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1.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(1): 2795-2807, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156776

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas en estadios avanzados tiene una alta incidencia y mortalidad. Los tratamientos que se emplean son la quimioterapia, la radioterapia, las terapias dirigidas y la inmunoterapia. Es preferible que los tratamientos se realicen en el marco de ensayos clínicos. Tiene una precaria supervivencia a los cinco años del diagnóstico. Objetivo: determinar la supervivencia global de los pacientes con cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas, en estadios avanzados. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo en pacientes con diagnóstico cito-histológico de cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas, en estadios avanzados. De un universo de 463 pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Oncología Provincial de Matanzas, se conformó una muestra de 348. Período comprendido desde enero del 2013 a diciembre del 2016. Las variables estudiadas se tomaron de las historias clínicas y la base de datos nacional de fallecidos por cáncer de pulmón. Resultados: la mayoría de los pacientes se diagnosticaron en etapa IV (71,69 %), la modalidad de tratamiento más utilizada fue la quimioterapia (61,2 %). Los fármacos más empleados fueron las sales de platino en el78,73 %. La supervivencia global en la etapa IV fue de 1,23 % a cinco años. La modalidad de tratamiento de mayor supervivencia fue la inmunoterapia, con 3,33 % y la supervivencia global fue de 2 %. Conclusiones: predominó la etapa IV de la enfermedad. La quimioterapia a base de sales de platino como esquema de tratamiento de primera línea y la inmunoterapia como modalidad de tratamiento reportaron mayor supervivencia global, aunque esta fue precaria (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: non-small cell lung cancer in advanced stages shows a high incidence and mortality. The treatments used against it are chemotherapy, radiotherapy, directed therapies and immunotherapy. It is better to perform the treatments in the context of clinical trials. It has a precarious survival at the fifth year after diagnosis. Objective: to determine the global survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer in advanced stages. Materials and methods: descriptive, retrospective study in patients with cyto-histological diagnosis of non-small lung cancer in advanced stages. A sample of 348 patients was formed from the universe of 463 patients who attended the Provincial Service of Oncology in the period from January 2013 to December 2016. The studied variables were taken from the clinical records and the national database of deceased due to lung cancer. Results: most of patients were diagnosed at the stage IV (71.69 %); the most used treatment modality was chemotherapy (61.2). The most used drugs were platinum salts in 78.73 %. The global survival at the IV stage was 1.23 at five years. The treatment modality of greater survival was immunotherapy, with 3.33 % and the global survival was 2 %. Conclusions: the disease's stage IV predominated. The platinum salts-based chemotherapy as the first line treatment scheme and immunotherapy as treatment modality provided higher global survival, although it was precarious (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/mortality , Survivorship , Medical Oncology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e9017, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142574

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of melittin on growth, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. This study also explored the potential anti-cancer mechanism of melittin in NSCLC cells. The results demonstrated that melittin suppressed growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells in vitro. Melittin increased pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and Apaf-1 gene expression. Melittin inhibited tumor growth factor (TGF)-β expression and phosphorylated ERK/total ERK (pERK/tERK) in NSCLC cells. However, TGF-β overexpression (pTGF-β) abolished melittin-decreased TGF-β expression and pERK/tERK in NSCLC cells. Treatment with melittin suppressed tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival during the 120-day observation in vivo. Treatment with melittin increased TUNEL-positive cells and decreased expression levels of TGF-β and ERK in tumor tissue compared to the control group. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicated that melittin inhibited growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells through down-regulation of TGF-β-mediated ERK signaling pathway, suggesting melittin may be a promising anti-cancer agent for NSCLC therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Melitten/pharmacology , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Movement , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Caspase 3 , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1 , Neoplasm Invasiveness
3.
Clinics ; 76: e2251, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. However, factors associated with the survival of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received only hospice care are largely unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the prognostic factors correlated with survival in patients with advanced NSCLC who had undergone hospice care only. METHODS: A total of 102 patients with recurrent stage III/IV NSCLC after traditional treatment failure were investigated. Survival was measured from the date of enrollment to December 2019 or the time of death. Tumor tissues were collected, and DNA sequencing was performed to identify somatic mutations. Data on clinical factors of patients were collected and analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Overall survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year overall survival rates of the 102 patients with metastatic NSCLC were 17.65%, 3.92%, and 0.98%, respectively. The median overall survival of the 102 patients was 3.15 months. Tumor location in the peripheral lung, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor history, low tumor mutation load, adenocarcinoma, and poor performance status score were associated with prolonged survival compared with tumor location in the central lung, no EGFR inhibitor history, high tumor mutation load, squamous cell carcinoma, and good performance status score (p=0.045, p=0.003, p=0.045, p=0.021, and p=0.0003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: EGFR inhibitor treatment history and tumor mutation load are risk factors for the overall survival of patients with stage III/IV NSCLC who have undergone only hospice care. These results provide a critical clinical basis for further study of nontraditional anti-tumor responses induced by EGFR inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Mutation , Neoplasm Staging
4.
Rev. cuba. med ; 59(2): e1358, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139049

