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1.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 73-80, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010112

ABSTRACT

V-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) alteration is one of the most essential driver genes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). BRAF encodes serine/threonine protein kinases, and its mutations typically lead to protein compositional activation, thereby activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) signaling pathway. A promising new approach for the treatment of mutated BRAF and/or downstream MEK may provide customized treatment opportunities for BRAF driven NSCLC patients. However, combination therapy is necessary to overcome the difficulties such as short duration of benefit, poor therapeutic effect of non-V600 BRAF mutations and susceptibility to drug resistance. This article reviewed the progress in structural characteristics, related signaling pathways, mutation types of BRAF gene, and the clinical pathological relationship between BRAF mutations and NSCLC, as well as the therapy, in order to provide more evidences for clinical doctors to make treatment decisions.
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Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Mutation , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
2.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 65-72, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010111

ABSTRACT

Granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) are one of the main subgroups of MDSCs, which are widely enriched in most cancers. It can inhibit the killing function of T-lymphocyte through the expression of arginase-1 (Arg-1) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), reshape the tumor immune microenvironment, and promote the occurrence and development of tumors. In recent years, more and more studies have found that G-MDSCs are significantly correlated with the prognosis and immunotherapy efficacy of patients with non-small cell lung cancer, and the use of drugs specifically targeting the recruitment, differentiation and function of G-MDSCs can effectively inhibit tumor progression. This article reviews the immunosuppressive effect of G-MDSCs in non-small cell lung cancer and the progress of related pathway targeting drugs.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , T-Lymphocytes , Immunotherapy , Tumor Microenvironment
3.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 56-64, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#With the rise of multicolor flow cytometry, flow cytometry has become an important means to detect the immune microenvironment of lung cancer, but most of them are used to detect the proportion of cell subsets or the function of major cell subsets, and they cannot be detected at the same time. Therefore, a reliable 21-color flow cytometry protocol was established to detect the immune cell subsets in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor tissues.@*METHODS@#Cell membrane surface antibodies cluster of differentiation (CD)45, CD3, CD19, CD4, CD8, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), CD39, CD103, CD25, CD127, chemokine receptor 8 (CCR8), CD56, CD11c, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, CD38, CD27, CD69, CD62L, CD45RA, CCR7 and nucleic acid dye L/D were used to develop the protocol. Firstly, antibody titration experiments, voltage optimization, subtraction of one color staining and single color staining experiments were carried out for each antibody, and after the experimental conditions and detection schemes were determined, the feasibility of the scheme was verified by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) specimens of six healthy adult volunteers. Tumor tissue samples from 6 NSCLC patients were tested and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The established 21-color flow cytometry protocol was used to detect the tumor tissue samples of 6 NSCLC patients, and the proportion of each cell subset in lung cancer tissue, as well as the immunophenotype and differentiation of the main cell population, were analyzed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The successfully established 21-color flow cytometry protocol is suitable for the detection of PBMCs and NSCLC tissue samples, which provides an effective new idea for monitoring the immune microenvironment status in lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Flow Cytometry , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Lung/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
4.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 1-12, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Radiation therapy is one of the most common treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the insensitivity of some tumor cells to radiation is one of the major reasons for the poor efficacy of radiotherapy and the poor prognosis of patients, and exploring the underlying mechanisms behind radioresistance is the key to solving this clinical challenge. This study aimed to identify the molecules associated with radioresistance in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), identified thyroid hormone receptor interactor 13 (TRIP13) as the main target initially, and explored whether TRIP13 is related to radioresistance in LUAD and the specific mechanism, with the aim of providing theoretical basis and potential targets for the combination therapy of LUAD patients receiving radiotherapy in the clinic.@*METHODS@#Three datasets, GSE18842, GSE19188 and GSE33532, were selected from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and screened for differentially expressed genes (|log FC|>1.5, P<0.05) in each of the three datasets using the R 4.1.3 software, and then Venn diagram was used to find out the differentially expressed genes common to the three datasets. The screened differential genes were then subjected to protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis and module analysis with the help of STRING online tool and Cytoscape software, and survival prognosis analysis was performed for each gene with the help of Kaplan-Meier Plotter database, and the TRIP13 gene was identified as the main molecule for subsequent studies. Subsequently, the human LUAD cell line H292 was irradiated with multiple X-rays using a sub-lethal dose irradiation method to construct a radioresistant cell line, H292DR. The radioresistance of H292DR cells was verified using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and clone formation assay. The expression levels of TRIP13 in H292 and H292DR cells were measured by Western blot. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to silence the expression of TRIP13 in H292DR cells and Western blot assay was performed. The clone formation ability and migration ability of H292DR cells were observed after TRIP13 silencing, followed by the detection of changes in the expression levels of proteins closely related to homologous recombination, such as ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein.@*RESULTS@#Screening of multiple GEO datasets, validation of external datasets and survival analysis revealed that TRIP13 was highly expressed in LUAD and was associated with poor prognosis in LUAD patients who had received radiation therapy. And the results of gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of TRIP13 suggested that TRIP13 might be closely associated with LUAD radioresistance by promoting homologous recombination repair after radiation therapy. Experimentally, TRIP13 expression was found to be upregulated in H292DR, and silencing of TRIP13 was able to increase the sensitivity of H292DR cells to radiation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#TRIP13 is associated with poor prognosis in LUAD patients treated with radiation, possibly by promoting a homologous recombination repair pathway to mediate resistance of LUAD cells to radiation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/radiotherapy , Cell Count , Combined Modality Therapy , ATPases Associated with Diverse Cellular Activities , Cell Cycle Proteins
5.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 934-942, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010101

