ratio in this study is 1.14. These estimates demonstrate that the belowground roots biomass significantly contributes, more than 50%, to the carbon stock in mangrove forests. And the mangrove root biomass can be greater than that of other Brazilian ecosystems.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Carbon/analysis , Wetlands , Brazil , Biomass
10.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 973-989, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886715

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In order to contribute to understand the factors that control the provisioning of the ecosystem service of carbon storage by mangroves, data on carbon stock and sequestration in the aboveground biomass (AGB) from 73 articles were averaged and tested for the dependence on latitude, climatic parameters, physiographic types and age. Global means of carbon stock (78.0 ± 64.5 tC.ha-1) and sequestration (2.9 ± 2.2 tC.ha-1.yr-1) showed that mangroves are among the forest ecosystems with greater capacity of carbon storage in AGB per area. On the global scale, carbon stock increases toward the equator (R²=0.22) and is dependent on 13 climatic parameters, which can be integrated in the following predictive equation: Carbon Stock in AGB = -16.342 + (8.341 x Isothermality) + (0.021 x Annual Precipitation) [R²=0.34; p < 0.05]. It was shown that almost 70% of carbon stock variability is explained by age. Carbon stock and sequestration also vary according to physiographic types, indicating the importance of hydroperiod and edaphic parameters to the local variability of carbon stock. By demonstrating the contribution of local and regional-global factors to carbon stock, this study provides information to the forecast of the effects of future climate changes and local anthropogenic forcings on this ecosystem service.


Subject(s)
Carbon/analysis , Carbon/chemistry , Wetlands , Carbon Sequestration , Reference Values , Tropical Climate , Regression Analysis , Analysis of Variance , Biomass
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 27: 49-54, May. 2017. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010292

ABSTRACT

Background: Surfactants are one of the most important raw materials used in various industrial fields as emulsifiers, corrosion inhibitors, foaming agents, detergent products, and so on. However, commercial surfactant production is costly, and its demand is steadily increasing. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of typical strains of Bacillus sp. to produce biosurfactants through fermentation. It also included the investigation of the effect of initial glucose concentration and the carbon to nitrogen ratio. Results: The biosurfactant yield was in the range of 1­2.46 g/L at initial glucose concentrations of 10­70 g/L. The optimum fermentation condition was achieved at a carbon to nitrogen ratio of 12.4, with a decrease in surface tension of up to 27 mN/m. Conclusions: For further development and industrial applications, the modified Gompertz equation is proposed to predict the cell mass and biosurfactant production as a goodness of fit was obtained with this model. The modified Gompertz equation was also extended to enable the excellent prediction of the surface tension.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface Tension , Bacillus subtilis/physiology , Carbon/analysis , Kinetics , Fermentation , Glucose/analysis , Micelles , Nitrogen/analysis
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 913-926, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-843323

ABSTRACT

ResumenLa distribución de carbono azul en los ecosistemas, entre los que se cuentan los manglares, es poco conocida en comparación con los grandes avances que existen para los ecosistemas forestales terrestres, a pesar de que su alta productividad y capacidad de almacenamiento de carbono es reconocida. Este estudio, tuvo por objetivo, analizar la biomasa aérea de las especies Rhizophora mangle y Avicennia germinans en el ecosistema de manglar localizado en el área marina protegida denominada Distrito de Manejo Integrado (DMI) Cispatá-Tinajones-La Balsa en el Caribe colombiano. Para ello, con la debida autorización oficial, se cosecharon 30 individuos de cada especie, con el fin de generar modelos alométricos que permitieran estimaciones de biomasa aérea con bajos niveles de incertidumbre. Los resultados indican que la biomasa aérea de los bosques de manglar del Caribe colombiano en el DMI, es de 129.69 ± 20.24 Mg/ha, es decir, que almacenan 64.85 ± 10.12 MgC/ ha. Teniendo en cuenta que el DMI presenta un área de 8 570.9 ha en bosques de manglar, se estima que el carbono total potencialmente almacenado por este ecosistema es de aproximadamente 555 795.93 MgC. Las ecuaciones generadas en este estudio se pueden considerar como una opción alternativa para la evaluación de las reservas de carbono en la biomasa aérea de los bosques de manglar en del Caribe colombiano, dado que otros modelos disponibles para la estimación de la biomasa aérea no discriminan a los bosques de manglar, a pesar de ser ecosistemas particulares. Los modelos pueden ser empleados como una opción para apoyar las estrategias de conservación de bosques y la reducción de emisiones. En general, el potencial de almacenamiento de carbono en los bosques de manglar del Caribe colombiano, es importante, y podría posesionar al país en la conservación de bosques y la reducción de emisiones a través de la conservación del carbono azul almacenado.


