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1.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 358-367, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984730

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the response characteristics of patients with locally advanced/metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (nsq-NSCLC) treated with tislelizumab in combination with chemotherapy in the first line. Methods: Patients with nsq-NSCLC who achieved complete or partial remission after treatment with tislelizumab in combination with chemotherapy or chemotherapy alone in the RATIONALE 304 study, as assessed by an independent review board, were selected to analyze the response characteristics and safety profile of the responders. Time to response (TTR) was defined as the time from randomization to the achievement of first objective response. Depth of response (DpR) was defined as the maximum percentage of tumor shrinkage compared with the sum of the baseline target lesion length diameters. Results: As of January 23, 2020, 128 patients treated with tislelizumab in combination with chemotherapy achieved objective tumor response (responders), representing 57.4%(128/223) of the intention-to-treat population, with a TTR of 5.1 to 33.3 weeks and a median TTR of 7.9 weeks. Of the responders (128), 50.8%(65) achieved first remission at the first efficacy assessment (week 6), 31.3%(40) at the second efficacy assessment (week 12), and 18.0%(23) at the third and subsequent tumor assessments. The percentages of responders who achieved a depth of tumor response of 30% to <50%, 50% to <70% and 70% to 100% were 45.3%(58/128), 28.1%(36/128) and 26.6%(34/128), respectively, with median progression-free survival (PFS) of 9.0 months (95% CI: 7.7 to 9.9 months), 11.5 months (95% CI: 7.7 months to not reached) and not reached (95% CI: 11.8 months to not estimable), respectively. Tislelizumab plus chemotherapy were generally well tolerated in responders with similar safety profile to the overall safety population. Conclusion: Among responders to tislelizumab in combination with chemotherapy for nsq-NSCLC, 82.0%(105/128) achieves response within the first two tumor assessments (12 weeks) and 18.0%(23/128) achieves response at later (18 to 33 weeks) assessments, and there is a trend toward prolonged PFS in responders with deeper tumor response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Treatment Outcome
2.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 46-51, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971178

ABSTRACT

Chemokine-like factor-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing member/chemokine-like factor superfamily member (CMTM/CKLFSF) including CKLF and CMTM1-CMTM8 are a new family of proteins linking chemokines and transmembrane superfamilies. CMTM not only have broad chemotactic activities, but also associate with hematopoietic system, immune system, and tumor development and metastasis closely. CMTM proteins are involved in key biological processes of cancer development, which include activation and recycling of growth factor receptors, cell proliferation and metastasis, and regulation of the tumor immune microenvironment. This is a new focus of research on the relationship between CMTM and tumors, because CMTM4/CMTM6 can be considered as a regulator for programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). This paper reviews the role of CMTM family members on cancer, especially in tumor growth, metastasis and immune escape, summarize the latest findings on the relationship between CMTM and non-small cell lung cancer, and explores the potential clinical value of CMTM as a novel drug target or biomarker.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms , MARVEL Domain-Containing Proteins/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Chemokines/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
3.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 31-37, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971176

