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Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 21-29, July. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283484


BACKGROUND: Super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) contain a chemotherapeutic drug and are regarded as a promising technique for improving targeted delivery into cancer cells. RESULTS: In this study, the fabrication of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was investigated with loaded Dextran (DEXSPION) using the co-precipitation technique and conjugated by folate (FA). These nanoparticles (NPs) were employed as carriers and anticancer compounds against liver cancer cells in vitro. Structural, magnetic, morphological characterization, size, and drug loading activities of the obtained FA-DEX-5-FUSPION NPs were checked using FTIR, VSM, FESEM, TEM, DLS, and zeta potential techniques. The cellular toxicity effect of FA-DEX-5-FU-SPION NPs was evaluated using the MTT test on liver cancer (SNU-423) and healthy cells (LO2). Furthermore, the apoptosis measurement and the expression levels of NF-1, Her-2/neu, c-Raf-1, and Wnt-1 genes were evaluated post-treatment using flow cytometry and RT-PCR, respectively. The obtained NPs were spherical with a suitable dispersity without noticeable aggregation. The size of the NPs, polydispersity, and zeta were 74 ± 13 nm, 0.080 and 45 mV, respectively. The results of the encapsulation efficiency of the nano-compound showed highly colloidal stability and proper drug maintenance. The results indicated that FA-DEX-5-FU-SPION demonstrated a sustained release profile of 5-FU in both phosphate and citrate buffer solutions separately, with higher cytotoxicity against SNU-423 cells than against other cells types. These findings suggest that FA-DEX-SPION NPs exert synergistic effects for targeting intracellular delivery of 5-FU, apoptosis induction, and gene expression stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings proved that FA-DEX-5-FU-SPION presented remarkable antitumor properties; no adverse subsequences were revealed against normal cells.

Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Polymers , Gene Expression/drug effects , Drug Delivery Systems , Apoptosis/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Delayed-Action Preparations , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Magnetite Nanoparticles , Flow Cytometry
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-12, jun. 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284445


Background/aim: Autophagic cell death and apoptosis of tumor cells has become one of the main objectives in cancer treatment, whereas tumor cell lines are mainly used in studies for providing important data for the evaluation of potential anti cancer substances. In this study, our objective was to evaluate morphological and biochemical changes including rate of apoptosis and Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) levels at different concentrations of Carnosic Acid (CA) on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.Materials and methods: Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (7th passage HepG2 cells) Cell lines were cultured on 11 µM D263M schott glass coverslips placed in 12-well plates and were treated with DMSO, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 µM concentrations of CA for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphological and biochemical data were recorded daily including apoptosis rates demonstrated by Caspase 3, Annexin V expressions under inverted light and Immunofluorescence microscopy, then data were analyzed for statistical significance. AFP, albumin and total protein levels were analyzed spectrophotometricaly for biochemical evaluation.Results: Our results showed that CA significantly inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation in a dose and time dependant manner and significantly caused the formation of autophagic vacuoles starting from 5µM and reaching significance at 10 µM concentrations. Significant decrease was observed in AFP when 48 and 72 hours expressions were examined, with the lowest level reached at 72 hours in the 10 µM CA group. Additionally, increase in albumin levels reached significance only in the 48 h group whereas non-significant increases were also observed in 24 h and 72 h groups.Conclusion: Our current study demonstrates significant increase in apoptosis rates by Carnosic Acid mainly at 10µM concentrations, supporting its anticancer effect on HepG2 cells. These findings are also supported by changes in biochemical analyses of Albumin and AFP levels at 10 µM concentrations.

Antecedentes / objetivos: La muerte celular autofágica y la apoptosis de células tumorales se ha convertido en uno de los principales objetivos en el tratamiento del cáncer, mientras que las líneas celulares tumorales se utilizan principalmente en estudios para proporcionar datos importantes para la evaluación de posibles sustancias anticancerígenas. En este estudio, nuestro objetivo fue evaluar los cambios morfológicos y bioquímicos, incluida la tasa de apoptosis y los niveles de alfa fetoproteína (AFP) a diferentes concentraciones de ácido carnósico (CA) en células de carcinoma hepatocelular humano HepG2.Materiales y métodos: Carcinoma hepatocelular humano (HepG2).Las líneas celulares se cultivaron en cubreobjetos de vidrio Schott D263M de 11 µM colocados en placas de 12 pocillos y se trataron con DMSO, concentraciones de CA 1, 2,5, 5 y 10 µM durante 24, 48 y 72 horas. Los datos morfológicos y bioquímicos se registraron diariamente, incluidas las tasas de apoptosis demostradas por Caspasa 3, las expresiones de Anexina V bajo luz invertida y microscopía de inmunofluorescencia, luego se analizaron los datos para determinar la significación estadística. Los niveles de AFP, albúmina y proteínas totales se analizaron espectrofotométricamente para evaluación bioquímica.Resultados: Nuestros resultados mostraron que CA inhibió significativamente la proliferación de células HepG2 de una manera dependiente de la dosis y el tiempo y causó significativamente la formación de vacuolas autofágicas comenzando desde 5 µM y alcanzando significancia a concentraciones de 10 µM. Se observó una disminución significativa en la AFP cuando se examinaron las expresiones de 48 y 72 horas, alcanzando el nivel más bajo a las 72 horas en el grupo de CA 10 µM. Además, el aumento en los niveles de albúmina alcanzó significación solo en el grupo de 48 h, mientras que también se observaron aumentos no significativos en los grupos de 24 hy 72 h.Conclusión: Nuestro estudio demuestra un aumento significativo en las tasas de apoptosis por el ácido carnósico principalmente a concentraciones de 10 µM, lo que respalda su efecto anticancerígeno en las células HepG2. Estos hallazgos también están respaldados por cambios en los análisis bioquímicos de los niveles de albúmina y AFP a concentraciones de 10 µM.

Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Abietanes/administration & dosage , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Apoptosis/drug effects , Microscopy, Fluorescence
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 469-477, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922522


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent malignant cancers worldwide. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which endows epithelial cells with mesenchymal properties, plays an important role in the early stages of metastasis. Conventional cancer therapies have promising effects, but issues remain, such as high rates of metastasis and drug resistance. Thus, exploring and evaluating new therapies is an urgent need. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been acknowledged for their multi-target and coordinated intervention effects against HCC. Accumulating evidence indicates that TCM can inhibit the malignancy of cells and the progression of EMT in HCC. However, studies on the effects of TCM on EMT in HCC are scarce. In this review, we summarized recent developments in anti-EMT TCMs and formulae, focusing on their underlying pharmacological mechanisms, to provide a foundation for further research on the exact mechanisms through which TCM affects EMT in HCC.

Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 636-647, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888407


Combined immunotherapy based on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for hepatocellular carcinoma has achieved remarkable therapeutic effect in clinical research and practice. However, many problems that need to be resolved have also been recognized in the clinical promotion process. Therefore, the primary effort through the multidisciplinary experts' mutual discussion [Chinese multidisciplinary expert consensus on combined immunotherapy based on immune check point inhibitors for hepatocellular carcinoma (2021 version)] is to implement the principles and methods of clinical application of ICIs treatment, including the selection of indications, prescriptions, treatment methods, monitoring and management of treatment process and adverse reactions, and efficacy evaluation. In addition, the consensus aims to combine the latest research progress, summarize detailed clinical application rules and expert experience, so as to provide reference for health professionals.

Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , China , Consensus , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunotherapy , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879195


Network Meta-analysis was used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of different oral Chinese patent medicines combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization(TACE) in the treatment of primary liver cancer. Randomized controlled trials of oral Chinese patent medicines for primary liver cancer were retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMbase databases from inception to May 2020. According to the Cochrane recommendation standard, the quality of the included articles was evaluated, and the data were analyzed by RevMan, R software and GeMTC software. A total of 10 kinds of oral Chinese patent medicines and 68 RCTs were included. Network Meta-analysis results showed that: as compared with TACE alone, 10 kinds of oral Chinese patent medicines combined with TACE showed advantages in effective rate, 1-year survival rate, 2-year survival rate, KPS score improvement rate and reduced adverse reaction incidence. In the pairwise comparison of oral Chinese patent medicines, the results showed that Cidan Capsules were superior to Jinlong Capsules and Xihuang Pills in 1-year survival rate. According to the probabi-lity ranking results: Shenyi Capsules and Ganfule were more obvious in improving the effective rate; Cidan Capsules and Shenyi Capsules were more effective in improving the 1-year survival rate; Pingxiao Capsules and Shenyi Capsules had better efficacy in improving 2-year survival rate; Huaier Granules and Shenyi Capsules had better efficacy in improving the quality of life; Huisheng Oral Liquid and Ganfule were more effective in reducing the incidence of adverse reactions(such as nausea, vomiting and leukocytosis). The current evidence showed that oral Chinese patent medicine combined with TACE was superior to TACE alone in efficacy and safety. In terms of the effective rate, 1-year survival rate, 2-year survival rate, KPS score improvement rate and reduced adverse reaction incidence, the optimal treatment measures were Shenyi Capsules, Cidan Capsules, Pingxiao Capsules, Huaier Granules and Huisheng Oral Liquid in turn. However, due to the limitations of the research, the current level of evidence is not high, and clear conclusions and evi-dence strength still need to be further verified and improved by high-quality researches.

Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs , Quality of Life
Clinics ; 76: e2498, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153964


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in elderly patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We analyzed data from a cohort of patients with advanced HCC treated using systemic treatment according to the local institutional protocol. Patients were divided into two groups, Group A, individuals <70 years of age, and Group B, individuals 70 years of age or older at the time of treatment initiation. Efficacy, measured based on overall survival (OS) and time to treatment failure (TTF), and toxicity were compared between groups. RESULTS: A total of 238 patients with advanced HCC who received sorafenib between 2007 and 2018 were evaluated. The median age for Group A was 59.1 years and that for Group B 73.6 years. The major prognostic characteristics were balanced between the groups. There were no significant differences in OS between Group A (8.0 months, 95%CI 6.34-9.3) and Group B (9.0 months, 95%CI 5.38-12.62), p=0.433, or in TTF between Group A (3.0 months, 95%CI 2.39-3.60) and Group B (3.0 months, 95%CI 1.68-4.32), p=0.936. There were no significant differences between Groups A and B with respect to the incidence of adverse events or treatment discontinuation because of toxicity. CONCLUSION: Efficacy and safety of sorafenib did not differ significantly between younger and older patients with HCC. Our data suggest that age alone should not restrict clinical decision-making for patients with advanced HCC.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Phenylurea Compounds/adverse effects , Prognosis , Niacinamide/adverse effects , Sorafenib/adverse effects
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e10390, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249337


Sorafenib (SOR) resistance is still a significant challenge for the effective treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanism of sorafenib resistance remains unclear. Several microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as playing a role in impairing the sensitivity of tumor cells to treatment. We examined the mechanism behind the role of miR-92b in mediating sorafenib resistance in HCC cells. We detected that miR-92b expression was significantly upregulated in SOR-resistant HepG2/SOR cells compared to parental HepG2/WT cells. After transfection with miR-92b inhibitor, the proliferation of HepG2/SOR cells was remarkably weakened and rates of apoptosis significantly increased. PTEN was considered to be a functional target of miR-92b according to a luciferase reporter assay. Knockdown of PTEN significantly impaired the ability of miR-92b inhibitor on increasing sorafenib sensitivity of HepG2/SOR cells. Furthermore, we confirmed by western blotting and immunofluorescence that miR-92b can mediate sorafenib resistance by activating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in HCC cells by directly targeting PTEN. These findings further validate the mechanism of miR-92b in SOR resistance in HCC treatment.

Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , MicroRNAs/genetics , Sorafenib/pharmacology , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/genetics , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(7): e10213, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249312


Sevoflurane (SEVO) is widely applied as an anesthetic, which exerts antitumor capacity in various cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous studies indicated that long non-coding RNA KCNQ1 opposite strand/antisense transcript 1 (KCNQ1OT1) was upregulated, while microRNA-29a-3p (miR-29a-3p) was downregulated in HCC. Thus, we aimed to explore the roles of KCNQ1OT1 and miR-29a-3p in HCC cells exposed to SEVO. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, and transwell assays, respectively. The levels of genes were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or western blot. Furthermore, the interaction between miR-29a-3p and KCNQ1OT1 or chromebox protein homolog 3 (CBX3) was predicted by Starbase or Targetscan, and then confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. We found that the levels of KCNQ1OT1 and CBX3 were decreased, while miR-29a-3p was increased in SEVO-treated HCC cells. KCNQ1OT1 overexpression weakened the inhibitory effects of SEVO on HCC cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. Interestingly, KCNQ1OT1 bound to miR-29a-3p, and miR-29a-3p targeted CBX3. KCNQ1OT1 upregulated CBX3 level by repressing miR-29a-3p expression. Furthermore, KCNQ1OT1 exerted tumor promotion in HCC cells via suppressing miR-29a-3p to regulate CBX3 expression. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that KCNQ1OT1 regulated the antitumor effects of SEVO on HCC cells through modulating the miR-29a-3p/CBX3 axis, providing a theoretical basis for the treatment of HCC.

Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated , MicroRNAs/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Sevoflurane/pharmacology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(3): 275-283, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136210


SUMMARY Malignant liver tumors are the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 75-85% of these. Most patients are diagnosed at incurable stages. Palliative care is the appropriate treatment course in these circumstances (chemoembolization and sorafenib). There are few national studies on sorafenib. The objective is to evaluate survival predictors of HCC patients treated with sorafenib and evaluate the compliance of its indication in relation to BCLC recommendations. METHODS A total of 88 patients with an indication of sorafenib from 2010 to 2017 at the ISCMSP were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed in the search for predictors of survival. RESULTS The mean age was 61.2 years, 70.5% were men, most were classified as Child-Pugh A (69.3%), and BCLC C (94.3%). Cirrhosis was present in 84.6% and portal hypertension in 55.7%. Hepatitis C virus was the most common etiology (40.9%). Sixty-nine (78.4%) patients received the medication, with the average duration of treatment being 9.7 months. The mean overall survival was 16.8 months. Significant differences were observed in the multivariate analysis: ECOG PS (p = 0.024): Child-Pugh (p = 0.013), time of medication use (p <0.001), clinical worsening (p = 0.031) and portal thrombosis (p = 0.010). CONCLUSION Absence of portal thrombosis, Child-Pugh A, longer time of medication use, ECOG PS 0, and absence of suspension due to clinical worsening were predictors of better overall survival in the study. The drug's indication complies with BCLC guidelines in 94% of patients.

