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1.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 51-60, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362696

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori es un carcinógeno tipo I resistente a múltiples antibióticos y con alta prioridad en salud pública. La infección por este microorganismo está influenciada por una interacción compleja entre la genética del huésped, el entorno y múltiples factores de virulencia de la cepa infectante. Afecta al 50 % de la población mundial, provocando afecciones gastroduodenales graves, la mayoría de forma asintomática. El 20 % de los individuos con H. pylori pueden desarrollar a través del tiempo lesiones gástricas preneoplásicas y el 2 % de ellos un cáncer gástrico. Las manifestaciones clínicas gastrointestinales y extragastrointestinales están asociadas a su virulencia y a la respuesta del sistema inmunológico con la liberación de citosinas proinflamatorias, tales como TNF-alfa, IL-6, IL-10 e IL-8, causantes de inflamación aguda y crónica. Múltiples factores de virulencia han sido estudiados como el gen A asociado a la citotoxina (CagA) y la citotoxina vacuolante (VacA), los cuales juegan un rol importante en la aparición del cáncer gástrico. Dada la resistencia cada vez mayor a los antibióticos utilizados, las líneas de estudio en el futuro inmediato deben estar encaminadas en establecer la utilidad de los nuevos antibióticos y la determinación de profagos colombianos en todo el país. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo hacer una puesta al día sobre las características del H. pylori, los mecanismos patogénicos, genes de virulencia, su asociación con el mayor riesgo de cáncer gástrico, farmacorresistencia microbiana y su erradicación.


Helicobacter pylori is recognized as a class I carcinogen resistant to multiple antibiotics and with high priority in public health. The infection caused by this microorganism is influenced by a complex interaction between host genetics, environment, and multiple virulence factors of the infecting strain. It affects 50% of the world population, causing severe gastroduodenal conditions, most of them asymptomatic. Through time, 20% of individuals with H. pylori may develop preneoplastic gastric lesions and 2% of them develop gastric cancer. The gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal clinical manifestations are associated with its virulence and the response of the immune system with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-8, which cause acute and chronic inflammation. Multiple virulence factors have been studied, such as cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), which play an important role in the development of gastric cancer. Due to the increasing antibiotics resistance, the research in the immediate future should be aimed at establishing the usefulness of the new antibiotics and the determination of Colombian prophages throughout the country. This paper aims to update the characteristics of H. pylori, its pathogenic mechanisms, virulence genes, its association with the increased risk of gastric cancer, microbial drug resistance, and eradication.


Helicobacter pylorié um carcinógeno tipo I resistente a múltiplos antibióticos e com alta prioridade na saúde pública. A infecção por este microrganismo está influenciada por uma interação complexa entre a genética do hospede, o entorno e múltiplos fatores de virulência da cepa infectante. Afeta a 50% da população mundial, provocando afeções gastroduodenais graves, a maioria de forma assintomática. 20% dos indivíduos com H. pylori podem desenvolver através do tempo lesões gástricas pré-neoplásicas e 2% deles um câncer gástrico. As manifestações clínicas gastrointestinais e extragastrointestinais estão associadas à sua virulência e à resposta do sistema imunológico com a liberação de citocinas pró-inflamatórias, tais como TNF-alfa, IL-6, IL-10 e IL-8, causantes de inflamação aguda e crónica. Múltiplos fatores de virulência hão sido estudados como o gene. A associado à citotoxina (CagA) e a citotoxina vacuolante (VacA), os quais jogam um papel importante no aparecimento do câncer gástrico. Dada a resistência cada vez maior aos antibióticos utilizados, as linhas de estudo no futuro imediato devem estar encaminhadas em estabelecer a utilidade dos novos antibióticos e a determinaçãode profagos colombianos em todo o país. Esta revisão tem como objetivo fazer uma atualização sobre as características do H. pylori, os mecanismos patogénicos, genes de virulência, sua associação com o maior risco de câncer gástrico, farmacorresistência microbiana e sua erradicação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Helicobacter pylori , Drug Resistance , Carcinogens , Virulence Factors , Disease Eradication , Immune System , Anti-Bacterial Agents
3.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(1): 56-59, jul.2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1119383