ABSTRACT

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be detected with enlarged lymph nodes on imaging, but their benignity and malignancy are difficult to determine directly, making it difficult to stage the tumor and design radiotherapy target volumes. The clinical diagnosis of malignant lymph nodes is often based on the short diameter of lymph nodes ≥1 cm or the maximum standard uptake value ≥2.5, but the sensitivity and specificity of these criteria are too low to meet the clinical needs. In recent years, many advances have been made in diagnosing benign and malignant lymph nodes using other imaging parameters, and with the development of radiomics, deep learning and other technologies, models of mining the image information of enlarged lymph node regions further improve the diagnostic accuracy. The purpose of this paper is to review recent advances in imaging-based diagnosis of benign and malignant enlarged lymph nodes in NSCLC for more accurate and noninvasive assessment of lymph node status in clinical practice.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Diagnostic Imaging , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 10-16, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There have been many significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the mechanism underlying the progression of NSCLC is still not clear. Plant homodomain finger-like domain-containing protein 5A (PHF5A) plays an important role in processes of chromatin remodeling, morphological development of tissues and organs and maintenance of stem cell pluripotency. This study aims to investigate the role of PHF5A in the proliferation and migration of NSCLC.@*METHODS@#A549 and PC-9 PHF5A overexpression cell lines were constructed. PHF5A expression was decreased in H292 and H1299 cells by using siRNA. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle. MTT assay and clone formation assay were used to examine the proliferative ability of NSCLC, while migration assay and wound healing assay were performed to evaluate the ability of migration. Western blot analysis was used to measure the expressions of PI3K, p-AKT and the associated downstream factors.@*RESULTS@#Up-regulation of PHF5A in A549 and PC-9 cells increased the proliferation rate, while down-regulation of PHF5A in H292 and H1299 cells inhibited the proliferation rate at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h (P<0.05). The metastatic ability was elevated in the PHF5A-overexpresion groups, while reduced in the PHF5A-down-regulation group (P<0.05). In addition, reduced expression of PHF5A induced cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase (P<0.05). Furthermore, decreased expression of PHF5A reduced the expression levels of PI3K, phosphorylation of AKT, c-Myc (P<0.05) and elevated the expression of p21 (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results demonstrated that PHF5A may play an important role in progression of NSCLC by regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Cell Movement/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Trans-Activators/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism
5.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 665-670, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985755

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate and elucidate the clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics of SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: The clinicopathological and prognostic data were collected in 127 patients with SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer diagnosed in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Shanghai, China from January 2020 to March 2022. The variation and expression of biomarkers related to treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Results: One hundred and twenty-seven patients were eligible for enrollment. Among them 120 patients (94.5%) were male and 7 cases (5.5%) were female, while the average age was 63 years (range 42-80 years). There were 41 cases (32.3%) of stage Ⅰ cancer, 23 cases (18.1%) of stage Ⅱ, 31 cases (24.4%) of stage Ⅲ and 32 cases (25.2%) of stage Ⅳ. SMARCA4 expression detected by immunohistochemistry was completely absent in 117 cases (92.1%) and partially absent in 10 cases (7.9%). PD-L1 immunohistochemical analyses were performed on 107 cases. PD-L1 was negative, weakly positive and strongly positive in 49.5% (53/107), 26.2% (28/107) and 24.3% (26/107) of the cases, respectively. Twenty-one cases showed gene alterations (21/104, 20.2%). The KRAS gene alternation (n=10) was most common. Mutant-type SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer was more commonly detected in females, and was associated with positive lymph nodes and advanced clinical stage (P<0.01). Univariate survival analysis showed that advanced clinical stage was a poor prognosis factor, and vascular invasion was a poor predictor of progression-free survival in patients with surgical resection. Conclusions: SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer is a rare tumor with poor prognosis, and often occurs in elderly male patients. However, SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancers with gene mutations are often seen in female patients. Vascular invasion is a prognostic factor for disease progression or recurrence in patients with resectable tumor. Early detection and access to treatment are important for improving patient survivals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , China , Prognosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , DNA Helicases/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
6.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 202-207, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970905

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the correlation between the mRNA levels of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and lung-specific X protein (LUNX) genes with pathological types and stages of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and their significance for prognosis.@*METHODS@#Eighty nine patients with NSCLC admitted to Huaihe Hospital of Henan University between June 2015 and June 2018 were recruited, with 55 patients with benign lung lesions admitted during the same period of time selected as the control group. The mRNA levels of BCRP and LUNX genes were detected in the peripheral blood samples from the two groups, and their correlation with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of the patients was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The expression rates of BCRP and LUNX mRNA in the NSCLC group were significantly higher compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The level of BCRP mRNA of the NSCLC patients has correlated with the degree of differentiation and TNM staging (P < 0.05), but not with gender, age, smoking, pathological types and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05). The level of LUNX mRNA of them has correlated with the degree of differentiation, TNM staging and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05), but not with gender, age, smoking, and pathological types (P > 0.05). Compared with those with no expression, the overall survival rate of patients with BCRP and LUNX expression was significantly lower (P < 0.05). The degree of differentiation, TNM staging, lymph node metastasis, and expression of the BCRP and LUNX mRNA may all affect the prognosis of the patients.@*CONCLUSION@#The levels of BCRP and LUNX mRNA in the peripheral blood of patients with NSCLC are significantly increased. The expression of BCRP mRNA is correlated with the degree of differentiation and TNM staging, whilst the expression of LUNX mRNA is correlated with the differentiation degree, TNM staging and lymph node metastasis. Both may be used as independent predictors for the prognosis of patients with NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Glycoproteins/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Prognosis , RNA, Messenger/genetics
7.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 124-128, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970145

