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1.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(1): 233-253, mar. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154321

ABSTRACT

Abstract This paper argues that many of the foundations and trends that led to the rise in obesity and other diet-related health problems in Latin America began to develop in the late nineteenth century. The tendency towards presentism in the nutrition transition literature provides a much abbreviated and limited history of changes in diet and weight. Whereas medical and nutrition researchers have tended to emphasize the recent onset of the crisis, a historical perspective suggests that increasingly global food sourcing prompted changes in foodways and a gradual "fattening" of Latin America. This paper also provides a methodological and historiographic exploration of how to historicize the nutrition transition, drawing on a diverse array of sources from pre-1980 to the present.


Resumo Este trabalho argumenta que fundamentos e tendências que levaram ao aumento da obesidade e de outros problemas de saúde relacionados à alimentação na América Latina começaram a surgir no final do século XIX. A propensão ao presentismo na literatura sobre transição nutricional produz uma história abreviada e limitada das mudanças em alimentação e peso. Embora pesquisadores médicos e nutricionistas enfatizem a recente instalação da crise, uma perspectiva histórica sugere que fontes alimentares crescentemente globalizadas resultaram em mudanças na alimentação e em gradual "aumento de gordura" na população latino-americana. O artigo propõe ainda a exploração metodológica e historiográfica de como historicizar a transição nutricional recorrendo a fontes pré-1980 até o momento.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Diet/history , Obesity/history , Carbonated Beverages/history , Advertising/history , Diet/trends , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/history , Latin America , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Obesity/etiology
2.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(1): 9-26, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250690

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to perform a systematic review of studies that investigated the influence of ultra-processed foods (UPF) consumption during pregnancy on child's anthropometric parameters up to one year of life. Methods: cohort and cross-sectional studies were researched in BVS, Cinahl, Cochrane, Embase, Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases until March 2020, and the main descriptors were: "Pregnant Women", "Ultra-processed foods", "Birth Weight", "Smallfor Gestational Age", "Infant", "Newborn". Results: seventeen articles were considered eligible and evaluated the associations between the exposures: ultra-processed dietary patterns; soft drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages; fast food, junk food, sweets, snacks and the outcomes: birth weight and its classifications; length and head circumference at birth; birth weight adjustments according to gestational age; weight/age, length/age, body mass index/age and weight/length indices. The results showed: 36 non-significant associations between the exposures and the outcomes; 13 direct associations (outcomes versus ultraprocessed dietary patterns, soft drinks, artificially sweetened beverages, sweets, junk food) and 5 inverse associations (outcomes versus ultra-processed dietary patterns, soft drinks). Conclusions: most of the evaluated literature did not demonstrate the influence of UPF consumption during pregnancy on the newborn's anthropometric measurements up to one year of life and denoted a smaller number of direct and inverse associations between the exposures and the outcomes.


Resumo Objetivos: realizar uma revisão sistemática de estudos que investigaram a influência do consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados (AUP) na gestação nas medidas antropométricas do recém-nascido até um ano de idade. Métodos: foram pesquisados estudos de coorte e transversais nas bases BVS, Cinahl, Cochrane, Embase, Pubmed, Scopus e Web of Science até março de 2020, tendo como principais descritores: "Pregnant women", "Ultra-processed foods", "Birth weight", "Small for Gestational Age", "Infant", "Newborn". Resultados: dezessete artigos foram considerados elegíveis e avaliaram as associações entre as exposições: padrões alimentares ultraprocessados; refrigerantes, sugar-sweetened beverages ou artificially sweetened beverages; fastfood, junkfood, doces e snacks e os desfe-chos:peso ao nascer e suas classificações; comprimento e perímetro cefálico ao nascimento; adequações do peso ao nascer segundo idade gestacional; e índices peso/idade, compri-mento/idade, índice de massa corporal/idade e peso/comprimento. Foram encontradas: 36 associações nulas entre exposições e desfechos avaliados; 13 diretas (desfechos versus padrões alimentares ultraprocessados, refrigerantes, artificially sweetened beverages, doces e junkfood) e 5 inversas (desfechos versus padrões alimentares ultraprocessados e refrigerantes). Conclusões: a maioria da literatura avaliada não demonstrou influência do consumo de AUP na gestação nas medidas antropométricas do recém-nascido até um ano de vida e apontou um menor número de associações diretas e inversas entre as exposições e os desfechos analisados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Birth Weight , Anthropometry , Eating , Maternal Nutrition , Feeding Behavior , Fast Foods , Candy , Carbonated Beverages , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Prenatal Nutrition
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(2): 625-636, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153773

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se identificar os padrões de consumo alimentar e os fatores associados em crianças menores de dois anos no Brasil. Estudo transversal, de base populacional, utilizando dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde realizada em 2013. O consumo alimentar foi mensurado por questões dicotômicas, listando os alimentos, considerando apenas o dia anterior à entrevista. Os padrões foram identificados por meio de análise de componentes principais. Utilizou-se regressão de Poisson para obtenção de razão de prevalência bruta e ajustada. Considerou-se o efeito de delineamento amostral nas análises que foram estratificadas de acordo com a idade. Dentre as 5.052 crianças, foram identificados três padrões, sendo denominados como: "padrão de consumo de alimentos saudáveis", "padrão de consumo de leites" e "padrão de consumo de alimentos não saudáveis". Observou-se associação entre os padrões em cada faixa etária, principalmente com cor da pele, sexo, escolaridade do chefe da família, zona de residência e região. Um quarto das crianças de 12 a 23 meses ingeriu refrigerantes, mais de um terço sucos artificiais e quase metade doces no dia anterior à entrevista. Foram identificados três padrões alimentares, além de observar introdução alimentar precoce em crianças menores de seis meses de idade.