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are currently the first-line standard of care for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that harbor EGFR mutations. Nevertheless, resistance to EGFR-TKIs is inevitable. In recent years, although immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have significantly shifted the treatment paradigm in advanced NSCLC without driver mutation, clinical benefits of these agents are limited in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Compared with wild-type tumors, tumors with EGFR mutations show more heterogeneity in the expression level of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), tumor mutational burden (TMB), and other tumor microenvironment (TME) characteristics. Whether ICIs are suitable for NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations is still worth exploring. In this review, we summarized the clinical data with regard to the efficacy of ICIs in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC and deciphered the unique TME in EGFR-mutated NSCLC.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Immunotherapy , Mutation , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Tumor Microenvironment
6.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 910-918, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The thoracic small biopsy sampling procedure including transbronchial forceps lung biopsy (TBLB) and endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) can be accompanied by rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of sample material to provide immediate feedback for the proceduralist. The present study aims to investigate the supplemental effect of ROSE smear samples for lung cancer molecular test.@*METHODS@#In a retrospective study, 308 patients admitted to our hospital from August 2020 to December 2022 undergoing diagnostic TBLB and EBUS-TBNA with ROSE and subsequently diagnosed as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were analyzed. The matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedding (FFPE) tissue section and ROSE smears for tumor cellularity were compared. DNA yields of smears were determined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were performed on adequate smear samples.@*RESULTS@#ROSE smear samples were enriched in tumor cells. Among 308 biopsy samples, 78 cases (25.3%) exhibited inadequate FFPE tissue sections, whereas 44 cases (14.3%) yielded adequate smear samples. Somatic mutations detected in the FFPE tissue section samples were also detected in the matching adequate smear sample.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ROSE smear samples of the thoracic small biopsies are beneficial supplemental materials for ancillary testing of lung cancer. Combined use of cytology smear samples with traditional FFPE section samples can enhance the detection rate of informative mutations in patients with advanced NSCLC. We recommend that the laboratory could further evaluate the ROSE cell smears of the patient when FFPE tissue sections are inadequate, and that adequate cell smears can be used as a supplemental source for the molecular testing of NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Rapid On-site Evaluation , Retrospective Studies , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/methods
7.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 881-888, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Drug resistance is the main cause of high mortality of lung cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of folic acid (FA) on the resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to Osimertinib (OSM) by regulating the methylation of dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1).@*METHODS@#The OSM resistant NSCLC cell line PC9R was establishd by gradually escalation of OSM concentration in PC9 cells. PC9R cells were randomly grouped into Control group, OSM group (5 μmol/L OSM), FA group (600 nmol/L FA), methylation inhibitor decitabine (DAC) group (10 μmol/L DAC), FA+OSM group (600 nmol/L FA+5 μmol/L OSM), and FA+OSM+DAC group (600 nmol/L FA+5 μmol/L OSM+10 μmol/L DAC). CCK-8 method was applied to detect cell proliferation ability. Scratch test was applied to test the ability of cell migration. Transwell assay was applied to detect cell invasion ability. Flow cytometry was applied to measure and analyze the apoptosis rate of cells in each group. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method was applied to detect the expression level of DUSP1 mRNA in cells. Methylation specific PCR (MSP) was applied to detect the methylation status of the DUSP1 promoter region in each group. Western blot was applied to analyze the expression levels of DUSP1 protein and key proteins in the DUSP1 downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in each group.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the Control group, the cell OD450 values (48 h, 72 h), scratch healing rate, number of cell invasions, and expression of DUSP1 in the OSM group were obviously decreased (P<0.05); the apoptosis rate, the methylation level of DUSP1, the expression of p38 MAPK protein, and the phosphorylation level of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) were obviously increased (P<0.05); the cell OD450 values (48, 72 h), scratch healing rate, number of cell invasions, and expression of DUSP1 in the DAC group were obviously increased (P<0.05); the apoptosis rate, the expression of p38 MAPK protein, the phosphorylation level of ERK, and the methylation level of DUSP1 were obviously reduced (P<0.05). Compared with the OSM group, the cell OD450 values (48, 72 h), scratch healing rate, number of cell invasions, and expression of DUSP1 in the FA+OSM group were obviously decreased (P<0.05); the apoptosis rate, the methylation level of DUSP1, the expression of p38 MAPK protein, and the phosphorylation level of ERK were obviously increased (P<0.05). Compared with the FA+OSM group, the cell OD450 values (48, 72 h), scratch healing rate, number of cell invasions, and expression of DUSP1 in the FA+OSM+DAC group were obviously increased; the apoptosis rate, the methylation level of DUSP1, the expression of p38 MAPK protein, and the phosphorylation level of ERK were obviously reduced (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#FA may inhibit DUSP1 expression by enhancing DUSP1 methylation, regulate downstream MAPK signal pathway, then promote apoptosis, inhibit cell invasion and metastasis, and ultimately reduce OSM resistance in NSCLC cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/pharmacology , Methylation , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 752-761, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970545

