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1.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 78-82, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971182

ABSTRACT

Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) accounts for approximately 30% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases and is the second most common histological type of lung cancer. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive NSCLC accounts for only 2%-5% of all NSCLC cases, and is almost exclusively detected in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Thus, ALK testing is not routinely performed in the LSCC population, and the efficacy of such treatment for ALK-rearranged LSCC remains unknown. Echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 (EML4)-ALK (V1) and TP53 co-mutations were identified by next generation sequencing (NGS) in this patient with advanced LSCC. On December 3, 2020, Ensatinib was taken orally and the efficacy was evaluated as partial response (PR). The progression-free survival (PFS) was 19 months. When the disease progressed, the medication was changed to Loratinib. To our knowledge, Enshatinib created the longest PFS of ALK-mutant LSCC patients treated with targeted therapy since literature review. Herein, we described one case treated by Enshatinib involving a patient with both EML4-ALK and TP53 positive LSCC, and the relevant literatures were reviewed for discussing the treatment of this rare disease.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Mutation , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , Lung/pathology , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics
2.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 66-77, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971181

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy has significantly improved clinical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, along with the popularization of immunotherapy, immune resistance has become an unavoidable problem. Immunotherapy can induce extensive cellular and molecular alterations in the tumor microenvironment. Considering the mechanisms of immune resistance are not yet fully understood and the efficacy of standard chemotherapy regimens is limited, more effective coping strategies based on resistance mechanisms are urgently needed. In this review, we intend to summarize the known mechanisms of immune resistance and feasible strategies, so as to provide a foundation for clinicians to develop more individualized and precise regimens and finally improve patients' prognosis.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis , Immunotherapy , Tumor Microenvironment
3.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 400-406, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982172

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies in the world, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for approximately 80%-85% of all pathological types. Approximately 30%-55% of NSCLC patients develop brain metastases. It has been reported that 5%-6% of patients with brain metastases harbor anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion. ALK-positive NSCLC patients have shown significant therapeutic benefits after treatment with ALK inhibitors. Over the past decade, ALK inhibitors have rapidly evolved and now exist in three generations: first-generation drugs such as Crizotinib; second-generation drugs including Alectinib, Brigatinib, Ceritinib, and Ensartinib; and third-generation drugs like Lorlatinib. These drugs have exhibited varying efficacy in treating brain metastases in ALK-positive NSCLC patients. However, the numerous options available for ALK inhibition present a challenge for clinical decision-making. Therefore, this review aims to provide clinical guidance by summarizing the efficacy and safety of ALK inhibitors in treating NSCLC brain metastases.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Crizotinib
4.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 257-264, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are commonly occurred in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, evidence of irAEs derived from the Chinese population is relatively lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and outcomes of irAEs in Chinese patients with lung cancer after receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs).@*METHODS@#Clinical and follow-up data from lung cancer patients who received at least one time of ICIs from January 2018 to September 2021 at Huadong Hospital, Fudan University were included. Statistical descriptions and Kaplan-Meier method were used to analyze the overall incidence of irAEs, as well as the incidence and outcomes of each type of irAEs.@*RESULTS@#135 patients were included in the study. 106 patients (78.5%) presented at least one type of irAEs, and the median time to first irAEs onset was 28 d. Most irAEs occurred at early time after treatment, and most irAEs were mild-moderate and reversible. 57 patients (42.2%) died at the study cutoff. The mortality rate of severe irAEs was 12.6% (n=17), and among them 7 patients (41.2%) died of pneumonitis. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) time of the total population was 505 d (95%CI: 352-658) and 625 d (95%CI: 491-759), respectively. Patients who presented any irAEs achieved a longer PFS than those who did not (median PFS: 533 d vs 179 d, P=0.037, HR=0.57), while patients who presented skin toxicities achieved a longer OS than patients who did not (median OS: 797 d vs 469 d, P=0.006, HR=0.70).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In real-world settings, irAEs in lung cancer patients were commonly observed, with pneumonitis as the most common fatal irAEs. In addition, patients who presented any irAEs may tend to achieve a longer PFS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Incidence , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
5.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1426707

