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1.
Medisan ; 25(5)2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1346542

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En los pacientes con cáncer de pulmón resulta vital el tratamiento quirúrgico, pues posibilita una estadificación patológica minuciosa, así como un pronóstico y tratamiento acordes con la carga tumoral de cada paciente. Objetivo: Determinar la influencia del tipo de linfadenectomía mediastinal en la supervivencia de pacientes operados por cáncer pulmonar de células no pequeñas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y longitudinal en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Provincial Clínico-Quirúrgico Docente Saturnino Lora de Santiago de Cuba, durante un período de 10 años (de 2009 a 2019), en 55 pacientes seleccionados aleatoriamente, quienes recibieron algún tipo de linfadenectomía del mediastino además de resección pulmonar. En el procesamiento estadístico, se utilizaron el número absoluto, el porcentaje y la media como medidas de resumen; también la prueba de independencia de la Χ2, para identificar la posible asociación entre variables, y el método de Kaplan-Meier, para precisar la supervivencia. Resultados: La técnica de linfadenectomía mediastínica más utilizada fue el muestreo ganglionar (47,3 %), con la cual también se obtuvo un mayor porcentaje (84,6) de resultados negativos en cuanto a invasión neoplásica, a diferencia de lo observado con la disección ganglionar sistemática, que reveló positividad de infiltración tumoral en un elevado número de pacientes (52,9 %). Asimismo, los pacientes operados mediante disección ganglionar sistemática mostraron mejor supervivencia a los 6 meses (100 %) y al año (87,5 %); a los 5 años las cifras de supervivencia con esta técnica fueron superiores a las obtenidas con todos los tipos de escisiones ganglionares practicadas. Conclusiones: Existió mayor probabilidad del diagnóstico de invasión linfática del mediastino y una mejor supervivencia en los pacientes tratados con disección ganglionar sistemática. Por ello, se recomienda protocolizar dicho tratamiento quirúrgico, lo cual pudiera estar avalado por un ensayo clínico que permita comparar grupos homogéneos que reciban cada tipo de linfadenectomía, respectivamente, a fin de recoger una evidencia científica relevante y concluyente.


Introduction: In the patients with lung cancer it is vital the surgical treatment, because it facilitates a meticulous pathological staging, as well as a prognosis and treatment according to each patient tumoral charge. Objective: To determine the influence of the mediastinal limphadenectomy type in the survival of patients operated due to non-small cells lung cancer. Methods: A descriptive and longitudinal study was carried out in the General Surgery Service of Saturnino Lora Teaching Clinical-Surgical Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, during 10 years (from 2009 to 2019), in 55 patients selected at random who received some type of mediastinum lymphadenectomy besides lung resection. In the statistical processing, the absolute number, percentage and the mean were used, as summary measures; also the chi-squared test to identify the possible association among variables, and the Kaplan-Meier method, to specify survival. Results: The most used medistinic lymphadenectomy technique was the ganglionar sampling (47.3 %), with which a higher percentage of negative results was also obtained (84.6) as regards neoplastic invasion, contrary to that is observed with the systematic ganglionar dissection that revealed metastasis positivity in a high number of the patients that received it (52.9 %). Likewise, patients operated by means of systematic ganglionar dissection showed a better survival 6 months later (100 %) and a year later (87.5 %); after 5 years the survival number with this technique was superior to all the types of ganglionar excisions practiced. Conclusions: There was a higher probability of the mediastinic lymphatic infiltration diagnosis and better survival in the patients treated with systematic ganglionar dissection. Reason why, it is recommended to protocolize this surgical treatment, which could be endorsed by a clinical trial that allows to compare homogeneous groups that receive each type of lymphadenectomy, respectively, in order to obtain an outstanding and conclusive scientific evidence.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Neoplasm Staging , Survivorship , Lymph Node Excision
2.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(2)mayo.-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1252326