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de pulmón constituye una de las principales causas de muerte en Cuba. La mayoría de los enfermos acuden al servicio de salud en etapa avanzada de la enfermedad, la poliquimioterapia es uno de los tratamientos utilizados. Objetivos: Evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento con cisplatino-etopósido vs cisplatino-paclitaxel, en pacientes con carcinoma no microcítico en estadios avanzado de la enfermedad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, en 40 pacientes diagnosticados con carcinoma no microcítico en estado avanzado de la enfermedad, que fueron asignados de forma aleatoria a uno de los dos grupos de tratamiento de cisplatino + etopósido (n=20) y cisplatino + paclitaxel (n=20) en el Hospital Neumológico Benéfico Jurídico en el período comprendido desde enero de 2017 a septiembre de 2018. Resultados: Predominaron pacientes del sexo masculino entre 50 a 69 años de edad, 37,5 por ciento en estadio IV. En 72,5 por ciento de los pacientes se encontró una respuesta clínica al tratamiento, en la modalidad de cisplatino + etopósido 70 por ciento y en cisplatino + paclitaxel 75 por ciento respectivamente. Se observó un porcentaje similar de respuesta objetiva antitumoral, 32,5 por ciento de los pacientes tuvieron una reducción parcial de la lesión tumoral, mientras que en otro 32,5 por ciento se observó estabilidad de la enfermedad. Por el contrario, en 35 por ciento restante hubo progresión de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: Se concluye que ambas modalidades tienen una efectividad similar en la evolución clínico-radiológica de los enfermos de carcinoma no microcítico en etapa avanzada(AU)


Introduction: Lung cancer constitutes one of the main causes of death in Cuba. Most of the patients come to the health service at an advanced stage of the disease. Polychemotherapy is one of the treatments used. Objectives: To assess the response to treatment with cisplatin-etoposide vs. cisplatin-paclitaxel, in patients with advanced non-small cell carcinoma. Methods: A descriptive, prospective study was conducted in 40 patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell carcinoma. They were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups: cisplatin + etoposide (n = 20) and cisplatin. + paclitaxel (n = 20) at the Pneumologic Hospital from January 2017 to September 2018. Results: Male patients predominated, ages ranged between 50 and 69 years, 37.5 percent were in stage IV. Clinical response to treatment was found in 72.5 percent of patients, that is, 70 percent in the modality of cisplatin + etoposide and 75 percent in cisplatin + paclitaxel. Similar percentage of objective antitumor response was observed, that is, 32.5 percent of the patients had partial reduction of the tumor lesion, while disease stability was observed in 32.5 percent . In contrast, in the remaining 35.0 percent , disease progression was observed. Conclusions: Both modalities are concluded to have similar effectiveness in the clinical-radiological evolution of persons suffering from non-microcytic carcinoma in advanced stage(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Prospective Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2466-2475, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877853

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are widely used in lung cancer therapy due to their effectiveness and minimal side effects. However, only a few lung cancer patients benefit from ICI therapy, driving the need to develop alternative biomarkers. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) molecules expressed in tumor cells and immune cells play a key role in the immune checkpoint pathway. Therefore, PD-L1 expression is a prognostic biomarker in evaluating the effectiveness of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 inhibitors. Nevertheless, adverse predictive outcomes suggest that other factors are implicated in the response. In this review, we present a detailed introduction of existing biomarkers concerning tumor abnormality and host immunity. PD-L1 expression, tumor mutation burden, neoantigens, specific gene mutations, circulating tumor DNA, human leukocyte antigen class I, tumor microenvironment, peripheral inflammatory cells, and microbiome are discussed in detail. To sum up, this review provides information on the current application and future prospects of ICI biomarkers.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Tumor Microenvironment
6.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 807-816, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877492