Abstract The scope of this paper was to identify patterns of food consumption and associated factors among children under two years of age in Brazil. It involved a cross-sectional, population-based study using data from the National Health Survey conducted in 2013. Food consumption was measured by dichotomous questions, listing the food ingested solely on the day prior to the interview. The patterns were identified through principal component analysis. Poisson regression was used to obtain a crude and adjusted prevalence ratio. The sample design effect was considered in the analyses that were stratified according to age. Among the 5,052 children, three patterns were identified, being defined as: a "healthy food consumption pattern," a "milk consumption pattern" and an "unhealthy food consumption pattern." There was an association between the patterns in each age group, mainly related to skin color, gender, schooling of the head of the family, area of residence and region. A quarter of the children from 12 to 23 months consumed soft drinks, more than a third drank artificial juices and almost half ate candies the day before the interview. Three dietary patterns were identified, besides observing early food ingestion among children under six months of age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Carbonated Beverages , Milk , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Diet , Feeding Behavior
4.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e182579, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1344712

ABSTRACT

Enteroliths are concretions of minerals that cause partial or total obstruction of the intestinal lumen, resulting in recurrent and chronic colic in horses. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the in vitro solvent effect of carbonated beverages (Coca-Cola® and Coca-Cola® Zero), and papain and cellulase enzymes (Robinson Pharma®, Santa Ana, CA, USA) on enteroliths obtained from horses. Six 51-grams-samples of six enteroliths were assigned to six treatments of immersion solutions: T1, Coca-Cola®; T2: Coca-Cola® Zero; T3: distilled water + papain (90 mg) and cellulase (120 mg); T4: Coca-Cola® + papain and cellulase; T5: Coca-Cola® Zero + papain and cellulase; and, CT: distilled water (control). The volume for immersion in the assigned solution was 150 mL, at a pH of 7.1, using an incubation shaker (Heidolph®, Germany) at 37ºC and 25 rpm, for 72 h. The evaluation periods of the dissolution percentage (difference between the initial weight and final weight of the samples), were 0, 3, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h. After 72 h of immersion, solutions T4, T5, and T1 presented 47, 38.8, and 14.9% of dissolution, respectively. The other solutions did not have major differences with CT (control). Under the in vitro conditions of this pilot study, papain and cellulase enzymes potentiated the dissolving effect of the carbonated solutions on the enteroliths obtained from horses. Further studies are suggested since the existing literature is on the dissolution of phytobezoars and not of enteroliths.(AU)


Enterólitos são concreções de minerais que causam obstrução parcial ou total do lume intestinal, resultando em cólica crônica e recorrente nos cavalos. Este estudo piloto teve como objetivo avaliar in vitro o efeito dissolvente sobre os enterólitos das bebidas carbonatadas (Coca-Cola® e Coca-Cola® Zero) e a solução à base das enzimas papaína e celulase (Robinson Pharma®, Santa Ana, CA, USA). Seis (6) amostras de seis (6) enterólitos de 51gramas de peso foram distribuídas em seis tratamentos de imersão: T1: Coca-Cola®; T2: Coca-Cola® Zero; T3: água destilada + papaína (90 mg) e celulase (120 mg); T4: Coca-Cola® + papaína e celulase; T5: Coca-Cola® Zero + papaína e celulase; e, CT: água destilada (controle). O volume das soluções de imersão foi de 150 mL, com pH de 7.1, usando um shaker de incubação (Heidolph®, Germany) com 37ºC e 25 rpm, durante 72 horas. A avaliação dos períodos da porcentagem de dissolução (diferenças entre o peso inicial e o peso final das amostras) foram 0, 3, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 e 72 h. Depois de 72 h de imersão, as soluções T4, T5 e T1 apresentaram 47, 38,8 e 14,9% de dissolução, respectivamente. As outras soluções não tiveram diferenças com relação ao CT (controle). Nas condições in vitro deste estudo piloto, as enzimas papaína e celulase potenciam o efeito dissolvente das bebidas carbonatadas sobre os enterólitos obtidos de cavalos. Mais estudos são sugeridos, uma vez que só existe literatura sobre a dissolução de fitobezoares e não de enterólitos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , In Vitro Techniques , Carbonated Beverages , Horses , Intestinal Obstruction
5.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 32: e3278, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360524

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se há associação independente e combinada dos hábitos alimentares e da aptidão cardiorrespiratória com o estado nutricional de escolares. Trata-se de um estudo de corte transversal, com 171 crianças (86 meninos e 85 meninas) com idade de seis a 12 anos, de uma escola pública de Porto Alegre-RS. Os hábitos alimentares foram avaliados com o Inquérito de Frequência Alimentar. A aptidão cardiorrespiratória foi avaliada pelo teste de corrida/caminhada de 6 minutos. O índice de massa corporal e aptidão cardiorrespiratória foram avaliados seguindo os protocolos propostos pelo PROESP-BR. Para análise dos dados utilizou-se estatística descritiva, modelos de regressão linear generalizada e anova de duas vias. Um maior consumo de frutas (β:-1,24; IC:-2,42 -0,06) e um menor consumo de doces (β:-1,56; IC:-2,797 -0,34) estão associados a um menor valor médio de IMC. Ainda, crianças com níveis adequados de APCR apresentaram valores inferiores de índice de massa corporal (β:- 3,11; IC:-3,93 -2,29). Quando avaliados de forma combinada, os hábitos alimentares e aptidão cardiorrespiratória exerceram maior influência sobre os valores de índice de massa corporal. Portanto, hábitos alimentares adequados e níveis satisfatórios de APCR estão associados a um adequado estado nutricional.


