Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 107
Filter
1.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 19-22, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359334

ABSTRACT

El cáncer papilar constituye aproximadamente el 80% de todos los casos de cáncer de tiroides y el 85% de los tumores diferenciados. La variante de células altas representa el 1,3 al 12% del cáncer papilar siendo la variante agresiva más común de estos tumores. Posee un comportamiento agresivo, con mayor incidencia de invasión extratiroidea, linfovascular y metástasis a distancia, responsables de tasas de recurrencia más altas y peor pronóstico. Los casos aquí reportados reflejan las características que hacen sospechar mayor agresividad tumoral, desde el diagnóstico. Describimos dos pacientes de sexo femenino, entre 40 y 50 años, con historia de corta evolución, cuya presentación fue con síntomas de compresión locorregional y adenopatías metastásicas en cuello. Con hallazgos ecográficos e intraoperatorios de relevancia en cuanto la agresividad tumoral que hicieron sospechar la presencia de una variante agresiva del cáncer papilar. La histopatología de la variante de células altas posee una base molecular diferente respecto al papilar clásico que le confiere mayor morbi-mortalidad, constituyendo un factor de pronóstico independiente para la recurrencia. El tratamiento quirúrgico es la tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento profiláctico de los ganglios linfáticos centrales y eventualmente vaciamiento lateral de cuello según valoración preoperatoria, con posterior ablación postoperatoria de restos tiroideos mediante yodo radiactivo.


Papillary cancer constitutes approximately 80% of all thyroid cancer cases and 85% of differentiated tumors. The tall cell variant represents 1.3 to 12% of papillary cancers, being the most common aggressive variant of these tumors. It has an aggressive behavior, showing a higher incidence of extrathyroid and lymphovascular invasion and distant metastasis, responsible for higher recurrence rates and a worse prognosis. The cases reported here reflect characteristics that make us suspect tumor aggressiveness. These are female patients, between 40 and 70 years old, with a history of short evolution. They present locoregional symptoms or metastatic adenopathies, with ultrasound and intraoperative findings of relevance in terms of tumor aggressiveness that led to the suspicion of the presence of an aggressive variant of papillary cancer. The histopathology of the tall cell variant has a different molecular basis that confers its own morbidity and mortality, being an independent prognostic factor for recurrence. Total thyroidectomy is recommended with prophylactic dissection of the central lymph nodes and eventually lateral neck dissection according to preoperative evaluation followed by postoperative ablation with radioactive iodine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
2.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 7(1): 7-14, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380258

ABSTRACT

Las metástasis del carcinoma papilar de tiroides (CPT) generalmente son a nivel locorregional, la diseminación a distancia es poco habitual, sin embargo la invasión de tejidos blandos aunque inusual puede ocurrir, y afecta negativamente la supervivencia. El presente estudio describe una serie de casos de Metástasis Musculares de CPT. Se realizó un estudio transversal de un solo centro que evaluó diez pacientes con CPT con metástasis en músculo. La edad de los pacientes fue entre 46 a 77 años, siendo la edad promedio de 60 años, 7 de los cuales fueron de sexo masculino que corresponde al 70%, todos con antecedente de CPT con respuesta estructural incompleta, además de las metástasis en músculo presentaron afectación de tres o más órganos, con necesidad de varios tratamientos, cada paciente registró entre 1 a 8 cirugías, recibieron entre 100 a 780mCi de I131 (yodo radiactivo), ocho ameritaron radioterapia, todos tuvieron indicación de tratamiento con ITK, sin embargo solo cuatro pacientes tuvieron acceso a dicho medicamento. La mayoría de las metástasis del CPT en músculo fueron diagnosticadas en los estudios de imagen PET/ CT, después de la tiroidectomía el tiempo de su presentación fue muy variable entre 1 a 18 años, el número de músculos comprometidos se reporta entre uno a cuatro, siendo el glúteo (4 casos) el músculo metastásico más frecuente. La presencia de metástasis musculares empeora el pronóstico en nuestra serie de pacientes.