ABSTRACT

Anlotinib hydrochloride is the only anti-angiogenic, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which has been approved for non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer in China. In order to provide guidance for clinical practitioners to use anlotinib hydrochloride safely and efficiently, the Chinese Association for Clinical Oncologists, the Expert Committee of Vascular Targeted Therapy of Chinese Society of Clincal Oncology and the Cancer Targeted Therapy Professional Committee of China Anti-Cancer Association co-organized experts and integrated multiple evidences of Anlotinib Hydrochloride, from both clinical trial, post-marketed clinical data and the associated experiences of experts accumulated in clinical practice, etc. The present consensus covers the clinical data of anlotinib hydrochloride applied in advanced non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer, and the safety management recommendations.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , China , Consensus , Humans , Indoles/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Quinolines/therapeutic use
7.
Clinics ; 75: e1777, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the molecular testing and treatment patterns in a retrospective cohort of newly diagnosed treatment-naïve patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: This is an observational retrospective cohort study conducted across 10 cancer centers in Brazil. Treatment-naïve patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC were enrolled from January to December 2014. The following data were collected from the medical records of patients from diagnosis until the last record (death, loss to follow-up, or the end of the maximum follow-up period): demographics; medical history; smoking status; disease characteristics; previous treatments; and molecular testing patterns and results. The overall survival (OS) was also estimated. Results: A total of 391 patients from 8 different Brazilian states were included, with a median age of 64.1 years (23.7-98.7), with most patients being males (60.1%). The smoking status of 74.2% of patients was a 'former' or 'current smoker'. Stage IV NSCLC at diagnosis was observed in 82.4% of patients, with 269 of them (68.8%) presenting adenocarcinoma (ADC). Among the stage IV ADC patients, 54.0% were referred for molecular testing. Among the patients with an available epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status, 31 (24.0%) were EGFR-positive. The first-line treatment was a platinum-based chemotherapy for 98 patients (25.1%), while non-platinum-based regimens were used in 54 patients (13.8%). OS data were available for 370 patients, with a median OS of 10.8 months. Never smokers had a significantly higher median OS versus current or former smokers (14.6 versus 9.1 months; log-rank p=0.003). Among the patients for whom molecular testing data were available, those with EGFR-positive results had a longer median OS (34.6 versus 12.8 months; log-rank p=0.003). Conclusion: Our findings provide relevant information for prescribers and policy decision-makers by highlighting the unmet needs of patients and the importance of molecular testing in newly diagnosed locally advanced or metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. We also highlight the respective EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment when the result is positive and the areas in which further efforts are required to grant access to effective treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Mutation
8.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(4): 146-148, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099838

ABSTRACT

Los anticuerpos monoclonales que inhiben los puntos de control PD-1 y CTLA-4 se usan actualmente en el tratamiento del melanoma y cáncer metastásico de pulmón de células no pequeñas, entre otros. Se refiere el caso de una paciente con cáncer de pulmón en tratamiento con pembrolizumab. La paciente se presentó con edema facial y parálisis facial periférica. En el laboratorio se observó la hormona tirotrofina (TSH) elevada y se llegó al diagnóstico de hipotiroidismo por pembrolizumab. Inició tratamiento con levotiroxina con mejoría clínica. Se presenta este caso por el importante papel del dermatólogo en el manejo multidisciplinario del paciente oncológico. (AU)


Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit PD-1 and CTLA-4 control points are currently used in the treatment of melanoma and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, among others. The case of a patient, with lung cancer being treated with Pembrolizumab. The patient was presented with facial edema and peripheral facial paralysis and in the laboratory the elevated hormone Tyrotrophin (TSH) was observed, the diagnosis of pembrolizumab hypothyroidism was reached. She started treatment with levothyroxine with clinical improvement. This case is presented by the important role of the dermatologist in the multidisciplinary management of the cancer patient. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/complications , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Thyrotropin/analysis , Carboplatin/administration & dosage , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/drug effects , Dermatology , Facial Injuries , Facial Paralysis , CTLA-4 Antigen/drug effects , CTLA-4 Antigen/physiology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/drug effects , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/physiology , Pemetrexed/administration & dosage , Melanoma/complications , Melanoma/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy
9.
Biol. Res ; 52: 24, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To analyze the relative expression of PELI3 and its mechanistic involvement in the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: PELI3 expression in NSCLC tissue samples was determined by the immunohistochemistry. The transcripts abundance of PELI3 was measured with real-time PCR. The protein intensity was analyzed by western blot. The overall survival in respect to PELI3 or miR-365a-5p expression was plotted by the Kaplan-Meier's analysis. Cell growth was determined by colony formation assay. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The migration and invasion were evaluated by wound healing and transwell assay respectively. The regulatory effect of miR-365a-5p on PELI3 was interrogated with luciferase reporter assay. The direct binding between miR-365a-5p and PELI3 was analyzed by pulldown assay. RESULTS: PELI3 was aberrantly up-regulated in NSCLC both in vivo and in vitro. High level of PELI3 associated with poor prognosis. PELI3-deficiency significantly inhibited cell viability, colony formation, migration and invasion. We further identified that miR-365a-5p negatively regulated PELI3 in this disease. Ectopic expression of miR-365a-5p in both A549 and H1299 phenocopied PELI3-deficiency. Meanwhile, PELI3-silencing significantly abolished the pro-tumoral effect elicited by miR-365a-5p inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlighted the importance of dysregulated miR-365a-5p-PELI3 signaling axis in NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Down-Regulation/physiology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Tetrazolium Salts , Thiazoles , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , MicroRNAs/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Coloring Agents , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
10.
Lima; IETSI; 2019.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1116868