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to verify whether there is an independent and combined association of eating habits and cardiorespiratory fitness with the nutritional status of schoolchildren. This is a cross-sectional study with 171 children (86 boys and 85 girls) aged six to 12 years, from a public school in Porto Alegre - RS. Eating habits were assessed using the Food Frequency Survey. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 6-minute running / walking test. The body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness were evaluated following the protocols proposed by PROESP-BR. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, generalized linear regression models and two-way anova were used. Higher consumption of fruits (β: -1.24; CI: -2.42 -0.06) and lower consumption of sweets (β: -1.56; CI: -2.797 -0.34) are associated with lower mean BMI value. Still, children with adequate levels of APCR had lower values ​​of body mass index (β: - 3.11; CI: -3.93 -2.29). When evaluated in a combined manner, eating habits and cardiorespiratory fitness had a greater influence on body mass index values. Therefore, adequate eating habits and satisfactory levels of CRP are associated with an adequate nutritional status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Child , Nutritional Status , Feeding Behavior , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Vegetables , Candy , Carbonated Beverages , Body Mass Index , Fruit , Fabaceae
6.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 34: e200127, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351571

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives To estimate the frequency of food insecurity in households with and without children/adolescents; compare food expenses, sugar and soft drinks consumption in these households; and to analyze the relationship between food insecurity and demographic/socioeconomic variables with food expenses, and sugar and soft drinks consumption in households with and without children/adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study with 628 households in Campinas, SP, Brazil. Food insecurity was estimated by the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale. The dependent variables were the proportion of food expenses, and consumption of sugar and soft drinks; and the independent ones included food security/insecurity condition, monthly family income, gender, age and education of the household head. Results The frequency of food insecurity was higher in households with children/adolescents than in households without minors (41.4% vs. 27.9%). The proportion of food expenses was higher in households with children/adolescents and in all households it was associated with lower family income and, in households with minors, to the presence of a female householder. Soft drinks consumption was higher in households with children/adolescents; and was related to higher income in all households, and to the presence of male householder in households with minors. Sugar consumption in households with children/adolescents was associated with higher income, male gender and education level of the household head (<12 years). In households without children/adolescents, the higher sugar consumption was associated with food insecurity and the household head's education (<8 years). Conclusion In households with children/adolescents there was a greater frequency of food insecurity and a greater commitment of income with food. Food insecurity was associated with increased sugar consumption in households without children/adolescents.


RESUMO Objetivos Estimar a frequência de insegurança alimentar em domicílios com e sem crianças/adolescentes; comparar o gasto com alimentos e o consumo de açúcar e de refrigerante nestes domicílios; e analisar a relação da insegurança alimentar e de variáveis demográficas/socioeconômicas com o gasto com alimentos e com o consumo de açúcar e de refrigerante em domicílios com e sem crianças/adolescentes. Métodos Estudo transversal com 628 domicílios de Campinas, SP, Brasil. A insegurança alimentar foi estimada pela Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar. As variáveis dependentes foram proporção de gasto com alimentos e consumo de açúcar e refrigerante; as independentes incluíram condição de segurança/insegurança alimentar, renda familiar mensal, sexo, idade e escolaridade do chefe da família. Resultados A frequência de insegurança alimentar foi maior nos domicílios com crianças/adolescentes do que nos domicílios sem menores (41,4% vs. 27,9%). A proporção de gasto com alimentos foi superior nos domicílios com crianças/adolescentes; em todos esteve associada ao menor rendimento familiar e, nos domicílios com menores, à presença de chefe da família do sexo feminino. O consumo de refrigerante foi maior em domicílios com crianças/adolescentes, relacionou-se à maior renda em todos os domicílios e à presença de chefe da família do sexo masculino em domicílios com menores. O consumo de açúcar nos domicílios com crianças/adolescentes associou-se à maior renda, sexo masculino e escolaridade do chefe <12 anos. Nos domicílios sem crianças/adolescentes, o maior consumo de açúcar esteve associado à insegurança alimentar e à escolaridade do chefe da família <8 anos. Conclusão Nos domicílios com crianças/adolescentes, houve maior frequência de insegurança alimentar e maior comprometimento da renda com a alimentação. A insegurança alimentar associou-se ao aumento do consumo de açúcar em domicílios sem crianças/adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Social Conditions , Carbonated Beverages , Eating , Sugars , Food Supply , Food Insecurity
7.
Actual. osteol ; 17(2): 69-77, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1370075