AbstractThe distribution of carbon in “Blue Carbon” ecosystems such as mangroves is little known, when compared with the highly known terrestrial forests, despite its particular and recognized high productivity and carbon storage capacity. The objective of this study was to analyze the above ground biomass (AGB) of the species Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans from the Marine Protected Area of Distrito de Manejo Integrado (DMI), Cispatá-Tinajones-La Balsa, Caribbean Colombian coast. With official authorization, we harvested and studied 30 individuals of each species, and built allometric models in order to estimate AGB. Our AGB results indicated that the studied mangrove forests of the DMI Colombian Caribbean was of 129.69 ± 20.24 Mg/ha, equivalent to 64.85 ± 10.12 MgC/ha. The DMI has an area of 8 570.9 ha in mangrove forests, and we estimated that the total carbon potential stored was about 555 795.93 Mg C. The equations generated in this study can be considered as an alternative for the assessment of carbon stocks in AGB of mangrove forests in Colombia; as other available AGB allometric models do not discriminate mangrove forests, despite being particular ecosystems. They can be used for analysis at a more detailed scale and are considered useful to determine the carbon storage potential of mangrove forests, as a country alternative to support forest conservation and emission reduction strategies. In general, the potential of carbon storage from Colombian Caribbean mangrove forests is important and could promote the country leadership of the “blue carbon” stored. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 913-926. Epub 2016 June 01.


Subject(s)
Carbon/analysis , Forests , Biomass , Rhizophoraceae/metabolism , Carbon/metabolism , Colombia , Caribbean Region , Rhizophoraceae/classification , Models, Biological
13.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(1): 399-412, ene.-mar. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-843286

ABSTRACT

ResumenLas estimaciones de carbono en bosques tropicales, es muy importante para entender el papel de estos ecosistemas en el ciclo de este elemento. Este conocimiento permite apoyar y soportar las decisiones y la formulación de estrategias de mitigación y adaptación para reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI). Sin embargo, cuantificaciones detalladas de las existencias totales de carbono en los bosques montanos tropicales son limitadas, a pesar de su importancia científica y para el manejo de los ecosistemas (e.g. REDD+). Cuarenta y cuatro parcelas se establecieron en un paisaje heterogéneo compuesto por bosques maduros ubicados en el sur de los Andes colombianos. El objetivo fue identificar el papel de estos ecosistemas en el almacenamiento de carbono, evaluar la contribución de los reservorios analizados (biomasa aérea, biomasa subterránea y necromasa), y realizar contribuciones al enfoque de REDD+ en la escala de proyecto. En cada parcela se midieron todos los árboles, palmas y helechos con diámetro (D) ≥ 15 cm. En el caso de las palmas, se midió la altura de 40 % de los individuos, siguiendo el Protocolo Nacional de Colombia para estimar la biomasa y el carbono en los bosques naturales. Ecuaciones alométricas nacionales fueron utilizadas para estimar la biomasa aérea, y una ecuación general propuesta por el IPCC, fue utilizada para la estimación de la biomasa subterránea. La biomasa aérea de las palmas se estimó mediante un modelo local desarrollado para bosques montanos y premontanos. La necromasa se estimó para los árboles muertos en pie y los detritos gruesos. En este último caso, se midió la longitud y los diámetros de los extremos de las piezas. Las muestras para las estimaciones de densidad de madera, se recogieron en el campo y se analizaron en el laboratorio. El carbono promedio total se estimó en 545.9 ± 84.1 Mg/ ha (± SE). La biomasa aérea contribuyó con 72.5 %, la biomasa subterránea con 13.6 %, y la necromasa con 13.9 %. La principal conclusión de este estudio, es que los bosques montanos tropicales almacenan grandes cantidades de carbono, similares a las almacenadas por los bosques tropicales de tierras bajas. Además, se observó que la inclusión de otros compartimientos podría contribuir en más del 20 % de total del almacenamiento de carbono, lo que indica que las estimaciones que sólo incluyen la biomasa aérea, subestiman en gran medida las reservas de carbono en los ecosistemas forestales. Por tal razón, se sugiere incluir otros compartimientos en las estimaciones de carbono para iniciativas o proyectos REDD+.