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, treatment and prognosis of patients with RET fusion positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 1 089 NSCLCs were retrieved at Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University from August 2018 to April 2020. In all cases, multiple gene fusion detection kits (fluorescent PCR method) were used to detect the gene status of RET, EGFR, ALK, ROS1, KRAS, BRAF and HER2; and immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of PD-L1 and mismatch repair related proteins. The correlation between RET-fusion and patients' age, gender, smoking history, tumor stage, grade, pathologic type, and PD-L1, mismatch repair related protein expression was analyzed. Results: There were 22 cases (2.02%) detected with RET fusion-positive in 1 089 NSCLC patients, in which 11 males and 11 females; and the median age was 63.5 years. There were 20 adenocarcinomas, including 11 acinar predominant adenocarcinoma (APA), five solid predominant adenocarcinoma (SPA) and four lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA); There were one case each of squamous cell carcinoma (non-keratinizing type) and sarcomatoid carcinoma (pleomorphic carcinoma). There were 6 and 16 patients with RET fusion-positive who were in stage Ⅰ-Ⅱ and Ⅲ-Ⅳ respectively, and 16 cases with lymph node metastasis, 11 cases with distant metastasis. Among RET fusion-positive cases, one was detected with HER2 co-mutation. The tumor proportion score of PD-L1≥1% in patients with RET fusion positive lung cancer was 54.5% (12/22). Defects in mismatch repair protein expression were not found in patients with RET fusion positive NSCLC. Four patients with RET fusions positive (two cases of APA and two cases of SPA) received pratinib-targeted therapy, and two showed benefits from this targeted therapy. Conclusions: The histological subtypes of RET fusions positive NSCLC are more likely to be APA or SPA. RET fusion-positive NSCLC patients are associated with advanced clinical stage, lymph node metastases, and they may benefit from targeted therapy with RET-specific inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Mutation
8.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 117-123, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970144

ABSTRACT

Objective: To accurately screen non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with KRAS G12C mutation and to evaluate their clinicopathological features, prognostic factors and current treatment status. Methods: A total of 19 410 NSCLC cases diagnosed at the Department of Pathology of Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai, China from January 2018 to September 2021 were retrospectively reviewed, and the cases with KRAS gene mutation detected by next-generation sequencing were included. The clinicopathological and genetic mutation data of these cases were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 1 633 (8.4%) NSCLC patients carried a KRAS gene mutation, among whom G12C was the most frequent (468 cases, 28.7%) mutant subtype. The mutation was more commonly found in males (414/468, 88.5%), patients with a history of smoking (308/468, 65.8%), and patients with a pathological type of invasive adenocarcinoma (231/468, 49.4%). The most common co-mutated genes in KRAS G12C mutant NSCLC were TP53 (52.4%, 245/468), STK11 (18.6%, 87/468) and ATM (13.2%, 62/468). The proportion of PD-L1 expression (≥1%) in KRAS G12C mutant NSCLC was significantly higher than that in patients without G12C mutation [64.3% (90/140) vs. 56.1% (193/344), P=0.014]. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) treatment significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in NSCLC patients (10.0 months vs. 5.0 months, P=0.011). However, combination of chemotherapy and ICIs with anti-angiogenesis inhibitors or multi-target inhibitors did not significantly improve PFS in patients with KRAS G12C mutant NSCLC (P>0.05). Patients with KRAS G12C mutation NSCLC treated with ICIs and KRAS G12C patients with TP53 mutation had significantly longer median PFS than those with STK11 mutation (9.0 months vs. 4.3 months, P=0.012). Conclusions: Patients with KRAS G12C mutant NSCLC have relatively higher levels of PD-L1 expression and can benefit from ICIs treatment. The feasibility of chemotherapy, ICIs therapy and their combination needs further investigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , China , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , Retrospective Studies
9.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 111-116, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969813