ABSTRACT

El calcio (Ca) es un nutriente crítico para la salud, especialmente en los períodos de crecimiento. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los individuos argentinos no alcanzan la ingesta diaria recomendada. Por su parte, el fósforo (P) es un nutriente cuya ingesta suele estar por encima de la recomendada. Este tipo de desequilibrio en la ingesta de ambos nutrientes conlleva a una pérdida de masa ósea. El consumo de bebidas analcohólicas (BA) se ha incrementado en los últimos años, sobre todo en la población infantil, desplazando el consumo de agua y lácteos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar el aporte de Ca y P a partir de BA diferentes de agua. Se evaluaron 59 muestras, cuya mediana y rango de Ca fue de 7,74 [0,00 a 111,29] mg/l y de P 55,17 [0,16 a 957,00] mg/l. Los jugos en polvo son los que mayor contenido de Ca presentaron y las bebidas deportivas aquellas donde se halló el mayor contenido de P. Considerando un consumo de 500 ml/día de BA se estarían incorporando 3,87 mg Ca y 27,59 mg P. El creciente consumo de BA, su bajo contenido de Ca y la concomitante reducción del consumo de lácteos contribuyen a una inadecuada ingesta de Ca. (AU)


Calcium (Ca) is a critical nutrient, especially during periods of growth. However, the majority of Argentine individuals do not reach the recommended daily intake. On the other hand, phosphorus (P) is a nutrient with an intake usually above the recommended values. This type of imbalance between the intake of the nutrients leads to loss of bone mass. Soft drinks consumption (BA) has increased in recent years, especially in children, displacing the consumption of water and dairy products. The aim of this work was to estimate the Ca and P content in BA other than water. 59 samples were evaluated, with a median and range of Ca of 7.74 [0.00 to 111.29] mg/l and of P of 55.17 [0.16 to 957.00] mg/l. Powdered juices are the ones with the highest Ca content, and sports drinks are the beverages in which the highest P content was found. Based on a BA consumption of 500 ml/day, 3.87 mg Ca and 27.59 mg P would be incorporated. Therefore, the increased consumption of BA, their low Ca content, and the concomitant reduction in dairy consumption contribute to an inadequate intake of Ca. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Phosphates/analysis , Carbonated Beverages/statistics & numerical data , Calcium/analysis , Juices , Argentina , Quality Control , Calcium, Dietary , Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy , Statistical Analysis , Growth and Development , Recommended Dietary Allowances
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10162, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153504

ABSTRACT

It is still unknown whether excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be linked to gestational hypertensive disorders, other than preeclampsia. This study investigated the association between soft drink consumption and hypertension during pregnancy, analyzing the relationship from the perspective of counterfactual causal theory. Data from pregnant women of the BRISA cohort were analyzed (1,380 in São Luis and 1,370 in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil). The explanatory variable was the frequency of soft drink consumption during pregnancy obtained in a prenatal interview. The outcome was gestational hypertension based on medical diagnosis, at the time of delivery. A theoretical model of the association between soft drink consumption and gestational hypertension was constructed using a directed acyclic graph. Marginal structural models (MSM) weighted by the inverse of the probability of soft drink consumption were also employed. Using Poisson regression analysis, high soft drink consumption (≥7 times/week) was associated with gestational hypertension in São Luís (RR=1.48; 95%CI: 1.03-2.10), in Ribeirão Preto (RR=1.51; 95%CI: 1.13-2.01), and in the two cohorts combined (RR=1.45; 95%CI: 1.16-1.82) compared to lower exposure (<7 times/week). In the MSM, the association between high soft drink consumption and gestational hypertension was observed in Ribeirão Preto (RR=1.63; 95%CI: 1.21-2.19) and in the two cohorts combined (RR=1.51; 95%CI: 1.15-1.97), but not in São Luís (RR=1.26; 95%CI: 0.79-2.00). High soft drink consumption seems to be a risk factor for gestational hypertension, suggesting that it should be discouraged during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/etiology , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies
9.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(3): 63-70, 20201201.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177488

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Comer saludablemente puede contribuir a disminuir la frecuencia de enfermedades crónicas evitables y a mejorar la calidad de vida en la edad avanzada. El objetivo fue describir el comportamiento alimentario de los adolescentes escolares de escuelas públicas, subvencionadas y privadas a nivel nacional. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal cuantitativo no probabilístico, como instrumento se utilizó el cuestionario de la Encuesta Global de Salud Escolar, a adolescentes de 12 departamentos, la encuesta fue aplicada en marzo del 2017, fueron incluidos 3149 estudiantes matriculados sistemáticamente con una probabilidad proporcional a los grados Octavo-Tercer curso. Resultados: El comportamiento alimentario se caracterizó por el bajo consumo de frutas y verduras en porciones de cinco o más veces al día que fue solo del 7,5%. El 61,7% consumieron bebidas gaseosas azucaradas una o más veces al día, y 15% de los estudiantes consumieron tres días o más comidas rápidas en los últimos 7 días. Conclusión: El comportamiento alimentario de los adolescentes se caracteriza por un elevado consumo de los alimentos marcadores de una alimentación no saludable con mayor proporción entre los más jóvenes.