AbstractCarbon estimations in tropical forests are very important to understand the role of these ecosystems in the carbon cycle, and to support decisions and the formulation of mitigation and adaptive strategies to reduce the greenhouse emission gases (GHG). Nevertheless, detailed ground-based quantifications of total carbon stocks in tropical montane forests are limited, despite their high value in science and ecosystem management (e.g. REDD+). The objective was to identify the role of these ecosystems as carbon stocks, to evaluate the contribution of the pools analyzed (aboveground biomass, belowground biomass and necromass), and to make contributions to the REDD+ approach from the project scale. For this study, we established 44 plots in a heterogeneous landscape composed by old-grown forests located in the Southern Colombian Andes. In each plot, all trees, palms and ferns with diameter (D) ≥ 15 cm were measured. In the case of palms, the height was measured for 40 % of the individuals, following the Colombia National Protocol to estimate biomass and carbon in natural forests. National allometric equations were used to estimate aboveground biomass, and a global equation proposed by IPCC was used for belowground biomass estimation; besides, palms' aboveground biomass was estimated using a local model. The necromass was estimated for dead standing trees and the gross debris. In the latter case, the length and diameters of the extremes in the pieces were measured. Samples for wood density estimations were collected in the field and analyzed in the laboratory. The mean total carbon stock was estimated as 545.9 ± 84.1 Mg/ha (± S.E.). The aboveground biomass contributed with 72.5 %, the belowground biomass with 13.6 %, and the necromass with 13.9 %. The main conclusion is that montane tropical forests store a huge amount of carbon, similar to low land tropical forests. In addition, the study found that the inclusion of other pools could contribute with more than 20 % to total carbon storage, indicating that estimates that only include the aboveground biomass, largely underestimate carbon stocks in tropical forest ecosystems. These results support the importance of including other carbon pools in REDD+ initiatives' estimations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (1): 399-412. Epub 2016 March 01.


Subject(s)
Carbon/analysis , Forests , Biomass , Tropical Climate , Colombia
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4): 894-905, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768185

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC), organic (OC) and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB) or Arachis pintoi (IA) were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), microbial activity (C-CO2), metabolic quotient (qCO2), the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils) method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.


Resumo O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de café e diferentes sistemas de manejo têm sido aplicados para melhorar a sustentabilidade e a qualidade do solo. Pouco se conhece sobre os efeitos ambientais desses sistemas de manejo, assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi utilizar parâmetros biológicos do solo como indicadores de mudanças nos sistemas. Foram amostrados, na região sudeste do Brasil, solos com cultivo convencional (CC), orgânico (OC) e sistema integrado de cultivo consorciado com Brachiaria decumbens (IB) ou com Arachis pintoi (IA) na entrelinha. Foram avaliados o carbono orgânico total (TOC), carbono e nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana (MBC e MBN), atividade microbiana (C-CO2), quociente metabólico (qCO2), as enzimas desidrogenase, urease, fosfatase ácida e arilsulfatase, a colonização e número de esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (AMF) e a fauna do solo. A maior diferença entre os sistemas de manejo foram verificadas no teor de matéria orgânica do solo. O maior teor de TOC foi encontrado no OC, e o menor teor encontrado no sistema IA. O teor de TOC influenciou os parâmetros biológicos e a diferenciação da fauna do solo. O uso combinado de todos os atributos foi necessário para diferenciar os quatro sistemas de cultivo. Cada manejo apresentou estruturas diferentes de fauna, e dados obtidos com o método de armadilhas tipo pitfall foi mais confiável do que o método TSBF (Solos Tropicais). A análise de correlação canônica mostrou que Isopoda foi correlacionado com TOC e a ordem mais abundante em OC. Isoptera foi a ordem da fauna mais abundante em IA e foi correlacionada com MBC. Em geral, OC apresentou os maiores valores para a maioria dos atributos biológicos, inclusive para abundância de indivíduos de Oligochaeta e Isopoda, corroborando com o conceito de que OC é um sistema mais sustentável.