ABSTRACT

Este reporte corresponde al análisis de la calidad de vida de los pacientes que se incluyeron en el ensayo clínico fase III de evaluación de la vacuna CIMAvaxEGF® en cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas. La calidad de vida se evaluó empleando los cuestionarios EORTC QLQ-C30 y QLQ-C13, al inicio y cada 3 meses hasta el fallecimiento del paciente a criterio del investigador. Para comparar las medianas entre los dos grupos se utilizó la prueba no paramétrica de Mann-Whitney. Las comparaciones entre el nivel basal y los diferentes tiempos de seguimiento se realizaron a través de la prueba no paramétrica de Wilcoxon. El cuestionario QLQ-C30 evidenció un beneficio en cuanto a calidad de vida para el grupo vacunado con la vacuna CIMAvaxEGF® en las escalas funcionales (global, rol y social), en las escalas de síntomas de la enfermedad y del tratamiento (dolor) se observó que mejora la calidad de los mismos a favor de los pacientes tratados con la vacuna CIMAvaxEGF®. El cuestionario QLQ-C13, también evidenció ventajas para el grupo vacunado desde el punto de vista de beneficio clínico en los síntomas (disnea, disfagia, alopecia y dolor en el pecho). Se señala como significativo que disminuye la hemoptisis y la tos en el grupo vacunado, observándose un empeoramiento en el grupo control(AU)


This report corresponds to quality of life analysis of patient with non-small cell lung cancer included in the phase III clinical trials Evaluation of CIMAvaxEGF® vaccine in lung cancer. The quality of life was evaluate using the EORTC questionnaires QLQ-C30 y QLQ-C13, at the beginning and every 3 months. To compare the median between two groups the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test was used. To compare the baseline and different follows times the Wilcoxon non-parametric test was used. The QLQ-C30 questionnaire showed a benefit in terms of the quality of life for the CIMAvaxEGF® vaccine group on the functional scores (global, role and social) and symptoms of the disease (pain). The QLQ-LC13 questionnaire showed a benefit in terms of the quality of life for the CIMAvaxEGF® vaccine group on the symptoms scores (dyspnea, dysphagia, alopecia and chest pain). It is noted as significant that the hemoptysis decreases in the group vaccinated as well as the dysphagia, the cough and the dyspnea observing a worsening in the control group(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/epidemiology , Cancer Vaccines
3.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(3): 293-300, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252238

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Lung cancer is a type of neoplasia with one of the highest incidences worldwide and is the largest cause of mortality due to cancer in the world today. It is classified according to its histological and biological characteristics, which will determine its treatment and prognosis. Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for 85% of the cases, and these are the cases that surgeons mostly deal with. Small cell lung cancer accounts for the remaining 15%. Surgery is the main method for treating early stage lung cancer, and lobectomy is the preferred procedure for treating primary lung cancer, while sublobar resection is an alternative for patients with poor reserve or with very small tumors. Surgeons need to be trained to use the resources and techniques available for lung resection, including less invasive approaches such as video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS), and need to be familiar with new oncological approaches, including curative, adjuvant or palliative treatments for patients with lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Surgeons , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Pneumonectomy , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
4.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(1): 2795-2807, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156776

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas en estadios avanzados tiene una alta incidencia y mortalidad. Los tratamientos que se emplean son la quimioterapia, la radioterapia, las terapias dirigidas y la inmunoterapia. Es preferible que los tratamientos se realicen en el marco de ensayos clínicos. Tiene una precaria supervivencia a los cinco años del diagnóstico. Objetivo: determinar la supervivencia global de los pacientes con cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas, en estadios avanzados. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo en pacientes con diagnóstico cito-histológico de cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas, en estadios avanzados. De un universo de 463 pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Oncología Provincial de Matanzas, se conformó una muestra de 348. Período comprendido desde enero del 2013 a diciembre del 2016. Las variables estudiadas se tomaron de las historias clínicas y la base de datos nacional de fallecidos por cáncer de pulmón. Resultados: la mayoría de los pacientes se diagnosticaron en etapa IV (71,69 %), la modalidad de tratamiento más utilizada fue la quimioterapia (61,2 %). Los fármacos más empleados fueron las sales de platino en el78,73 %. La supervivencia global en la etapa IV fue de 1,23 % a cinco años. La modalidad de tratamiento de mayor supervivencia fue la inmunoterapia, con 3,33 % y la supervivencia global fue de 2 %. Conclusiones: predominó la etapa IV de la enfermedad. La quimioterapia a base de sales de platino como esquema de tratamiento de primera línea y la inmunoterapia como modalidad de tratamiento reportaron mayor supervivencia global, aunque esta fue precaria (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: non-small cell lung cancer in advanced stages shows a high incidence and mortality. The treatments used against it are chemotherapy, radiotherapy, directed therapies and immunotherapy. It is better to perform the treatments in the context of clinical trials. It has a precarious survival at the fifth year after diagnosis. Objective: to determine the global survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer in advanced stages. Materials and methods: descriptive, retrospective study in patients with cyto-histological diagnosis of non-small lung cancer in advanced stages. A sample of 348 patients was formed from the universe of 463 patients who attended the Provincial Service of Oncology in the period from January 2013 to December 2016. The studied variables were taken from the clinical records and the national database of deceased due to lung cancer. Results: most of patients were diagnosed at the stage IV (71.69 %); the most used treatment modality was chemotherapy (61.2). The most used drugs were platinum salts in 78.73 %. The global survival at the IV stage was 1.23 at five years. The treatment modality of greater survival was immunotherapy, with 3.33 % and the global survival was 2 %. Conclusions: the disease's stage IV predominated. The platinum salts-based chemotherapy as the first line treatment scheme and immunotherapy as treatment modality provided higher global survival, although it was precarious (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/mortality , Survivorship , Medical Oncology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879290