Metastases of thyroid papillary carcinoma (CPT) are generally at the locoregional level, the dissemination from a distance is unusual, however the invasion of soft tissues, although rare can occur, and it negatively affects survival. The present study describes several Muscular Metastases of CPT cases. A transversal study in one only center was performed and assessed ten patients CPT metastases in muscles.The patients age ranged from 46 to 77, being the average age of 60, and 7 of them were male, corresponding to the 70%, everyone with CPT records with an incomplete structural response. Besides muscular metastases they also presented issues with three or more organs, needing many treatments. Each patient registered between 1 to 8 surgeries, they received between 100 to 780mCi of I131. Eight required radiotherapies, everyone required treatment with ITK, however, just four patients had access to that medication. Most of the CPT metastases in muscles were diagnosed in PET/CT image studies, after the thyroidectomy, the time for its presentation was very variable between 1 to 18 years, the number of compromised muscles is reported between one to four, being the buttock (4 cases) the most frequently muscle with metastases. The presence of muscular metastases aggravates the prognosis in our series of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/secondary , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Neck Muscles , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/blood , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/blood , Iodine , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Neoplasm Metastasis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887898

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical value of core-needle biopsy(CNB)for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma(PTMC)after radiofrequency ablation(RFA). Methods A total of 190 patients(including 142 females and 48 males,20-74 years old)with unifocal low-risk PTMCs[mean volume of(106.29±96.15)mm


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Biopsy, Needle , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Radiofrequency Ablation , Thyroid Neoplasms , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Young Adult
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887863

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the health-related quality of life(HRQoL)of patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma(PTMC)treated by different modalities. Methods The PTMC patients after treatment who came to our department for follow-up from October to December in 2019 were enrolled and assigned into three groups according to treatment modalities:radiofrequency ablation(RFA)group(


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Humans , Quality of Life , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroidectomy
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887862

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a prediction model for the short-term efficacy of percutaneous ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation(RFA)in the treatment of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma(PTMC). Methods We retrospectively analyzed the preoperative and follow-up data of 159 patients with PTMC who underwent percutaneous ultrasound-guided RFA treatment in the Department of Ultrasound,the First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital from January to December in 2018.The association with 12-month tumor status(end event)was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression model.A nomogram was built to predict the risk of tumors which did not disappear completely within 12 months after RFA. Results We found that gender(


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Humans , Nomograms , Radiofrequency Ablation , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
6.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(1): 17-19, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048802

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los quistes tiroglosos son las lesiones más comunes de la línea media cervical y se ha descrito el carcinoma papilar de tiroides en el 1%. Debido a su baja incidencia no existe un consenso acerca del tratamiento óptimo. Caso clínico: Paciente mujer de 34 años de edad consulta por aumento de volumen cervical doloroso y se evidencia nódulo doloroso en región cervical media. Ecografía de tiroides visualiza una lesión quística compleja. Se completa el estudio con tomografía computada del cuello con contraste que evidencia quiste del conducto tirogloso con compromiso inflamatorio-infeccioso, por lo que se decide cirugía. Biopsia evidencia cáncer papilar de 0.25 cm en quiste del conducto tirogloso, con bordes quirúrgicos negativos. Por bajo riesgo se decide control imagenológico estricto. DISCUSIÓN: Los quistes del conducto tirogloso comprenden las lesiones cervicales congénitas más frecuentes. Se presentan como masas indolentes y asintomáticas. El diagnóstico es confirmado mediante ecografía y la tomografía es utilizada para ampliar el estudio. La aparición de cáncer tiroideo en estos quistes es poco común, y generalmente son indistinguibles de las lesiones benignas en el preoperatorio. En relación al manejo del cáncer papilar en quiste del conducto tirogloso no existe un consenso de su tratamiento óptimo. Para los casos de bajo riesgo se sugiere control anual con TSH y ecografía tiroidea. Para aquellos pacientes de alto riesgo se sugiere tiroidectomía total y ablación de los restos tiroides con yodo radioactivo, con control anual con niveles de tiroglobulina. El pronóstico es excelente, con tasas de remisión que superan el 95%. CONCLUSIONES: Los carcinomas en quistes de conducto tirogloso son poco comunes y en la mayoría de los casos son lesiones diagnosticadas de manera incidental después de la resección quirúrgica. Para definir necesidad de tiroidectomía, debe realizarse estudio individualizado por un equipo multidisciplinario con amplia experiencia.