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma urotelial (CU) del tracto urinario superior es infrecuente y representa solo del 5%-10% de todos los CU. Estas neoplasias crecen a partir del urotelio de los cálices renales hasta el tercio distal del uréter. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 68 años de edad quien presenta enfermedad actual de 3 meses de evolución caracterizada por dolor lumbar izquierdo, tipo cólico, de leve a moderada intensidad, el cual atenúa parcialmente con el uso de AINES, asociado a hematuria visible total de predominio nocturno. El uroanálisis mostró hematuria macroscópica y la citología urinaria evidenció atipias sugerentes de carcinoma. La TAC abdomino-pélvica contrastada evidenció un defecto de llenado en relación al cáliz inferior de riñón izquierdo y plastrón ganglionar paraaórtico izquierdo. Se practicó nefroureterectomía radical izquierda evidenciando tumor de 3 x 3 x 1 cm en relación a pelvis renal extensiva a cáliz inferior invadiendo parénquima renal. El estudio histopatológico mostró un carcinoma urotelial papilar infiltrativo de alto grado con márgenes sin lesiones y ganglios linfáticos con metástasis. El paciente evoluciona satisfactoriamente durante el período postoperatorio y actualmente recibe terapia adyuvante. A pesar de ser una patología poco frecuente, puede presentarse y el urólogo debe estar en capacidad para poder enfrentarla(AU)


Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UC) is infrequent and represents only 5%-10% of all UCs. These neoplasms grow from the urothelium of renal calyces to the distal third of the ureter. A case of UC of the upper urinary tract is reported in a 68-year-old male patient with a 3-month history of left lumbar mild to moderate pain, which partially mitigates with the use of NSAIDs associated with visible total predominantly nocturnal hematuria. Macroscopic hematuria was evident and urinary cytology reported carcinoma suggestive atypias. Contrasted CT of abdomen and pelvis showed filling defect in relation to lower calyx of the left kidney and left para-aortic ganglion plastron. Radical left nephroureterectomy was performed showing a 3 x 3 x 1 cm tumor in relation to the renal pelvis extending to the lower cavity and invading renal parenchyma. Histopathology showed high grade infiltrative papillary CU with margins without lesions and lymph nodes with metastasis. Patient evolves satisfactorily in the postoperative period and is currently in adjuvant therapy. Although this pathology is rare, it can occur and the urologist must be able to face it(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urogenital Neoplasms , Diagnostic Techniques, Urological , Tobacco Use Disorder , Carcinogens , Urothelium/physiopathology
4.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 26(1): 68-77, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1127005

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El cáncer colorrectal (CCR) es la neoplasia de mayor frecuencia en vías digestivas, constituyendo del 9 al 10% de todos los cánceres en el mundo. Se considera que es multicausal, pues abarca factores intrínsecos del huésped como mutaciones genéticas, hormonales y condiciones inmunológicas; además de factores externos como dietas poco saludables, consumo de alcohol, obesidad, sedentarismo, tabaquismo y la exposición ambiental a carcinógenos. Las manifestaciones clínicas son poco específicas, razón por la cual el diagnóstico está enfocado en grupos de riesgo relacionados con la edad e historia familiar demostrada. Objetivo: Identificar los factores genéticos y de estilos de vida predisponentes al desarrollo de CCR. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda de la bibliografía respectiva en las bases de datos ScienceDirect, Google académico, Redalyc, Scielo, Proquest publicada durante el período 2004- 2019, mediante las palabras clave: Colorrectal cancer, risk factors, epidemiology, mortality, mutation, incidence. Resultados: Se observaron factores genéticos predisponentes entre un 20% a 25% de las personas con CCR asociados principalmente con la mutación de gen APC. En relación al cáncer esporádico, se identifica hasta en un 80% de los casos, relacionado con el consumo no controlado de alimentos como carnes rojas, embutidos, café, además de hábitos como el consumo de cigarrillo y alcohol conjuntamente con el estrés y comorbilidades como la obesidad y la diabetes. Conclusión: La multicausalidad del CCR está centrada en factores tanto internos como externos siendo de relevancia el seguimiento para personas genéticamente predispuestas y la implementación de estilos de vida saludables que reduzcan la mortalidad por esta causa.