ABSTRACT

Mesilato de osimertinibe, gefitinibe, erlotinibe, quimioterapia padrão. Indicação: Câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas com mutação do receptor do fator de crescimento epidérmico (EGFR). Pergunta: Mesilato de osimertinibe é mais eficaz e seguro que gefitinibe, erlotinibe ou quimioterapia para os desfechos de sobrevida global, sobrevida livre de progressão e de segurança no tratamento de carcinoma pulmonar de células não pequenas com mutação do EGFR? Métodos: Levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado na base de dados PUBMED e EPISTEMONIKOS, seguindo estratégias de buscas predefinidas. Foi feita avaliação da qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas com a ferramenta AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Version 2). Resultados: Foram selecionadas duas revisões sistemáticas que atenderam aos critérios de elegibilidade. Conclusão: Mesilato de osimertinibe é mais eficaz do que gefitinibe ou erlotinibe na melhora da sobrevida global e da sobrevida livre de progressão em pacientes virgens de tratamento. Em pacientes previamente tratados, o mesilato de osimertinibe não é superior à quimioterapia padrão à base de platina no prolongamento da sobrevida global, mas é mais eficaz no aumento da sobrevida livre de progressão. Para câncer avançado, mesilato de osimertinibe não é mais eficaz do que a quimioterapia com ou sem pemetrexede para prolongar a sobrevida global, mas é mais eficaz em melhorar a sobrevida livre de progressão. Gefitinibe combinado com quimioterapia à base de pemetrexede foi superior à quimioterapia com ou sem pemetrexede na melhora da sobrevida global e da sobrevida livre de progressão


Osimertinib mesylate, gefitinib, erlotinib, standard chemotherapy. Indication: Non-small cell lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. Question: Is osimertinib mesylate more effective and safer than gefitinib, erlotinib or chemotherapy for overall survival, progression-free survival and safety outcomes in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with EGFR mutation? Methods: A bibliographic search was done in the PUBMED and EPISTEMONIKOS database, following predefined search strategies. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was evaluated using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Version 2 tool. Results: Two systematic reviews were selected because they met the eligibility criteria. Conclusion: Osimertinib mesylate is more effective than gefitinib or erlotinib in improving overall survival and progression-free survival in treatment-naive patients. In previously treated patients, osimertinib mesylate is not superior to standard platinum-based chemotherapy in prolonging overall survival, but it is more effective in increasing progression-free survival. For advanced cancer, osimertinib mesylate is not more effective than chemotherapy with or without pemetrexed in prolonging overall survival, but it is more effective in improving progression-free survival. Gefitinib combined with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy was superior to chemotherapy with or without pemetrexed in improving overall survival and progression-free survival


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Erlotinib Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Gefitinib/therapeutic use , Tyrosine Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pemetrexed/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1523-1531, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980918