RESUMO Tumores malignos do fígado são a quarta maior causa de morte por câncer, sendo que o carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) corresponde a 85-90% desses casos. A maioria dos doentes apresenta-se, ao diagnóstico, sem possibilidade de tratamento curativo, restando apenas as opções paliativas (quimioembolização e sorafenibe). Há poucos estudos nacionais acerca do sorafenibe. OBJETIVO Avaliar fatores preditivos de sobrevida em pacientes com CHC que tiveram indicação de tratamento com sorafenibe na Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo (ISCMSP) e avaliação da conformidade da indicação da medicação em relação às recomendações do BCLC. MÉTODOS Foram analisados retrospectivamente os dados de 88 pacientes que tiveram indicação de tratamento com sorafenibe no período de 2010 a 2017 na ISCMSP. Análises univariada e multivariada foram realizadas na busca de preditores de sobrevida global nos pacientes que receberam a medicação. RESULTADOS Idade média de 61,2 anos, sendo 70,5% homens. A maioria (69,3%) foi classificada como Child Pugh A e BCLC C (94,3%). A cirrose esteve presente em 84,6% e a hipertensão portal em 55,7% desses. O vírus da hepatite C foi a etiologia mais comum (40,9%) do CHC. Sessenta e nove (78,4%) pacientes receberam a medicação, sendo o tempo médio de duração do tratamento 9,7 meses e a sobrevida global média, 16,8 meses. Diferenças significativas foram observadas na análise multivariada: Ecog PS (p=0,024), CP (p=0,013), tempo de uso de medicação (p<0,001), suspensão por piora clínica (p=0,031) e trombose portal (p=0,010). CONCLUSÃO Ausência de trombose portal, Child Pugh A, Ecog PS 0, tempo maior de uso de medicação e ausência de suspensão por piora clínica foram fatores preditores de melhor sobrevida global e a indicação da medicação esteve em conformidade com as orientações do BCLC em 94% dos pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Sorafenib/therapeutic use , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Palliative Care , Epidemiologic Methods , Treatment Outcome , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880773


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the effects of medical ozone oil and urea ointment for prevention and treatment of hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) caused by sorafenib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).@*METHODS@#A total of 99 patients diagnosed with advanced HCC according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) who were scheduled to receive sorafenib treatment for the first time were enrolled in this study between April, 2018 and January, 2020. The patients were randomized into medical ozone oil group (@*RESULTS@#Eight patients were excluded for poor compliance or protocol violations, leaving a total of 91 patients for analysis, including 44 in medical ozone oil group and 47 in urea ointment group. Sixteen (36.4%) of patients in ozone oil group developed HFSR, a rate significantly lower than that in urea ointment group (57.4%; @*CONCLUSIONS@#Medical ozone oil can significantly reduce the incidence and severity of HFSR to improve the quality of life of HCC patients receiving sorafenib treatment.

Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Hand-Foot Syndrome/prevention & control , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Ozone/therapeutic use , Phenylurea Compounds/adverse effects , Quality of Life , Sorafenib/therapeutic use
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(1): 7-13, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115980


Introduction: Despite the emergence of new treatments for HCV genotype 3 (HCV G3), there is still a lack of data about this particular subgroup in Brazil. Our objective was to describe clinical and sociodemographic variables and treatment profile of HCV G3 Brazilian patients. Methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective study, performed in a specialized center for HCV treatment in the South Region of Brazil. Medical records of patients diagnosed with HCV G3 were reviewed to collect clinical, sociodemographic, and treatment information. Results: Participants included total of 564 patients, with a mean age of 59.3 years (SD = 10.5). Cirrhosis was present in 54.4% of patients. The most common coexisting conditions were systemic arterial hypertension (36.6%) and diabetes mellitus (30%). Regarding treatment, 25.2% of the patients were treatment-naïve and 74.8% were currently under treatment (11.6%) or had received a previous treatment (87%). The most frequent ongoing treatment was sofosbuvir + daclatasvir (± ribavirin) (87.8%). Of the 388 patients who had at least one previous treatment, 67% achieved sustained virologic response in the last treatment. Caucasian / white, non-obese, transplanted patients, those with longer time since diagnosis and with cirrhosis were more likely to receive treatment, according to multivariate analysis. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were 64.1% less likely to be on treatment during the study period than those without this condition; patients with chronic kidney disease were 2.91-fold more likely to have an interruption of treatment than those without this condition. Conclusion: This study describes a large sample of Brazilian patients with HCV G3. Treatment patterns were mainly influenced by the presence of HCV complications and comorbidities.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis C/virology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Genotype , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Interferons/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Withholding Treatment , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1)20200129.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049323