Abstract Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most frequent neoplasm in the digestive tract; it constitutes 9 of 10% of all cancer cases in the world. This type of cancer is considered multicausal since it is associated with intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Among the internal factors, there are genetic, hormonal mutations, and immunological conditions. On the other hand, the external factors are composed of unhealthy diets, alcohol consumption, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking habits, and environmental exposure to carcinogens. The clinical symptoms are not very specific; that is why the diagnosis is focused on risk groups related to age and proven family medical history. Objective: To identify genetic factors and lifestyle factors related to the development of Colorectal cancer (CRC). Methodology: A literature search was carried out in databases such as ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Redalyc, Scielo, Proquest, in a range of time between 2004 and 2019. The keywords: colorectal cancer, risk factors, epidemiology, mortality, mutation, and incidence were used as helpers for the search. Results: Predisposing genetic factors were observed in about 20% to 25% of people with CRC associated primarily with the APC gene mutation. In terms of sporadic cancer, the results showed that 80% of the cases were related to the uncontrolled consumption of red meat, sausages, and coffee. Additionally, smoking and alcoholic behaviors, stress, and comorbidities, such as obesity and diabetes, were also the cause of the development of this issue. Conclusion: CRC could be caused by internal and external factors. Based on this, the people with a genetic predisposition to this issue should monitor themselves frequently and implement a healthy lifestyle that reduces the probability of suffering from this type of cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinogens , Colorectal Neoplasms , Risk Factors , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Gastrointestinal Tract , Medical History Taking , Alcohol Drinking , Smoking , Epidemiology , Genes, APC , Aftercare , Sedentary Behavior , Alcoholics , Food , Healthy Lifestyle , Neoplasms , Obesity
5.
Univ. salud ; 21(3): 270-276, Sep.-Dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1043548

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La Sociedad Americana de Cáncer indica que al año se diagnostican 163.300 casos de cáncer infantil en el mundo. En Colombia fueron reportadas 300 muertes por esta causa en menores de edad durante el año 2015. Actualmente, las principales asociaciones etiológicas de cáncer infantil son la radiación ionizante y exposición a pesticidas, convirtiéndose en una prioridad emergente en la agenda mundial de salud infantil. Objetivo: Identificar factores carcinogénicos asociados al incremento de riesgo en la aparición de cáncer infantil. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una revisión de artículos científicos en inglés y español en la base de datos PubMed, ScienceDirect, SciELO, y publicaciones estadísticas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, Asociación Americana de Cáncer y el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de Colombia. Resultados: Se describieron diferentes factores carcinogénicos como radiación ionizante, agentes biológicos, patrones dietéticos, exposición a pesticidas, tabaco y asbesto, destacando su asociación en el desarrollo de cáncer infantil. Conclusión: El reconocimiento de los agentes carcinogénicos frecuentemente asociados con cáncer infantil, permite identificar el impacto de estos sobre la salud, y generar medidas preventivas más eficaces que puedan reducir la carga global de la enfermedad.


Abstract Introduction: The American Cancer Society indicates that each year 163,300 cases of childhood cancer are diagnosed worldwide. In Colombia, 300 deaths were reported from this cause in minors during 2015. Currently, the main etiological associations of childhood cancer are ionizing radiation and exposure to pesticides, making it an emerging priority in the global agenda for children's health. Objective: To identify carcinogenic factors associated with the increased risk in the onset of childhood cancer. Materials and methods: A review of scientific articles in English and Spanish was carried out in PubMed, ScienceDirect, SciELO, and statistical publications of the World Health Organization, American Cancer Association and the National Cancer Institute of Colombia. Results: Different carcinogenic factors were described as ionizing radiation, biological agents, dietary patterns, exposure to pesticides, tobacco and asbestos, highlighting their association in the development of childhood cancer. Conclusion: The recognition of the carcinogenic agents frequently associated with childhood cancer, allows the identification of their impact on health, and generates more effective preventive measures that can reduce the worldwide burden of the disease.


Subject(s)
Child , Carcinogens , Child , Risk Factors , Environmental Exposure , Neoplasms
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(10): e201901001, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054675

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To examine the effects of Arrabidaa chica (Bignoniacea) extract, a native plant of the Amazon known as crajiru, on a 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer model in Wistar rats. Methods: We compared the response of breast cancer to the oral administration of A. chica extract (ACE) for 16 weeks, associated or not with vincristine. Groups: normal control; DMBA (50mg/kg v.o,) without treatment; DMBA+ACE (300 mg/kg); DMBA+vincristine. 500μg/kg injected i.p; DMBA+ACE+Vincristine 250μg/kg i.p. Imaging by microPET and fluorescence, biochemistry, oxidative stress, hematology and histopathology were used to validate the treatments. Results: All animals survived. A gradual weight gain in all groups was observed, with no significant difference (p>0.05). The oral administration of ACE and ACE+vincristine 50% significantly reduced breast tumors incidence examined with PET-18FDG and fluorescence (p<0.001). Significant reduction of serum transaminases, oxidative stress and hematological toxicity were observed in these groups. Antioxidant enzyme levels in breast tissue were significantly higher compared to the DMBA and DMBA+vincristine groups. Conclusion: These results demonstrate for the first time that ACE positively influences the treatment of DMBA-induced breast cancer in animal model, inducing a reduction in oxidative stress and chemotherapy toxicity, meaning that ACE may have clinical implication in further studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Carcinoma/drug therapy , Bignoniaceae/chemistry , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Vincristine/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinogens , Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Catalase/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(4): 417-426, Jul.-Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099317