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer has the highest risk of brain metastasis (BM) among all solid carcinomas. The emergence of BM has a significant impact on the selection of oncologic treatment for patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the most promising treatment option for patients without druggable mutations and have been shown to improve survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) BM in clinical trials with good safety. Moreover, ICI has shown certain effects in NSCLC BM, and the overall intracranial efficacy is comparable to extracranial efficacy. However, a proportion of patients showed discordant responses in primary and metastatic lesions, suggesting that multiple mechanisms may exist underlying ICI activity in BM. According to studies pertaining to tumor immune microenvironments, ICIs may be capable of provoking immunity in situ . Meanwhile, systematic immune cells activated by ICIs can migrate into the central nervous system and exert antitumor effects. This review summarizes the present evidence for ICI treatment efficacy in NSCLC BM and proposes the possible mechanisms of ICI treatment for NSCLC BMs based on existing evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 303-310, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) as a biomarker for immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is routinely detected in clinical pathology department. However, the spatial heterogeneity of PD-L1 expression in intrapulmonary tumors and extrapulmonary metastases is still a challenge for the clinical testing. This study aims to explore the differences of PD-L1 expression in test samples obtaining from different sites of NSCLC. This study may contribute to the detection strategy of PD-L1 in patients with advanced lung cancer.@*METHODS@#One hundred and thirty-one cases of consecutively detected PD-L1 (22c3 assay, Dako) staining in metastatic NSCLC and 972 cases of non-paired intrapulmonary NSCLC were collected. The discrepancies of tumor proportion score (TPS) of PD-L1 expression in intrapulmonary samples and extrapulmonary metastatic samples of different sites were compared.@*RESULTS@#The positive expression rate of PD-L1 in extrapulmonary metastatic NSCLC (TPS ≥ 1%) was 61.83%, and the TPS was significantly higher than that in intrapulmonary tumors (P=0.03). The PD-L1 scores of the specimens obtained from different sites were significantly different (P=0.007). The positive rates of PD-L1 in liver and adrenal metastases were 85.71% and 77.78% respectively, and their TPS were significantly higher than that of the intrapulmonary samples (P<0.05). The positive rates of PD-L1 in lymph node, bone, brain, soft tissue, and pleural metastases was 40.00%-66.67%, with no significant differences compared to intrapulmonary tumors. The analysis of histological subtype and sample type showed that the PD-L1 score of extrapulmonary samples of adenocarcinoma subtype or surgical specimen was significantly higher than that of intrapulmonary tumors. The analysis of clinicopathological parameters showed that the PD-L1 positive expression or high expression were significantly correlated with male patients, smoking history, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild type.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The expression of PD-L1 in metastatic NSCLC is generally higher than that in intrapulmonary tumor, and the positive rate of PD-L1 expression was discrepant in different sites of specimen. The differences of PD-L1 score between extrapulmonary metastatic samples and intrapulmonary samples may be associated with different metastatic sites, histological subtype, and specimen type.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immunohistochemistry , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
8.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 214-218, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928800

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is one of the malignant tumors with the highest morbidity and mortality in the world. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most important pathological types of lung cancer. The prognosis of advanced NSCLC is poor and medical treatment is still the main treatment option. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are the kind of potentially new anti-tumor drugs, consisting of monoclonal antibodies conjugated to the cytotoxic payloads via the synthetic linkers. They have a broad application prospect in solid tumors such as lung cancer. This article focuses on the mechanism of action and research progress of ADCs in advanced NSCLC.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
9.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 130-136, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928790

ABSTRACT

Surgery is the standard treatment for resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy have been widely used for preventing recurrence and metastasis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have brought long-term survival benefits in advanced NSCLC and showed higher downstage rates and pathological remission in the neoadjuvant setting. Predictive biomarkers are of great significance to identify the beneficiaries of neoadjuvant ICIs. At present, the biomarkers are still inconclusive. We summarized the clinical trials of neoadjuvant immune checkpoint inhibitors that have been disclosed so far, and reviewed the progress of the biomarkers associated with those trials.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy
10.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 102-110, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928786

ABSTRACT

Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors and PD-1 inhibitors plus chemotherapy combination regimens have been widely used in the first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC), but patients with low PD-L1 expression have limited objective response and survival benefits. Existing treatment regimens are still difficult to fully meet the clinical needs of patients in the real world. Therefore, researchers are still exploring novel superactive treatment options to further improve the efficacy and survival prognosis of different sub-groups in NSCLC. Dual immunotherapy [such as the combination of PD-1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors] has shown considerable long-term survival benefits in a variety of tumors and has also shown broad clinical prospects in NSCLC. In addition to exploring different emerging combination options, how to accurately identify the optimal-benefit groups through predictive biomarkers and how to effectively manage the safety of combination immunotherapy through multidisciplinary collaboration are also the focus of dual immunotherapy. This article reviews the mechanism of action, research progress, predictive biomarkers and future exploration directions of dual immunotherapy.
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Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis
11.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 92-101, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928785