Subject(s)
Animals , Agriculture/methods , Biodiversity , Coffee/growth & development , Invertebrates/physiology , Soil Microbiology , Biomass , Brazil , Carbon/analysis , Environment , Soil
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 85-96, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748249

ABSTRACT

Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta. To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 104–2.1 × 105 and 5.1 × 104–4.7 × 105 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Fungi/classification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Soil Microbiology , Colony Count, Microbial , Carbon/analysis , Forests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , India , Organic Chemicals/analysis , Seasons , Soil/chemistry , Tropical Climate
16.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(4): 691-700, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-744846

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del presente estudio fue hallar un modelo para estimar la incidencia de enfermedades tipo influenza (ETI), a partir de los términos de búsqueda relacionados recolectados por el Google Trends (GT). Los datos de vigilancia de ETI para los años 2012 y 2013 se obtuvieron del Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia de la Salud de Argentina. Las búsquedas de Internet se obtuvieron de la base de datos del GT, usando 6 términos: gripe, fiebre, tos, dolor de garganta, paracetamol e ibuprofeno. Se desarrolló un modelo de regresión de Poisson a partir de datos del año 2012, y se validó con datos del 2013 y resultados de la herramienta Google Flu Trends (GFT). La incidencia de ETI del sistema de vigilancia presentó fuertes correlaciones con las estimaciones de ETI del GT (r = 0,927) y del GFT (r = 0,943). Sin embargo, el GFT sobreestimó el pico de incidencia por casi el doble, mientras que el modelo basado en el GT subestimó el pico de incidencia por un factor de 0,7. Estos resultados demuestran la utilidad del GT como un complemento para la vigilancia de la influenza.


The aim of this study was to find a model to estimate the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) from the Google Trends (GT) related to influenza. ILI surveillance data from 2012 through 2013 were obtained from the National Health Surveillance System, Argentina. Internet search data were downloaded from the GT search engine database using 6 influenza-related queries: flu, fever, cough, sore throat, paracetamol, and ibuprofen. A Poisson regression model was developed to compare surveillance data and internet search trends for the year 2012. The model's results were validated using surveillance data for the year 2013 and results of the Google Flu Trends (GFT) tool. ILI incidence from the surveillance system showed strong correlations with ILI estimates from the GT model (r = 0.927) and from the GFT tool (r = 0.943). However, the GFT tool overestimates (by nearly twofold) the highest ILI incidence, while the GT model underestimates the highest incidence by a factor of 0.7. These results demonstrate the utility of GT to complement influenza surveillance.


O objetivo deste estudo foi encontrar um modelo para estimar a incidência da síndrome gripal com base nos termos de busca relacionados recolhidos pelo Google Trends (GT). Os dados de monitoramento de síndrome gripal entre 2012 e 2013 foram obtidos no Sistema Nacional de Vigilância de Saúde da Argentina. As pesquisas na Internet foram feitas baseando-se no banco de dados do GT usando 6 termos: gripe, febre, tosse, dor de garganta, paracetamol e ibuprofeno. Um modelo de regressão de Poisson foi desenvolvido valendo-se de dados de 2012. O modelo foi ajustado e validado com dados de 2013 e comparado com os resultados da ferramenta Google Flu Trends (GFT). A incidência de síndrome gripal mostrou uma forte correlação com estimativas do GT (r = 0,927) e GFT (r = 0,943). No entanto, o GFT superestimou o pico de incidência por quase o dobro, e o modelo baseado no GT subestimou o pico de incidência por um fator de 0,7. Esses resultados demonstram a utilidade do GT como um suplemento para a vigilância da influenza.


