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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1181-1190, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878169


BACKGROUND@#Pre-operative non-invasive histological evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a challenge. Tumor perfusion is significantly associated with the development and aggressiveness of HCC. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical value of quantitative liver perfusion parameters and corresponding histogram parameters derived from traditional triphasic enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans in predicting histological grade of HCC.@*METHODS@#Totally, 52 patients with HCC were enrolled in this retrospective study and underwent triple-phase enhanced CT imaging. The blood perfusion parameters were derived from triple-phase CT scans. The relationship of liver perfusion parameters and corresponding histogram parameters with the histological grade of HCC was analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimal ability of the parameters to predict the tumor histological grade.@*RESULTS@#The variance of arterial enhancement fraction (AEF) was significantly higher in HCCs without poorly differentiated components (NP-HCCs) than in HCCs with poorly differentiated components (P-HCCs). The difference in hepatic blood flow (HF) between total tumor and total liver flow (ΔHF = HFtumor - HFliver) and relative flow (rHF = ΔHF/HFliver) were significantly higher in NP-HCCs than in P-HCCs. The difference in portal vein blood supply perfusion (PVP) between tumor and liver tissue (ΔPVP) and the ΔPVP/liver PVP ratio (rPVP) were significantly higher in patients with NP-HCCs than in patients with P-HCCs. The area under ROC (AUC) of ΔPVP and rPVP were both 0.697 with a high sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity of only 56.2%. The ΔHF and rHF had a higher specificity of 87.5% with an AUC of 0.681 and 0.673, respectively. The combination of rHF and rPVP showed the highest AUC of 0.732 with a sensitivity of 57.9% and specificity of 93.8%. The combined parameter of ΔHF and rPVP, rHF and rPVP had the highest positive predictive value of 0.903, and that of rPVP and ΔPVP had the highest negative predictive value of 0.781.@*CONCLUSION@#Liver perfusion parameters and corresponding histogram parameters (including ΔHF, rHF, ΔPVP, rPVP, and AEFvariance) in patients with HCC derived from traditional triphasic CT scans may be helpful to non-invasively and pre-operatively predict the degree of the differentiation of HCC.

Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Perfusion , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Clinics ; 76: e2888, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286076


OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether quantitative textural features, extracted from pretreatment MRI, can predict sustained complete response to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: In this IRB-approved study, patients were selected from a maintained six-year database of consecutive patients who underwent both pretreatment MRI imaging with a probable or definitive imaging diagnosis of HCC (LI-RADS 4 or 5) and loco-regional treatment with RFA. An experienced radiologist manually segmented the hepatic nodules in MRI arterial and equilibrium phases to obtain the volume of interest (VOI) for extraction of 107 quantitative textural features, including shape and first- and second-order features. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate associations between textural features and complete response. RESULTS: The study consisted of 34 patients with 51 treated hepatic nodules. Sustained complete response was achieved by 6 patients (4 with single nodule and 2 with multiple nodules). Of the 107 features from the arterial and equilibrium phases, 20 (18%) and 25 (23%) achieved AUC >0.7, respectively. The three best performing features were found in the equilibrium phase: Dependence Non-Uniformity Normalized and Dependence Variance (both GLDM class, with AUC of 0.78 and 0.76, respectively) and Maximum Probability (GLCM class, AUC of 0.76). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates that a radiomic analysis of pre-treatment MRI might be useful in identifying patients with HCC who are most likely to have a sustained complete response to RFA. Second-order features (GLDM and GLCM) extracted from equilibrium phase obtained highest discriminatory performance.