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: Environmental and occupational agents are causes of cancer and disease worldwide while their control and the reduction of the associated disease burden remains complex. Materials and methods: This paper summarizes the current status of the burden of environmental and occupational causes of disease in the Americas based on presentations from a panel on environment, occupation and other environmental risk factors for cancer in the Americas, delivered in Panama, at the international conference Promoting Health Equity and Transnational Collaborations for the Prevention and Control of Cancer in the Americas. Results: Three case studies are presented to illustrate the impact of specific environmental and occupational agents and the challenge of control. Conclusions: There are still fully avoidable exposures to carcinogens, as well documented in the case of asbestos in Brazil. Thus, there are abundant targets for intervention to reduce cancer in the Americas.


Resumen: Objetivo: Los agentes ambientales y ocupacionales son causas de cáncer y enfermedades en todo el mundo, mientras que su control y reducción de la carga de enfermedad asociada siguen siendo puntos complejos. Material y métodos: Este documento resume el estado actual de la carga de las causas ambientales y ocupacionales de las enfermedades en las Américas a partir de las presentaciones de un panel sobre medio ambiente, ocupación y otros factores de riesgo ambientales para el cáncer en las Américas, realizado en Panamá, en la conferencia internacional Promoviendo la Equidad en Salud y las Colaboraciones Transnacionales para la Prevención y el Control del Cáncer en las Américas. Resultados: Se presentan tres estudios de caso para ilustrar el impacto de agentes ambientales y ocupacionales específicos y el desafío del control. Conclusiones: Todavía hay exposiciones totalmente evitables a los carcinógenos, como está bien documentado en el caso del asbesto en Brasil. Hay abundantes puntos estratégicos de intervención para reducir el cáncer en las Américas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease/etiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Panama , Asbestos/toxicity , Americas , Brazil , Carcinogens/toxicity , Petroleum Pollution/adverse effects , Epidemiology , Risk Factors , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Sex Distribution
8.
Rev. costarric. salud pública ; 28(1): 96-104, ene.-jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013979

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El Bisfenol A (BPA) es un producto químico al que los seres humanos están expuestos ampliamente por la vía oral, inhalación y transdérmica. Justificación: Dada la importancia de la patología oncológica que puede estar asociada a exposición a este químico, resulta imprescindible comprender mejor sus posibles mecanismos de acción asociados a carcinogénesis. Objetivo General: Investigar el mecanismo carcinogénico asociado a la exposición a BPA. Resultados: Aunque la mayoría de las investigaciones se han orientado hacia el efecto disruptor endocrino, con la limitante que los estudios in vivo son realizados en animales, existen estudios recientes que muestran su posible efecto carcinogénico en tejidos humanos. Sin embargo, se requiere más investigación sobre el papel del BPA de dosis baja (como ocurre en condiciones ambientales normales) y su efecto en la regulación de los cambios globales de expresión génica y las alteraciones epigenéticas en las células, que permitan establecer vínculos con carcinogénesis; esta revisión demuestra que los estudios realizados hasta la fecha señalan varios factores que pueden estar involucrados, como efectos mutagénicos que incluyen cambios en la transcripción génica y enzimáticos que promueven la proliferación celular limitando la apoptosis y favorecen la angiogénesis y migración de células tumorales. Conclusión: Si bien en la actualidad se reconoce que la célula cancerígena adquiere características patológicas que le ayudan a sobrevivir en el organismo, estas características obedecen a mecanismos moleculares genéticos y epigéneticos, muchos de los cuales han sido descritos para el caso de la exposición humana al BPA.