Subject(s)
Cities , Environmental Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Siloxanes/analysis , Waste Products/analysis , Atmosphere/chemistry , Biofuels/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Fresh Water/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Siloxanes/chemistry , Soil/chemistry
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(6): 1847-1854, 12/2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-735766

ABSTRACT

O estudo objetivou avaliar o turnover do 13C no sangue e plasma de codornas japonesas utilizando a técnica de isótopos estáveis, para a obtenção do patamar de equilíbrio isotópico que servirá de fundamento para estudos de rastreabilidade. Foram utilizadas 300 aves durante o período experimental de 1-42 e 49-97 dias de idade. Os tratamentos da primeira fase foram constituídos de dietas à base de arroz (C3), contendo ou não farinha de carne e ossos bovinos e um com dieta à base de milho (C4). Nessa primeira fase foi analisado o turnover do sinal isotópico do matrizeiro à base de dietas C4 para dietas à base de C3, como também as diferenças isotópicas das dietas contendo ou não farinha de origem animal. Na segunda fase houve uma substituição de dietas, ou seja, as aves no tratamento C4 da primeira fase passaram a consumir dieta C3, e o tratamento que antes consumia dieta C3 passou para dieta C4. Para determinar a taxa de turnover e o percentual estimado de participação da farinha na composição do material coletado, foi empregado o modelo de diluição isotópica utilizando valores do δ13C. A comparação entre as meias-vidas do sangue e plasma da primeira fase revelou o enriquecimento do δ13C na dieta; já na segunda fase foi possível observar as velocidades de incorporação após a troca das dietas...


The study aimed to evaluate the turnover of 13C in the blood and plasma of Japanese quail using the technique of stable isotopes to obtain the level of isotopic equilibrium that will be the foundation for studies of traceability. A total of 300 birds during the experimental period of 1-42 and 49-97 days of age. The first phase of the treatments consisted of diets based on rice (C3), with or without meat and beef bones and a diet based on corn (C4). This was first examined the turnover signal farm matrix isotope-based diets based diets C4 to C3, as well as isotopic differences of diets with or without animal meal In the second stage there was a substitution of diets, or C4 treatment of the first stage passes to consume C3-based diet than before treatment and diet consumed C3 to C4 diet. To determine the turnover rate and the estimated percentage of participation of flour in the composition of the collected material was used isotope dilution model using δ13C values. A comparison of the half-lives of blood and plasma from the first phase discloses the enrichment of dietary δ 13C, in the second phase was observed after incorporation speeds exchange diets...


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon/analysis , Carbon/blood , Coturnix/blood , Plasma , Diet/veterinary , Carbon Isotopes/analysis , Carbon Isotopes/blood , Poultry
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 963-969, July-Sept. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727027

ABSTRACT

Humic substances result from the degradation of biopolymers of organic residues in the soil due to microbial activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of three different ecosystems: forest, pasture and maize crop on the formation of soil humic substances relating to their biological and chemical attributes. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial respiratory activity, nitrification potential, total organic carbon, soluble carbon, humic and fulvic acid fractions and the rate and degree of humification were determined. Organic carbon and soluble carbon contents decreased in the order: forest > pasture > maize; humic and fulvic acids decreased in the order forest > pasture=maize. The MBC and respiratory activity were not influenced by the ecosystems; however, the nitrification potential was higher in the forest than in other soils. The rate and degree of humification were higher in maize soil indicating greater humification of organic matter in this system. All attributes studied decreased significantly with increasing soil depth, with the exception of the rate and degree of humification. Significant and positive correlations were found between humic and fulvic acids contents with MBC, microbial respiration and nitrification potential, suggesting the microbial influence on the differential formation of humic substances of the different ecosystems.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/growth & development , Bacteria/metabolism , Humic Substances/analysis , Soil Microbiology , Soil/chemistry , Agriculture , Carbon/analysis , Forests
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(3): 887-897, jul.-sep. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753659

ABSTRACT

Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p<0.05). Cacao also hosted a greater number and mass of earthworms than banana and pineapple (p<0.05), but similar to forest and pasture. For soil chemical characteristics, three composite samples were collected in March 2012 from each agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p<0.05). Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana, pineapple and pasture than in cacao; probably related to addition of chemical fertilizer and manure from cattle grazing. Forest and cacao also had greater %C, than other ecosystems, which is directly related to soil organic matter content (p<0.0001). Overall, cacao had more favorable physical, biological and chemical soil characteristics than banana and pineapple monocultures, while trends were less conclusive compared to the pastureland. While organic cacao was inferior to native forest in some soil characteristics such as bulk density and organic carbon, its soil quality did best mimic that of the native forest. This supports the organic cultivation of cacao as a desirable alternative to banana and pineapple monoculture. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3): 887-897. Epub 2014 September 01.