Humans , Catheter Ablation , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Radiofrequency Ablation , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies
Actual. nutr ; 21(2): 43-49, Abril-Junio de 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282315


En las últimas décadas, los cambios en el estilo de vida pro-vocaron un incremento en la prevalencia del síndrome meta-bólico y que la enfermedad por hígado graso no alcohólico (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD sus siglas en inglés) se convierta en la enfermedad hepática crónica más fre-cuente en todo el mundo. Los componentes del síndrome metabólico no son sólo altamente prevalentes en pacientes con hígado graso no alcohólico, sino que a la vez aumentan el riesgo de desarrollarlo. Esta relación bidireccional ha sido claramente establecida. Asimismo se considera que NAFLD podría ser el componente hepático del síndrome metabólico. Aunque NAFLD se considera principalmente una enfermedad benigna, puede progresar a fibrosis hepática grave y carcino-ma hepatocelular (CHC), incluso se encontraría este último en hígados no cirróticos. El objetivo de esta revisión es determinar los procesos fisio-patológicos comunes a estas entidades, cuáles son las estra-tegias diagnósticas recomendadas y cuáles las intervenciones terapéuticas actualmente aprobadas.

Humans , Male , Female , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Liver Neoplasms/etiology , Fibrosis/etiology , Fibrosis/physiopathology , Fibrosis/therapy , Risk Factors , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/physiopathology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Metabolic Syndrome/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/physiopathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/physiopathology , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(7): 908-912, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136324


SUMMARY Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C in the absence of cirrhosis is uncommon. We demonstrate the importance of morphofunctional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a hepatospecific contrast agent by describing an asymptomatic female patient with HCV, who presented with a nodule detected on ultrasound. She underwent inconclusive computed tomography, presenting no signs of chronic liver disease. MRI with hepatospecific contrast providing functional information combined with the superior tissue contrast inherent to this method stands out for its greater accuracy with the possibility of not resorting to invasive diagnostic methods. With increasing experience and the dissemination of this new diagnostic modality in the medical field, its use and other potential benefits of morphofunctional MRI with hepatospecific contrast agents may be established, benefiting patients with challenging focal liver lesions.

RESUMO O surgimento de carcinoma hepatocelular em pacientes portadores de hepatite C na ausência de cirrose é de ocorrência pouco comum. Demonstramos a importância da ressonância magnética (RM) morfofuncional com contraste hepatoespecífico por meio da descrição de uma paciente do sexo feminino, assintomática, portadora do vírus da hepatite C (VHC), que se apresentou com nódulo detectado na ultrassonografia. Realizou tomografia computadorizada inconclusiva, sem sinais de hepatopatia crônica. A RM com contraste hepatoespecífico, ao proporcionar informações funcionais, somado ao superior contraste tecidual inerente ao método, destaca-se pela maior acurácia, com a possiblidade de não se recorrer a métodos diagnósticos invasivos. Com o acúmulo de experiência e divulgação dessa nova modalidade diagnóstica no meio médico, sua utilização e outros potenciais benefícios da RM morfofuncional com contraste hepatoespecífico podem vir a se estabelecer, beneficiando pacientes com lesões hepáticas focais desafiadoras.

Humans , Female , Hepatitis C/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/virology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/virology , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Contrast Media , Liver Cirrhosis
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(6): 808-812, jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020731


Eighty percent of hepatocarcinomas are inoperable at the moment of diagnosis. Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice in these cases, but local therapies are another alternative. Among these, Image-Guided BrachyAblation is a safe choice. We report a 76-year-old male with a hepatocarcinoma, who was considered inoperable due to the high surgical risk of the patient. A local treatment with Image-Guided BrachyAblation was decided. A brachytherapy needle was placed in the tumor under computed tomography guidance and a 15 Gy single dose was delivered from an Iridium-192 source. The patient had no immediate complications and at one month of follow up he continued without incidents.