Abstract Introduction: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical to which humans are extensively exposed orally, inhaled and transdermally. Justification: Given the importance of the oncological pathology that may be associated with exposure to this chemical, it is essential to better understand its possible mechanisms of action associated with carcinogenesis. Objective: To investigate the carcinogenic mechanism associated with BPA exposure. Results: Although the majority of investigations have been oriented towards the endocrine disrupting effect, with the limitation that in vivo studies are carried out in animals, recent studies have shown that they can be carcinogenic in human tissues. However, more research is required on the role of low-dose BPA (as occurs under normal environmental conditions) and its effect on the regulation of global changes in gene expression and epigenetic alterations in cells, which allow establishing links with carcinogenesis; this review shows that the studies carried out to date point to several factors that may be involved, such as mutagenic effects that include changes in gene transcription and enzymes that promote cell proliferation, limiting apoptosis and promoting angiogenesis and migration of tumor cells. Conclusion: Although it is currently recognized that the cancer cell acquires pathological characteristics that help it to survive in the organism, these characteristics are due to genetic and epigenetic molecular mechanisms, many of which have been described for the case of human exposure to BPA.


Subject(s)
Carcinogens/analysis , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/adverse effects , Endocrine Disruptors/analysis , Epigenomics , Carcinogenesis
9.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019004-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763758

ABSTRACT

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive material formed by the slow decay of uranium and thorium found in the earth's crust or construction materials. Internal exposure to radon accounts for about half of the natural background radiation dose to which humans are exposed annually. Radon is a carcinogen and is the second leading cause of lung cancer following smoking. An association between radon and lung cancer has been consistently reported in epidemiological studies on mine workers and the general population with indoor radon exposure. However, associations have not been clearly established between radon and other diseases, such as leukemia and thyroid cancer. Radiation doses are assessed by applying specific dose conversion coefficients according to the source (e.g., radon or thoron) and form of exposure (e.g., internal or external). However, regardless of the source or form of exposure, the effects of a given estimated dose on human health are identical, assuming that individuals have the same sensitivity to radiation. Recently, radiation exceeding the annual dose limit of the general population (1 mSv/yr) was detected in bed mattresses produced by D company due to the use of a monazite-based anion powder containing uranium and thorium. This has sparked concerns about the health hazards for mattress users caused by radiation exposure. In light of this event, this study presents scientific information about the assessment of radon and thoron exposure and its human implications for human health, which have emerged as a recent topic of interest and debate in society.


Subject(s)
Background Radiation , Beds , Carcinogens , Construction Materials , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Korea , Leukemia , Lung Neoplasms , Miners , Radiation Exposure , Radon , Smoke , Smoking , Thorium , Thyroid Neoplasms , Uranium
10.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 114-121, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The photolithography process in the semiconductor industry uses various chemicals with little information on their constitution. This study aimed to identify the chemical constituents of photoresist (PR) products and their by-products and to compare these constituents with material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and analytical results. METHODS: A total of 51 PRs with 48 MSDSs were collected. Analysis consisted of two parts: First, the constituents of the chemical products were identified and analyzed using MSDS data; second, for verification of the by-products of PR, volatile organic compounds were analyzed. The chemical constituents were categorized according to hazards. RESULTS: Forty-five of 48 products contained trade secrets in amounts ranging from 1 to 65%. A total of 238 ingredients with multiple counting (35 ingredients without multiple counting) were identified in the MSDS data, and 48.7% of ingredients were labeled as trade secrets under the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Act. The concordance rate between the MSDS data and the analytical result was 41.7%. The by-product analysis identified 129 chemicals classified according to Chemical Abstracts Service No., with 17 chemicals that are carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic substances. Formaldehyde was found to be released from 12 of 21 products that use novolak resin. CONCLUSION: We confirmed that several PRs contain carcinogens, and some were not specified in the toxicological information in the MSDS. Hazardous chemicals, including benzene and formaldehyde, are released from PRs products as by-products. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a systematic management system for chemical compounds and the working environment.


Subject(s)
Benzene , Carcinogens , Constitution and Bylaws , Formaldehyde , Hazardous Substances , Korea , Material Safety Data Sheets , Occupational Health , Semiconductors , Volatile Organic Compounds
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(2): e201900207, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989054