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men and women worldwide, and 85% of these patients have non-small cell lung cancer. In recent years, the clinical use of targeted drug therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors has dramatically changed the treatment landscape for advanced NSCLC. The mechanism and the value of targeted therapies have been a hot topic of research, as KRAS is one of the earliest discovered and most frequently mutated oncogenes, which is activated by binding to GTP and triggers a series of cascade reactions in cell proliferation and mitosis. The KRAS protein acts as a molecular switch and is activated by binding to GTP, triggering a series of cascade responses in cell proliferation and mitosis. Clinically, patients with KRAS mutated NSCLC have poor response to systemic medical therapy and poor prognosis. Since the first report of KRAS gene in 1982, research on KRAS targeted therapeutics has been slow, and previous studies such as farnesyltransferase inhibitors and downstream protein inhibitors of KRAS signaling pathway have not achieved the expected results, making KRAS long defined as a "non-druggable target". The deeper understanding of the crystal structure of KRAS has led to the discovery of potential therapeutic sites for KRAS and the development of several drugs directly targeting KRAS, especially KRAS G12C inhibitors such as AMG510 (sotorasib) and MRTX849 (adagrasib), which have shown encouraging results in clinical trials. In recent years, studies on the therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors for KRAS-mutated NSCLC have made some progress. In this review, we systematically introduce the basic understanding of RAS gene and clinical characteristics of KRAS mutated NSCLC patients, summarize the medical treatments for KRAS mutated NSCLC, including chemotherapy, anti-vascular drug therapy and tumor immunotherapy, and focus on the review and outlook of the research progress of KRAS targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/therapeutic use , Genes, ras , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Guanosine Triphosphate/therapeutic use , Mutation
10.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 493-502, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982582

ABSTRACT

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is the most common fusion gene involved in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and remarkable response has been achieved with the use of ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs). However, the clinical efficacy is highly variable. Pre-existing intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) has been proven to contribute to the poor treatment response and the resistance to targeted therapies. In this work, we investigated whether the variant allele frequencies (VAFs) of ALK fusions can help assess ITH and predict targeted therapy efficacy. Through the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS), 7.2% (326/4548) of patients were detected to be ALK positive. On the basis of the adjusted VAF (adjVAF, VAF normalization for tumor purity) of four different threshold values (adjVAF < 50%, 40%, 30%, or 20%), the association of ALK subclonality with crizotinib efficacy was assessed. Nonetheless, no statistical association was observed between median progression-free survival (PFS) and ALK subclonality assessed by adjVAF, and a poor correlation of adjVAF with PFS was found among the 85 patients who received first-line crizotinib. Results suggest that the ALK VAF determined by hybrid capture-based NGS is probably unreliable for ITH assessment and targeted therapy efficacy prediction in NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/therapeutic use , Crizotinib/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Gene Frequency
11.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 281-290, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982158