ABSTRACT

The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has dramatically changed the therapeutic outlook for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Preoperative neoadjuvant immunotherapy has been paid more and more attention as an effective and safe treatment. Neoadjuvant immune therapy, however, the relevant research started late, relatively few research results and mainly focused on the small sample size of phase I and II studies, treatment itself exists many places it is not clear, also in benefit population screening, the respect such as the choice of treatment and curative effect prediction has not yet reached broad consensus. This paper reviews the important studies and recent achievements related to neoadjuvant immunotherapy, aiming to comprehensively discuss the procedures and existing problems of this kind of therapy from three aspects of beneficiary groups, treatment cycle and efficacy prediction.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy
12.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 86-91, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Dabrafenib+Trametinib/Dabrafenib targeted therapy has been approved for V-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 with amino acid substitution for valine at position 600 (BRAF V600E) in lung cancer patients, however, the targeted therapy strategy for lung cancer patients with BRAF non-V600E mutations has not been determined yet. This study intends to explore the efficacy of targeted therapy for BRAF non-V600E mutant lung cancer, and provide a reference for clinical treatment.@*METHODS@#Computer search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, Clinicaltrials.gov, CBM, CNKI, Wanfang database. Collect the relevant literature relevant on the targeted therapy of BRAF non-V600E mutant lung cancer, and conduct a descriptive analysis of the included literature.@*RESULTS@#There were 10 articles that met the inclusion criteria, including 3 cohort studies and 7 case reports. 18 patients with BRAF non-V600E mutant lung cancer were ineffective to vermurafenib; 1 patient obtained partial response (PR) after applying vermurafenib, 5 patients did not respond to BRAF inhibitors; 9 patients showed a potential clinical benefit rate of 34% after monotherapy with trametinib; 7 patients have different degrees of benefit from dabrafenib and trametinib on progression-free survival (PFS); 1 patient is effective to sorafenib.@*CONCLUSIONS@#At present, there is no standard treatment specification for BRAF non-V600E mutation targeted therapy. The challenge lies in the heterogeneous mutation of BRAF gene. Different mutation types respond differently to targeted therapy. In addtion, real-world research evidence is scarce, so it is necessary to carry out further large-sample high-quality research to provide reference for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics
13.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 112-119, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935190