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate red propolis, gum arabic and L-lysine activity on colorectal preneoplastic lesions induced by azoxymethane (AOM). Methods: The study featured 4 control groups (I-IV) and 4 experimental groups (V-VIII), totaling 48 rats. Once a week for 2 weeks, animals on control groups received saline, while animals in experimental groups received azoxymethane (15 mg/kg i.p.). The follow up along 16 weeks included daily oral gavage to administer water (I and V), L-lysine (150 mg/kg)(II and VI), própolis (100mg/5ml/kg)(III and VII), or gum arabic (5ml/kg)(IV and VIII). Was performed surgery on the animals in the end of this time in order to collect blood for biological assays (TBARS, GSH), followed by their sacrifice to tissue extract. Results: Oxidative stress (TBARS) and the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in distal colon were lower using própolis (p<0.01 for both parameters). Gum arabic reduced preneoplastic lesions (ACF ≤ 4 crypts) on distal colon and on the entire colon (p<0.05). Conclusions: Red propolis reduced AOM-induced oxidative stress (TBARS) and total number of ACF in the distal colon. L-lysine neither protected against nor enhanced AOM-induced ACF. Gum arabic reduced the number of ACF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Precancerous Conditions/prevention & control , Propolis/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Gum Arabic/pharmacology , Lysine/pharmacology , Precancerous Conditions/chemically induced , Azoxymethane , Carcinogens , Colorectal Neoplasms/chemically induced , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
12.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 55: e18217, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011649

ABSTRACT

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) placed the most widely used herbicide glyphosate (GLY) into the category 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans), a classification questioned by experts from academia and industry. This article critically appraised the epidemiological and experimental data that led the IARC working group (WG) to consider GLY a probable human carcinogen and the ensuing controversy. An association of GLY with non-Hodgkin lymphoma was suggested by some observational studies. A non-causal explanation for this weak association, however, cannot be excluded. Contrary to WG's view, long-term rodent assays yielded no convincing evidence that GLY is carcinogenic. The mechanistic evidence remains elusive as well. Bacterial reverse mutation tests (including tester strains sensitive to oxidative mutagens) were clearly negative, and so were rodent genotoxicity assays by oral route. Tests with mammalian cells in vitro yielded conflicting results at high (cytotoxic) concentrations of GLY-based formulations. Conflicting results were also obtained when high doses of GLY-based herbicides were administered to rodents by the intraperitoneal route. Such high doses are unlikely to be attained in realistic scenarios of exposure. Finally, the IARC classification is based on a conjectural hazard, and rational public health interventions must be based on estimated risks.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Rats , Pesticides/toxicity , Carcinogens/classification , Herbicides/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Epidemiologic Studies , Intervention Studies , Genotoxicity/prevention & control
13.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019004-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785782

ABSTRACT

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive material formed by the slow decay of uranium and thorium found in the earth's crust or construction materials. Internal exposure to radon accounts for about half of the natural background radiation dose to which humans are exposed annually. Radon is a carcinogen and is the second leading cause of lung cancer following smoking. An association between radon and lung cancer has been consistently reported in epidemiological studies on mine workers and the general population with indoor radon exposure. However, associations have not been clearly established between radon and other diseases, such as leukemia and thyroid cancer. Radiation doses are assessed by applying specific dose conversion coefficients according to the source (e.g., radon or thoron) and form of exposure (e.g., internal or external). However, regardless of the source or form of exposure, the effects of a given estimated dose on human health are identical, assuming that individuals have the same sensitivity to radiation. Recently, radiation exceeding the annual dose limit of the general population (1 mSv/yr) was detected in bed mattresses produced by D company due to the use of a monazite-based anion powder containing uranium and thorium. This has sparked concerns about the health hazards for mattress users caused by radiation exposure. In light of this event, this study presents scientific information about the assessment of radon and thoron exposure and its human implications for human health, which have emerged as a recent topic of interest and debate in society.


Subject(s)
Background Radiation , Beds , Carcinogens , Construction Materials , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Korea , Leukemia , Lung Neoplasms , Miners , Radiation Exposure , Radon , Smoke , Smoking , Thorium , Thyroid Neoplasms , Uranium
14.
Appl. cancer res ; 38: 1-18, jan. 30, 2018. tab., ilus
Article in English | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-994739

ABSTRACT

Alternative splicing is a regulated process whereby one gene can generate multiple mRNA isoforms susceptible to be translated into protein isoforms of various functions. Several publications report the aberrant expression of splicing isoforms in cancer cells and tissues. However, in most cases, their function remains to be established. In this review article, I will discuss the molecular tool available to perform isoform-specific functional genomics, the methodologies to quantify their effectiveness and the resulting isoform-specific phenotype in human cancer cell lines (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinogens , Protein Isoforms , Genomics , RNA Splicing Factors
15.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas. Departamento de Promoción de la Salud, Prevención y Control Nacional del Cáncer; 1 ed; 2018. 54 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1353659