Humans , Male , Aged , Brachytherapy/methods , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/radiotherapy , Ablation Techniques/methods , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided/methods , Liver Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiation Dosage , Iridium Radioisotopes , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 47(3): 1-9, jul.-set. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-985540


El síndrome de Sjögren es una enfermedad reumática que aumenta el riesgo de padecer enfermedades malignas. Dentro de estas se identifican a los linfomas como las que con mayor frecuencia se presentan. El hepatocarcinoma es una de las enfermedades más agresivas y su incidencia ha ido en aumento asociado al alto consumo de alcohol. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 56 años de edad con diagnóstico de un síndrome de Sjögren, con manifestaciones clínicas y anátomopatológicas que permiten llegar al diagnóstico de un hepatocarcinoma, asociación muy infrecuente. El hepatocarcinoma provoca un deterioro progresivo del estado de salud de los pacientes. Conocer sus síntomas y signos es de vital importancia con el fin de llegar al diagnóstico precoz de la enfermedad y evitar así las complicaciones que de él se derivan. No se encuentra relación etiopatogénica entre estas dos afecciones(AU)

Sjögren's syndrome is a rheumatic disease that increases the risk of suffering from malignant diseases. Lymphomas are identified among them as most frequent. Hepatocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive conditions and the incidence has been increasing associated with high alcohol consumption. We present the case of a 56-year-old patient with diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome that presents clinical and anatomo-pathological manifestations allowing the diagnosis of a very rare hepatocarcinoma. This entity causes a progressive deterioration of the patient health status. It is of vital importance knowing the symptoms and signs in order to reach early diagnosis, thus avoid complications. There is no etiopathogenic relationship between these two conditions(AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Sjogren's Syndrome/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma/etiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 31(1): e1360, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949206


ABSTRACT Background: Liver elastography have been reported in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with higher values; however, it is unclear to identify morbimortality risk on liver transplantation waiting list. Aim: To assess liver stiffness, ultrasound and clinical findings in cirrhotic patients with and without HCC on screening for liver transplant and compare the morbimortality risk with elastography and MELD score. Method: Patients with cirrhosis and HCC on screening for liver transplant were enrolled with clinical, radiological and laboratory assessments, and transient elastography. Results: 103 patients were included (without HCC n=58 (66%); HCC n=45 (44%). The mean MELD score was 14.7±6.4, the portal hypertension present on 83.9% and the mean transient elastography value was 32.73±22.5 kPa. The median acoustic radiation force impulse value of liver parenchyma was 1.98 (0.65-3.2) m/s and 2.16 (0.59-2.8) m/s in HCC group. The HCC group was significantly associated with HCV infection (OR 26.84; p<0.0001), higher levels of serum alpha-fetoprotein (OR 5.51; p=0.015), clinical portal hypertension (OR 0.25; p=0.032) and similar MELD score (p=0.693). The area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) showed sensitivity and specificity for serum alpha-fetoprotein (cutoff 9.1 ng/ml), transient elastography value (cutoff value 9 kPa), and acoustic radiation force impulse value (cutoff value 2.56 m/s) of 50% and 86%, 92% and 17% and 21% and 92%, respectively. The survival group had a mean transient elastography value of 31.65±22.2 kPa vs. 50.87±20.9 kPa (p=0.098) and higher MELD scores (p=0.035). Conclusion: Elastography, ultrasound and clinical findings are important non-invasive tools for cirrhosis and HCC on screening for liver transplant. Higher values in liver elastography and MELD scores predict mortality.

