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1.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(1): 7-16, ene. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389607

ABSTRACT

Background: Lung cancer is the world's leading cause of cancer death. Aim: To describe the clinical, staging and survival characteristics of lung cancer in a public Chilean regional hospital. Material and Methods: Analysis of a prospective database of a thoracic surgery service, retrieving histologically confirmed lung cancer cases from January 2010 to December 2019 and reviewing their medical records. Cases were re-staged by the TNM-8 system and variables were compared between periods 2010-2014 and 2015-2019. Results: We retrieved 551 lung cancer cases, 333 (60 %) men, with a mean age of 65 years. Distant metastases were found in 72% of cases (excluding lymphatic metastases). Of the non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), 50 (10%) cases were in stage I, 18 (4%) in stage II, 81 (16%) in stage III and 347 (70%) in stage IV. Global five-year survival was 18%, 20% for NSCLC, 71% for excised NSCLC, 8% for non-excised NSCLC, 88% for stage I and 92% for subgroup IA. Resective surgery was performed in 81 (14%) cases. When comparing 2010-2014 and 2015-2019 periods, the frequency of resective surgery increased from 7% to 20%. Conclusions: The diagnosis of lung cancer was frequently made in advanced stages. There was a significant increase in early diagnosis and frequency of surgeries with curative intent in the second observation period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public , Neoplasm Staging
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929017

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of all lung cancer, with highmorbidity and mortality rate. Nove drug development for NSCLC is urgently needed.This study aims to investigate the activity of lathyrol derivatives and the mechanism for its inhibitory effect on the growth of NSCLC cells.@*METHODS@#Three lathyrol derivatives were synthesized from lathyrol and their structures were verified by nuclear magnetic resonance. MTT assay was used to detect the effects of the lathyrol derivatives on the proliferation activity of NSCLC cells (A549 and H1299 cells), and the compound with the best activity was selected for subsequent experiments. Colony forming assay, wound-healing assay, and transwell assay were applied to detect in vitro cell proliferation, migration and invasion ability in A549 and H1299 cells, respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect mRNA and protein levels of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, β-catenin, and MMP2 in A549 cells, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Three lathyrol derivatives inhibited the growth of A549 and H1299 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and they showed a weak inhibitory effect on normal cells Beas-2B and 16HBE, indicating that they possessed certain selective toxic effects. Therefore, C-5 benzoylated lathyrol with the best activity was selected as the ideal drug for the subsequent experiments. Compared with the control group, the number and size of cell clusters in the treatment group of A549 and H1299 cells were significantly decreased, the relative mobility were significantly decreased, and the number of invaded cells were significantly decreased (all P<0.05), indicating that the in vitro cell proliferation, migration and invasion ability were decreased. The mRNA levels of integrin α2, integrin β1, MMP2, MMP9, β-catenin, and N-cadherin were decreased, while the expression of E-cadherin was increased (all P<0.05). The protein levels of N-cadherin, β-catenin, MMP2, and integrin αV were decreased, while the expression of E-cadherin was increased (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The lathyrol derivatives synthesized in this study possess good inhibitory activity against NSCLC. Among them, C-5 benzoylated lathyrol significantly inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion ability of NSCLC cells in vitro through regulating the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.