ABSTRACT

Because of the unobvious early symptoms and low 5-year survival rate, the early diagnosis and treatment is of great significance for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Glucose transporter-1 is the most widely distributed glucose transporters in various tissue cells in the human body, whose expression in non-small cell lung cancer is closely related to the histological types, lymph node metastasis, degree of differentiation, progression and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnostic imaging , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose Transporter Type 1 , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878947

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the molecular mechanism of Spatholobi Caulis in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) was studied through network pharmacology and molecular docking analysis. With traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) Spatholobi Caulis as the study object, active ingredients of Spatholobi Caulis and corresponding potential drug targets were obtained from Traditio-nal Chinese Medicine Pharmacology Platform(TCMSP) database; GeneCards database was used to collect cancer-related genes; Cytoscape software was used to build Spatholobi Caulis active ingredient-target-pathway relationship network. DAVID database was used for GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of targets, KEGG signaling pathway was visualized, and compounds were screened out for molecular docking. Finally, in vitro experiments on human lung cancer cells, A549 treated with luteolin and licochalcone A were used to preliminarily verify the core targets and pathways, cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 method, and expressions of caspase-3 and Bax protein were detected by Western blot. A total of 23 active components and 170 potential drug targets were selected from Spatholobi Caulis, involving 127 pathways in total. Molecular docking results showed that licochalcone A,(Z)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl) ethyl] acrylamide, consumeclose grain successfully docked with the key target EGFR, and binding energy of the three compounds was less than-5 kcal·mol~(-1). CCK-8 results showed that luteolin, licochalcone A, and Spatholobi Caulis extract had the inhibitory effect on human lung cancer A549 cells. Western blot showed that luteolin, licochalcone A and Spatholobi Caulis extract could induce cell apoptosis by increasing the expressions of pro-apoptotic factors caspase-3 and Bax. In this study, the anti-lung cancer effect of Spatholobi Caulis was studied through network pharmacology and molecular docking, in order to provide ideas for the molecular mechanism of Spatholobi Caulis in the treatment of lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878729

ABSTRACT

Targeted therapy is an important therapeutic method for advanced non-small cell lung cancer with driver gene alteration.However,resistance to targeted therapy will inevitably happen in clinical practice,which has become a major issue demanding prompt solution.Studies have demonstrated that bypass resistance mediated by the activation of hepatocyte growth factor(HGF)/mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor(MET)signaling pathway is a common cause of resistance to targeted therapy.Presently,relevant studies have accumulated rich experience in the specific mechanisms.To be brief,HGF/MET is an important target for overcoming the resistance to targeted therapy and promises to be a leading biomarker for judging and observing the occurrence of resistance.This paper introduces the recent studies concerning the effects and mechanisms of HGF/MET signaling pathway on resistance to targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Hepatocyte Growth Factor , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/metabolism , Signal Transduction
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e9017, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142574

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of melittin on growth, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. This study also explored the potential anti-cancer mechanism of melittin in NSCLC cells. The results demonstrated that melittin suppressed growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells in vitro. Melittin increased pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and Apaf-1 gene expression. Melittin inhibited tumor growth factor (TGF)-β expression and phosphorylated ERK/total ERK (pERK/tERK) in NSCLC cells. However, TGF-β overexpression (pTGF-β) abolished melittin-decreased TGF-β expression and pERK/tERK in NSCLC cells. Treatment with melittin suppressed tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival during the 120-day observation in vivo. Treatment with melittin increased TUNEL-positive cells and decreased expression levels of TGF-β and ERK in tumor tissue compared to the control group. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicated that melittin inhibited growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells through down-regulation of TGF-β-mediated ERK signaling pathway, suggesting melittin may be a promising anti-cancer agent for NSCLC therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Melitten/pharmacology , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Movement , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Caspase 3 , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1 , Neoplasm Invasiveness
9.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 275-291, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880954