Introduction: Three vanadium complexes with orotic and glutamic acids, in their anion forms, were prepared and their in vitro cytotoxicity toward human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and human colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) are reported. Objective: Describe the synthesis and characterization of new vanadium complexes with orotic and glutamic acids, and test its antitumor activity against HepG2 and Caco-2. Method: The complexes were formulated as VO (oro), VO (α-glu) and VO (γ-glu) based on chemical, thermogravimetric analyses and infrared spectra. Results: Resazurin assay demonstrates its cytotoxicity against the HepG2 and Caco-2 cell lines with the IC50 ranging from 7.90 to 44.56 µmol.L-1. The cytotoxicity profiles indicate that the tumoral lines show more activity than the cells MRC-5, with selectivity indexes ranging from 1.58 to 8.96. Conclusion: The three complexes had better in vitro activity than cisplatin for both normal and cancer cell lines. The IC50 values are two to six times better for the cancer cell ines and five to seven times better for the normal cell lines. This study indicates that the complexes obtained are promising candidates for antitumor drugs.

Introdução: Foram preparados três complexos de vanádio com ácidos orótico e glutâmico, em suas formas aniônicas, e foi testada sua citotoxicidade in vitro para fibroblastos pulmonares humanos (MRC-5), carcinoma hepatocelular humano (HepG2) e adenocarcinoma colorretal humano (Caco-2). Objetivo: Descrever a síntese e caracterização de novos complexos de vanádio com ácidos orótico e glutâmico e testar sua atividade antitumoral contra HepG2 e Caco-2. Método: Os complexos foram formulados como VO (oro), VO (α-glu) e VO (γ-glu) com base em análises químicas, termogravimétricas e espectros no infravermelho. Resultados: O ensaio de resazurina demonstrou sua citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares HepG2 e Caco-2 com o IC50 variando de 7,90 a 44,56 µmol.L-1. Os perfis de citotoxicidade indicam que as linhas tumorais apresentam maior atividade que as células MRC-5, com índices de seletividade variando de 1,58 a 8,96. Conclusão: Os três complexos tiveram melhor atividade in vitro do que a cisplatina, tanto para linhagens celulares normais como cancerosas. Os valores de IC50 são de duas a seis vezes melhores para as linhagens celulares cancerosas e de cinco a sete vezes melhores para as linhagens celulares normais. Este estudo indica que os complexos obtidos são promissores candidatos a fármacos antitumorais.

Introducción: Tres complejos de vanadio con ácidos orótico y glutámico, en sus formas aniónicas, fueram preparados. Su citotoxicidad in vitro hacia los fibroblastos pulmonares humanos (MRC-5), el carcinoma hepatocelular humano (HepG2) y el adenocarcinoma colorrectal humano (Caco-2) son reportados. Objetivo: Los principales objetivos de este trabajo son describir la síntesis y caracterización de nuevos complejos de vanadio con ácidos orótico y glutámico y probar su actividad antitumoral contra el HepG2 y el Caco-2. Método: Los complejos fueron formulados como VO (oro), VO (α-glu) y VO (γ-glu) basados en análisis químicos, termogravimétricos y espectros infrarrojos. El ensayo de resazurina demuestra su citotoxicidad contra las líneas celulares HepG2 y Caco-2 con el IC50 que van de 7,90 a 44,56 µmol.L-1. Los perfiles de citotoxicidad indican que las líneas tumorales presentan mayor actividad que los MRC-5, con índices de selectividad que van de 1,58 a 8,96. Conclusión: Los tres complejos tuvieron mejor actividad in vitro que el cisplatino, tanto para líneas celulares normales como para líneas celulares cancerosas. Los valores del IC50 son de dos a seis veces mejores para las líneas celulares de cáncer y de cinco a siete veces mejores para las líneas celulares normales. Este estudio indica que los complejos obtenidos son candidatos prometedores para fármacos antitumorales.

Humans , Orotic Acid/pharmacology , Vanadium Compounds/pharmacology , Glutamic Acid/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts/drug effects , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e8882, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100927


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common primary malignant tumors of the liver worldwide. Liver resection and transplantation are currently the only effective treatments; however, recurrence and metastasis rates are still high. Previous studies have shown that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key step in HCC invasion and metastasis. Inhibition of EMT has become a new therapeutic strategy for tumors. Recently, puerarin, a well-characterized component of traditional Chinese medicine, has been isolated from Pueraria radix and exerts positive effects on many diseases, particularly cancers. In this study, CCK-8, EdU immunofluorescence, colony formation, wound healing, and migration assays were used to detect the effects of puerarin on HCC cells. We further analyzed the relationship between puerarin and miR-21/PTEN/EMT markers in HCC cell lines. Our results showed that HCC cell proliferation, migration, invasion, tumor formation, and metastasis were reduced by puerarin in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, puerarin inhibited the EMT process of HCC by affecting the expression of Slug and Snail. Moreover, oncogenic miR-21 was inhibited by puerarin, coupled with an increase in the tumor suppressor gene PTEN. Increasing miR-21 expression or decreasing PTEN expression reversed the inhibition effects of puerarin in HCC. These data confirmed that puerarin affects HCC through the miR-21/PTEN/EMT regulatory axis. Overall, puerarin may represent a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent for HCC treatment.