Subject(s)
Cadherins/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/genetics , RNA, Messenger , beta Catenin/genetics
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with pleural effusion have no opportunity for surgery treatment. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the first-line drugs for these patients with EGFR-sensitive mutation. However, the disease progression and drug update during or after treatment of EGFR-TKIs bring more challenges and puzzles to clinical diagnosis and treatment, which inevitably requires archived pleural cell samples for EGFR re-examination or comparative study. Understanding the DNA quality of archived pleural fluid samples and effectively using archival data of pleural fluid cells are of great significance for tracing the origin of cases and basic medical research. This study aims to evaluate the consistency of EGFR mutant gene expression between the 2 methods, and to explore a reliable way for preserving cytological data and making full use of cytological archival data via cell HE staining smear and cell paraffin section.@*METHODS@#A total of 57 pleural fluid cytology cases in the Department of Pathology of China Aerospace Center Hospital from October 2014 to April 2021 were selected. Tumor cells were detected by cell HE staining smears and immunohistochemical staining for TTF-1 and Napsin A in the paired cell paraffin sections. There were more than 200 tumor cells in cell HE staining smear and the proportion of tumor cells were ≥70% in matched cell paraffin sections. Patients with 2 cell smears (one for cell data retention and the other for DNA extraction) were selected as the research subjects, and 57 pleural fluid samples were enrolled. EGFR gene mutation was detected by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction in 57 paired cell HE staining smears and cell paraffin sections. DNA concentration was 2 ng/μL. Cell HE smear was amplified side-by-side with DNA samples from paired cell paraffin sections. Result determination was according to the requirements of the reagent instructions. The external control cycle threshold (Ct) value of the No. 8 well of the samples to be tested was between 13 and 21, which was considered as successful and reliable samples. When the Ct value of EGFR gene mutation was <26, it was considered as positive; when the Ct value was between 26 and 29, it was critical positive; when the Ct value was equal or more than 29, it was negative. ΔCt value was the difference between mutant Ct value and externally controlled Ct value. The smaller the ΔCt value was, the better the quality of DNA of the detected sample was.@*RESULTS@#Among the 57 pleural effusion samples, 42 patients were hospitalized with pleural effusion as the first symptom, accounting for 73.7% (42/57). EGFR mutation was detected in 37 samples [64.9% (37/57)]. The mutation rate for 19del was 37.8% (14/37) while for L858R was 48.6% (18/37). Females were 56.7% (21/37) of mutation cases. The mutation consistency rate of cell HE staining smear and matched cell paraffin sections was 100%. The ΔCt values of cell HE staining smears were less than those of matched cell paraffin sections. The mutation Ct values of 37 cytological samples were statistically analyzed according to the preservation periods of the years of 2014-2015, 2016-2017, 2018-2019, and 2020-2021. There were significant differences in cell paraffin section in the years of 2014-2015 and 2016-2017 compared with the years of 2018-2019 and 2020-2021, while no significant differences were found in cell HE staining smear. Statistical analysis of externally controlled Ct values of 57 cytological samples showed that there were significant differences between cell HE staining smears and cell paraffin section in the years of 2014-2015 and 2016-2017, compared with the years of 2018-2019 and 2020-2021. The mutational Ct values of 37 paired cell blocks and smears were all <26, and the externally controlled Ct values of 57 paired cell paraffin sections and HE staining smears were all between 13 and 21.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The DNA quality of cell HE smears and matched cell paraffin section met the qualified requirements. Two methods possess show an excellent consistency in detecting EGFR mutation in NSCLC pleural fluid samples. The DNA quality of cell HE staining smear is better than that of cell paraffin sections, so cell HE staining smear can be used as important supplement of the gene test source. It should be noted that the limitation of cell HE staining smears is non-reproducibility, so multiple smears of pleural fluid are recommended to be prepared for multiple tests.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , DNA Mutational Analysis/methods , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Mutation , Paraffin/therapeutic use , Pleural Effusion/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Staining and Labeling
4.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 717-724, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940931

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a driving factor that causes non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The epithelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) is a crucial discovery in the treatment of lung cancer, particularly the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs is superior to that of the standard chemotherapy for patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC. Patients with NSCLC use EGFR-TKIs and other medications simultaneously is commonly seen, especially among those with comorbidities, which increases the risk of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of EGFR-TKIs. The most common mechanisms underlying the DDIs of EGFR-TKIs are modulations of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and drug transporters [including P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)], as well as gastrointestinal acid-inhibitory drugs [proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and H(2) receptor antagonists (H(2)RA)]. Inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes and drug transporters can inhibit or accelerate the metabolism of EGFR-TKIs, which increase or reduce the exposure of EGFR-TKIs, thereby affect the efficacy and safety of EGFR-TKIs. In addition, PPIs or H(2)RA can decrease the solubility, bioavailability and efficacy of EGFR-TKIs. This review summarizes the mechanisms of DDIs of gefitinib, erlotinib, icotinib, afatinib, dacomitinib and osimertinib; the management recommendations for DDIs of those EGFR-TKIs from the Chinese and global guideline, as well as from the recent pre-clinical and clinical studies, which provide the reference and evidence for managing the combination therapies of EGFR-TKIs and other medications in clinics.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Drug Interactions , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects
5.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 703-711, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940929