ABSTRACT

This study explores the effect of apigenin(APG), oxymatrine(OMT), and APG+OMT on the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and the underlying mechanisms. Cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) assay was used to detect the vitality of A549 and NCI-H1975 cells, and colony formation assay to evaluate the colony formation ability of the cells. EdU assay was employed to examine the proliferation of NCI-H1975 cells. RT-qPCR and Western blot were performed to detect the mRNA and protein expression of PLOD2. Molecular docking was carried out to explore the direct action ability and action sites between APG/OMT and PLOD2/EGFR. Western blot was used to study the expression of related proteins in EGFR pathway. The viability of A549 and NCI-H1975 cells was inhibited by APG and APG+OMT at 20, 40, and 80 μmol·L~(-1) in a dose-dependent manner. The colony formation ability of NCI-H1975 cells was significantly suppressed by APG and APG+OMT. The mRNA and protein expression of PLOD2 was significantly inhibited by APG and APG+OMT. In addition, APG and OMT had strong binding activity with PLOD2 and EGFR. In APG and APG+OMT groups, the expression of EGFR and proteins in its downstream signaling pathways was significantly down-regulated. It is concluded that APG in combination with OMT could inhibit non-small lung cancer, and the mechanism may be related to EGFR and its downstream signaling pathways. This study lays a new theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with APG in combination with OMT and provides a reference for further research on the anti-tumor mechanism of APG in combination with OMT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Apigenin , Molecular Docking Simulation , Alkaloids , Quinolizines , RNA, Messenger , ErbB Receptors
9.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 407-415, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982173