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas (CPCNP) es la causa más frecuente (85 % - 90 %) de tumores pulmonares malignos que generalmente afectan a adultos que fuman y que tienen ≥ 65 años. En Perú, en 2017, el cáncer de pulmón fue la segunda causa de muerte entre todos los cánceres, con una mortalidad anual de 8.8 muertes por cada 100,000 personas.  La terapia de primera línea del CPCNP avanzado (estadio IIIB/IV) depende del estado de las mutaciones conductoras oncogénicas, la expresión de PD-L1 y la histología. Así, para los casos en los que se detecta una mutación sensibilizante1 del receptor de factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EGFR, por sus siglas en inglés), se recomienda ofrecer una terapia dirigida contra el EGFR utilizando los inhibidores de la tirosina quinasa del EGFR (de aquí en adelante llamados TKI, por sus siglas en inglés) de primera línea (e.g., erlotinib, afatinib).  En el Seguro Social de Salud del Perú (EsSalud), los pacientes con CPCNP avanzado cuyos tumores poseen mutaciones positivas2 del EGFR disponen de erlotinib como tratamiento de primera línea según lo establecido en el Petitorio Farmacológico de EsSalud. Sin embargo, existe un grupo de pacientes que presentan eventos adversos (EA) cutáneos severos (grado 3 o mayor) asociados al tratamiento con erlotinib, quienes, en ciertos casos, requerirán de la discontinuación de uso del medicamento, a pesar del manejo óptimo de las toxicidades cutáneas (e.g., reducción de dosis). En este grupo de pacientes con hipersensibilidad a erlotinib (contraindicación de uso), los médicos especialistas de la institución sugieren el uso de un TKI alternativo: afatinib. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la mejor evidencia disponible sobre la eficacia y seguridad de afatinib, en comparación con la quimioterapia, en pacientes adultos con CPCNP avanzado, con mutaciones activadoras3 del gen del EGFR, con contraindicación a erlotinib por hipersensibilidad. TECNOLOGÍA SANITARIA DE INTERÉS: Afatinib: Afatinib es un inhibidor selectivo e irreversible de la actividad de la tirosina quinasa de los receptores de la familia ErbB: EGFR (ErbB1), HER2 (ErbB2), HER3 (ErbB3) y HER4 (ErbB4). Afatinib se une en forma covalente a los dominios de la tirosina quinasa de estos receptores e inhibe irreversiblemente la autofosforilación de la tirosina quinasa, lo que resulta en un bloqueo de las señales de los receptores ErbB (European Medicines Agency 2019). METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de literatura con el objetivo de identificar evidencia sobre la eficacia y seguridad de afatinib, en comparación con la quimioterapia, en pacientes adultos con CPCNP avanzado, con mutaciones activadoras del gen del EGFR, con contraindicación a erlotinib por hipersensibilidad. Se utilizó la base de datos The Cochrane Library, PubMed, LILACS y el metabuscador TRIP Database, priorizándose evidencia proveniente de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados. Asimismo, se realizó una búsqueda dentro de bases de datos pertenecientes a grupos que realizan evaluaciones de tecnologías sanitarias y guías de práctica clínica, incluyendo el Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC), el National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), la Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH), la Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS), el Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWiG), además de la Base Regional de Informes de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud de las Américas (BRISA) y páginas web de sociedades especializadas en cáncer de pulmón. Se hizo una búsqueda adicional en la página web de clinicaltrials.gov, para poder identificar ensayos clínicos en curso o que no hayan sido publicados para, de este modo, disminuir el riesgo de sesgo de publicación. La búsqueda sistemática se basó en una metodología escalonada, la cual consistió en la búsqueda inicial de estudios secundarios (tipo revisiones sistemáticas con o sin metaanálisis). RESULTADOS: Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura con respecto a la eficacia y seguridad de afatinib, en comparación con la quimioterapia, en pacientes adultos con CPCNP avanzado, con mutaciones activadoras del gen del EGFR, con contraindicación a erlotinib por hipersensibilidad. Dado que no se identificaron estudios en una población específica de pacientes con contraindicación a erlotinib, se procedió a revisar la evidencia para la población general de pacientes con CPCNP avanzado, con mutaciones activadoras del gen del EGFR. CONCLUSIONES: Dado que no se identificaron estudios en la población específica de pacientes con contraindicación a erlotinib, se procedió a revisar la evidencia para la población general de pacientes con CPCNP avanzado, con mutaciones activadoras del gen del receptor del factor de crecimiento epidérmico. En líneas generales, todas las GPC y ETS basaron sus recomendaciones y/o conclusiones en los resultados de los estudios LUX-Lung 3 y/o LUX-Lung 6. La evidencia procedente de los estudios LUX-Lung 3 y LUX-Lung 6 muestra que afatinib comparado con la quimioterapia ofrece un beneficio clínico en términos de una mayor sobrevida global (aproximadamente 11 meses adicionales) en los pacientes con CPCNP metastásico, ECOG 0-1 y mutaciones del EGFR tipo Del19, sin tratamiento previo. Además, afatinib tuvo un perfil de seguridad similar al de la quimioterapia con cisplatino más pemetrexed y un mejor perfil de seguridad que la quimioterapia con gemcitabina más cisplatino, en términos de EA severos, EA serios y discontinuación debido a EA. A diferencia de las GPC identificadas, que recomendaron el uso de afatinib en la población general de pacientes con CPCNP y mutaciones positivas del EGFR, esta evaluación de la evidencia identificó que los pacientes con mutaciones Del19 serían el subgrupo con mayor probabilidad de beneficiarse del tratamiento con afatinib. Por otro lado, no se identificó evidencia directa que sustente el uso de afatinib en el grupo de pacientes previamente tratados. Sin