ABSTRACT

Surgery is so far the most effective treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Since the 1990s, the pathology spectrum of early-stage lung cancer has gradually changed because of the increased detection of ground-glass opacity (GGO). The findings from preoperative thin-section computed tomography are strong predictors for the invasiveness and lymph node involvement of GGO, and limited surgery is believed to be implemented safely for radiological less invasive lesions, which calls into question the dominance of lobectomy. After the JCOG0201 trial establishing the radiologic criteria of pathological noninvasiveness for lung adenocarcinoma, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) and the West Japan Oncology Group (WJOG) have successively carried out a series of prospective imaging-guided trials to investigate the optimal surgical procedure for early-stage lung cancer. JCOG0804, was a single-arm, non-randomized, confirmatory trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sublobar resection (wedge resection and segmentectomy) for GGO dominant peripheral lung cancer. The primary end point was 5-year relapse-free survival. JCOG0802/WJOG4607L, was a multicentre, open-label, phase 3, randomized, controlled, non-inferiority trial to investigate if segmentectomy was non-inferior to lobectomy in patients with small-sized peripheral NSCLC. The primary endpoint was 5-year overall survival. JCOG1211 was also a non-randomized confirmatory trial to confirm the efficacy of a segmentectomy for clinical T1N0 lung cancer with dominant GGO. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival. The findings of JCOG0804 and JCOG0802, and the primary analysis results of JCOG1211 have been officially published. This article systematically reviewed and interpreted the results of the JCOG lung cancer surgery trial series.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Clinical Trials as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Humans , Japan , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
6.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 546-554, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) improved survival of partial patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). However, it was still insufficient of data in older patients. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and toxicity of immunotherapy in patients with LUSC in Chinese population of real world.@*METHODS@#A total of 185 LUSC patients underwent pathological diagnosis were involved from January 2018 to January 2022. Patients were divided into elderly group (age ≥70 years) and younger group (age <70 years). The efficacy of mono-immunotherapy or combined with chemotherapy to chemotherapy in first-line treatment was compared. The expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and tumor mutational burden (TMB) were evaluated. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 was used to evaluate the efficacy, and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.03 was used to evaluate immune-related adverse. Kaplan-Meier and Log-rank test was performed. Cox regression was used in prognostic analysis.@*RESULTS@#Combined therapy acquired significantly higher overall response rate (ORR) compared with chemotherapy alone in elderly group (P<0.05), and also in younger group, despite the difference was not significant (P>0.05). The median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) in elderly group were similar with younger group (P>0.05). Both combined group and immunology alone demonstrated prolonged mPFS in first-line compared with chemotherapy in elderly group. And combined group demonstrated significantly prolonged mPFS compared with chemotherapy in younger group (P<0.01). There was no difference of mOS between different regimes in two groups. Elderly LUSC patients had higher PD-L1 positive rate (≥1%) and similar TMB compared with younger group. There was no relationship between mPFS and mOS with the expression of PD-L1 and TMB. Immunology combined with chemotherapy demonstrated better mPFS compared to chemotherapy in first-line therapy with TMB-High (P<0.05), and inferior mPFS with TMB-Low despite the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Cox regression model demonstrated that clinical stage was an independent predictor and prognostic factor. The incidence of immune-related adverse was 58.0% (51/88) and grade 3 or above 25.0% (22/88). The most common grade 3 adverse events were rash, immune-associated pneumonia, and fatigue.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Immunology combined with chemotherapy increased ORR, mPFS and mOS of Chinese patients with LUSC in first-line therapy compared with chemotherapy. There was no difference of efficacy and adverse effects rate between elderly group and younger group. The adverse effects of immunology in elderly patients with LUSC were controllable.


Subject(s)
Aged , B7-H1 Antigen/analysis , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , China , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
7.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 524-533, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939742

ABSTRACT

Neoadjuvant immunotherapy, including neoadjuvant single- or dual-drug immunotherapy or combined immunotherapy with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, has witnessed a rapid development in non-small cell lung cancer. Clinical trials exhibited the encouraging pathological responses and certain clinical benefits in selected patients, with tolerable toxicity. Nivolumab with chemotherapy has been approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first immunotherapy-based treatment for non-small cell lung cancer in the neoadjuvant treatment setting. There is the need for further evaluation of long-term efficacy, side effects or surgical issues for neoadjuvant immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer.
.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Nivolumab/therapeutic use
8.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 493-500, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939737