ABSTRACT

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase and its rearrangements occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), resulting in signal dysregulation in kinase domain. As a new generation of potent ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), Brigatinib was approved in China in March 2022 as a treatment for locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients with ALK rearrangement positive. Brigatinib significantly improved the survival, cranial efficacy and quality of life compared to Crizotinib in clinical trials. Brigatinib is generally well tolerated. Brigatinib has been one of the preferred treatments and an addition of options in ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Pulmonary toxicity is one of the adverse effects observed during the treatment of TKIs and deserves the intense attention of clinicians, despite of its low incidence rate. Pulmonary toxicity reported during the treatment of Brigatinib has shown distinct clinical presentations, such as early-onset (median time to onset, 2 days) and rapid tolerance and reversibility of symptoms. In view of this, the concept of early-onset pulmonary events (EOPEs) was proposed and established during the submission for regulatory review and approval. We focused on clinical characteristics, potential mechanism of etiology, and management strategies of EOPEs to provide clinicians evidence for better clinical decision support.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Quality of Life , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects
12.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 274-280, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#With the aging of the population and the increased importance of lung cancer screening, the number of early-stage lung cancer patients has been on the rise in recent years, which can be classified into operable early-stage lung cancer and inoperable early-stage lung cancer. The most common pathological type is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is the optimal treatment for inoperable early-stage NSCLC. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognosis of early-stage NSCLC patients treated with SBRT and its influencing factors in order to reduce the side effects of radiotherapy and improve the survival and quality of life.@*METHODS@#Clinical data and follow-up outcomes of early-stage NSCLC patients treated with SBRT in our hospital from August 2010 to August 2020 were collected. Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the prognosis, and the Cox proportional risk model was used for multivariate prognostic analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 165 patients were included with a median follow-up time of 43.2 (range: 4.8-132.1) mon. The local control (LC) rates at 1-yr, 2-yr and 5-yr were 98.1%, 94.8% and 86.5% respectively. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score greater than 80 was an independent prognostic factor for LC (P=0.02). The overall survival (OS) rates at 1-yr, 2-yr and 5-yr were 97.6%, 93.0% and 68.9% respectively. A biological equivalent dose when α/β=10 (BED10) greater than 132 Gy was an independent prognostic factor for OS (P=0.04). Progression-free survival (PFS) rates at 1-yr, 2-yr and 5-yr were 93.3%, 79.5% and 55.3% respectively. The distance metastasis free survival (DMFS) rates at 1-yr, 2-yr and 5-yr were 94.5%, 83.2% and 58.4% respectively. BED10 greater than 150 Gy was an independent prognostic factor for DMFS (P=0.02). The regional control (RC) rates at 1-yr, 2-yr and 5-yr were 98.8%, 95.4% and 87.9% respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#SBRT is effective in treating early-stage NSCLC. KPS greater than 80 is an independent prognostic factor for LC; BED10 greater than 132 Gy is an independent prognostic factor for OS; BED10 greater than 150 Gy is an independent prognostic factor for DMFS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Radiosurgery/methods , Early Detection of Cancer , Quality of Life , Prognosis , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
13.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 717-724, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940931

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a driving factor that causes non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The epithelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) is a crucial discovery in the treatment of lung cancer, particularly the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs is superior to that of the standard chemotherapy for patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC. Patients with NSCLC use EGFR-TKIs and other medications simultaneously is commonly seen, especially among those with comorbidities, which increases the risk of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of EGFR-TKIs. The most common mechanisms underlying the DDIs of EGFR-TKIs are modulations of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and drug transporters [including P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)], as well as gastrointestinal acid-inhibitory drugs [proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and H(2) receptor antagonists (H(2)RA)]. Inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes and drug transporters can inhibit or accelerate the metabolism of EGFR-TKIs, which increase or reduce the exposure of EGFR-TKIs, thereby affect the efficacy and safety of EGFR-TKIs. In addition, PPIs or H(2)RA can decrease the solubility, bioavailability and efficacy of EGFR-TKIs. This review summarizes the mechanisms of DDIs of gefitinib, erlotinib, icotinib, afatinib, dacomitinib and osimertinib; the management recommendations for DDIs of those EGFR-TKIs from the Chinese and global guideline, as well as from the recent pre-clinical and clinical studies, which provide the reference and evidence for managing the combination therapies of EGFR-TKIs and other medications in clinics.


Subject(s)
Humans , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Drug Interactions , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects
14.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 416-424, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935230