Animals , Male , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/genetics , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/drug effects , Isoflavones/therapeutic use , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Pyrroles , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
Biol. Res ; 52: 34, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019499


BACKGROUND: Psoralen is a coumarin-like and coumarin-related benzofuran glycoside, which is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine to treat patients with kidney and spleen-yang deficiency symptom. Psoralen has been reported to show estrogen-like activity, antioxidant activity, osteoblastic proliferation accelerating activity, antitumor effects and antibacterial activity. However, the antitumor mechanism of psoralen is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of psoralen in human hepatoma cell line SMMC7721 and the mechanism of antitumor effects. RESULTS: Psoralen inhibited proliferation of SMMC7721 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and promoted apoptosis. Further, psoralen activated the ER stress signal pathway, including the expansion of endoplasmic reticulum, increasing the mRNA levels of GRP78, DDIT3, ATF4, XBP1, GADD34 and the protein levels of GDF15, GRP78, IRE1α, XBP-1s in a time-dependent manner. Psoralen induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase by enhancing CyclinD1 and reducing CyclinE1 expression. Moreover, TUDC couldn't inhibit the psoralen-induced ER stress in SMMC7721 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Psoralen can inhibit the proliferation of SMMC7721 cells and induce ER stress response to induce cell apoptosis, suggesting that psoralen may represent a novel therapeutic option for the prevention and treatment hepatocellular carcinoma.

Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Ficusin/pharmacology , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Ficusin/therapeutic use , Ficusin/chemistry , Liver Neoplasms/pathology
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(1): 29-32, feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894543


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second cause of cancer-related death in the world and is the main cause of death in cirrhotic patients. Unfortunately, the incidence of HCC has grown significantly in the last decade. Curative treatments such as surgery, liver transplantation or percutaneous ablation can only be applied in less than 30% of cases. The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is the first line therapy for advanced HCC. Regorafenib is the standard of care for second-line patients. However, novel and more specific potent therapeutic approaches for advanced HCC are still needed. The liver constitutes a unique immunological microenvironment, although anti-tumor immunity seems to be feasible with the use of checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab. Efficacy may be further increased by combining checkpoint inhibitors or by applying loco-regional treatments. The success of immune checkpoint blockade has renewed interest in immunotherapy in HCC.

El hepatocarcinoma (HCC) es la segunda causa de muerte relacionada con el cáncer en el mundo y es la principal causa de muerte en pacientes cirróticos. Desafortunadamente, la incidencia de HCC ha crecido significativamente en la última década. Los tratamientos curativos como la cirugía, el trasplante de hígado o la ablación solo pueden aplicarse en menos del 30% de los casos. El sorafenib es el tratamiento de primera línea para el HCC avanzado, mientras que el regorafenib se reserva como segunda línea. Sin embargo, todavía son necesarios nuevos enfoques terapéuticos potentes y más específicos para el HCC avanzado. El hígado constituye un microambiente inmunológico único, aunque la inmunidad antitumoral parece ser factible mediante el uso de inhibidores de punto de control como nivolumab. La eficacia puede aumentarse adicionalmente combinando inhibidores de puntos de control inmunitario o aplicando tratamientos loco-regionales. En este sentido, el éxito del uso de anticuerpos monoclonales, que bloquean el control inmunitario, ha renovado el interés en la inmunoterapia para el HCC.

Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Phenylurea Compounds/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Sorafenib/therapeutic use , Nivolumab/therapeutic use
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 79 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-909540