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the malignant tumor with the highest morbidity and mortality in China. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the main pathological subtype of lung cancer. On April 13, 2023, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) released the third edition of the 2023 NCCN Oncology Clinical Practice Guidelines: Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, which reflects the latest advances in international lung cancer research. This article will interpret the main updated contents of the new edition of the guidelines, and compare it with the third edition of the NCCN guidelines in 2022, so as to provide references about the diagnosis and treatment of NSCLC for clinical medical personnel in China.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , China , Lung Neoplasms , Thorax
10.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 400-406, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982172

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies in the world, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for approximately 80%-85% of all pathological types. Approximately 30%-55% of NSCLC patients develop brain metastases. It has been reported that 5%-6% of patients with brain metastases harbor anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion. ALK-positive NSCLC patients have shown significant therapeutic benefits after treatment with ALK inhibitors. Over the past decade, ALK inhibitors have rapidly evolved and now exist in three generations: first-generation drugs such as Crizotinib; second-generation drugs including Alectinib, Brigatinib, Ceritinib, and Ensartinib; and third-generation drugs like Lorlatinib. These drugs have exhibited varying efficacy in treating brain metastases in ALK-positive NSCLC patients. However, the numerous options available for ALK inhibition present a challenge for clinical decision-making. Therefore, this review aims to provide clinical guidance by summarizing the efficacy and safety of ALK inhibitors in treating NSCLC brain metastases.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Crizotinib
11.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 392-399, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982171

ABSTRACT

With the development of precision medicine for lung cancer, targeted therapy has greatly improved the survival and prognosis of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the occurrence of acquired drug resistance ultimately leads to patients with no targeted drugs available and no standard treatment options for this group of patients afterwards. The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has revolutionized the treatment of advanced NSCLC. However, due to the unique features of NSCLC with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, such as immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), single ICIs treatment has limited clinical benefits in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation, and the combination of ICIs with chemotherapy and/or targeted therapies is the trend. This review further discusses potential subpopulations with EGFR mutations that may benefit from ICIs treatment, and analyzes how decisions can be made in the era of combined immunotherapy to maximize the efficacy of ICIs treatment in EGFR mutation targeted therapy for NSCLC patients with drug resistance, with the aim of achieving individualized treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment
12.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 386-391, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lung cancer is the first leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the malignant tumors, which has become a hot issue in current research. Clinically, lung cancer is divided into small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) according to the pathological types. NSCLC includes adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and other types of lung cancer, accounting for about 80% of all lung cancer. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), which is a recognized complication in lung cancer patients with higher morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of DVT and reveal the risk factors for DVT in the postoperative patients with lung cancer.@*METHODS@#We collected 83 postoperative patients with lung cancer admitted to the Department of Lung Cancer Surgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from December 2021 to December 2022. All these patients were examined by color Doppler ultrasound of lower extremity vein upon admission and after operation to analyze the incidence of DVT. In order to explore the possible risk factors for DVT in these patients, we further analyzed the correlations between DVT and their clinical features. At the same time, the changes of coagulation function and platelet were monitored to investigate the value of blood coagulation in the patients with DVT.@*RESULTS@#DVT occurred in 25 patients after lung cancer operation, and the incidence rate of DVT was 30.1%. Further analysis found that the incidences of postoperative lower limb DVT were higher in lung cancer patients of stage III+IV or over 60 years of age (P=0.031, P=0.028). D-Dimer level in patients with thrombosis was significantly higher than that in non-thrombus patients on the 1st, the 3rd, and the 5th day after operation (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference in platelets and fibrinogen (FIB) (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The overall incidence of DVT in our center after lung cancer patients operation was 30.1%. Late-stage and older postpatients were more likely to develop DVT, and these patients with higher D-Dimer values should be considered the possibility of VTE events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Incidence , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
13.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 369-376, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Thyroid function abnormality (TFA) is one of the common adverse reactions in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with immunotherapy, but the risk factors of TFA and its relationship with efficacy are not completely clear. The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors of TFA and its relationship with efficacy in patients with advanced NSCLC after immunotherapy.@*METHODS@#The general clinical data of 200 patients with advanced NSCLC in The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from July 1, 2019 to June 31, 2021 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. χ² test and multivariate Logistic regression were used to explore the risk factors of TFA. Kaplan-Meier curve was drawn and Log-rank test was used for comparison between groups. Univariate and multivariate Cox analysis was used to explore the efficacy factors.@*RESULTS@#A total of 86 (43.0%) patients developed TFA. Logistic regression analysis showed that Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS), pleural effusion and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) were factors influencing TFA (P<0.05). Compared with normal thyroid function group, the median progression-free survival (PFS) of patients in the TFA group was significantly longer (19.0 months vs 6.3 months, P<0.001), and the objective response rate (ORR) (65.1% vs 28.9%, P=0.020) and disease control rate (DCR) (100.0% vs 92.1%, P=0.020) of the TFA group were better than those of the normal thyroid function group. Cox regression analysis showed that ECOG PS, LDH, cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) and TFA were factors influencing prognosis (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#ECOG PS, pleural effusion and LDH may be risk factors affecting the occurrence of TFA and TFA may be a predictor of the efficacy of immunotherapy. Patients with advanced NSCLC who have TFA after immunotherapy may obtain better efficacy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Pleural Effusion
14.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 338-347, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982165