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the actual efficacy of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/ programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and explore potential prognostic predictive biomarkers. Methods: Patients with metastatic NSCLC who were treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors at Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 2016 to December 2019, either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents, were consecutively enrolled into this study. We retrospectively collected the data of demographics, clinical information and pathologic assessment to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and conduct the survival analysis. Major endpoint of our study is progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints include objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR) and overall survival (OS). Results: The ORR of 174 patients who underwent PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor was 28.7%, and the DCR was 79.3%. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) occurred in 23 patients (13.2%). Brain metastasis, line of treatment, and treatment patterns were associated with the ORR of metastatic NSCLC patients who underwent immunotherapy (P<0.05). After a median follow-up duration of 18.8 months, the median PFS was 10.5 months (ranged from 1.5 to 40.8 months) while the median OS was not reached. The 2-year survival rate was estimated to be 63.0%. The pathologic type was related with the PFS of metastatic NSCLC patients who underwent immunotherapy (P=0.028). Sex, age, brain metastasis and autoimmune diseases were associated with OS (P<0.05). Analysis of the receptor characteristic curve (ROC) of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) predicting ORR of immunotherapy in metastatic NSCLC showed that the areas under the curve of NLR before immunotherapy (NLR(C0)), NLR after one cycle of immunotherapy (NLR(C1)) and ΔNLR were 0.600, 0.706 and 0.628, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that NLR(C1) was an independent factor of the ORR of metastatic NSCLC patients who underwent immunotherapy (OR=0.161, 95% CI: 0.062-0.422), and the efficacy of combination therapy was better than that of single agent (OR=0.395, 95% CI: 0.174-0.896). The immunotherapy efficacy in patients without brain metastasis was better than those with metastasis (OR=0.291, 95% CI: 0.095-0.887). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that NLR(C1) was an independent influencing factor of PFS of metastatic NSCLC patients after immunotherapy (HR=0.480, 95% CI: 0.303-0.759). Sex (HR=0.399, 95% CI: 0.161-0.991, P=0.048), age (HR=0.356, 95% CI: 0.170-0.745, P=0.006) were independent influencing factors of OS of metastatic NSCLC patients after immunotherapy. Conclusions: PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are proved to be efficacious and have tolerable toxicities for patients with metastatic NSCLC. Patients at advanced age could still benefit from immunotherapy. Brain metastasis is related to compromised response. Earlier application of immunotherapy in combination with other modalities enhances the efficacy without elevating risk of irAEs. NLR(C1) is an early predictor of clinical outcome. The OS of patients younger than 75 years may be improved when treated with immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Retrospective Studies
15.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 297-307, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935214

ABSTRACT

The mutation rate of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer is 3% to 7%. Due to its low mutation rate and better long-term survival compared with epidermal growth factor receptor-positive non-small cell lung cancer patients, therefore, it's called "diamond mutation". At present, there are three generations of ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drugs in the world. The first-generation ALK-TKI drug approved in China is crizotinib, and the second-generation drugs are alectinib, ceritinib and ensartinib. Among them, ensartinib is an ALK-TKI domestically developed, and its efficacy is similar to that of alectinib. The main adverse event is transient rash, and compliance to ensartinib is better from the perspective of long-term survival of patients. The manifestation of rash caused by ensartinib is different from that of other ALK-TKI drugs. In order to facilitate clinical application and provide patients with more treatment options, under the guidance of the Committee of Cancer Rehabilitation and Palliative Care of China Anti-Cancer Association, this article collects and summarizes the common adverse reactions of ensartinib. Based on the clinical practice, a clear adverse classification and specific treatment plan are formulated, in order to provide a corresponding reference for clinicians to make more comprehensive clinical decisions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase , Carbazoles/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Consensus , Exanthema/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Piperazines , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyridazines
16.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 193-200, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928797

ABSTRACT

Brain metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a common treatment failure mode, and the median survival time of NSCLC patients with brain metastasis is only 1 mon-2 mon. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) can delay the occurrence of brain metastasis, but the survival benefits of NSCLC patients are still controversial. It is particularly important to identify the patients who are most likely to benefit from PCI. This article reviews the high risk factors of brain metastasis in NSCLC.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Neoplasms/secondary , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Cranial Irradiation , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Risk Factors
17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 183-192, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928796