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cellular-mesenchymal to epithelial transition factor (c-Met) are widely expressed on cancer cells. There is a synergistic effect of EGFR and HGF/c-Met pathways on proliferation, downstream activation of signal transduction and an additive effect. Studies show that combination of both signaling pathways could potentially be targeted in a synergistic fashion. Amivantamab, a bispecific monoclonal antibody targeting EGFR and c-Met, yielded robust and durable responses in a variety of clinicals trials. However, few researches have reported its efficacy in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of Amivantamab in NSCLC patients with EGFR/MET gene abnormalities at Peking University Cancer Hospital.@*METHODS@#The study enrolled NSCLC patients who received Amivantamab in our hospital between August 2020 and December 2021, and analyzed the response, survival, and treatment-related adverse events.@*RESULTS@#Fifteen patients were enrolled in this research, and six of them received Amivantamab treatment and the other nine patients received Amivantamab plus Lazertinib treatment. The rates of partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD) were 46.7% (7/15), 46.7% (7/15) and 6.7% (1/15), respectively. The overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were 28.6% (2/7) and 100.0% (7/7) in seven patients with EGFR exon 20 insertion, respectively. The ORR and DCR were 40.0% (2/5) and 100.0% (5/5) in five post-osimertinib EGFR-mutant patients, respectively. After a median follow-up of 8.7 months, the median progression-free survival and overall survival were not reached. The most common treatment-related adverse events were rash (86.7%), paronychia (80.0%), and infusion-related reactions (60.0%), and most of them were graded as 1 to 2. Grade 3 to 4 adverse events included rash (33.3%), alanine aminotransferase elevation (13.3%), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase elevation (13.3%), peripheral edema (6.7%), thromboembolism (6.7%), interstitial lung disease (6.7%), and thrombocytopenia (6.7%).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Amivantamab was effective in Chinese NSCLC patients with EGFR exon 20 insertion and post-Osimertinib EGFR-mutant patients, similar to the results of clinical trials conducted in western countries. Amivantamab was well tolerated and emphases should be put on adverse events such as rash, paronychia, and infusion-related reactions.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Exanthema/drug therapy , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Paronychia/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
9.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 477-481, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939734

ABSTRACT

Proteolysis targeting chimeria (PROTAC) degrades target proteins by utilizing the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, subverting the concept of traditional small molecule inhibitors. Among the common mutation targets of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), PROTAC technology has successfully achieved the effective degradation of kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK ) and other proteins in preclinical studies. PROTAC drugs with their unique event-driven advantages, are expected to overcome acquired drug resistance caused by small molecule inhibitors and show good therapeutic potential for undruggable targets, thereby providing a new strategy for the treatment of NSCLC.
.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proteolysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 409-419, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The incidence of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) and its relationship with dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and concurrent once-daily thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) remain unclear. We aim to analyze the values of clinical factors and dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters to predict the risk for symptomatic RP in these patients.@*METHODS@#Between 2011 and 2019, we retrospectively analyzed and identified 85 patients who had received EGFR-TKIs and once-daily TRT simultaneously (EGFR-TKIs group) and 129 patients who had received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT group). The symptomatic RP was recorded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event (CTCAE) criteria (grade 2 or above). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 26.0.@*RESULTS@#In total, the incidences of symptomatic (grade≥2) and severe RP (grade≥3) were 43.5% (37/85) and 16.5% (14/85) in EGFR-TKIs group vs 27.1% (35/129) and 10.1% (13/129) in CCRT group respectively. After 1:1 ratio between EGFR-TKIs group and CCRT group was matched by propensity score matching, chi-square test suggested that the incidence of symptomatic RP in the MATCHED EGFR-TKIs group was higher than that in the matched CCRT group (χ2=4.469, P=0.035). In EGFR-TKIs group, univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that the percentage of ipsilateral lung volume receiving ≥30 Gy (ilV30) [odds ratio (OR): 1.163, 95%CI: 1.036-1.306, P=0.011] and the percentage of total lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (tlV20) (OR: 1.171, 95%CI: 1.031-1.330, P=0.015), with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or not (OR: 0.158, 95%CI: 0.041-0.600, P=0.007), were independent predictors of symptomatic RP. Compared to patients with lower ilV30/tlV20 values (ilV30 and tlV20<cut-off point values) and without COPD, patients with higher ilV30/tlV20 values (ilV30 and tlV20>cut-off point values) and COPD had a significantly higher risk for developing symptomatic RP, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.350 (95%CI: 1.190-1.531, P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Patients receiving both EGFR-TKIs and once-daily TRT were more likely to develop symptomatic RP than patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The ilV30, tlV20, and comorbidity of COPD may predict the risk of symptomatic RP among NSCLC patients receiving EGFR-TKIs and conventionally fractionated TRT concurrently.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/radiotherapy , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Radiation Pneumonitis/etiology , Radiotherapy Dosage , Retrospective Studies
11.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 401-408, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has become the standard treatment for patients with non-oncogenic advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While lung cancer is most prevalent in elderly patients, these patients are rarely included in pivotal clinical trial studies. We aimed to describe the efficacy and safety of immunotherapy for elderly patients in the "real-world".@*METHODS@#The data of older NSCLC patients and younger patients who received immunotherapy between July 2018 to October 2021 were retrospectively analyzed and the objective response rate (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS) in different age groups (less than 60 years old was defined as the young group, 60 years-74 years old was the young old group, 75 years old and above was the old old group) were compared. And the impact of different clinical characteristics on treatment response and prognosis were analyzed in each age subgroup.@*RESULTS@#A total of 21 young patients, 70 young old patients and 15 old old patients were included in this study, with ORR of 33.3%, 52.8% and 53.3%, respectively, without statistically significant difference (P=0.284). The median PFS was 9.1 mon, 7.6 mon and 10.9 mon, respectively, without statistically significant difference (P=0.654). Further analysis of the predictors of immunotherapy in each subgroup revealed that patients in the young old group and young group who received immunotherapy in the first line had a longer PFS. The difference of the incidence of adverse events was not statistically significant among the three groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in elderly patients were similar to those in younger patients, and PFS was superior in the first-line immunotherapy. Further prospective studies are still needed to explore predictors of immunotherapy in elderly NSCLC patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
12.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 416-424, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935230