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the highest cancer-related mortality rate in the world, and is one of the most common malignancies. The standard treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is radical lobectomy, while recent studies have found that sub-lobectomy of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm) is not inferior to lobectomy and even improve the prognosis of the patients. These important findings will effectively and positively promote the formation of consensus and principles of wedge resection of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm) in the field of thoracic surgery. The purpose of this study is to present a national expert consensus on wedge resection of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm) in the field of thoracic surgery. The experts from Editorial Committee of Consensus on Wedge Resection of Lung Nodules (≤2 cm) (2023 Edition) jointly participated in the revision work. According to the clinical progress about the wedge resection of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm) at home and abroad during recent years, experts jointly wrote Wedge Resection of Pulmonary Nodules (≤2 cm): a Consensus Statement by Specialists of Thoracic Surgery (2023 Edition), in combination with the homogeneous treatment principles of wedge resection in the field of thoracic surgery in China. This consensus was summarized from the following aspects: (1) Indications of wedge resection of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm); (2) Resection range of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm) required for wedge resection; (3) Excisable pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm) for wedge resection. This consensus finally put forward 8 recommended opinions, and sorted out 5 opinions which were still controversial and needed more evidence. The integrated opinions were generated through the discussion held among the experts of thoracic surgery from all over the country, making wedge resection of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm) more appropriate for China and more standardized and homogeneous for clinical practice. In the future, more relevant researches should be accumulated based on the characteristics of lung cancer and its diagnosis and treatment in China, optimizing the treatment of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm).


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Surgery , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Thoracic Surgical Procedures , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
15.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 325-337, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982164

ABSTRACT

With the development of precision diagnosis and treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertion (ex20ins) mutations, as a rare subset of EGFR mutaions, have gradually attracted attention recently. The heterogeneity of EGFR ex20ins mutations is very high, different variants have different clinical benefits, and the prognosis is extremely poor. The available traditional treatment outcomes are poor in patients with EGFR ex20ins positive NSCLC and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests would miss aprocimately 50% of the variants. Therefore, high attention should be paid to EGFR ex20ins positive NSCLC during the clinical practice. The expert panel has formed a consensus on the standardized clinical diagnosis and treatment of EGFR ex20ins mutation NSCLC through reference to literature and clinical data, and combined with the experts' own clinical experience, the consensus recommendations including clinicopathologic characteristics, therapies, testing methods and recent relevant clinical trials for NSCLC patients with EGFR ex20ins mutation, in order to provide medication reference for clinical physicians at all levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Consensus , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Exons , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Mutagenesis, Insertional
16.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 291-302, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982159