O carcinoma hepatocelular (HCC) é o sexto mais frequente e a segunda maior causa de mortalidade por câncer no mundo, além de apresentar alta taxa de recidiva. A associação de sorafenibe (SO) com agentes quimiopreventivos representa uma estratégia importante para aumentar a eficácia do tratamento e minimizar a reincidência da doença. Em estudos anteriores demonstrou-se o potencial quimiopreventivo da tributirina (TB), pró-fármaco do ácido butírico (AB), em modelo de hepatocarcinogênese experimental. A atividade da TB tem sido relacionada à inibição do desenvolvimento de lesões préneoplásicas, bem como à indução de apoptose. Assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ação anticarcinogênica da TB e do SO, isoladamente ou em associação no HCC. Nesse sentido, implantes singênicos foram realizados no flanco de ratos Fischer- 344 a partir de células da linhagem neoplásica JM-1. Os animais foram distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: Grupo controle isocalórico [CO; Maltodextrina (300 mg/100 g p.c.) e solução veículo (solução de etanol a 12.5% e Cremofor a 12.5% em água estéril)]; Grupo TB (200 mg/100 g p.c. e solução veículo); Grupo SO [Maltodextrina (300 mg/100 g p.c. tosilato de SO (3 mg/100 g p.c.) em solução veículo] e Grupo associação [AS; TB (200 mg/100 g p.c) e tosilato de SO (3 mg/100 g p.c.) em solução veículo]. Os implantes de células JM-1 originaram neoplasias com características pouco diferenciadas. Os tratamentos com SO e AS retardaram (p<0,05) o desenvolvimento das neoplasias, além de reduzirem (p<0,05) suas massa e aumentem (p<0,05) a sobrevida em relação ao grupo CO. Não houve diferença na porcentagem de área necrótica das neoplasias entre os tratamentos. Porém, foi observada uma correlação negativa (p<0,05) entre o tamanho da neoplasia e a área necrótica, sendo que quanto menor a área da neoplasia maior a extensão da necrose, independente do tratamento. Foi observado aumento (p<0,05) das concentrações hepáticas de AB nos grupos TB, SO e AS. Já na neoplasia, apenas os grupos TB e SO demonstraram aumento (p<0,05) na concentração de AB. Além disso, os tratamentos com SO e AS aumentaram (p<0,05) a concentração tecidual de SO na neoplasia em relação ao CO. Nesse sentido, foi observado que grupo AS apresentou 5 vezes mais SO na neoplasia quando comparado ao grupo SO. Os tratamentos com TB e SO isoladamente ou em associação reduziram (p<0,05) a expressão de CK19 em relação ao grupo CO. Em relação à avaliação da proliferação celular, os grupos TB, SO e AS apresentaram redução (p<0,05) do índice de proliferação celular quando comparados ao grupo CO. Foi observado por meio da análise imunoistoquímica para pERK, que os animais tratados com SO e AS reduziram (p<0,05) as áreas positivas quando comparadas às dos animais do grupo CO. Além disso, também foi observada por meio de marcação imunoistoquímica uma redução (p<0,05) nas áreas positivas para CK8 nos grupos SO e AS quando comparadas às do grupo CO. Em relação à caspase-3 clivada, foi observado por imunoistoquímica que o tratamento com TB aumentou (p<0,05) o índice de células positivas para caspase-3 clivada quando comparado ao CO. Esse dado foi comprovado pela análise de western blot. Foi observado por meio da análise imunoistoquímica para H3K9, um aumento (p<0,05) da acetilação no grupo TB quando comparado ao grupo CO. Em relação à expressão em nível proteico de pAKT, foi observado por meio da análise imunoistoquímica uma redução (p<0,05) no grupo TB em comparação ao grupo CO. O presente estudo demonstrou que os implantes de células JM-1 no flanco de ratos Fischer-344 originaram neoplasias com características que lembram a organização hepatocítica de um HCC convencional. O tratamento com TB foi capaz de reduzir a proliferação celular e induzir apoptose. Os tratamentos com SO e com a AS foram capazes de retardar o desenvolvimento, aumentar a sobrevida, reduzir a massa das neoplasias, induzirem diferenciação celular e reduzirem a proliferação celular, melhorando o prognóstico da doença. Os tratamentos com SO e AS apresentaram atividade quimioterápica semelhante. No entanto, a coadministração de SO e TB foi capaz de aumentar a biodisponibilidade do SO para a neoplasia