INTRODUCTION: Thyroglossal cysts are the most common affection of the cervical midline. Papillary carcinoma has been described in 1% of this cysts. Due to its low incidence a consensus on the optimal treatment does not exist. Clinical case: A 34 year old female with no relevant past medical history, presented with a painful cervical mass of many weeks of appearance. The thyroid ecography showed a complex cystic lesion and the cervical computed tomography with contrast evidenced a cyst of the thyroglossal duct with inflammatory and infectious findings. Surgery with no incidents was performed. Biopsy reported a 0.25 cm papillary cancer in the thyroglossal duct cyst, with negativa surgical margins. Strict follow up with imaging studies was decided. DISCUSSION: the thyroglossal duct cyst are the most common congenital cervical affections. Classically, they present as indolente, asyntomatic masses on the cervical midline. The diagnosis is confirmed with ecography and computed tomography is used to extent evaluation. Thyroid cancer in thyroglossal duct cyst is uncommon and generally indistinguishable from benign lesions in the preoperative phase. A consensus regarding the optimal management of this patients does not exist. For low risk cases, an anual control with THS and thyroid ecography is suggested. For patients with high risk a Sistrunk with total thyroidectomy and radioactive ablation of thyroids remnants is recommend. Follow up with anual thyroglubin levels should be performed. The prognostic is excellent, with more than 95% remission rates. CONCLUSSIONS: Thyroglossal duct cyst carcinomas are rare. In most cases, diagnosis is made incidentally after surgical resection. To decide wheter thyroidectomy is necessary each case should be analyzed individually by a multidisciplinary team with vast experience.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroglossal Cyst/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Thyroglossal Cyst/surgery , Thyroglossal Cyst/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology
7.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(3): 105-109, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117580

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma papilar de tiroides variante de células altas, descrito en 1976 por Hawk y Hazard, representa el 1% de los carcinomas diferenciados, siendo más agresivo e invasivo que la forma clásica y 80% de los casos se asocia con mutación B-RAF. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 49 años con tumoración dolorosa en cara anterolateral de cuello, que tuvo un crecimiento rápido, disfonía y lateralización del cuello a izquierda. En la ecografía de tiroides se vio en el lóbulo derecho un voluminoso nódulo mixto, predominantemente sólido, hipoecogénico, con micro calcificaciones, sin separación del plano graso con los músculos infra hioideos. Se realizó punción con aguja fina que resultó Bethesda VI. En valoración pre quirúrgico se encontró la parálisis de cuerda vocal derecha. Se realizó tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento central y lateral derecho. El estudio anatomo-patológico reportó un carcinoma papilar de tiroides variante de células altas de 33 x 40 x 27 mm en lóbulo derecho que contacta con la tinta china, evade la cápsula y presenta invasión perineural. Ocho ganglios de 18 analizados fueron metastásicos en el compartimento VI. Posteriormente se realizó rastreo corporal total con una dosis mínima de I131 y luego se administró 150 mCi de I131. El carcinoma papilar de tiroides, variante de células altas puede presentarse inicialmente con el compromiso locorregional y su correcto diagnóstico tiene implicancia en el pronóstico y su manejo terapéutico. Debemos pensar en variantes agresivas cuando al inicio ya encontramos elementos sugestivos de extensión extratiroidea, como en este reporte.