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the most common malignancy in the world and the leading cause of cancer death. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) refers to the NSCLC caused by mutation, amplification or overexpression of the HER2 gene, resulting in its dysfunction. HER2 is the most active receptor in the HER family and can combine with other members to form dimers, which can activate multiple signaling pathways and regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. In NSCLC, HER2 positivity is usually considered a poor prognostic marker. At present, the diagnosis and treatment of HER2-positive NSCLC are not mature. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), next generation sequencing (NGS) and other technologies are often used to detect the positive status of HER2 mutation, amplification or overexpression. In previous studies, antitumor drugs did not show ideal therapeutic effects in HER2-positive NSCLC. However, in recent years, related researches have shown that antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in targeted therapy show good antitumor activity against HER2 positive NSCLC. This article summarized the progress in diagnosis and treatment of HER2-positive NSCLC, so as to provide reference for subsequent researches.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Receptor, ErbB-2/genetics , Mutation , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 281-290, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982158

ABSTRACT

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase and its rearrangements occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), resulting in signal dysregulation in kinase domain. As a new generation of potent ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), Brigatinib was approved in China in March 2022 as a treatment for locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients with ALK rearrangement positive. Brigatinib significantly improved the survival, cranial efficacy and quality of life compared to Crizotinib in clinical trials. Brigatinib is generally well tolerated. Brigatinib has been one of the preferred treatments and an addition of options in ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Pulmonary toxicity is one of the adverse effects observed during the treatment of TKIs and deserves the intense attention of clinicians, despite of its low incidence rate. Pulmonary toxicity reported during the treatment of Brigatinib has shown distinct clinical presentations, such as early-onset (median time to onset, 2 days) and rapid tolerance and reversibility of symptoms. In view of this, the concept of early-onset pulmonary events (EOPEs) was proposed and established during the submission for regulatory review and approval. We focused on clinical characteristics, potential mechanism of etiology, and management strategies of EOPEs to provide clinicians evidence for better clinical decision support.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Quality of Life , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects
18.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 274-280, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#With the aging of the population and the increased importance of lung cancer screening, the number of early-stage lung cancer patients has been on the rise in recent years, which can be classified into operable early-stage lung cancer and inoperable early-stage lung cancer. The most common pathological type is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is the optimal treatment for inoperable early-stage NSCLC. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognosis of early-stage NSCLC patients treated with SBRT and its influencing factors in order to reduce the side effects of radiotherapy and improve the survival and quality of life.@*METHODS@#Clinical data and follow-up outcomes of early-stage NSCLC patients treated with SBRT in our hospital from August 2010 to August 2020 were collected. Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the prognosis, and the Cox proportional risk model was used for multivariate prognostic analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 165 patients were included with a median follow-up time of 43.2 (range: 4.8-132.1) mon. The local control (LC) rates at 1-yr, 2-yr and 5-yr were 98.1%, 94.8% and 86.5% respectively. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score greater than 80 was an independent prognostic factor for LC (P=0.02). The overall survival (OS) rates at 1-yr, 2-yr and 5-yr were 97.6%, 93.0% and 68.9% respectively. A biological equivalent dose when α/β=10 (BED10) greater than 132 Gy was an independent prognostic factor for OS (P=0.04). Progression-free survival (PFS) rates at 1-yr, 2-yr and 5-yr were 93.3%, 79.5% and 55.3% respectively. The distance metastasis free survival (DMFS) rates at 1-yr, 2-yr and 5-yr were 94.5%, 83.2% and 58.4% respectively. BED10 greater than 150 Gy was an independent prognostic factor for DMFS (P=0.02). The regional control (RC) rates at 1-yr, 2-yr and 5-yr were 98.8%, 95.4% and 87.9% respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#SBRT is effective in treating early-stage NSCLC. KPS greater than 80 is an independent prognostic factor for LC; BED10 greater than 132 Gy is an independent prognostic factor for OS; BED10 greater than 150 Gy is an independent prognostic factor for DMFS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Radiosurgery/methods , Early Detection of Cancer , Quality of Life , Prognosis , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