ABSTRACT

Although genome-wide association studies have identified more than eighty genetic variants associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk, biological mechanisms of these variants remain largely unknown. By integrating a large-scale genotype data of 15 581 lung adenocarcinoma (AD) cases, 8350 squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) cases, and 27 355 controls, as well as multiple transcriptome and epigenomic databases, we conducted histology-specific meta-analyses and functional annotations of both reported and novel susceptibility variants. We identified 3064 credible risk variants for NSCLC, which were overrepresented in enhancer-like and promoter-like histone modification peaks as well as DNase I hypersensitive sites. Transcription factor enrichment analysis revealed that USF1 was AD-specific while CREB1 was SqCC-specific. Functional annotation and gene-based analysis implicated 894 target genes, including 274 specifics for AD and 123 for SqCC, which were overrepresented in somatic driver genes (ER = 1.95, P = 0.005). Pathway enrichment analysis and Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis revealed that AD genes were primarily involved in immune-related pathways, while SqCC genes were homologous recombination deficiency related. Our results illustrate the molecular basis of both well-studied and new susceptibility loci of NSCLC, providing not only novel insights into the genetic heterogeneity between AD and SqCC but also a set of plausible gene targets for post-GWAS functional experiments.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Genetic Heterogeneity , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880693

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) can effectively inhibit the growth of EGFR-dependent mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Unfortunately, NSCLC patients often develop severe drug resistance after long-term EGFR-TKI treatment. Studies have shown that the disorder of energy metabolism in tumor cells can induce EGFR-TKI resistance. Due to the drug action, gene mutation and other factors, tumor cells undergo metabolic reprogramming, which increases the metabolic rate and intensity of tumor cells, promotes the intake and synthesis of nutrients (such as sugar, fat and glutamine), forms a microenvironment conducive to tumor growth, enhances the bypass activation, phenotype transformation and abnormal proliferation of tumor cells, and inhibits the activity of immune cells and apoptosis of tumor cells, ultimately leading to drug resistance of tumor cells to EGFR-TKI. Therefore, targeting energy metabolism of NSCLC may be a potential way to alleviate TKI resistance.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Epidermal Growth Factor , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Microenvironment
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880616

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detecting common epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of IHC testing.@*METHODS@#A total of 208 NSCLC patients were included in the trial, and the EGFR mutation status in the patients were detected by PCR and IHC. Two mutation-specific antibodies against the most common exon 19 deletion (clone SP111) and exon 21 L858R mutation (clone SP125) were tested by using automated immunostainer. A cost-effectiveness analysis model was built for the analysis of optimal detection scheme.@*RESULTS@#With a cutoff value of IHC 1+, the overall sensitivity and specificity of the IHC-based method compared with the PCR-based method were 81.7% (95% CI 72.4% to 89.0%) and 94.7% (95% CI 92.6% to 99.5%), respectively. EGFR 19del mutation was detected by SP111 antibody with a sensitivity of 65.9% (95% CI 49.4% to 79.9%) and specificity of 98.8% (95% CI 95.7% to 99.9%). EGFR L858R mutation was detected by SP125 antibody with a sensitivity of 94.2% (95% CI 84.1% to 98.8%) and specificity of 99.4% (95% CI 96.5% to 100%). The IHC and PCR cost ratio needed to be 1-to-3 or more in our patients to economically justify before the use of IHC.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The study confirms an excellent specificity with fairly good sensitivity of IHC and mutation-specific antibodies for common EGFR mutations. It is cost-effective to use IHC method to detect EGFR mutation first when the IHC and PCR cost ratio is 1-to-3 or more in Chinese populations.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation
12.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 48 p. ilust, tabelas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1247912