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the actual efficacy of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/ programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and explore potential prognostic predictive biomarkers. Methods: Patients with metastatic NSCLC who were treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors at Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 2016 to December 2019, either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents, were consecutively enrolled into this study. We retrospectively collected the data of demographics, clinical information and pathologic assessment to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and conduct the survival analysis. Major endpoint of our study is progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints include objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR) and overall survival (OS). Results: The ORR of 174 patients who underwent PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor was 28.7%, and the DCR was 79.3%. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) occurred in 23 patients (13.2%). Brain metastasis, line of treatment, and treatment patterns were associated with the ORR of metastatic NSCLC patients who underwent immunotherapy (P<0.05). After a median follow-up duration of 18.8 months, the median PFS was 10.5 months (ranged from 1.5 to 40.8 months) while the median OS was not reached. The 2-year survival rate was estimated to be 63.0%. The pathologic type was related with the PFS of metastatic NSCLC patients who underwent immunotherapy (P=0.028). Sex, age, brain metastasis and autoimmune diseases were associated with OS (P<0.05). Analysis of the receptor characteristic curve (ROC) of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) predicting ORR of immunotherapy in metastatic NSCLC showed that the areas under the curve of NLR before immunotherapy (NLR(C0)), NLR after one cycle of immunotherapy (NLR(C1)) and ΔNLR were 0.600, 0.706 and 0.628, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that NLR(C1) was an independent factor of the ORR of metastatic NSCLC patients who underwent immunotherapy (OR=0.161, 95% CI: 0.062-0.422), and the efficacy of combination therapy was better than that of single agent (OR=0.395, 95% CI: 0.174-0.896). The immunotherapy efficacy in patients without brain metastasis was better than those with metastasis (OR=0.291, 95% CI: 0.095-0.887). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that NLR(C1) was an independent influencing factor of PFS of metastatic NSCLC patients after immunotherapy (HR=0.480, 95% CI: 0.303-0.759). Sex (HR=0.399, 95% CI: 0.161-0.991, P=0.048), age (HR=0.356, 95% CI: 0.170-0.745, P=0.006) were independent influencing factors of OS of metastatic NSCLC patients after immunotherapy. Conclusions: PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are proved to be efficacious and have tolerable toxicities for patients with metastatic NSCLC. Patients at advanced age could still benefit from immunotherapy. Brain metastasis is related to compromised response. Earlier application of immunotherapy in combination with other modalities enhances the efficacy without elevating risk of irAEs. NLR(C1) is an early predictor of clinical outcome. The OS of patients younger than 75 years may be improved when treated with immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Retrospective Studies
13.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 321-325, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935215