Introduction: Eating healthy can help reduce preventable chronic diseases and improve quality of life in old age. The objective was to describe the eating habits of school adolescents from public, subsidized and private schools nationwide. Materials and Methods: It is a non-probabilistic quantitative cross-sectional descriptive study, the instrument used was the Global School Health Survey, for adolescents from 12 departments, the survey was applied in March 2017. 3149 systematically enrolled students were included with a proportional probability to grades Eight-Third year. Results: The eating behavior was characterized by the low consumption of fruits and vegetables in portions of five or more times a day, which was only 7.5%. 61.7% consumed sugary soft drinks one or more times a day, and 15% of the students consumed fast foods three or more days a week. Conclusion: The eating behavior of adolescents is characterized by a high consumption of foods that are markers of an unhealthy diet, with a higher proportion among the youngest.


Subject(s)
Carbonated Beverages , Food , Chronic Disease , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Surveys
10.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(4): 255-262, dic. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1247636

ABSTRACT

A adolescência é um período de diversas transformações, sendo observadas mudanças em relação à nutrição, que podem resultar em excesso de peso corporal. Assim, o estudo teve como objetivo verificar a associação entre excesso de peso corporal e consumo de refrigerante em adolescentes escolares estratificado por sexo. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, realizado com estudantes do ensino médio. Utilizou-se um questionário autoaplicável. A variável desfecho foi a mediana do escore de IMC (eutrófico e excesso de peso) e o consumo de refrigerante foi a variável de exposição principal. Foi utilizado o modelo de Poisson, estratificado por sexo. Participaram do estudo 1.225 adolescentes, 53,4% do sexo feminino e 15,6% consumiam refrigerante diariamente. Nos adolescentes eutróficos não houve associação de consumo de refrigerantes e zIMC. Nos meninos com excesso de peso e consumo de refrigerante mais de duas vezes na semana apresentaram maior chance de estarem acima da mediana de zIMC. Os resultados apontaram que o consumo diário de refrigerantes por adolescentes do sexo masculino com excesso de peso pode aumentar as chances de ter zIMC ainda mais alto, reforçando assim, a necessidade de medidas que visem a redução do consumo de refrigerante(AU)


Adolescence is a period of several changes, with changes related to nutrition, which can result in excess body weight. Thus, the study aimed to verify the association between excess body weight and soft drink consumption in school adolescents stratified by sex. This is a cross-sectional study, carried out with high school students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. The outcome variable was the median BMI score (eutrophic and overweight) and soft drink consumption was the main exposure variable. The Poisson model, stratified by sex, was used. The sample consisted of 1,225 adolescents, which 53.4% were female and 15.6% consumed soft drinks daily. In eutrophic adolescents, there was no association between consumption of soft drinks and the BMI Z-score. In overweight boys and soda consumption more than twice a week, they were more likely to be above the BMI Z-score median. The results showed that the daily consumption of soft drinks by overweight male adolescents may increase the chances of having even higher BMI Z-score, thus reinforcing the need for measures aimed at reducing the consumption of soft drinks(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Body Weight , Carbonated Beverages , Body Mass Index , Adolescent Nutrition , Feeding Behavior , Cardiovascular Diseases , Public Health , Diabetes Mellitus , Obesity
11.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 3(2)ago.12, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1117155

ABSTRACT

El consumo de bebidas carbonatadas es común a nivel mundial. En El Salvador es frecuente en la dieta de la población; sin embargo, algunos de sus componentes pueden ser responsables de afectar la salud. Objetivo. Evaluar los efectos a la salud de dos bebidas carbonatadas administradas continuamente durante 10 semanas a ratones experimentales. Metodología. Se utilizaron 12 ratones distribuidos en 3 grupos de 4 ratones cada uno; un control y dos experimentales, para administrar dos bebidas carbonatadas azucaradas de alto consumo dentro de la población salvadoreña por vía intragástrica. Resultados. Los chequeos clínicos presentaron alteraciones en algunos aspectos evaluados, como deshidratación, piloerección y diarrea. En peso corporal, hubo diferencias entre el grupo control y los experimentales. En la evaluación macroscópica de los órganos, los grupos tratados sufrieron irregularidades, tanto en la apariencia como en el color, aunque en su peso no existieron diferencias, a excepción del riñón derecho del grupo tratado con bebida carbonatada 1. La química sanguínea mostró únicamente diferencia en el colesterol total del grupo tratado con bebida carbonatada 2. Conclusión. La apariencia de los ratones tratados con bebidas carbonatadas mostró daños a la salud, principalmente el daño provocado en la apariencia de los órganos internos


Currently, the consumption of carbonated beverages is very common worldwide. In El Salvador it is frequent in the diet of the population; while some constituent components may be responsible for affecting health. Objective. To assess the health effects of two carbonated beverages administered continuously for 10 weeks to experimental mice. Methodology. Two carbonated beverages with high consumption sugar were chosen within the Salvadoran population. In this study 12 mice distributed in 3 groups of 4 mice each were used; one control and two experimental. The substances were administered intragastrically. Results. The clinical check-ups showed alterations in some aspects evaluated, such as dehydration, piloerection and diarrhea. In body weight, there were significant differences between the control and the experimental group. In the macroscopic evaluation of the organs, the treated groups suffered from certain irregularities, both in appearance and color, although there were no differences in weight, except for the right kidney of the group treated with carbonated beverage 1. Blood chemistry showed only


Subject(s)
Carbonated Beverages , Impacts on Health
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(7): 2529-2540, Jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133059