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A prevalência do câncer de pulmão tem aumentado cerca de 2% ao ano e é considerado um problema de saúde pública mundial, sendo a principal causa de morte por câncer entre homens e mulheres. O Câncer de Pulmão de Células Não Pequenas (CPCNP) representa 85-90% dos cânceres de pulmão. A detecção do rearranjo do gene ROS1, considerada um importante fator preditivo para direcionamento terapêutico, constitui uma etapa crítica no tratamento de CPCNP. Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência do rearranjo do gene ROS1 em pacientes portadores de CPCNP não escamoso, sem mutação de EGFR ou rearranjo de ALK, diagnosticados na Região da Foz do Rio Itajaí, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, no período de 02/01/2019 a 27/07/2020. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo e prospectivo, descrito e analítico com 95 pacientes que possuíam material de biópsia suficiente para a realização de novas análises e que não apresentavam mutação de EGFR ou rearranjo de ALK. Os pacientes com imuno-histoquímica positiva para a proteína ROS1 foram testados pelo método de FISH, utilizando-se uma sonda de DNA do tipo break-apart para o gene ROS1. Foi realizada uma análise descritiva da amostra, e os resultados foram apresentados em números absolutos e porcentagens, representados por tabelas. O teste de qui-quadrado (χ2) foi empregado para comparação das frequências entre os grupos analisados. Resultados: 52,6% foram pacientes do sexo masculino; a idade mediana foi de 64 anos; 54,7% declararam-se tabagistas; 40,0% apresentavam doença estágio IV; 29,5% apresentaram tumores com alta expressão de PD-L1. Quanto a expressão de ROS1 por imuno-histoquímica: 89,5% foram identificados como ROS1+ em 0% das células tumorais, 4,2% como ROS1+ em <70% das células, e 6,3% como ROS1+ em ≥70% das células do tumor; portanto, 10,5% apresentaram resultados positivos para expressão de ROS1. Estes pacientes foram submetidos à análise de rearranjo de ROS1 pelo método de FISH e 7 (7,4%) apresentaram resultados positivos. Conclusão: Na população estudada, a análise pelo método de FISH mostrou uma prevalência de 7,4% para rearranjos do gene ROS1


Introduction: Lung cancer prevalence has been increasing at rate of 2% per year and is considered a major public health concern worldwide, being the main cause of cancer death among women and men. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents 85-90% of total lung cancer. Detecting the rearrangement of the ROS1 gene is critical to the treatment of NSCLC. Objective: To assess the prevalence of the ROS1 gene rearrangement in patients diagnosed with non-squamous NSCLC patients diagnosed between January 2019 to July 2020 at Foz do Rio Itajaí, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective and prospective observational study Ninety-five NSCLC whose tumors were negative for EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement and who had enough tumor tissue to carry out additional molecular analysis. Patients whose tumors were positive for ROS1 by immune-histochemistry were tested using by FISH using a break-apart DNA probe (Abbot Molecular) for the ROS1 gene. A descriptive analysis was performed and results were presented as absolute frequencies and percentages and depicted in charts. Frequencies were compared with the chi-squared test (χ2). Results: 52,6% were male, mean and median age were 65,10 and 64 years, respectively. 54,7% self-declared as smokers; 40,0% had stage IV disease; 29,5% had tumours with high expression of PD-L1. Regarding the expression of ROS1 by immunohistochemistry: 89,5% were identified as ROS1+ in 0% of cells, 4,2% as ROS1+ in <70% of cells, and 6,3% as ROS1+ in ≥70% of the cells; therefore, 10,5% displayed positive results for the expression of ROS1+. These tumors were subjected to the analysis of ROS1 rearrangement by FISH and 7 (7,4%) were positive. Conclusion: We observed 7,4% prevalence for ROS1 gene rearrangements in this pre-selected population


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Immunohistochemistry , Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte , Carcinoma, Adenosquamous/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , ErbB Receptors , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase
13.
Clinics ; 76: e2769, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278923

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of tumor and normal lung volumes on lung volume-dose parameters in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had undergone intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). METHODS: The clinical data of 208 patients with NSCLC who underwent radical IMRT between June 2014 and June 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. A regression model curve was used to evaluate the effect of tumor and normal lung volumes on normal lung relative volumes receiving greater than 5 and 20 Gy (V5, V20), on mean lung dose (MLD), and on absolute volumes spared from greater than 5 and 20 Gy (AVS5, AVS20). RESULTS: The V5, V20, and MLD of the bilateral lung were fitted to a quadratic equation curve with the change in tumor volume, which increased initially and then decreased when the tumor volume increased. The V5, V20, and MLD of the lung reached their apex when the tumor volumes were 288.07, 341.69, and 326.83 cm3, respectively. AVS5 and AVS20 decreased in a logarithmic curve with an increase in tumor volume. The V5, V20, and MLD of the small normal lung volume group were all significantly higher than those of the large normal lung volume group (p<0.001, p=0.004, p=0.002). However, the AVS5 and AVS20 of the small normal lung volume group were all significantly lower than those of the large normal lung volume group (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The effects of tumor volume and normal lung volume on dose-volume parameters should be considered. AVS5 is an important supplementary dose limitation parameter for patients whose tumor volume exceeds a certain boundary value (approximately 300 cm3).