embargo, tal como se menciona en el Dictamen Preliminar de Evaluación de Tecnología Sanitaria N° 041-SDEPFyOTSDETS-IETSI-2019: Eficacia y Seguridad de erlotinib en pacientes adultos con CPCNP, metastásico o irresecable, con mutación del gen del EGFR, tras fallo a al menos una línea de quimioterapia, se valora que la evidencia del uso de afatinib en el contexto de primera línea puede ser extrapolada al grupo de pacientes que han sido previamente tratados con quimioterapia sistémica y que han experimentado hipersensibilidad severa a erlotinib. Adicionalmente, es importante analizar el contexto de intercambio de TKI (de erlotinib a afatinib) debido a EA cutáneos severos como resultado de uma hipersensibilidad a erlotinib (contraindicación de uso) en pacientes con CPCNP avanzado y mutación del EGFR, ya que es el grupo específico de pacientes en quienes se propone el uso de afatinib en la institución. Así, si bien la evidencia sobre el intercambio de TKI debido a EA es limitada, algunas series de casos han sugerido que esta aproximación proporciona un efecto beneficioso en pacientes con CPCNP avanzado y mutaciones del EGFR. Además, el intercambio de erlotinib a afatinib podría justificarse biológicamente dada las diferencias en las estructuras químicas de erlotinib y afatinib, que podrían influir en los EA asociados con estos medicamentos. De este modo, teniendo en cuenta que los pacientes que recibirían un segundo TKI tendrían que haber demostrado no tener una mutación resistente a TKI, se estima que los pacientes que discontinúan el tratamiento con erlotinib debido a hipersensibilidad severa aún podrían beneficiarse de "cambiar" a un segundo TKI (afatinib). Con ello, y considerando la experiencia de uso de TKI a nivel institucional y la opinión favorable por parte de los médicos especialistas de la institución, el equipo evaluador del IETSI encuentra suficientes argumentos técnicos para aprobar el uso de afatinib en pacientes adultos con CPCNP avanzado, con mutaciones activadoras del gen del EGFR (Del19), con contraindicación a erlotinib por hipersensibilidad. Por lo expuesto, el IETSI aprueba el uso de afatinib en pacientes adultos con CPCNP avanzado, con mutaciones activadoras del gen del receptor del factor de crecimiento epidérmico, con contraindicación a erlotinib por hipersensibilidad, según lo establecido en el Anexo N° 1. La vigencia del presente dictamen preliminar es de un año a partir de la fecha de publicación. Así, la continuación de dicha aprobación estará sujeta a los resultados obtenidos de los pacientes que reciban este tratamiento, a los reportes de seguridad que puedan surgir durante farmacovigilancia activa y nueva evidencia que pueda surgir en el tiempo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Epidermal Growth Factor/pharmacology , Erlotinib Hydrochloride/adverse effects , Gain of Function Mutation/drug effects , Afatinib/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Health Evaluation , Cost-Benefit Analysis
11.
Biol. Res ; 52: 1, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ethnomedicinally, the family Polygonaceae is famous for the management of cancer. Various species of this family have been reported with anticancer potentials. This study was designed to isolate anticancer compounds from ethnomedicinally important species Polygonum barbatum. METHODS: The column chromatography was used for the isolation of compounds from the solvent fraction of P. barbatum. The characterization of isolated compounds was performed by various spectroscopic techniques like UV, IR, mass spectrometry and 1D-2D NMR spectroscopy. Keeping in view the ethnomedicinal importance of the family, genus and species of P barbatum, the isolated compounds (1-3) were screened for anticancer potentials against oral cancer (CAL-27) and lungs cancer (NCI H460) cell lines using MTT assay. Active compound was further investigated for apoptosis by using morphological changes and flow cytometry analysis. In vivo anti-angiogenic study of the isolated compounds was also carried using chorioallantoic membrane assay. Docking studies were carried out to explore the mechanism of anticancer activity. RESULTS: Three dihydrobenzofuran derivatives (1-3) have been isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of P. barbatum. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated as methyl (2S,3S)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-((E)-3-ethoxy-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)-7-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzo-furan-3-carboxylate (1), (E)-3-((2S,3S)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-3-(methoxy carbonyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)acrylic acid (2) and (2S,3 S)-4-((E)-2-carboxyvinyl)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-hydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-3-carboxylic acid (3). The compound 1 was found to be more potent with IC50 of 48.52 ± 0.95 and 53.24 ± 1.49 against oral cancer cells as compared to standard drug (IC50 = 97.76 ± 3.44 µM). Both compound also inhibited lung cancer cells but at higher concentrations. Morphological and flow cytometry analysis further confirms that compound 1 induces apoptosis after 24 to 48 h treatment. In antiangiogenesis assay, compounds 1, 2 and 3 exhibited IC50 values of 8.2 ± 1.1,13.4 ± 1.1 and 57.7 ± 0.3 µM respectively. The docking studies revealed that the compounds under study have the potential to target the DNA and thymidylate synthase (TS). CONCLUSION: Based on its overwhelming potency against the tested cell lines and in angiogenesis assay, compound 1 can be further evaluated mechanistically and can be developed as anticancer drug candidate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Polygonum/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Benzofurans/isolation & purification , Benzofurans/chemistry , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Polygonum/classification , Cell Line, Tumor , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(3): 230-233, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896447