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of intrathecal pemetrexed (IP) treated for patients with leptomeningeal metastases (LM) from solid tumors. Methods: Forty-seven patients receiving pemetrexed intrathecal chemotherapy in the First Hospital of Jilin University from 2017 to 2018 were selected. The study of pemetrexed intrathecal chemotherapy adopted the classical dose-climbing model and included 13 patients with meningeal metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer who had relapsed and refractory after multiple previous treatments including intrathecal chemotherapy. Based on the dose climbing study, 34 patients with meningeal metastasis of solid tumor who did not receive intrathecal chemotherapy were enrolled in a clinical study using pemetrexed as the first-line intrathecal chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy. Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank test were used for survival analysis, and Cox regression model was used for influencing factor analysis. Results: The dose climbing study showed that the maximum tolerated dose of pemetrexed intrathecal chemotherapy was 10 mg per single dose, and the recommended dosing regimen was 10 mg once or twice a week. The incidence of adverse reactions was 10 cases, including hematological adverse reactions (7 cases), transaminase elevation (2 cases), nerve root reactions (5 cases), fatigue and weight loss (1 case). The incidence of serious adverse reactions was 4, including grade 4-5 poor hematology (2 cases), grade 4 nerve root irritation (2 cases), and grade 4 elevated aminotransferase (1 case). In the dose climbing study, 4 patients were effectively treated and 7 were disease controlled. The survival time was ranged from 0.3 to 14.0 months and a median survival time was 3.8 months. The clinical study of pemetrexed intrathecal chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy showed that the treatment mode of 10 mg pemetrexed intrathecal chemotherapy once a week combined with synchronous involved area radiotherapy 40 Gy/4 weeks had a high safety and reactivity. The incidence of major adverse reactions was 52.9% (18/34), including hematologic adverse reactions (13 cases), transaminase elevation (10 cases), and nerve root reactions (4 cases). In study 2, the response rate was 67.6% (23/34), the disease control rate was 73.5% (25/34), the overall survival time was ranged from 0.3 to 16.6 months, the median survival time was 5.5 months, and the 1-year survival rate was 21.6%. Clinical response, improvement of neurological dysfunction, completion of concurrent therapy and subsequent systemic therapy were associated with the overall survival (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Pemetrexed is suitable for the intrathecal chemotherapy with a high safety and efficacy. The recommended administration regimen was IP at 10 mg on the schedule of once or twice per week. Hematological toxicity is the main factor affecting the implementation of IP. Vitamin supplement can effectively control the occurrence of hematological toxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Meningeal Carcinomatosis/drug therapy , Pemetrexed , Treatment Outcome
14.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 401-408, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has become the standard treatment for patients with non-oncogenic advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While lung cancer is most prevalent in elderly patients, these patients are rarely included in pivotal clinical trial studies. We aimed to describe the efficacy and safety of immunotherapy for elderly patients in the "real-world".@*METHODS@#The data of older NSCLC patients and younger patients who received immunotherapy between July 2018 to October 2021 were retrospectively analyzed and the objective response rate (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS) in different age groups (less than 60 years old was defined as the young group, 60 years-74 years old was the young old group, 75 years old and above was the old old group) were compared. And the impact of different clinical characteristics on treatment response and prognosis were analyzed in each age subgroup.@*RESULTS@#A total of 21 young patients, 70 young old patients and 15 old old patients were included in this study, with ORR of 33.3%, 52.8% and 53.3%, respectively, without statistically significant difference (P=0.284). The median PFS was 9.1 mon, 7.6 mon and 10.9 mon, respectively, without statistically significant difference (P=0.654). Further analysis of the predictors of immunotherapy in each subgroup revealed that patients in the young old group and young group who received immunotherapy in the first line had a longer PFS. The difference of the incidence of adverse events was not statistically significant among the three groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in elderly patients were similar to those in younger patients, and PFS was superior in the first-line immunotherapy. Further prospective studies are still needed to explore predictors of immunotherapy in elderly NSCLC patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
15.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 143-152, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929017