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary enteric adenocarcinoma (PEAC), as a rare histologic subtype of primary lung adenocarcinoma, is defined as an adenocarcinoma in which the enteric component exceeds 50%. It is named after its shared morphological and immunohistochemical features with colorectal cancer. While with such similarity, the differential diagnosis of PEAC and lung metastatic colorectal cancer is a great challenge in the clinic. PEAC may originate from the intestinal metaplasia of respiratory basal cells stimulated by risk factors such as smoking. Current studies have found that KRAS is a relatively high-frequency mutation gene, and other driver gene mutations are rare. In terms of immunohistochemistry, in pulmonary enteric adenocarcinoma, the positive rate was 88.2% (149/169) for CK7, 78.1% (132/169) for CDX2, 48.2% (82/170) for CK20 and 38.8% (66/170) for TTF1. As for clinical features, the average age of onset for pulmonary enteric adenocarcinoma was 62 years, male patients accounted for 56.5% (35/62), smokers accounted for 78.8% (41/52), and 41.4% (24/58) of the primary lesion was located in the upper lobe of the right lung. In terms of treatment, conventional non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) regimens rather than colorectal cancer regimens are now recommended. There is still an urgent need for more basic and clinical research, in-depth exploration of its molecular feature and pathogenesis from the level of omics and other aspects, to help diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and find the optimal chemotherapy regimen, possibly effective targeted therapy and even immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnosis , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Male , Middle Aged
14.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 297-307, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935214

ABSTRACT

The mutation rate of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer is 3% to 7%. Due to its low mutation rate and better long-term survival compared with epidermal growth factor receptor-positive non-small cell lung cancer patients, therefore, it's called "diamond mutation". At present, there are three generations of ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drugs in the world. The first-generation ALK-TKI drug approved in China is crizotinib, and the second-generation drugs are alectinib, ceritinib and ensartinib. Among them, ensartinib is an ALK-TKI domestically developed, and its efficacy is similar to that of alectinib. The main adverse event is transient rash, and compliance to ensartinib is better from the perspective of long-term survival of patients. The manifestation of rash caused by ensartinib is different from that of other ALK-TKI drugs. In order to facilitate clinical application and provide patients with more treatment options, under the guidance of the Committee of Cancer Rehabilitation and Palliative Care of China Anti-Cancer Association, this article collects and summarizes the common adverse reactions of ensartinib. Based on the clinical practice, a clear adverse classification and specific treatment plan are formulated, in order to provide a corresponding reference for clinicians to make more comprehensive clinical decisions.


Subject(s)
Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase , Carbazoles/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Consensus , Exanthema/drug therapy , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Piperazines , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyridazines
15.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 219-227, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935204

ABSTRACT

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most severe malignant tumors worldwide. Lobectomy and systematic nodal dissection remain the standard treatment for stageⅠNSCLC. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has become the standard treatment for medically inoperable patients. Though the prognosis of stage Ⅰ NSCLC patients is generally good, there are still about 20% of patients with local recurrence and distant metastasis. There is significant heterogeneity in the prognosis and failure phenotype of patients, which cannot be precisely distinguished by the pathological TNM classification system. Identification of the risk factors for the prognosis of patients with stage Ⅰ NSCLC is a key step to realize the treatment from experience to precision. Screening the high-risk patients will facilitate to individually develop the adjuvant therapy strategy after surgery or SBRT and improve the overall curative effect. There are many factors that are significantly related to the prognosis of stage Ⅰ NSCLC including individual factors such as gender, age, and systemic inflammatory biomarkers; treatment-related factors such as the extent of surgical resection of the primary tumor and lymph nodes, the choice of different radiation rays, and different dose fractionation; and tumor-related factors such as imaging information, pathology information; and molecular biology information. This review will analyze the treatment failure phenotype and prognostic factors of stageⅠ NSCLC in various perspectives such as individual-, tumor- and treatment-related factors.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Phenotype , Prognosis , Treatment Failure
16.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 155-159, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935195