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of paclitaxel combined with avastin for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients diagnosed with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Method: Total of 33 patients diagnosed with NSCLC as well as malignant pleural effusion were included. All of them received paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) and avastin (5 mg/kg). Clinical efficacy was evaluated using the total response rate, overall survival, progression-free survival and changes in MPE volume. Adverse events and rates of toxicities were examined as well. Results: The total response rate reached 77% while the overall survival and the median progression-free survival were respectively 22.2 months and 8.4 months. Toxicities of grade 3-4 consisted of neutropenia in 57% of patients, anemia in 17% of them, febrile neutropenia in 11%, as well as anorexia in 7%. No treatment-correlated deaths were found. Conclusion: Paclitaxel combined with avastin decreased MPE volume and increased survival rate of NSCLC patients via inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor expression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Paclitaxel/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Safety , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Survival Analysis , Pleural Effusion, Malignant/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Paclitaxel/adverse effects , Disease-Free Survival , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/adverse effects , Bevacizumab/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/adverse effects
16.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 64(1): 55-60, Jan/Fev/Mar 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-969149

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O advento de terapias-alvo antirreceptor do fator de crescimento epidérmico (anti-EGFR) impactou na sobrevida dos pacientes com câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas avançado e portadores de mutação no EGFR, que são tratados no Sistema Único de Saúde Brasileiro (SUS). Objetivo: Estimar o impacto da falta de acesso a terapias anti-EGFR na sobrevida livre de progressão (SLP) desses pacientes. Método: Por meio da base de dados do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva e de estudos que descrevem a prevalência de mutação em EGFR na população brasileira, foi estimado o número de pacientes com adenocarcinoma de pulmão avançado, portadores de mutação EGFR, candidatos à terapia-alvo no ano de 2017. Para a estimativa de efetividade, quatro diferentes esquemas de tratamentos foram considerados: quimioterapia, erlotinib, afatinib e gefitinib. O número de pacientes livres de progressão de doença, após dois anos, foi estimado com base nos resultados para SLP em ensaios clínicos randomizados. Resultados: Foram estimados 1.735 pacientes com adenocarcinoma de pulmão metastático portadores de mutações ativadoras de EGFR no Brasil para o ano de 2017. Projetou-se que, caso fossem tratados com quimioterapia, apenas 71 estariam livres de progressão após 24 meses do início do tratamento. Em contrapartida, com o uso de inibidores de tirosina-quinase anti-EGFR, a expectativa seria de 312 pacientes livres de doença para erlotinib, 377 para gefitinib e 388 para afatinib. Conclusão: Apesar de recomendadas internacionalmente, as terapias anti-EGFR não são disponibilizadas no SUS, sendo oferecida aos pacientes apenas a quimioterapia. Isso problematiza a situação de falta de acesso no âmbito do SUS e embasa, localmente, a discussão acerca da incorporação dessas terapias no âmbito público.


Introduction: The advent of targeted anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapies have improved survival in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer that carry the EGFR mutation, including those treated via the Brazilian Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, Unified Health Care System). Objective: To estimate the impact that lack of access to anti-EGFR therapies has on progression-free survival (PFS) among such patients. Method: On the basis of epidemiologic data obtained from the José Alencar Gomes da Silva National Cancer Institute and from studies reporting the prevalence of the EGFR mutation in the Brazilian population, we estimated the number of patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and the EGFR mutation who were candidates for targeted therapy in 2017. To estimate effectiveness, we evaluated four different treatments: chemotherapy, erlotinib, afatinib, and gefitinib. The number of patients with PFS after 2 years of follow-up was estimated on the basis of the results of randomized clinical trials. Results: We evaluated 1,735 patients with EGFR mutation-positive metastatic lung adenocarcinoma in Brazil in 2017. We estimated that, if treated with chemotherapy, only 71 of those patients would be free of progression after 24 months. In contrast, if all of the patients were treated with anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the expectation was that PFS would be achieved in 312 patients for erlotinib, 377 for gefitinib, and 388 for afatinib. Conclusion: Although recommended by international guidelines, anti-EGFR therapies are not available via the SUS, which offers only chemotherapy. This complicates the problem of lack of access in the SUS and promotes local discussion in the public sphere about the incorporation of these therapies.