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of all lung cancer, with highmorbidity and mortality rate. Nove drug development for NSCLC is urgently needed.This study aims to investigate the activity of lathyrol derivatives and the mechanism for its inhibitory effect on the growth of NSCLC cells.@*METHODS@#Three lathyrol derivatives were synthesized from lathyrol and their structures were verified by nuclear magnetic resonance. MTT assay was used to detect the effects of the lathyrol derivatives on the proliferation activity of NSCLC cells (A549 and H1299 cells), and the compound with the best activity was selected for subsequent experiments. Colony forming assay, wound-healing assay, and transwell assay were applied to detect in vitro cell proliferation, migration and invasion ability in A549 and H1299 cells, respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect mRNA and protein levels of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, β-catenin, and MMP2 in A549 cells, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Three lathyrol derivatives inhibited the growth of A549 and H1299 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and they showed a weak inhibitory effect on normal cells Beas-2B and 16HBE, indicating that they possessed certain selective toxic effects. Therefore, C-5 benzoylated lathyrol with the best activity was selected as the ideal drug for the subsequent experiments. Compared with the control group, the number and size of cell clusters in the treatment group of A549 and H1299 cells were significantly decreased, the relative mobility were significantly decreased, and the number of invaded cells were significantly decreased (all P<0.05), indicating that the in vitro cell proliferation, migration and invasion ability were decreased. The mRNA levels of integrin α2, integrin β1, MMP2, MMP9, β-catenin, and N-cadherin were decreased, while the expression of E-cadherin was increased (all P<0.05). The protein levels of N-cadherin, β-catenin, MMP2, and integrin αV were decreased, while the expression of E-cadherin was increased (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The lathyrol derivatives synthesized in this study possess good inhibitory activity against NSCLC. Among them, C-5 benzoylated lathyrol significantly inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion ability of NSCLC cells in vitro through regulating the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cadherins/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/genetics , RNA, Messenger , beta Catenin/genetics
16.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 35-44, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with pleural effusion have no opportunity for surgery treatment. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the first-line drugs for these patients with EGFR-sensitive mutation. However, the disease progression and drug update during or after treatment of EGFR-TKIs bring more challenges and puzzles to clinical diagnosis and treatment, which inevitably requires archived pleural cell samples for EGFR re-examination or comparative study. Understanding the DNA quality of archived pleural fluid samples and effectively using archival data of pleural fluid cells are of great significance for tracing the origin of cases and basic medical research. This study aims to evaluate the consistency of EGFR mutant gene expression between the 2 methods, and to explore a reliable way for preserving cytological data and making full use of cytological archival data via cell HE staining smear and cell paraffin section.@*METHODS@#A total of 57 pleural fluid cytology cases in the Department of Pathology of China Aerospace Center Hospital from October 2014 to April 2021 were selected. Tumor cells were detected by cell HE staining smears and immunohistochemical staining for TTF-1 and Napsin A in the paired cell paraffin sections. There were more than 200 tumor cells in cell HE staining smear and the proportion of tumor cells were ≥70% in matched cell paraffin sections. Patients with 2 cell smears (one for cell data retention and the other for DNA extraction) were selected as the research subjects, and 57 pleural fluid samples were enrolled. EGFR gene mutation was detected by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction in 57 paired cell HE staining smears and cell paraffin sections. DNA concentration was 2 ng/μL. Cell HE smear was amplified side-by-side with DNA samples from paired cell paraffin sections. Result determination was according to the requirements of the reagent instructions. The external control cycle threshold (Ct) value of the No. 8 well of the samples to be tested was between 13 and 21, which was considered as successful and reliable samples. When the Ct value of EGFR gene mutation was <26, it was considered as positive; when the Ct value was between 26 and 29, it was critical positive; when the Ct value was equal or more than 29, it was negative. ΔCt value was the difference between mutant Ct value and externally controlled Ct value. The smaller the ΔCt value was, the better the quality of DNA of the detected sample was.@*RESULTS@#Among the 57 pleural effusion samples, 42 patients were hospitalized with pleural effusion as the first symptom, accounting for 73.7% (42/57). EGFR mutation was detected in 37 samples [64.9% (37/57)]. The mutation rate for 19del was 37.8% (14/37) while for L858R was 48.6% (18/37). Females were 56.7% (21/37) of mutation cases. The mutation consistency rate of cell HE staining smear and matched cell paraffin sections was 100%. The ΔCt values of cell HE staining smears were less than those of matched cell paraffin sections. The mutation Ct values of 37 cytological samples were statistically analyzed according to the preservation periods of the years of 2014-2015, 2016-2017, 2018-2019, and 2020-2021. There were significant differences in cell paraffin section in the years of 2014-2015 and 2016-2017 compared with the years of 2018-2019 and 2020-2021, while no significant differences were found in cell HE staining smear. Statistical analysis of externally controlled Ct values of 57 cytological samples showed that there were significant differences between cell HE staining smears and cell paraffin section in the years of 2014-2015 and 2016-2017, compared with the years of 2018-2019 and 2020-2021. The mutational Ct values of 37 paired cell blocks and smears were all <26, and the externally controlled Ct values of 57 paired cell paraffin sections and HE staining smears were all between 13 and 21.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The DNA quality of cell HE smears and matched cell paraffin section met the qualified requirements. Two methods possess show an excellent consistency in detecting EGFR mutation in NSCLC pleural fluid samples. The DNA quality of cell HE staining smear is better than that of cell paraffin sections, so cell HE staining smear can be used as important supplement of the gene test source. It should be noted that the limitation of cell HE staining smears is non-reproducibility, so multiple smears of pleural fluid are recommended to be prepared for multiple tests.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , DNA Mutational Analysis/methods , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mutation , Paraffin/therapeutic use , Pleural Effusion/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Staining and Labeling
17.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(1): 2795-2807, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156776