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/radiotherapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnostic imaging , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Radiotherapy Dosage , Retrospective Studies , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Volume Measurements
14.
Rev. Méd. Paraná ; 79(1): 112-118, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282513

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Identificar e analisar as imunoterapias mais atuais e seus mecanismos de ação no câncer de pulmão não pequenas células (CPNPC). MÉTODOS: Revisão integrativa de literatura, norteada pela questão: "quais imunoterapias estão disponíveis atualmente e quais são seus objetivos no tratamento do CPNPC?". A base de dados utilizada foi PubMed. Os descritores utilizados foram "cancer lung", "non small cell", "immunotherapy" e seus respectivos em português, empregando o booleano "and". Elegendo apenas revisões sistemáticas e meta-análises 78 artigos foram encontrados. Ao final, 18 publicações foram selecionadas seguindo os critérios de elegibilidade. RESULTADOS: Na imunoterapia, dois inibidores de checkpoints apresentam resultados promissores: proteína de morte celular programada 1 (PD-1) e o ligante de morte celular programada 1 (PD-L1). Enquanto os imunomoduladores nivolumabe e pembrolizumabe bloqueiam PD-1 e aumentam o combate às células cancerígenas, atezolizumabe e durvalumabe amplificam a resposta imunológica ao bloquear PD-L1. CONCLUSÃO: Atualmente os inibidores de checkpoints imunológicos são uma realidade no tratamento oncológico, com relevância ímpar no CPNPC


OBJECTIVE: Identify and analyze the most current immunotherapies and their mechanisms of action in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Integrative literature review, guided by the question: "which immunotherapies are available and currently what are your goals in the treatment of CPNPC?". The database used was PubMed. The descriptors used were "cancer lung", "non-small-cell", "immunotherapy" and their respective in portuguese, using the boolean "and". By choosing only systematic reviews and meta-analyzes, 78 articles were found. At the end, 18 publications were selected according to the eligibility criteria. RESULTS: In immunotherapy, two checkpoint inhibitors show promising results: programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). While Nivolumabe and Pembrolizumab immunomodulators block PD-1 and increase the fight against cancer cells, Atezolizumab and Durvalumab amplify the immune response by blocking PD-L1. CONCLUSION: Currently, immunological checkpoint inhibitors are a reality in cancer treatment, with unparalleled relevance in CPNPC


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms , Meta-Analysis , Systematic Review
15.
Clinics ; 76: e2251, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. However, factors associated with the survival of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received only hospice care are largely unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the prognostic factors correlated with survival in patients with advanced NSCLC who had undergone hospice care only. METHODS: A total of 102 patients with recurrent stage III/IV NSCLC after traditional treatment failure were investigated. Survival was measured from the date of enrollment to December 2019 or the time of death. Tumor tissues were collected, and DNA sequencing was performed to identify somatic mutations. Data on clinical factors of patients were collected and analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Overall survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year overall survival rates of the 102 patients with metastatic NSCLC were 17.65%, 3.92%, and 0.98%, respectively. The median overall survival of the 102 patients was 3.15 months. Tumor location in the peripheral lung, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor history, low tumor mutation load, adenocarcinoma, and poor performance status score were associated with prolonged survival compared with tumor location in the central lung, no EGFR inhibitor history, high tumor mutation load, squamous cell carcinoma, and good performance status score (p=0.045, p=0.003, p=0.045, p=0.021, and p=0.0003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: EGFR inhibitor treatment history and tumor mutation load are risk factors for the overall survival of patients with stage III/IV NSCLC who have undergone only hospice care. These results provide a critical clinical basis for further study of nontraditional anti-tumor responses induced by EGFR inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Mutation , Neoplasm Staging
16.
Appl. cancer res ; 40: 1-12, Oct. 19, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1281498