Introducción: El advenimiento de terapias objetivo anti receptor del factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EGFR) impactó en la supervivencia de los pacientes con cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas avanzado y portadores de mutación en el EGFR, que son tratados en el sistema único de salud brasileño (SUS). Objetivo: Estimar el impacto de la falta de acceso a terapias anti-EGFR en la sobrevida libre de progresión (SLP) de esos pacientes. Método:A través de la base de datos del Instituto Nacional de Cáncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva y de estudios que describen la prevalencia de mutación de EGFR en la población brasileña, se estima el número de pacientes con adenocarcinoma de pulmón avanzado portadores de mutación EGFR candidatos a la terapia objetivo en el año de Para la estimación de efectividad, cuatro diferentes esquemas de tratamientos fueron considerados: quimioterapia, erlotinib, afatinib y gefitinib. El número de pacientes libres de progresión de la enfermedad después de dos años se calculó sobre la base de los resultados para SLP en los ensayos clínicos aleatorizados. Resultados: Se estimó 1.735 pacientes con adenocarcinoma de pulmón metastático, portadores de mutaciones activadoras de EGFR en Brasil para el año 2017. Se proyectó que si se tratar con quimioterapia sólo 81 estarían libres de progresión después de 24 meses. En contrapartida, con el uso de inhibidores de tirosina quinasa anti-EGFR, la expectativa sería de 312 pacientes libres de enfermedad para erlotinib, 377 para gefitinib y 388 para afatinib. Conclusión: A pesar de ser recomendadas internacionalmente, las terapias anti-EGFR no están disponibles en el SUS, siendo ofrecido a los pacientes sólo quimioterapia. Esto problematiza claramente la situación de falta de acceso en el ámbito del SUS y basan, localmente, la discusión sobre la incorporación de estas terapias en el ámbito público.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , ErbB Receptors , Survival Analysis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Unified Health System , Brazil , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(1): e6073, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889009

ABSTRACT

Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who experience brain metastases are usually associated with poor prognostic outcomes. This retrospective study proposed to assess whether bevacizumab or gefitinib can be used to improve the effectiveness of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in managing patients with brain metastases. A total of 218 NSCLC patients with multiple brain metastases were retrospectively included in this study and were randomly allocated to bevacizumab-gefitinib-WBRT group (n=76), gefitinib-WBRT group (n=77) and WBRT group (n=75). Then, tumor responses were evaluated every 2 months based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.0. Karnofsky performance status and neurologic examination were documented every 6 months after the treatment. Compared to the standard WBRT, bevacizumab and gefitinib could significantly enhance response rate (RR) and disease control rate (DCR) of WBRT (P<0.001). At the same time, RR and DCR of patients who received bevacizumab-gefitinib-WBRT were higher than those who received gefitinib-WBRT. The overall survival (OS) rates and progression-free survival (PFS) rates also differed significantly among the bevacizumab-gefitinib-WBRT (48.6 and 29.8%), gefitinib-WBRT (36.7 and 29.6%) and WBRT (9.8 and 14.6%) groups (P<0.05). Although bevacizumab-gefitinib-WBRT was slightly more toxic than gefitinib-WBRT, the toxicity was tolerable. As suggested by prolonged PFS and OS status, bevacizumab substantially improved the overall efficacy of WBRT in the management of patients with NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Quinazolines/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cranial Irradiation/methods , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Gefitinib , Mutation
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 202-210, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713102

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Previous retrospective studies suggest that anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutation-positive (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are sensitive to pemetrexed. To determine its efficacy, we retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in patients with ALK+ NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 126 patients with advanced, ALK+ NSCLC who received first-line cytotoxic chemotherapy. We compared response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates according to chemotherapy regimens. Furthermore, we evaluated intracranial time to tumor progression (TTP) and proportion of ALK+ cells as prognostic factors. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients received pemetrexed-based chemotherapy, while 78 received other regimens as first-line treatment. The pemetrexed-based chemotherapy group showed superior overall response (44.7% vs. 14.3%, p < 0.001) and disease control (85.1% vs. 62.3%, p=0.008) rates. The pemetrexed-based chemotherapy group also exhibited longer PFS (6.6 months vs. 3.8 months, p < 0.001); OS rates were not significantly different. The lack of exposure to second-generation ALK inhibitors and intracranial metastasis on initial diagnosis were independent negative prognostic factors of OS. Intracranial TTP was similar between the treatment groups (32.7 months vs. 35.7 months, p=0.733). Patients who harbored a greater number of ALK+ tumor cells (≥70%) showed prolonged OS on univariate analysis (not reached vs. 44.8 months, p=0.041), but not on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio: 0.19, 95% confidence interval: 0.03–1.42; p=0.106). CONCLUSION: Pemetrexed-based regimens may prolong PFS in patients with ALK+ NSCLC as a first-line treatment, but are not associated with prolonged OS. Exposure to second-generation ALK inhibitors may improve OS rates in patients with ALK+ NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Pemetrexed/therapeutic use , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 211-218, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713101