ABSTRACT

La publicación contiene información técnica, y que busca fortalecer las medidas de prevención y control en un entorno laboral donde hay exposición a sustancias y mezclas que están considerados como cancerígenos para el hombre. Es importante desarrollar, estrategias e instrumentos orientadas a los empleadores y trabajadores, para crear una mejor conciencia sobre la salud de los trabajadores y ambientes de trabajo saludables; por lo que se ha determinado identificar y evaluar, cada agente cancerígeno en tres actividades ocupacionales, como Agricultura, Minería, y Salud


Subject(s)
Carcinogens , Occupational Health , Occupational Cancer , Occupational Groups , Neoplasms
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775164

ABSTRACT

The present review summarizes the results of several follow-up studies assessing an asbestos product manufacturing plant in Chongqing, China, and discusses three controversial issues related to the carcinogenicity of asbestos. The first issue is the amphibole hypothesis, which asserts that the carcinogenicity of asbestos is limited to amphiboles, such as crocidolite, but not serpentines, such as chrysotile. However, considering the possible multiple component of asbestos carcinogenicity in the presence of tobacco smoke or other carcinogens, chrysotile cannot be regarded as non-carcinogenic. Additionally, in a practical sense, it is not possible to assume "pure" chrysotile due to its ubiquitous contamination with tremolite, which is a type of amphibole. Thus, as the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) assessed, all forms of asbestos including chrysotile should be regarded carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). The second issue is the chrysotile/tremolite paradox, which is a phenomenon involving predominant levels of tremolite in the lung tissues of individuals who worked in locations with negligible levels of tremolite due to the exclusive use of chrysotile. Four possible mechanisms to explain this paradox have been proposed but this phenomenon does not support the claim that amphibole is inert. The final issue discussed is the textile mystery, i.e., the higher incidence of cancer in asbestos textile plants compared to asbestos mines where the same asbestos was produced and the exposure levels were comparable. This phenomenon was first reported in North America followed by UK and then in the present observations from China. Previously, levels of fiber exposure were calculated using a universal converting coefficient to estimate the mass concentration versus fiber concentration. However, parallel measurements of fiber and mass concentrations in the workplace and exposed air indicated that there are wide variations in the fiber/mass ratio, which unjustifies the universal conversion. It is possible that contamination by airborne non-fibrous particles in mines with mass fiber conversion led to the overestimation of fiber concentrations and resulted in the textile mystery. Although the use and manufacturing of asbestos has been banned in Japan, more than 10 million tons of asbestos had been imported and the majority remains in existing buildings. Thus, efforts to control asbestos exposure should be continued.


Subject(s)
Asbestos , Classification , Toxicity , Asbestos, Amphibole , Toxicity , Asbestos, Serpentine , Toxicity , Carcinogens , China , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Manufacturing and Industrial Facilities , Mining , Occupational Diseases , Epidemiology , Occupational Exposure , Textiles , Tobacco Smoking , Epidemiology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762536

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive consideration is necessary for setting guidelines to evaluate evidence of occupational cancer in painters due to work-related exposure to carcinogens in paint (a phenomenon termed herein as “work-relatedness”). The aim of the present research is to perform a comprehensive review and to suggest criteria for the provision of compensation for occupational neoplasm among painters in Korea. In order to perform a comprehensive review, this study assessed and evaluated scientific reports of carcinogenicities from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Industrial Injuries Advisory Council (IIAC), as well as reviewed the existing literature about occupational exposure among painters in Korea and the epidemiologic investigations of claimed cases of cancer among painters in Korea. The IARC declares that occupational exposures in commercial painting are classified as Group 1 carcinogens for lung cancer and bladder cancer among painters. The epidemiologic studies show consistent causal relationships between occupational exposure in painters and cancers such as lung cancer [meta relative risk: 1.34 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.23-1.41)] and bladder cancer [meta relative risk: 1.24 (95% CIs: 1.16-1.33)]. In reviewing occupational cancer risks for commercial painters, the Industrial Injuries Advisory Council (IIAC) confirms occupational cancer risks for lung and bladder cancer among commercial painters. According to the IIAC, however, the elevated cancer risks reported in existing literature are not doubled in either lung or bladder cancer in commercial painters relative to the risks of these cancers in the general population. Based on our review of existing Korean articles on the topic, painters are exposed to potential carcinogens including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, hexavalent chrome, crystalized silica, asbestos, and other agents, and relative levels are estimated within commercial painting processes. However, the cancer risks of occupational exposure to Group 1 carcinogens for lung and bladder cancer in painters per se are not fully assessed in existing Korean articles. Total work duration, potential carcinogens in paint, mixed exposure to paints across various industries such as construction and shipbuilding, exposure periods, latent periods, and other factors should be considered on an individual basis in investigating the work-relatedness of certain types of cancer in commercial painters.