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most frequent and the second largest cause of cancer mortality in the world, besides presenting a high rate of recurrence. The association of sorafenib (SO) with chemopreventive agents represents an important strategy to increase the efficacy of the treatment and to minimize recurrence of the disease. In previous studies the chemopreventive potential of tributyrin (TB), a butyric acid prodrug (AB), was demonstrated in a model of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. TB activity has been linked to inhibition of the development of pre-neoplastic lesions as well as to the induction of apoptosis. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the anticarcinogenic action of TB and SO, either alone or in combination in HCC. In this sense, syngeneic implants were performed on the flank of Fischer-344 rats from cells of the JM-1 neoplastic lineage. The animals were divided into the following groups: Control group [CO; Maltodextrin (300 mg / 100g p.c.) and carrier solution (12.5% ethanol solution and 12.5% Cremophor in sterile water)]; TB group (200 mg / 100 g p.c. and carrier solution); Group SO [Maltodextrin (300 mg / 100 g pc tosylate of SO (3 mg / 100 g pc) in vehicle solution] and Association group [AS; TB (200 mg / 100 g pc) and SO tosylate (3 mg / 100 (p <0.05), the development of the neoplasms, as well as the reduction (p <0.05), and the survival rate was higher (p <0.05) than the CO group. There was no difference in the percentage of necrotic area of the neoplasms between the treatments. (p <0.05) of the hepatic AB concentrations in the TB, SO and AS groups, although the size of the neoplasia and the necrotic area were higher. In the neoplasia, only the TB and SO groups showed an increase (p <0.05) in AB concentration. In addition, treatments with SO and AS increased (p <0.05) the tissue concentration of SO in the neoplasia in relation to CO. In this sense, it was observed that AS group presented 5 times more SO in the neoplasia when compared to the SO group. Treatments with TB and SO alone or in combination reduced (p <0.05) the expression of CK19 in relation to the CO group. In relation to the evaluation of cell proliferation, the TB, SO and AS groups presented a reduction (p <0.05) in the cell proliferation index when compared to the CO group. It was observed by the immunohistochemical analysis for pERK that the animals treated with SO and AS reduced (p <0.05) the positive areas when compared to the animals of the CO group. In addition, a reduction (p <0.05) in the CK8 positive areas in the SO and AS groups when compared to the CO groups was also observed by immunohistochemical labeling. In relation to the cleaved caspase-3, it was observed by immunohistochemistry that the TB treatment increased (p <0.05) the index of caspase-3 positive cells cleaved when compared to CO. This was confirmed by western blot analysis. It was observed by immunohistochemical analysis for H3K9, an increase (p <0.05) in the acetylation of the TB group when compared to the CO group. Regarding the protein level expression of pAKT, a reduction (p <0.05) in the TB group was observed through the immunohistochemical analysis when compared to the CO group. The present study demonstrated that JM-1 cell implants in the flank of Fischer-344 mice originated neoplasms with features reminiscent of the hepatocyte organization of a conventional HCC. TB treatment was able to reduce cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. SO and AS treatments were able to delay the development, increase survival, reduce the mass of neoplasms, induce cell differentiation and reduce cell proliferation, improving the prognosis of the disease. SO and AS treatments showed similar chemotherapy activity. However, co-administration of SO and TB was able to increase the bioavailability of SO to the neolasia

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Drug Therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Drug Therapy, Combination
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e6867, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889068


Polydatin, a small molecule from Polygonum cuspidatum, has many biological functions, particularly anti-cancer effects. However, the anti-cancer effects of polydatin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been examined yet. In the present study, MTT assay, BrdU assay, transwell invasion assay, and wound healing assay were performed to determine cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were used to measure cell apoptosis. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting assays were used to determine mRNA and protein expression levels. Xenograft experiment was performed to determine the in vivo anti-tumor effect of polydatin. Immunostaining was performed to analyze the expression of caspase-3 and Ki-67. Our results showed that polydatin inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner in the HCC cell lines. Polydatin also induced cell apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner possibly via increasing the caspase-3 activity, and up-regulating the protein expression of caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax, and down-regulating the protein expression of Bcl-2. In addition, polydatin treatment had an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, invasion and migration in HCC cell lines. Polydatin treatment also suppressed the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling activities in HCC cells. Polydatin treatment significantly reduced tumor growth in nude mice inoculated with HepG2 cells, suppressed the expression of Ki-67, and increased caspase-3 expression and TUNEL activity. Our data indicated the important role of polydatin for the suppression of HCC progression.

Animals , Male , Mice , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Cell Movement/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Glucosides/pharmacology , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Invasiveness
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(7): e7220, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889115


An abnormality in the Lin28/let-7a axis is relevant to the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which could be a novel therapeutic target for this malignant tumor. The present study aimed to investigate the antiproliferative and anti-invasive effects of urolithin A in a stable full-length HBV gene integrated cell line HepG2.2.15 using CCK-8 and transwell assays. The RNA and protein expressions of targets were assessed by quantitative PCR and western blot, respectively. Results revealed that urolithin A induced cytotoxicity in HepG2.2.15 cells, which was accompanied by the cleavage of caspase-3 protein and down-regulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Moreover, urolithin A suppressed the protein expressions of Sp-1, Lin28a, and Zcchc11, and elevated the expression of microRNA let-7a. Importantly, urolithin A also regulated the Lin28a/let-7a axis in transient HBx-transfected HCC HepG2 cells. Furthermore, urolithin A decelerated the HepG2.2.15 cell invasion, which was involved in suppressing the let-7a downstream factors HMGA2 and K-ras. These findings indicated that urolithin A exerted the antiproliferative effect by regulating the Lin28a/let-7a axis and may be a potential supplement for HBV-infected HCC therapy.

Humans , RNA-Binding Proteins/drug effects , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Coumarins/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/drug effects , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Reference Values , Sincalide/analysis , Time Factors , Virus Replication/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , RNA-Binding Proteins/analysis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/virology , MicroRNAs/analysis , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Hep G2 Cells , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/virology