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Molecular testing in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) aids in identifying oncogenic alterations. The aim of this study was to compare the rates of detection of oncogenic alterations and responsiveness to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) according to EGFR mutation status as determined by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) clamping or direct sequencing (DS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register. Data from included studies were pooled to yield summary sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratio, and receiver operating characteristic curves. A meta-regression analysis was conducted to identify potential sources of heterogeneity between selected studies. RESULTS: We identified 10 studies comprising 924 patients. Oncogenic alterations were detected in 340 of 924 cases (36.8%) with PNA clamping and in 250 of 924 (27.1%) with DS. The pooled sensitivities of PNA clamping and DS were 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90−0.95] and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.64−0.73), respectively. According to meta-regression analysis, none of the covariates were found to be significant sources of heterogeneity. With respect to treatment responses to EGFR-TKIs, there was no significant difference therein between EGFR mutations detected by PNA clamping and DS (53.4% vs. 50.8%; risk ratio, 0.99; 95% CI 0.83−1.19; p=0.874). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that PNA clamping has a higher sensitivity than DS for detecting oncogenic alterations in NSCLC. Our findings suggest that PNA clamping is a more useful method for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Constriction , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Mutation , Peptide Nucleic Acids/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sequence Analysis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Translocation, Genetic
20.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 134(5): 465-466, Sept.-Oct. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-830886

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are over 70 years of age at diagnosis. Despite this fact, these patients are underrepresented in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). As a consequence, the most appropriate regimens for these patients are controversial, and the role of single-agent or combination therapy is unclear. In this setting, a critical systematic review of RCTs in this group of patients is warranted. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of different cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens for previously untreated elderly patients with advanced (stage IIIB and IV) NSCLC. To also assess the impact of cytotoxic chemotherapy on quality of life. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 10), MEDLINE (1966 to 31 October 2014), EMBASE (1974 to 31 October 2014), and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1982 to 31 October 2014). In addition, we handsearched the proceedings of major conferences, reference lists from relevant resources, and the ClinicalTrial.gov database. Selection criteria: We included only RCTs that compared non-platinum single-agent therapy versus non-platinum combination therapy, or non-platinum therapy versus platinum combination therapy in patients over 70 years of age with advanced NSCLC. We allowed inclusion of RCTs specifically designed for the elderly population and those designed for elderly subgroup analyses. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently assessed search results, and a third review author resolved disagreements. We analyzed the following endpoints: overall survival (OS), one-year survival rate (1yOS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), major adverse events, and quality of life (QoL). MAIN RESULTS: We included 51 trials in the review: non-platinum single-agent therapy versus non-platinum combination therapy (seven trials) and non-platinum combination therapy versus platinum combination therapy (44 trials). Non-platinum single-agent versus non-platinum combination therapy Low-quality evidence suggests that these treatments have similar effects on overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 1.17; participants = 1062; five RCTs), 1yOS (risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.07; participants = 992; four RCTs), and PFS (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.07; participants = 942; four RCTs). Non-platinum combination therapy may better improve ORR compared with non-platinum single-agent therapy (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.26; participants = 1014; five RCTs; low-quality evidence). Differences in effects on major adverse events between treatment groups were as follows: anemia: RR 1.10, 95% 0.53 to 2.31; participants = 983; four RCTs; very low-quality evidence; neutropenia: RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.65; participants = 983; four RCTs; low-quality evidence; and thrombocytopenia: RR 1.45, 95% CI 0.73 to 2.89; participants = 914; three RCTs; very low-quality evidence. Only two RCTs assessed quality of life; however, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis because of the paucity of available data. Non-platinum therapy versus platinum combination therapy Platinum combination therapy probably improves OS (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.85; participants = 1705; 13 RCTs; moderate-quality evidence), 1yOS (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.96; participants = 813; 13 RCTs; moderate-quality evidence), and ORR (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.85; participants = 1432; 11 RCTs; moderate-quality evidence) compared with non-platinum therapies. Platinum combination therapy may also improve PFS, although our confidence in this finding is limited because the quality of evidence was low (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93; participants = 1273; nine RCTs). Effects on major adverse events between treatment groups were as follows: anemia: RR 2.53, 95% CI 1.70 to 3.76; participants = 1437; 11 RCTs; low-quality evidence; thrombocytopenia: RR 3.59, 95% CI 2.22 to 5.82; participants = 1260; nine RCTs; low-quality evidence; fatigue: RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.38; participants = 1150; seven RCTs; emesis: RR 3.64, 95% CI 1.82 to 7.29; participants = 1193; eight RCTs; and peripheral neuropathy: RR 7.02, 95% CI 2.42 to 20.41; participants = 776; five RCTs; low-quality evidence. Only five RCTs assessed QoL; however, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis because of the paucity of available data. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In people over the age of 70 with advanced NSCLC who do not have significant co-morbidities, increased survival with platinum combination therapy needs to be balanced against higher risk of major adverse events when compared with non-platinum therapy. For people who are not suitable candidates for platinum treatment, we have found low-quality evidence suggesting that non-platinum combination and single-agent therapy regimens have similar effects on survival. We are uncertain as to the comparability of their adverse event profiles. Additional evidence on quality of life gathered from additional studies is needed to help inform decision making


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Platinum Compounds/adverse effects , Platinum Compounds/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/mortality , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasm Staging , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
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