ABSTRACT

Background: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) based assay for finding an actionable driver in non-small-cell lung cancer is a less used modality in clinical practice. With a long list of actionable targets, limited tissue, arduous single-gene assays, the alternative of NGS for broad testing in one experiment looks attractive. We report here our experience with NGS for biomarker testing in hundred advanced lung cancer patients. Methods: Predictive biomarker testing was performed using the Ion AmpliSeq™ Cancer Hotspot Panel V2 (30 tumors) and Oncomine™ Solid Tumor DNA and Oncomine™ Solid Tumor Fusion Transcript kit (70 tumors) on IonTorrent sequencing platform. Results: One-seventeen distinct aberrations were detected across 29 genes in eighty-six tumors. The most commonly mutated genes were TP53 (43% cases), EGFR (23% cases) and KRAS (17% cases). Thirty-four patients presented an actionable genetic variant for which targeted therapy is presently available, and fifty-two cases harbored non-actionable variants with the possibility of recruitment in clinical trials. NGS results were validated by individual tests for detecting EGFR mutation, ALK1 rearrangement, ROS1 fusion, and c-MET amplification. Compared to single test, NGS exhibited good agreement for detecting EGFR mutations and ALK1 fusion (sensitivity- 88.89%, specificity- 100%, Kappa-score 0.92 and sensitivity- 80%, specificity- 100%, Kappa-score 0.88; respectively). Further, the response of patients harboring tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) sensitizing EGFR mutations was assessed. The progression-free-survival of EGFR positive patients on TKI therapy, harboring a concomitant mutation in PIK3CAmTOR and/or RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway gene and/or TP53 gene was inferior to those with sole-sensitizing EGFR mutation (2 months vs. 9.5 months, P = 0.015). Conclusions: This is the first study from South Asia looking into the analytical validity of NGS and describing the mutational landscape of lung cancer patients to study the impact of co-mutations on cancer biology and treatment outcome. Our study demonstrates the clinical utility of NGS testing for identifying actionable variants and making treatment decisions in advanced lung cancer


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Proto-Oncogenes/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Reproducibility of Results
17.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(2): e2020162, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131807

ABSTRACT

Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the lung is a rare subtype of lung cancer. We report a case of a metastatic hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the lung with aggressive behavior, including biopsy and autopsy findings. The pulmonary tumors showed features indistinguishable from hepatocellular carcinoma and were diffusely positive for Hepatocyte Paraffin 1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Lung Neoplasms , Autopsy , Fatal Outcome
18.
Rev. cuba. med ; 59(2): e1358, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139049

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de pulmón constituye una de las principales causas de muerte en Cuba. La mayoría de los enfermos acuden al servicio de salud en etapa avanzada de la enfermedad, la poliquimioterapia es uno de los tratamientos utilizados. Objetivos: Evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento con cisplatino-etopósido vs cisplatino-paclitaxel, en pacientes con carcinoma no microcítico en estadios avanzado de la enfermedad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, en 40 pacientes diagnosticados con carcinoma no microcítico en estado avanzado de la enfermedad, que fueron asignados de forma aleatoria a uno de los dos grupos de tratamiento de cisplatino + etopósido (n=20) y cisplatino + paclitaxel (n=20) en el Hospital Neumológico Benéfico Jurídico en el período comprendido desde enero de 2017 a septiembre de 2018. Resultados: Predominaron pacientes del sexo masculino entre 50 a 69 años de edad, 37,5 por ciento en estadio IV. En 72,5 por ciento de los pacientes se encontró una respuesta clínica al tratamiento, en la modalidad de cisplatino + etopósido 70 por ciento y en cisplatino + paclitaxel 75 por ciento respectivamente. Se observó un porcentaje similar de respuesta objetiva antitumoral, 32,5 por ciento de los pacientes tuvieron una reducción parcial de la lesión tumoral, mientras que en otro 32,5 por ciento se observó estabilidad de la enfermedad. Por el contrario, en 35 por ciento restante hubo progresión de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: Se concluye que ambas modalidades tienen una efectividad similar en la evolución clínico-radiológica de los enfermos de carcinoma no microcítico en etapa avanzada(AU)