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a tendência temporal e os fatores associados ao consumo de refrigerante ou suco artificial entre adultos no Brasil. Estudo desenvolvido a partir de dados secundários do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico, realizado com adultos brasileiros entre 2007-2014. Foi verificada a frequência e a intensidade do consumo (quantidade de copos ou latas por semana) de refrigerante ou suco artificial. Dados sociodemográficos e comportamentais foram as variáveis independentes. A tendência temporal do consumo anual foi avaliada por meio de Regressão Linear. Os fatores associados (idade, sexo, região, trabalho, escolaridade, hábito de assistir TV) ao consumo dessas bebidas foram investigados por Regressão de Poisson. Houve redução de 32,7% do consumo de refrigerante ou suco artificial entre 2007 e 2014. Os fatores associados ao maior consumo foram: sexo masculino (p = 0,000); faixa etária de 18-29 anos (p = 0,000); residência nas regiões centro-oeste, sudeste e sul (p = 0,000); menor escolaridade (p = 0,616); estar empregado (p = 0,007) e assistir TV mais de 3 horas por dia (p = 0,000). As análises descrevem uma tendência de queda no consumo de refrigerante ou suco artificial entre os adultos no Brasil de 2007 a 2014.


Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze the time-series trend and factors associated with the consumption of soft drinks or packaged fruit juices among adults in Brazil. It is a study based on secondary data from the System of Surveillance of Risk Factors and Protection for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey conducted among Brazilian adults between 2007 and 2014. The consumption frequency and intensity (number of cups or cans per week) of soda or packaged juice was checked. Socio-demographic and behavioral data were the independent variables. The time-series trend of annual consumption was evaluated by means of Linear Regression. The factors (age, sex, region, work, schooling and TV screen time) associated with the consumption of these beverages were investigated by Poisson regression. There was a 32.7% reduction in soft drink or packaged juice consumption between 2007 and 2014. Factors associated with higher consumption were: male sex (p = 0.000); 18-29 year-age-range (p = 0.000); residence in the central-west, southeast and southern regions (p = 0.000); lower schooling (p = 0.616); being employed (p = 0.007) and more than 3 hours of TV screen time per day (p = 0.000). The analyses describe a downward trend in the consumption of soda or packaged fruit juice among adults in Brazil from 2007 to 2014.


Subject(s)
Beverages , Carbonated Beverages , Brazil , Risk Factors
13.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 31(1): 49-52, mayo 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103463

ABSTRACT

The presence of bezoars in daily clinical practice is a event that poses a challenge both diagnostic, due to the associated factors in its development, as well as therapeutic. The management of this entity is associated with medical, endoscopic and surgical procedures and it is necessary to know its usefulness in different clinical scenarios. The role of carbonated beverages is increasingly accepted given its low cost, wide availability and high efficiency. For the aforementioned, it seems important to report a series of cases and the management performed.


La presencia de bezoares en la práctica clínica diaria es un evento que establece un desafío diagnóstico, por los factores asociados en su desarrollo, como también terapéutico. El manejo de esta patología se asocia a procedimientos médicos, endoscópicos y quirúrgicos siendo necesario conocer su utilidad en distintos escenarios clínicos. El rol de las bebidas carbonatadas es cada vez más aceptado dado su bajo costo, amplia disponibilidad y alta eficacia. Por lo antes señalado, nos parece importante reportar una serie de casos y el manejo realizado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Bezoars/therapy , Carbonated Beverages , Gastric Lavage/methods , Bezoars/diagnosis , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Treatment Outcome
14.
Rev. Col. méd. cir ; 159(1): 23-25, abr 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1247543

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar la presencia de proteinuria en habitantes de una aldea de la región costera de Santa Rosa, Guatemala, julio del año 2019. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo y transversal, en una muestra de 575 habitantes de la aldea Casas Viejas, captada por durante cuatro jornadas médicas. Las muestras de orina fueron analizadas con tiras reactivas. Resultados: de los habitantes que participaron, 55.48 % (319) fueron de sexo femenino, la mediana de edad fue de 24 años, el 39.820% (229) estudiante y el 85.2 % (490) sin antecedentes patológicos. De los factores predisponentes de enfermedad renal, el 56.170% (323) consume antiinflamatorios no esteroideo -AINES-, el 82.26 % (473) bebidas carbonatadas, el 13.570% (78) bebidas alcohólicas; la mediana de consumo de agua fue de 6 vasos diarios y 13.22 % (76) han estado expuestos a agroquímicos. Proteinuria se documentó en 8.87 % (51) de los habitantes. Conclusiones: más de la mitad de los sujeto de estudio son de sexo femenino y sin antecedentes patológicos; de los factores predisponentes a enfermedad renal los más frecuentes son el consumo de -AINES-, bebidas carbonatadas y la hidratación inadecuada. Nueve de cada cien sujetos de estudio presentan proteinuria.