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the relationship between the examined number of lymph nodes at the N1 station and the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with pT1-3N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 337 patients with pT1-3N0M0 NSCLC who underwent radical lung cancer surgery at the Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University from January 2013 to March 2015 were selected. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off value for predicting 5-year survival in pT1-3N0M0 NSCLC patients by the examined number of lymph nodes at the N1 station. The relationships between the examined number of lymph nodes at the N1 station and the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with pT1-3N0M0 NSCLC were analyzed according to the optimal cut-off group. Results: A total of 1 321 lymph nodes at N1 station were examined in 337 patients, with a mean of 3.9 nodes per patient. The median survival time was 42.0 months, with 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of 82.2%, 57.1% and 24.9%, respectively. ROC curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off value of 4.5 lymph nodes examined at the N1 station was used to predict 5-year survival in patients with pT1-3N0M0 NSCLC. After rounding off the number, the number of lymph nodes examined at the N1 station was 5 as the cut-off value, and the patients were divided into the group with <5 lymph nodes examined (212 cases) and the group with ≥5 lymph nodes examined (125 cases). The proportion of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy was 19.2% in the group with ≥5 lymph nodes examined, which was higher than 9.0% in the group with <5 lymph nodes examined (P=0.007), and the differences in other clinicopathological characteristics between the two groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The median survival time for patients in the group with <5 lymph nodes examined was 38.0 months, with 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of 80.1%, 52.5% and 15.6%, respectively. The median survival time for patients in the group with ≥5 lymph nodes examined was 48.0 months, and the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 85.6%, 64.0% and 36.0%, respectively. The survival rate of patients in the group with ≥5 lymph nodes examined was better than that in the group with <5 lymph nodes examined (P=0.002). Multifactorial Cox regression analysis showed that T stage (OR=1.408, 95% CI: 1.118-1.670) and the examined number of lymph nodes at N1 station (OR=0.670, 95% CI: 0.526-0.853) were independent influence factors for the prognosis of pT1-3N0M0 NSCLC patients. Conclusion: The examined number of lymph nodes at the N1 station is associated with the prognosis of patients with pT1-3N0M0 NSCLC, and the examination of at least 5 lymph nodes at N1 station at the time of postoperative pathological examination improves the 5-year survival rate of patients.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
17.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 112-119, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935190

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of intrathecal pemetrexed (IP) treated for patients with leptomeningeal metastases (LM) from solid tumors. Methods: Forty-seven patients receiving pemetrexed intrathecal chemotherapy in the First Hospital of Jilin University from 2017 to 2018 were selected. The study of pemetrexed intrathecal chemotherapy adopted the classical dose-climbing model and included 13 patients with meningeal metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer who had relapsed and refractory after multiple previous treatments including intrathecal chemotherapy. Based on the dose climbing study, 34 patients with meningeal metastasis of solid tumor who did not receive intrathecal chemotherapy were enrolled in a clinical study using pemetrexed as the first-line intrathecal chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy. Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank test were used for survival analysis, and Cox regression model was used for influencing factor analysis. Results: The dose climbing study showed that the maximum tolerated dose of pemetrexed intrathecal chemotherapy was 10 mg per single dose, and the recommended dosing regimen was 10 mg once or twice a week. The incidence of adverse reactions was 10 cases, including hematological adverse reactions (7 cases), transaminase elevation (2 cases), nerve root reactions (5 cases), fatigue and weight loss (1 case). The incidence of serious adverse reactions was 4, including grade 4-5 poor hematology (2 cases), grade 4 nerve root irritation (2 cases), and grade 4 elevated aminotransferase (1 case). In the dose climbing study, 4 patients were effectively treated and 7 were disease controlled. The survival time was ranged from 0.3 to 14.0 months and a median survival time was 3.8 months. The clinical study of pemetrexed intrathecal chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy showed that the treatment mode of 10 mg pemetrexed intrathecal chemotherapy once a week combined with synchronous involved area radiotherapy 40 Gy/4 weeks had a high safety and reactivity. The incidence of major adverse reactions was 52.9% (18/34), including hematologic adverse reactions (13 cases), transaminase elevation (10 cases), and nerve root reactions (4 cases). In study 2, the response rate was 67.6% (23/34), the disease control rate was 73.5% (25/34), the overall survival time was ranged from 0.3 to 16.6 months, the median survival time was 5.5 months, and the 1-year survival rate was 21.6%. Clinical response, improvement of neurological dysfunction, completion of concurrent therapy and subsequent systemic therapy were associated with the overall survival (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Pemetrexed is suitable for the intrathecal chemotherapy with a high safety and efficacy. The recommended administration regimen was IP at 10 mg on the schedule of once or twice per week. Hematological toxicity is the main factor affecting the implementation of IP. Vitamin supplement can effectively control the occurrence of hematological toxicity.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Meningeal Carcinomatosis/drug therapy , Pemetrexed , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the mechanism of Chinese herbal medicine Fuzheng Kang'ai Formula (, FZKA) on tumor microenvironment (TME).@*METHODS@#CIBERSORTx was used for analysis of TME. Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology and Analysis Platform was applied to identify compounds-targets network and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was employed to identify the differential expression genes (DEGs) between tumor and paracancerous tissues in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) from TCGA-LUAD. Additionally, DEGs with prognosis in LUAD was calculated by univariable and multivariate Cox regression. The core targets of FZKA were analyzed in lung adenocarcinoma TME. Protein-protein interaction database was employed to predict down-stream of target. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was employed for biological experiment in A549, H1299 and PC9 cell lines.@*RESULTS@#The active and resting mast cells were significantly associated with prognosis of LUAD (P<0.05). Of the targets, CCNA2 as an important target of FZKA (hazard ratio=1.41, 95% confidential interval: 1.01-2.01, P<0.05) was a prognostic target and significantly associated with mast cells. CCNA2 was positively correlated with mast cell activation and negatively correlated with mast cell resting state. BCL1L2, ACTL6A and ITGAV were down-stream of CCNA2, which were validated by qRT-PCR in A549 cell.@*CONCLUSION@#FZKA could directly bind to CCNA2 and inhibit tumor growth by regulating CCNA2 downstream genes and TME of NSCLC closely related to CCNA2.