Introduction: Lung cancer constitutes one of the main causes of death in Cuba. Most of the patients come to the health service at an advanced stage of the disease. Polychemotherapy is one of the treatments used. Objectives: To assess the response to treatment with cisplatin-etoposide vs. cisplatin-paclitaxel, in patients with advanced non-small cell carcinoma. Methods: A descriptive, prospective study was conducted in 40 patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell carcinoma. They were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups: cisplatin + etoposide (n = 20) and cisplatin. + paclitaxel (n = 20) at the Pneumologic Hospital from January 2017 to September 2018. Results: Male patients predominated, ages ranged between 50 and 69 years, 37.5 percent were in stage IV. Clinical response to treatment was found in 72.5 percent of patients, that is, 70 percent in the modality of cisplatin + etoposide and 75 percent in cisplatin + paclitaxel. Similar percentage of objective antitumor response was observed, that is, 32.5 percent of the patients had partial reduction of the tumor lesion, while disease stability was observed in 32.5 percent . In contrast, in the remaining 35.0 percent , disease progression was observed. Conclusions: Both modalities are concluded to have similar effectiveness in the clinical-radiological evolution of persons suffering from non-microcytic carcinoma in advanced stage(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Prospective Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
19.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 59(2): e962, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126416

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El tumor de pulmón de células no pequeñas es un problema de salud pública, y la primera causa de muerte por cáncer a nivel mundial. Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas e histológicas en la población de enfermos aquejados de cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas, así como de las técnicas de resección pulmonar y de linfadenectomías utilizadas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Provincial "Saturnino Lora" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero de 2009 hasta enero de 2019. La muestra aleatoria fue de 55 pacientes diagnosticados de cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas a los que se les realizó resección pulmonar más linfadenectomía mediastinal. Se utilizaron como medidas de resumen para caracterizar las variables, el número absoluto, el porcentaje y la media, así como la prueba de significación Ji al cuadrado de independencia para identificar su posible asociación. Resultados: Predominó el sexo femenino y el grupo etario de 55 a 64 años. El adenocarcinoma fue el tipo histológico más frecuente. El lóbulo superior izquierdo resultó el más afectado. La lobectomía pulmonar con disección ganglionar por muestreo fue la técnica quirúrgica más utilizada. Predominaron los pacientes en estadios IB y IIA de la enfermedad. Conclusión: La linfadenectomía sistemática del mediastino, permite una certera estadificación, lo que determina una mejor evaluación del tratamiento y del pronóstico en estos enfermos(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Non-small cell lung tumor is a public health problem, and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Objective: To describe the epidemiological, clinical and histological characteristics in the population of patients suffering from non-small cell lung cancer, as well as the techniques of lung resection and lymphadenectomies used. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in the General Surgery Service of the Provincial Hospital "Saturnino Lora" in Santiago de Cuba, from January 2009 to January 2019. The random sample consisted of 55 patients diagnosed with cell lung cancer non-small patients who underwent lung resection plus mediastinal lymphadenectomy. The absolute number, the percentage and the mean were used as summary measures to characterize the variables, as well as the Chi-squared significance test of independence to identify their possible association. Results: The female sex and the age group 55 to 64 years predominated. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type. The left upper lobe was the most affected. Pulmonary lobectomy with sampling lymph node dissection was the most widely used surgical technique. Patients in stages IB and IIA of the disease predominated. Conclusion: Systematic lymphadenectomy of the mediastinum allows an accurate staging, which determines a better evaluation of treatment and prognosis in these patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pneumonectomy/methods , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Neoplasm Staging
20.
Medisan ; 24(2)mar.-abr. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1098396

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso clínico de un anciano de 84 años de edad, fumador, con diagnóstico de cáncer de pulmón en etapa IV, quien fue incluido en el ensayo clínico de fase III para ser tratado con racotumumab. Se observó mejoría clínica y del estado general del paciente, pues según la escala funcional concluyó el estudio con ECOG 0. Por tanto, es oportuno destacar que esta vacuna incrementa la supervivencia de los afectados por cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas recurrentes o en estadios avanzados.


The case report of a 84 years elderly smoker, is presented with diagnosis of lung cancer in stage IV who was included in the phase III clinical trial to be treated with racotumomab. Clinical improvement and recovery of the patient's general state was observed, because according to the functional scale the study concluded with ECOG 0. Therefore, it is opportune to highlight that this vaccine increases the survival of those affected by recurrent non-small cells lung cancer or in advanced stages.


Subject(s)
Immunotherapy, Active , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Clinical Trial, Phase III , Survivorship
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