Objetive: to establish urine protein presence in inhabitants of a small village of the coastal region in Santa Rosa, Guatemala. July 2019. Material y methods: Descriptive and transversal study performed on 575 persons from Casas Viejas village, using a nonprobabilistic sampling. Proteinuria was determined by urine test strips. Results: Of the persons studied, 55.48% (319) were female, mean age was 24 years old, 39.82% (229) were students and 85.25% had no pathological background. Predisposing factors of kidney disease were noted, 56.17% (323) consumed Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), 82.26% (473) consumed carbonated drinks, 13.57% (78) alcoholic beverages, the mean water consumption was 6 glasses per day, and 13.22% (76), were exposed to agrochemical pesticides. Proteinuria was found in 8.87% (51) of the sample. Conclutions: more than half of population were female and didn´t showed pathological signs. Predisposing factors to kidney disease were, frequent NSAIDs use, carbonated drinks consumption a no adequate hydration. Nine of each one hundred people studied presented urine protein.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Pesticides/adverse effects , Proteinuria/diagnosis , Proteinuria/urine , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Drinking , Guatemala/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/urine , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology
15.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200182, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134772

ABSTRACT

Abstract The increased consumption of citrus sweets can contribute to the development of erosive tooth wear (ETW). Objective This in vitro study evaluated the erosive potential of citrus sweets on bovine enamel samples regarding the quantification of wear. Methodology Ninety bovine crowns were prepared and samples were randomly distributed into 6 groups (n=15): 0.1% citric acid solution (pH 2.5); Coca-Cola ® Soft Drink (pH 2.6); Fini ® Diet (lactic and citric acid, pH 3.3); Fini ® Jelly Kisses (lactic and citric acid, pH 3.5); Fini ® Fruit Salad Bubblegum (maleic acid, pH 2.6); Fini ® Regaliz Acid Tubes (maleic and citric acid, pH 3.1). Sweets were dissolved in the proportion of 40 g/250 mL of deionized water. Enamel samples were submitted to erosive challenges for 7 days (4 daily acid immersion cycles for 90 s each). Enamel wear was measured using contact profilometry (μm), and data (median values [interquartile range]) were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's test (p<0.0001). Results All citrus sweets tested present a high erosive potential, Fini Diet ® (2.4 [1.2]) and Fini Regaliz Tubs ® (2.2 [0.5]) show the highest erosive potential, similar to 0.1% citric acid (2.3 [0.7]); Fini Regaliz Tubs ® is more erosive than Coca-Cola ® (1.4 [0.9]). Conclusion The evaluated citrus sweets have great erosive potential and play a key role in the development of ETW.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tooth Erosion , Citrus , Tooth Wear , Carbonated Beverages , Dental Enamel , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
16.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 42, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101857

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe students protected by laws and exposed to soft drinks sales and assess whether forbidding laws are associated with lower availability of these beverages. METHODS We identified laws forbidding non-government administered cafeterias or sales of soft drinks in schools in the 27 Brazilian state capitals. Data on soft drinks sales were obtained from Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar 2015 (PeNSE - National Survey of School Health 2015), for a representative sample of 9th graders from public and private schools. Students were attributed with the status of their school regarding the law and sale of soft drinks. Co-variables were school status (public or private), school size, geographic regions, mother's educational level, score of goods and services. We performed multivariate analyses using Poisson regression. RESULTS The total of 23 laws forbidding sales of soft drinks covered 63.0% of capitals, comprising 56.9% of students. Law coverage was higher among students from more developed regions (67.6%) and in public schools (60.6%), compared with those from less developed regions (38.0%) and private schools (45.8%). Soft drinks were available for 33.9% of students. Students attending public schools in less developed regions had the lowest availability of soft drinks, regardless of law coverage (14.8%; 12.0%); while students attending private schools in these regions had a high availability, regardless of law coverage (82.1%; 73.4%). Restrictive laws were associated with lower sales of soft drinks in more developed regions, and restrictions had a greater association with the availability of soft drinks in public schools (PR = 0.25; 95%CI = 0.15-0.41), compared with private schools (PR = 0.48; 95%CI = 0.35-0.66). CONCLUSION Laws restricting soft drinks in schools were associated with fewer sales in more developed regions. Private schools were less compliant with the law than public schools. A broadly enforced national law could reduce the availability of soft drinks in schools.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schools/legislation & jurisprudence , Carbonated Beverages , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Public Sector/legislation & jurisprudence , Private Sector/legislation & jurisprudence , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data
17.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2020. 139 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177542

ABSTRACT

Em nossa pesquisa, observamos tanto a presença da publicidade de Coca-Cola durante o programa BBB19, assim como em seu intervalo comercial. A epidemia de obesidade é combatida mundialmente por instituições de saúde, nosso pressuposto é que a emergência do combate a obesidade tornam visíveis os interesses mercantis que se misturam com habilidade às prescrições do saber oficial da saúde. Como o produto Coca-Cola sem açúcar. Na atual perspectiva do cenário do capital financeiro, da globalização contemporânea, a consequência da convergência tecnológica é uma concentração sem precedentes da propriedade ­ Rede Globo e Coca-Cola. Nosso horizonte é amplificar a prática comunicativa da publicidade articulada a compreensão do lugar da comunicação nos processos sociais e seus efeitos na saúde. Partimos do entendimento que essas narrativas são espaços simbólicos na disseminação de valores às práticas sociais e que as representações implicam na produção social de sentido a partir dos sistemas de signos projetados. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Persuasive Communication , Carbonated Beverages , Advertising , Obesity
18.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101305

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the erosive potential of different alcoholic beverages according to pH, titratable acidity and buffering capacity. Material and Methods: Thirteen industrialized alcoholic beverages of different brands were selected and divided into five groups according to their type and composition. The pH measurement and titratable acidity for pH 5.5 and 7.0 were performed in triplicate in 50 mL of each beverage. The buffering capacity was calculated based on pH and titratable acidity for pH 7.0. ANOVA, Tukey, and Pearson correlation, with p<0.05, were used for data analysis. Results: Data showed normal distribution by Shapiro-Wilk test. The pH of alcoholic beverages ranged from 2.49 (Miks Ice Tea - Green Fruits) to 7.64 (Smirnoff). The highest values of acid titration (4.68) and buffer capacity (19.97) were observed in Smirnoff Ice. The following correlations (p<0.01) were noted between: pH and titratable acidity; buffering capacity and pH; buffering capacity and titratable acidity. Conclusion: Some beers and alcopops presented erosive potential due to their lower pH associated with high acid titration values. The whisky and sugarcane liquor examined were not potentially erosive.