RESUMO Racional: A elastografia hepática tem sido relatada nos carcinomas hepatocelulares (CHC); porém, não é claro identificar o risco de morbimortalidade na lista de transplante hepático. Objetivo: Avaliar a morbimortalidade com elastografia transitória e escore MELD. Método: Pacientes adultos com cirrose na triagem para transplante de fígado foram incluídos no estudo. Resultados: Foram incluídos 103 pacientes (sem CHC n=58 (66%), CHC n=45 (44%). O escore MELD médio foi de 14,7±6,4, a hipertensão portal foi de 83,9% e o valor médio de elastografia transitória foi de 32,73±22,5 kPa. O valor médio de ARFI (Impulsão de Força de Radiação Acústica) do parênquima hepático foi de 1,98 (0,65-3,2) m/s e 2,16 (0,59-2,8) m/s no grupo CHC. O grupo CHC foi significativamente associado à infecção por vírus da hepatite C (OR 26,84, p<0,0001), níveis mais altos de alfa-feto proteína sérica (OR 5,51; p=0,015), hipertensão portal clínica (OR 0,25; p=0,032) e pontuação MELD semelhante (p=0,693). Os valores de AUROCs (Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristics) mostraram sensibilidade e especificidade para a alfa-feto proteína sérica (limite de 9,1 ng/ml), valor elastografia transitória (valor de corte 9 kPa) e valor ARFI (valor de corte 2,56 m/s) de 50% e 86%, 92% e 17% e 21% e 92%, respectivamente. O grupo de sobrevivência apresentou valor elastografia transitória médio de 31,65±22,2 kPa vs. 50,87±20,9 kPa (p=0,098) e valores mais elevados de MELD (p=0,035). Conclusão: Valores mais elevados na elastografia do fígado e nos escores MELD predizem a mortalidade.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Waiting Lists , Liver Transplantation , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/surgery , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/complications
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(1): 27-32, 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116764


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main primary liver malignancy. Its prevalence is increasing and is associated in 90% to cirrhotic patients. Hemoperitoneum secondary to spontaneous rupture of the tumor is an uncommon complication in Latin America and the Western world, being more prevalent in Asian races. However, it is associated to hemodynamic repercussion with high mortality, therefore high level of suspicion and early treatment are required. Regarding the management of the condition, in addition to hemodynamic stabilization, active hemostatic control is recommended over conservative management, transarterial chemoembolization being currently the chosen alternative. We present a series of three clinical cases of patients who debuted with clinical manifestation of hemoperitoneum during the diagnostic process of a HCC.

El carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) corresponde a la principal neoplasia maligna primaria hepática. Su prevalencia va en aumento y se asocia en 90% a pacientes cirróticos. El hemoperitoneo secundario a rotura espontánea del tumor constituye una complicación infrecuente en Latinoamérica y Occidente, siendo más prevalente en razas asiáticas. Sin embargo, se asocia a repercusión hemodinámica con alta mortalidad, por lo que requiere un alto índice de sospecha y tratamiento oportuno precoz. En cuanto al manejo del cuadro, junto a la estabilización hemodinámica se recomienda un control hemostático activo por sobre manejo conservador, siendo la embolización transarterial la alternativa de elección actualmente. Describimos a continuación una serie de tres casos clínicos de pacientes que debutan con manifestación clínica de hemoperitoneo durante el proceso diagnóstico de un CHC.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Hemoperitoneum/etiology , Hemoperitoneum/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Rupture, Spontaneous , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Embolization, Therapeutic , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Ann. hepatol ; 16(3): 421-429, May.-Jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887254


ABSTRACT Background. Evidence supporting benefit of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance in reducing mortality is not well-established. The effect of HCC surveillance in reducing mortality was assessed by an inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW)- based analysis controlled for inherent bias and confounders in observational studies. Material and methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted on 446 patients diagnosed with HCC between 2007 and 2013 at a major referral center. Surveillance was defined as having at least 1 ultrasound test within a year before HCC diagnosis. Primary outcome was survival estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method with lead-time bias adjustment and compared using the log-rank test. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (Cl) were computed using conventional Cox and weighted Cox proportional hazards analysis with IPTW adjustment. Results. Of the 446 patients, 103 (23.1%) were diagnosed with HCC through surveillance. The surveillance group had more patients with the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer stage A (80.6% vs. 33.8%, P < 0.0001), more patients eligible for potentially curative treatment (73.8% vs. 44.9%, P < 0.0001), and longer median survival (49.6 vs. 15.9 months, P < 0.0001). By conventional multivariate Cox analysis, HR (95% Cl) of surveillance was 0.63 (0.45-0.87), P = 0.005. The estimated effect of surveillance remained similar in the IPTW-adjusted Cox analysis (HR: 0.57; 95% Cl: 0.43-0.76, P < 0.001). Conclusions. HCC surveillance by ultrasound is associated with a 37% reduction in mortality. Even though surveillance is recommended in all guidelines, but in practice, it is underutilized. Interventions are needed to increase surveillance rate for improving HCC outcome.

Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Thailand , Time Factors , Cohort Effect , Proportional Hazards Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Assessment , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Staging
Ann. hepatol ; 16(1): 107-114, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838092


Abstract: Background. Sarcopenia is a complication and independent risk factor for mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis. Aim. To assess the prevalence and influence of sarcopenia on overall survival in a cohort of cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma managed in a tertiary center. Material and methods. Abdominal computed tomography of 92 consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma cirrhotic patients, enrolled and followed from 2004 to 2014, were retrospectively studied with a software analyzing the cross-sectional areas of muscles at third lumbar vertebra level. Data was normalized for height, skeletal muscle index (SMI) calculated and presence of Sarcopenia measured. Sarcopenia was defined by SMI ≤ 41 cm2/m2 for women and ≤ 53 cm2/m2 for men with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25, and ≤ 43 cm2/m2 for men and women with BMI < 25, respectively. Results. Median age at diagnosis was 71.9 years (30.7-86.4) and BMI 24.7 (17.5-36.7), comparable in women 23.1, (17.5-36.7) and men 24.7 (18.4-36.7). A class of CHILD score and BCLC A prevailed (55.4% and 41.3%, respectively); metastatic disease was found in 12% of cases. Sarcopenia was present in 40.2% of cases, mostly in females (62.9%; p = 0.005). Mean overall survival was reduced in sarcopenic patients, 66 (95% CI 47 to 84) vs. 123 (95% CI 98 to 150) weeks (p = 0.001). At multivariate analysis, sarcopenia was a predictor of reduced overall survival, independent of age (p = 0.0027). Conclusions. This retrospective study shows high prevalence of sarcopenia among cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Presence of sarcopenia was identified as independent predictor of reduced overall survival. As easily measurable by CT, sarcopenia should be determined for prognostic purposes in this patient population.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Sarcopenia/mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Prognosis , Rome/epidemiology , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Prevalence , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/secondary , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Risk Assessment , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Sarcopenia/diagnostic imaging , Tertiary Care Centers , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Rev. chil. radiol ; 22(1): 39-46, 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-782655


Abstract. The objective of this article is to describe the multiple entities that can affect and invade the inferior vena cava. These can be either benign entities, but with an aggressive behaviour, or malignancies that originate in the organs adjacent to this vascular structure, or in itself as a leiomyosarcoma. The present review shows different examples in Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance, with cases of angiomyolipoma, phaeochromocytoma, adrenal cortical carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, a retroperitoneal sarcoma and a leiomyosarcoma originating in the inferior vena cava. Besides these, there are situations that may lead to diagnostic errors, such as the flow artefacts and pseudolipoma.

El objetivo de este artículo es describir las múltiples entidades que pueden afectar e invadir la vena cava inferior. Entre ellas podemos enumerar tanto entidades benignas, pero con un comportamiento agresivo, como procesos malignos que se originan en órganos adyacentes a esta estructura vascular o en ella misma como el leiomiosarcoma. En la presente revisión se exponen diferentes ejemplos en tomografía computarizada y resonancia magnética con casos de angiomiolipoma, feocromocitoma, carcinoma suprarrenal, carcinoma de células renales, hepatocarcinoma, sarcoma retroperitoneal y leiomiosarcoma originado en la vena cava inferior. Además se exponen situaciones que pueden inducir a errores diagnósticos como los artefactos de flujo y el pseudolipoma.