Muchos de los ecosistemas boscosos naturales de la provincia de Limón, Costa Rica, se han convertido en monocultivos de banano y piña, lo que ha reducido la biodiversidad y la calidad de los suelos. El manejo agroforestal del cacao (Theobroma cacao) es un sistema alternativo, que puede generar ingresos para los agricultores de la región mientras imita mejor los ecosistemas nativos. En esta investigación se compararon los indicadores físicos, biológicos, y químicos de la calidad del suelo en un cacaotal orgánico y agroforestal, una plantación bananera, una piñera, un potrero y un bosque natural. En general, el suelo del cacaotal tuvo características físicas, biológicas y químicas mejores que los monocultivos de banano y piña, mientras las tendencias en comparación con el potrero fueron menos marcadas. Aunque algunas características del suelo en el cacaotal orgánico, como densidad y cantidad de carbono, fueron inferiores al bosque nativo, la calidad del suelo en el cacaotal imitó mejor la del bosque nativo. Los resultados de esta investigación apoyan el cultivo de cacao como una alternativa deseable al monocultivo de banano y piña.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Agriculture/methods , Crops, Agricultural , Carbon/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis , Soil/chemistry , Agriculture/standards , Cacao , Carbon Cycle , Costa Rica , Organic Agriculture , Soil/standards
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 73(3): 585-591, ago. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-689868

ABSTRACT

Growth rate and medium parameters between two bench scale volumes (13-L and 250-L) were compared. Experiments were maintained batch mode and culture parameters were periodically measured during a 13-day period. Culture growth during the cultivation of algae Haematococcus pluvialis was determined qualitatively by cell counting, optical density, dry weight, ash content, amount of chlorophyll-a, total organic carbon content and by direct measuring of medium nutrients and some abiotic aspects. Vegetative cell growth was higher when cultured in 13-L with 1.33 x 105 cells.mL−1 on the 12th day than when cultured in 250-L. Significant difference (p < 0.05) in the biology and water culture of H. pluvialis, with the exception of dry weight, ash, nitrite and ammonia, was reported between the volumes. Data obtained in current study for the upscale culture maintenance of H. pluvialis in laboratory conditions shows that it should be undertaken in a 13-L volume due to a greater time span of cells in a vegetative state, greater cell density, lipids and chlorophyll-a contents. Light was of paramount importance on the direct performance of H. pluvialis on the algal biological conditions.


Foram avaliadas a taxa de crescimento e condições do meio de cultura em volumes de 13-L e 250-L em sistema estático, durante o período de 13 dias para a microalga Haematococcus pluvialis. Foi determinada qualitativamente a contagem de células, densidade, peso seco, teor de cinzas, clorofila-a, teor de carbono orgânico total e avaliação de nutrientes e fatores abióticos do meio de cultura. O crescimento foi mais elevado em volume de 13-L com 1,33 x 105 células.mL−1 no décimo segundo dia, do que em volume de 250-L. Em relação ao meio de cultivo e aspectos biológicos de H. pluvialis, foram observadas diferenças significativas (p < 0,05) entre os dois volumes com exceção do peso seco, cinzas, nitrito e amônia. Para cultivo em larga escale de H. pluvialis é recomendado nestas condições laboratoriais, o volume de 13-L devido ao maior tempo das células em estado vegetativo, maior densidade celular e elevados teores de lipídios e clorofila-a. A luz interferiu diretamente nas condições biológicas de H. pluvialis.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Chlorophyta/growth & development , Body Weight , Culture Media , Carbon/analysis , Chlorophyll/analysis , Chlorophyta/classification , Light , beta Carotene/analysis
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