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas en estadios avanzados tiene una alta incidencia y mortalidad. Los tratamientos que se emplean son la quimioterapia, la radioterapia, las terapias dirigidas y la inmunoterapia. Es preferible que los tratamientos se realicen en el marco de ensayos clínicos. Tiene una precaria supervivencia a los cinco años del diagnóstico. Objetivo: determinar la supervivencia global de los pacientes con cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas, en estadios avanzados. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo en pacientes con diagnóstico cito-histológico de cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas, en estadios avanzados. De un universo de 463 pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Oncología Provincial de Matanzas, se conformó una muestra de 348. Período comprendido desde enero del 2013 a diciembre del 2016. Las variables estudiadas se tomaron de las historias clínicas y la base de datos nacional de fallecidos por cáncer de pulmón. Resultados: la mayoría de los pacientes se diagnosticaron en etapa IV (71,69 %), la modalidad de tratamiento más utilizada fue la quimioterapia (61,2 %). Los fármacos más empleados fueron las sales de platino en el78,73 %. La supervivencia global en la etapa IV fue de 1,23 % a cinco años. La modalidad de tratamiento de mayor supervivencia fue la inmunoterapia, con 3,33 % y la supervivencia global fue de 2 %. Conclusiones: predominó la etapa IV de la enfermedad. La quimioterapia a base de sales de platino como esquema de tratamiento de primera línea y la inmunoterapia como modalidad de tratamiento reportaron mayor supervivencia global, aunque esta fue precaria (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: non-small cell lung cancer in advanced stages shows a high incidence and mortality. The treatments used against it are chemotherapy, radiotherapy, directed therapies and immunotherapy. It is better to perform the treatments in the context of clinical trials. It has a precarious survival at the fifth year after diagnosis. Objective: to determine the global survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer in advanced stages. Materials and methods: descriptive, retrospective study in patients with cyto-histological diagnosis of non-small lung cancer in advanced stages. A sample of 348 patients was formed from the universe of 463 patients who attended the Provincial Service of Oncology in the period from January 2013 to December 2016. The studied variables were taken from the clinical records and the national database of deceased due to lung cancer. Results: most of patients were diagnosed at the stage IV (71.69 %); the most used treatment modality was chemotherapy (61.2). The most used drugs were platinum salts in 78.73 %. The global survival at the IV stage was 1.23 at five years. The treatment modality of greater survival was immunotherapy, with 3.33 % and the global survival was 2 %. Conclusions: the disease's stage IV predominated. The platinum salts-based chemotherapy as the first line treatment scheme and immunotherapy as treatment modality provided higher global survival, although it was precarious (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/mortality , Survivorship , Medical Oncology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy
18.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(3): e20200378, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154705

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) improves survival of patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the cisplatin-vinorelbine regimen has been associated with a significant risk of clinically relevant toxicity. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of AC for NSCLC patients in a real-world setting. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study of patients with stage I-III NSCLC undergoing surgery with curative intent between 2009 and 2018. AC was administered at the discretion of physicians. The patients were divided into two groups: AC group and no AC (control) group. Study outcomes included overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS), as well as the safety profile and feasibility of the cisplatin-vinorelbine regimen in a real-world setting. Results: The study involved 231 patients, 80 of whom received AC. Of those, 55 patients received the cisplatin-vinorelbine regimen. Survival analyses stratified by tumor stage showed that patients with stage II NSCLC in the AC group had better RFS (p = 0.036) and OS (p = 0.017) than did those in the no AC group. Among patients with stage III NSCLC in the AC group, RFS was better (p < 0.001) and there was a trend toward improved OS (p = 0.060) in comparison with controls. Of those who received the cisplatin-vinorelbine regimen, 29% had grade 3-4 febrile neutropenia, and 9% died of toxicity. Conclusions: These results support the benefit of AC for NSCLC patients in a real-world setting. However, because the cisplatin-vinorelbine regimen was associated with alarming rates of toxicity, more effective and less toxic alternatives should be investigated.