Humans , Pheochromocytoma/diagnostic imaging , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Angiomyolipoma/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Vena Cava, Inferior/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54505


Local ablation therapy is considered as a conventional treatment option for patients with early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although radiofrequency (RF) ablation is widely used for HCC, the use of cryoablation has been increasing as newer and safer cryoablation systems have developed. The thermodynamic mechanism of freezing and thawing used in cryoablation is the Joule-Thomson effect. Cryoablation destroys tissue via direct tissue destruction and vascular-related injury. A few recent comparative studies have shown that percutaneous cryoablation for HCCs is comparable to percutaneous RF ablation in terms of long term therapeutic outcomes and complications. Cryoablation has several advantages over RF ablation such as well visualization of iceball, no causation of severe pain, and lack of severe damage to great vessels and gallbladder. It is important to know the advantages and disadvantages of cryoablation compared with RF ablation for improvement of therapeutic efficacy and safety.

Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Catheter Ablation , Cryosurgery , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56136


Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) is a system for interpreting and reporting of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LI-RADS has been developed to address the limitations of prior imaging-based criteria including the lack of established consensus regarding the exact definitions of imaging features, binary categorization (either definite or not definite HCC), and failure to consider non-HCC malignancies. One of the most important goals of LI-RADS is to facilitate clear communication between all the personnel involved in the diagnosis and treatment of HCC, such as radiologists, hepatologists, surgeons, and pathologists. Therefore, clinicians should also be familiar with LI-RADS. This article reviews the LI-RADS diagnostic algorithm, and the definitions and management implications of LI-RADS categories.

Algorithms , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Internet , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , User-Computer Interface
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46332


Many guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been published and updated globally. In contrast to other cancers, there is a range of treatment options for HCC involving several multidisciplinary care of the patient. Consequently, enormous heterogeneity in management trends has been observed. To support standard care for HCC, we systematically appraised 8 current guidelines for HCC around the world, including 3 guidelines from Asia, 2 from Europe, and 3 from the United States according to the selection criteria of credibility influence and multi-faceted. After a systematic appraisal, we found that these guidelines have both similarities and dissimilarities in terms of surveillance and treatment allocation recommendations due to regional differences in disease and other variables (diagnosis, staging systems) secondary to the lack of a solid, high level of evidence. In contrast to other tumors, the geographic differences in tumor biology (i.e., areas of increased hepatitis B prevalence) and available resources (organ availability for transplantation, medical technology, accessibility to treatment, health systems, and health resources) make it impractical to have an internationally universal guideline for all patients with HCC. Although Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) has long been dominant system for treatment-guiding staging of HCC, many Asia-pacific experts do not fully agree with its principle. The concepts of BCLC, for surgical resection or other locoregional therapy, are considered too conservative. Asian guidelines represent consensus about surgical resection and TACE indication for more advanced tumor.

Algorithms , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Transplantation , Neoplasm Staging , alpha-Fetoproteins/analysis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93974


There has been ongoing debate that the Milan criteria may be too strict that a significant number of patients who could benefit from liver transplantation (LT) might have been excluded. Based on this idea, various studies have been conducted to further expand the Milan criteria and give more HCC patients a chance of cure. In deceased donor LT (DDLT) setting, expansion of the criteria is relatively tempered because the results of LT for HCC should be comparable to those of patients with non-malignant indications. On the other hand, in living donor LT (LDLT) situation, liver grafts are not public resources. The acceptable target outcomes for LDLT might be much lower than those for DDLT. Patients with biologically favorable tumors might have excellent survivals after LT despite morphological advanced HCCs. Therefore, the significance and utility of biological tumor parameters for selecting suitable LT candidates have been increased to predict HCC recurrence after LT. Although there is no consensus regarding the use of prognostic biomarkers in LT selection criteria for HCC, the combination of conventional morphological parameters and new promising biomarkers could help us refine and expand the LT criteria for HCC in the near future.

Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Liver Transplantation , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Patient Selection , Positron-Emission Tomography
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215521


BACKGROUND/AIMS: The diagnosis and treatment plan for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be made from radiologic imaging. However, lesion detection may vary depending on the imaging modality. This study aims to evaluate the sensitivities of hepatic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the detection of HCC and the consequent management impact on potential liver transplant patients. METHODS: One hundred and sixteen HCC lesions were analyzed in 41 patients who received an orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). All of the patients underwent pretransplantation hepatic DSA, MDCT, and/or MRI. The imaging results were independently reviewed retrospectively in a blinded fashion by two interventional and two abdominal radiologists. The liver explant pathology was used as the gold standard for assessing each imaging modality. RESULTS: The sensitivity for overall HCC detection was higher for cross-sectional imaging using MRI (51.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]=36.2-58.4%) and MDCT (49.8%, 95% CI=43.7-55.9%) than for DSA (41.7%, 95% CI=36.2-47.3%) (P=0.05). The difference in false-positive rate was not statistically significant between MRI (22%), MDCT (29%), and DSA (29%) (P=0.67). The sensitivity was significantly higher for detecting right lobe lesions than left lobe lesions for all modalities (MRI: 56.1% vs. 43.1%, MDCT: 55.0% vs. 42.0%, and DSA: 46.9% vs. 33.9%; all P<0.01). The sensitivities of the three imaging modalities were also higher for lesions ≥2 cm vs. <2 cm (MRI: 73.4% vs. 32.7%, MDCT: 66.9% vs. 33.8%, and DSA: 62.2% vs. 24.1%; all P<0.01). The interobserver correlation was rated as very good to excellent. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity for detecting HCC is higher for MRI and MDCT than for DSA, and so cross-sectional imaging modalities should be used to evaluate OLT candidacy.

Adult , Aged , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Liver Transplantation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157423


With the advent of C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), minimally-invasive procedures in the angiography suite made a new leap beyond the limitations of 2-dimensional (D) angiography alone. C-arm CBCT can help interventional radiologists in several ways with the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); visualization of small tumors and tumor-feeding arteries, identification of occult lesion and 3D configuration of tortuous hepatic arteries, assurance of completeness of chemoembolization, suggestion of presence of extrahepatic collateral arteries supplying HCCs, and prevention of nontarget embolization. With more improvements in the technology, C-arm CBCT may be essential in all kinds of interventional procedures in the near future.

Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Hepatic Artery/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1068-1078, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163296


OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a safety margin may affect local tumor recurrence (LTR) in subsegmental chemoembolization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 101 patients with 128 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules (1-3 cm in size and < or = 3 in number), cone-beam CT-assisted subsegmental lipiodol chemoembolization was performed. Immediately thereafter, a non-contrast thin-section CT image was obtained to evaluate the presence or absence of intra-tumoral lipiodol uptake defect and safety margin. The effect of lipiodol uptake defect and safety margin on LTR was evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to indentify determinant factors of LTR. RESULTS: Of the 128 HCC nodules in 101 patients, 49 (38.3%) nodules in 40 patients showed LTR during follow-up period (median, 34.1 months). Cumulative 1- and 2-year LTR rates of nodules with lipiodol uptake defect (n = 27) and those without defect (n = 101) were 58.1% vs. 10.1% and 72.1% vs. 19.5%, respectively (p < 0.001). Among the 101 nodules without a defect, the 1- and 2-year cumulative LTR rates for nodules with complete safety margin (n = 52) and those with incomplete safety margin (n = 49) were 9.8% vs. 12.8% and 18.9% vs. 19.0% (p = 0.912). In multivariate analyses, ascites (p = 0.035), indistinct tumor margin on cone-beam CT (p = 0.039), heterogeneous lipiodol uptake (p = 0.023), and intra-tumoral lipiodol uptake defect (p < 0.001) were determinant factors of higher LTR. CONCLUSION: In lipiodol chemoembolization, the safety margin in completely lipiodolized nodule without defect will not affect LTR in small nodular HCCs.

Adult , Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Ethiodized Oil/administration & dosage , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnostic imaging