Subject(s)
Tooth Erosion/etiology , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Alcoholic Beverages/adverse effects , Acidity/adverse effects , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Beer , Brazil/epidemiology , Normal Distribution , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Saccharum
19.
Acta méd. costarric ; 61(3): 111-118, jul.-sep. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019302

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo : El objetivo del estudio fue analizar el consumo de azúcares añadidos por la población urbana costarricense y los factores asociados a este. Método: Estudio transversal donde se analizan los datos de 798 participantes del Estudio ELANS-Costa Rica, que constituyen una muestra representativa de la población urbana costarricense, (con edades entre 15 y 65 años). Para conocer el consumo de azúcares añadidos, se realizan dos recordatorios de 24 horas, en días no consecutivos. Se recolectan variables sociodemográficas, cantidad, lugar y momento del consumo. Resultados: El consumo de azúcares añadidos representa el 14,7% de la energía consumida por la población urbana costarricense, siendo este porcentaje mayor en las mujeres y en las personas más jóvenes. La mayor cantidad de azúcares añadidos se consume en el hogar y durante las meriendas. Las bebidas azucaradas constituyen la principal fuente de azúcares añadidos en la dieta costarricense, y las bebidas gaseosas son la fuente más importante en el quintil de mayor consumo. Conclusión: La ingesta de energía obtenida de los azúcares añadidos supera la recomendación máxima establecida por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, por lo tanto, es necesario establecer políticas públicas dirigidas a reducir su consumo y a la modificación de conductas asociadas a la preparación e ingesta de alimentos fuente de azúcares añadidos.


Abstract Aim: High consumption of added sugars has been associated with a greater risk of chronic diseases, appearance of caries and weight gain, which implies a lower quality of life for the population and an increase in costs for the health system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of added sugar and its related factors in urban Costa Rican population. Methods : This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a representative sample of the Costa Rican urban population (798 participants aged between 15 and 65 years). To determine the consumption of added sugars, two 24 hours recalls were conducted, in non-consecutive days. Sociodemographic variables, quantity of food consumed, place and time of consumption were collected. Results: The consumption of added sugars represents 14.7% of total energy intake for the Costa Rican urban population. This consumption is higher among women and younger people. The greater amount of added sugars was consumed in the home and during snacks. Sugar-sweetened beverages were the main source of this added sugar in the Costa Rican diet and soft drinks were the most important source in the highest consumption quintile. Conclusions: The intake of energy obtained from the added sugars exceeds the máximum recommendation established by the World Health Organization, therefore it is necessary to establish public policies aimed at reducing consumption and modifying behaviors associated with the preparation and intake of food source of added sugars.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Sugars/analysis , Dietary Sugars/administration & dosage , Obesity/diagnosis , Costa Rica
20.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(4): 486-494, Jul.-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099325

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: We tested the effectiveness of the I prefer plain water educational strategy used to increase water consumption in elementary school children. Materials and methods: A community intervention trial was performed in eight public elementary schools in Mexico City. The schools were randomized into an intervention (IG) and a control (CG) group. Each school was provided water dispensers inside the classrooms. The IG received the educational strategy. The strategy was considered effective if the students increased their water consumption by ≥220 ml. Results: Water consumption in the IG increased 167 ml vs. 37 ml in CG (p < 0.001). The goal of the educational strategy for water consumption was achieved in 166/413 children in the IG and 95/364 children in the CG (p < 0.001). Conclusions: I prefer plain water, associated with free access to water inside the classrooms, proved to be effective to increase water consumption.


Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de la estrategia Prefiero agua simple para incrementar el consumo de agua en niños de escuelas primarias públicas. Material y métodos: Ensayo de intervención comunitaria en ocho escuelas en la Ciudad de México. Las escuelas se aleatorizaron en grupo de intervención (GI) y de control (GC). Se instalaron dispensadores de agua dentro de las aulas. Implementamos la estrategia al GI. Consideramos efectiva la estrategia si los estudiantes incrementaron su consumo de agua en ≥220 ml. Resultados: El incremento global en el consumo de agua del GI fue de 167 ml vs. 37 ml en GC (p <0.001). La efectividad de la estrategia para el consumo de agua se logró en 166/413 niños del GI y en 95/364 niños del GC (p <0.001). Conclusiones: Prefiero agua simple, asociada con libre acceso al agua dentro de las aulas, demostró ser efectiva para incrementar el consumo de agua.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Students , Drinking Water , Drinking , Health Promotion/methods , Carbonated Beverages/statistics & numerical data , Milk/statistics & numerical data , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/statistics & numerical data , Mexico
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