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide and one of the leading cause of death from malignant tumors. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation is a common mutation in NSCLC. For advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations, EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), such as Gefitinib, Afatinib, Oxitinib and other targeted therapies have become the first-line treatment recommended by many guidelines, but many patients develop acquired drug resistance after about 1 year of medication. Patients with drug resistance will have earlier disease progression than patients without drug resistance, which has an important impact on the prognosis of patients. At present, the main treatment for patients with acquired resistance is new target inhibition for resistant mutation. For example, if patients with T790M mutation are resistant to the first or second generation drugs such as Gefitinb and Afatinib, they can be treated with the third generation drugs (Osimertinib or Almonertinib), which can delay the progression of the disease. Therefore, the study of drug resistance mechanism and treatment of drug resistance patients are essential. This paper mainly reviews targeted therapy and drug resistance mechanism of EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients, in order to provide reference for clinical application of EGFR-TKIs.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Acrylamides , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Genes, erbB-1 , Indoles , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines
18.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 78-85, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The occurrence and development of lung cancer are closely linked to epigenetic modification. Abnormal DNA methylation in the CpG island region of genes has been found in many cancers. Protein kinase C delta binding protein (PRKCDBP) is a potential tumor suppressor and its epigenetic changes are found in many human malignancies. This study investigated the possibility of PRKCDBP methylation as a potential biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).@*METHODS@#We measured the methylation levels of PRKCDBP in the three groups of NSCLC tissues. Promoter activity was measured by the dual luciferase assay, with 5'-aza-deoxycytidine to examine the effect of demethylation on the expression level of PRKCDBP.@*RESULTS@#The methylation levels of PRKCDBP in tumor tissues and 3 cm para-tumor were higher than those of distant (>10 cm) non-tumor tissues. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis between tumor tissues and distant non-tumor tissues showed that the area under the line (AUC) was 0.717. Dual luciferase experiment confirmed that the promoter region was able to promote gene expression. Meanwhile, in vitro methylation of the fragment (PRKCDBP_Me) could significantly reduce the promoter activity of the fragment. Demethylation of 5'-aza-deoxycytidine in lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299 showed a significant up-regulation of PRKCDBP mRNA levels.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PRKCDBP methylation is a potential and promising candidate biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers/metabolism , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA Methylation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Promoter Regions, Genetic
19.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 546-554, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) improved survival of partial patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). However, it was still insufficient of data in older patients. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and toxicity of immunotherapy in patients with LUSC in Chinese population of real world.@*METHODS@#A total of 185 LUSC patients underwent pathological diagnosis were involved from January 2018 to January 2022. Patients were divided into elderly group (age ≥70 years) and younger group (age <70 years). The efficacy of mono-immunotherapy or combined with chemotherapy to chemotherapy in first-line treatment was compared. The expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and tumor mutational burden (TMB) were evaluated. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 was used to evaluate the efficacy, and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.03 was used to evaluate immune-related adverse. Kaplan-Meier and Log-rank test was performed. Cox regression was used in prognostic analysis.@*RESULTS@#Combined therapy acquired significantly higher overall response rate (ORR) compared with chemotherapy alone in elderly group (P<0.05), and also in younger group, despite the difference was not significant (P>0.05). The median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) in elderly group were similar with younger group (P>0.05). Both combined group and immunology alone demonstrated prolonged mPFS in first-line compared with chemotherapy in elderly group. And combined group demonstrated significantly prolonged mPFS compared with chemotherapy in younger group (P<0.01). There was no difference of mOS between different regimes in two groups. Elderly LUSC patients had higher PD-L1 positive rate (≥1%) and similar TMB compared with younger group. There was no relationship between mPFS and mOS with the expression of PD-L1 and TMB. Immunology combined with chemotherapy demonstrated better mPFS compared to chemotherapy in first-line therapy with TMB-High (P<0.05), and inferior mPFS with TMB-Low despite the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Cox regression model demonstrated that clinical stage was an independent predictor and prognostic factor. The incidence of immune-related adverse was 58.0% (51/88) and grade 3 or above 25.0% (22/88). The most common grade 3 adverse events were rash, immune-associated pneumonia, and fatigue.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Immunology combined with chemotherapy increased ORR, mPFS and mOS of Chinese patients with LUSC in first-line therapy compared with chemotherapy. There was no difference of efficacy and adverse effects rate between elderly group and younger group. The adverse effects of immunology in elderly patients with LUSC were controllable.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/analysis , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , China , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
20.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 524-533, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939742

ABSTRACT

Neoadjuvant immunotherapy, including neoadjuvant single- or dual-drug immunotherapy or combined immunotherapy with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, has witnessed a rapid development in non-small cell lung cancer. Clinical trials exhibited the encouraging pathological responses and certain clinical benefits in selected patients, with tolerable toxicity. Nivolumab with chemotherapy has been approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first immunotherapy-based treatment for non-small cell lung cancer in the neoadjuvant treatment setting. There is the need for further evaluation of long-term efficacy, side effects or surgical issues for neoadjuvant immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Nivolumab/therapeutic use
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