Subject(s)
Actins , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone , DNA-Binding Proteins , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#SMARCA2 (SWI/SNF Related, Matrix Associated, Actin Dependent Regulator of Chromatin, Subfamily A, Member 2) is an important ATPase catalytic subunit in the switch-sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) complex. However, its relationship with the pathological features of NSCLC and its prognosis remain unclear.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively reviewed 2390 patients with surgically resected NSCLC, constructed tissue microarrays (TMAs) and performed immunohistochemical assays. We analyzed the correlation of SAMRCA2 with clinicopathological features and evaluated its prognostic value.@*RESULTS@#Among 2390 NSCLC cases, the negative expression ratios of SAMRCA2, SMARCA4, ARID1A, ARID1B and INI1 were 9.3%, 1.8%, 1.2%, 0.4% and 0%, respectively. In NSCLC, male sex, T3 and T4 stage, moderate and poor differentiation, tumor ≥ 2 cm, Ki67 ≥ 15%, SOX-2 negative expression, middle lobe lesion and adenocarcinoma were relative risk factors affecting SMARCA2-negative expression. In lung adenocarcinomas, high-grade nuclei, histological morphology of acinar and papillary, solid and micropapillary and TTF-1-negative expression were relative risk factors affecting SMARCA2-negative expression. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the OS was shorter in the SMARCA2-negative group. Multivariate survival analysis revealed that SMARCA2-negative expression was an independent factor correlated with a poor prognosis in NSCLC.@*CONCLUSION@#In conclusion, SMARCA2-negative expression is an independent predictor of a poor outcome of NSCLC and is a potential target for NSCLC treatment.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Transcription Factors/genetics
20.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 337-350, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928816

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertion mutations are the third most prevalent activating EGFR mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accounting for 5%-12% of all EGFR mutations in NSCLC cases. Patients harboring EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations exhibit similar clinical characteristics except for worse prognosis as compared to those with 'classic' EGFR mutations. EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations are considered as a heterogeneous class of alterations that cause different conformational changes in EGFR. The majority of mutations (almost 90% of cases) is positioned in the loop that immediately follows the C-terminal of the C-helix, and the most widely reported subtype of insertion mutations is D770_N771>ASVDN(A767_V769dupASV) with frequency of 21%-28%. NSCLC patients with EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations show primary drug resistance to previously approved EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and are generally insensitive to conventional chemotherapy and immunotherapy. The recently approved targeted drugs Amivantamab and Mobocertinib shift the treatment paradigm for NSCLC patients harboring EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations. There are also several new compounds targeting NSCLC EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations are in development. In this article, we provide a through overview on the treatment development in EGFR exon 20 insertion mutant NSCLC.
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Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Exons , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
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