RESUMO Objetivo: A quimioterapia adjuvante melhora a sobrevida de pacientes com câncer pulmonar de células não pequenas (CPCNP) ressecado. No entanto, o esquema cisplatina-vinorelbina está relacionado com risco significativo de toxicidade clinicamente relevante. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a eficácia, segurança e viabilidade da quimioterapia adjuvante para pacientes com CPCNP em um cenário de mundo real. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de coorte realizado em um único centro com pacientes com CPCNP em estágio I-III submetidos a cirurgia com intuito curativo entre 2009 e 2018. A quimioterapia adjuvante foi administrada a critério dos médicos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: quimioterapia adjuvante e sem quimioterapia adjuvante (grupo controle). Os desfechos estudados foram sobrevida global (SG) e sobrevida livre de recidiva (SLR), bem como o perfil de segurança e viabilidade do esquema cisplatina-vinorelbina em um cenário de mundo real. Resultados: O estudo envolveu 231 pacientes, 80 dos quais receberam quimioterapia adjuvante. Destes, 55 receberam o esquema cisplatina-vinorelbina. As análises de sobrevida estratificadas pelo estágio do tumor mostraram que os pacientes com CPCNP em estágio II que receberam quimioterapia adjuvante apresentaram melhor SLR (p = 0,036) e SG (p = 0,017) do que os do grupo controle. Entre os pacientes com CPCNP em estágio III que receberam quimioterapia adjuvante, a SLR foi melhor (p < 0,001) e houve uma tendência a melhor SG do que no grupo controle (p = 0,060). Dos que receberam o esquema cisplatina-vinorelbina, 29% apresentaram neutropenia febril de grau 3-4, e 9% morreram em virtude de toxicidade. Conclusões: Os resultados confirmam o efeito benéfico da quimioterapia adjuvante em pacientes com CPCNP em um contexto real. No entanto, o esquema cisplatina-vinorelbina relacionou-se com taxas alarmantes de toxicidade e alternativas mais eficazes e menos tóxicas devem ser investigadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Vinorelbine/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Staging
19.
Clinics ; 76: e2251, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. However, factors associated with the survival of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received only hospice care are largely unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the prognostic factors correlated with survival in patients with advanced NSCLC who had undergone hospice care only. METHODS: A total of 102 patients with recurrent stage III/IV NSCLC after traditional treatment failure were investigated. Survival was measured from the date of enrollment to December 2019 or the time of death. Tumor tissues were collected, and DNA sequencing was performed to identify somatic mutations. Data on clinical factors of patients were collected and analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Overall survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year overall survival rates of the 102 patients with metastatic NSCLC were 17.65%, 3.92%, and 0.98%, respectively. The median overall survival of the 102 patients was 3.15 months. Tumor location in the peripheral lung, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor history, low tumor mutation load, adenocarcinoma, and poor performance status score were associated with prolonged survival compared with tumor location in the central lung, no EGFR inhibitor history, high tumor mutation load, squamous cell carcinoma, and good performance status score (p=0.045, p=0.003, p=0.045, p=0.021, and p=0.0003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: EGFR inhibitor treatment history and tumor mutation load are risk factors for the overall survival of patients with stage III/IV NSCLC who have undergone only hospice care. These results provide a critical clinical basis for further study of nontraditional anti-tumor responses induced by EGFR inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Mutation , Neoplasm Staging
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