Subject(s)
Asbestos , Benzene , Carcinogens , Compensation and Redress , Epidemiologic Studies , International Agencies , Korea , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Occupational Exposure , Occupations , Paint , Paintings , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Silicon Dioxide , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as “probably carcinogenic to humans,” there has been growing concern on the relationship between night work and breast cancer. In Korea, about 10–15% of workers are engaged in night-shift work, and breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. The purpose of this study was to review epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between night work and breast cancer. METHODS: We reviewed 21 original articles and 5 meta analyses on relationship between nightwork and breast cancer, and investigated the compensation criteria of Denmark. RESULTS: The association between breast cancer and night work has been reported by numerous epidemiologic studies, including cohort studies, case-control studies, and meta-analysis. However, a dose-response relationship has not clearly emerged among workers exposed to less than 20 years of night work. CONCLUSION: Although there are some limitations to the epidemiological studies so far, further consideration of breast cancer cases in patients with high exposure to night work is needed to assess breast cancer as a work-related disease.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinogens , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Compensation and Redress , Denmark , Epidemiologic Studies , Female , Humans , International Agencies , Korea
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research on carcinogens causing occupational cancer has been updated. Further, social interest in occupational cancer has increased. In addition, the standard for recognizing cancer as a work-related disease has also been revised. The present study aims to describe the distribution of occupational cancer claims or its approval rate and their association with work-related variables. METHODS: We analyzed 1299 claim cases for occupational cancer from 2010 to 2016 provided by the Korea Workers’ Compensation and Welfare Service (KCOMWEL). The status of approval rate was shown by year, sex, industry, occupation, age of diagnosis, duration from employment to diagnosis, and cancer site. RESULTS: The approval rate was 39.0% from 2010 to 2016 and tended to increase annually since 2011. Both the number of claims and the approval rate were higher in men. Mining and quarrying showed the highest approval rate (78.4%). The approval rates by age of diagnosis and duration from employment to diagnosis increased as the time periods increased. Respiratory organ had the highest number of claims and the highest approval rate by cancer site. CONCLUSIONS: The approval rate of occupational cancer has shown an increasing trend since 2011. The increase of occupational carcinogens and cancer sites and the improvement of social awareness about occupational cancer could have resulted in this trend. The present study provides unique, and the latest and most accurate findings on occupational cancer data of recent 7 years that could be helpful to researchers or policy makers on occupational cancer.


Subject(s)
Administrative Personnel , Carcinogens , Compensation and Redress , Diagnosis , Employment , Humans , Korea , Male , Mining , Occupations
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771474

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish a SD rat model of vulvar squamous intraepithelial lesions.@*METHODS@#Seventy female SD rats were randomized into 4 groups, namely the blank control group (=10), mechanical irritation group (=10), acetone solution group (=10), and mechanical irritation with DMBA acetone solution group (=40, model group), and the corresponding treatments were administered 3 times a week for 14 weeks. The changes of the vulvar skin of the rats were observed regularly until the 18th week. The expression of mutant p53 (mtp53) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins were detected using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, and the expressions of mtp53 and VEGF mRNA were detected with qRT- PCR in the blank control group and model group.@*RESULTS@#No significant differences were found in the morphological or histopathological changes of the skin among the blank control group, mechanical irritation group and acetone solution group. In the model group, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) occurred in 28 rats (70%) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in 11 rats (27.5%) at 14 weeks, with a success rate of 97.5% in inducing vulvar squamous intraepithelial lesions. Compared with the blank control group, the rats in the model group showed significantly increased expressions of mtp53 and VEGF at both the protein level ( < 0.05) and the mRNA level ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#DMBA in acetone solution combined with mechanical irritation can induce vulvar squamous intraepithelial lesions in female SD rats.


Subject(s)
9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene , Acetone , Animals , Blotting, Western , Carcinogens , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Friction , Immunohistochemistry , Precancerous Conditions , Metabolism , Pathology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Skin , Pathology , Solvents , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Metabolism , Vulvar Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology
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