19.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 257-264, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are commonly occurred in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, evidence of irAEs derived from the Chinese population is relatively lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and outcomes of irAEs in Chinese patients with lung cancer after receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs).@*METHODS@#Clinical and follow-up data from lung cancer patients who received at least one time of ICIs from January 2018 to September 2021 at Huadong Hospital, Fudan University were included. Statistical descriptions and Kaplan-Meier method were used to analyze the overall incidence of irAEs, as well as the incidence and outcomes of each type of irAEs.@*RESULTS@#135 patients were included in the study. 106 patients (78.5%) presented at least one type of irAEs, and the median time to first irAEs onset was 28 d. Most irAEs occurred at early time after treatment, and most irAEs were mild-moderate and reversible. 57 patients (42.2%) died at the study cutoff. The mortality rate of severe irAEs was 12.6% (n=17), and among them 7 patients (41.2%) died of pneumonitis. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) time of the total population was 505 d (95%CI: 352-658) and 625 d (95%CI: 491-759), respectively. Patients who presented any irAEs achieved a longer PFS than those who did not (median PFS: 533 d vs 179 d, P=0.037, HR=0.57), while patients who presented skin toxicities achieved a longer OS than patients who did not (median OS: 797 d vs 469 d, P=0.006, HR=0.70).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In real-world settings, irAEs in lung cancer patients were commonly observed, with pneumonitis as the most common fatal irAEs. In addition, patients who presented any irAEs may tend to achieve a longer PFS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Incidence , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
20.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 245-256, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations are the most common driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To prolong the survival of the patients, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) resistance in NSCLC is a major challenge that needs to be addressed urgently, and this study focuses on investigating the mechanism of cigarette smoke (CS) induced Gefitinib resistance in NSCLC.@*METHODS@#PC-9 and A549 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with 1 µmol/L Gefitinib for 4 h and 10% cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 48 h. Western blot was used to detect Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) protein expressions; DCFH-DA probe was used to detect intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS); CCK-8 kit was used to detect cell activity, and EdU was used to detect cell proliferation ability. Sirt3 overexpression plasmid (OV-Sirt3) was transfected in PC-9 and A549 cells and treated with 1 µmol/L Gefitinib for 4 h and 10% CSE for 48 h after N-acetylcysteine (NAC) action. The expressions of Sirt3 and SOD2 were detected by Western blot; the ROS level in the cells was detected by DCFH-DA probe, and the cell activity was detected by CCK-8.@*RESULTS@#CSE induced an increase in the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of both PC-9 and A549 cells to Gefitinib (P<0.01) and enhanced the proliferation of PC-9 and A549 cells, suggesting that CS induced Gefitinib resistance in NSCLC. ROS was involved in CSE-induced Gefitinib resistance (P<0.05). CSE induced low expressions of Sirt3 and SOD2 (P<0.01), and Sirt3/SOD2 was associated with poor prognosis in lung cancer patients (P<0.05). OV-Sirt3 in PC-9 and A549 cells reversed CSE-induced Gefitinib resistance (P<0.05) and significantly reduced ROS production. NAC reversed CSE-induced Gefitinib resistance in PC-9 and A549 cells (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The ROS/Sirt3/SOD2 pathway is involved in CS-induced Gefitinib resistance in NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gefitinib/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Sirtuin 3/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cigarette Smoking , Sincalide/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor
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