High-cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma, described in 1976 by Hawk and Hazard, represents 1% of differentiated carcinomas, being more aggressive and invasive than the classic form, and 80% of cases is associated with a B-RAF mutation. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with a painful tumor on the anterolateral side of the neck, who had rapid growth, dysphonia and lateralization of the neck to the left. On thyroid ultrasound, a voluminous mixed node, predominantly solid, hypo echogenic, with micro calcifications, without separation of the fat plane with the infrahyoid muscles, was seen in the right lobe. Fine needle puncture was performed, resulting in Bethesda VI. In pre-surgical evaluation, right vocal cord paralysis was found. Total thyroidectomy was performed with central and right lateral emptying. The pathology study reported a 33 x 40 x 27 mm high cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma in the right lobe that contacted with the Chinese ink, evaded the capsule and presented perineural invasion. Eight lymph nodes out of 18 analyzed were metastatic in compartment VI. Subsequently, a total body scan wasperformed with a minimum dose of I131 and then 150 mCi of I131 was administered. Papillary thyroid carcinoma, a high-cell variant, may initially present with loco regional involvement and its correct diagnosis has implications for prognosis and therapeutic management. We must think of aggressive variants when at the beginning we already found elements suggestive of extra thyroid extension, as in this report.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Iodine Radioisotopes/administration & dosage
8.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202545, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136550

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: papillary thyroid carcinoma is a tumor with good prognosis. However, some patients treated present neck recurrence. Objective: to evaluate the risk factors for neck recurrence. Methods: a retrospective study enrolled 89 patients (68 women and 21 men) diagnosed with papillary carcinoma who underwent total thyroidectomy. In 21 patients, neck dissection was performed and 62 patients underwent radioiodinetherapy. Twelve patients relapsed with metastasis in this period with an average of 3.6 years. Results: out of 89 patients, 76.4% were female. Relapse occurred in nine (13.23%) women and three (14.28%) men. The average age of the patients was 44 years in the control group and in patients with relapsed. Eighteen patients (23.37%) in the control group and eight (64.28%) who relapsed had positive lymph nodes at initial diagnosis. The tumor size was significantly larger in the group of patients with cervical recurrence (3.3cm vs. 1.6cm - p=0.008, Student t test), whereas the presence of metastatic lymph nodes at the moment of the first operation was also significant (p=0.004 -Fisher exact test). The tumor size was an independent risk factor for recurrence at the multivariate anaylsis (OR=2.4, IC95%:1.3-4.6 - p=0,007, logistic regression). Conclusion: there is an increase in the risk of lymph node recurrence during the follow up of 2.4 folds for each increase of 1cm in the longer nodule diameter.


RESUMO Introdução: o carcinoma papilífero da tireoide é um tumor com bom prognóstico. Entretanto, alguns pacientes tratados evoluem com recidiva cervical. Objetivo: avaliar os fatores de risco para recidiva cervical. Métodos: um estudo retrospectivo arrolou 89 pacientes (68 mulheres e 21 homens) diagnosticados com carcinoma papilífero, submetidos à tireoidectomia total. Em 21 pacientes, realizou esvaziamento cervical e, em 62, radioiodoterapia. Doze pacientes apresentaram recorrência linfonodal no período, com media de 3,6 anos. Resultados: dos 89 pacientes, 76,4% eram mulheres. A falha ocorreu em nove mulheres (13,23%) e três homens (14,28%). A média etária tanto dos pacientes recidivados como do grupo-controle foi de 44 anos. Dezoito pacientes (23,37%) no grupo-controle e oito (64,28%) dentre os que recidivaram tinham linfonodos positivos ao diagnóstico inicial. O tamanho tumoral foi significativamente maior no grupo de pacientes que apresentaram recidiva cervical (3,3 cm vs. 1,6cm - p=0,008, teste t de Student), o mesmo foi observado para a presença de linfonodos metastáticos quando da primeira cirurgia (p=0,004 - teste exato de Fisher). À análise multivariada, o tamanho tumoral foi fator de risco independente de recidiva (OR=2,4, IC95%:1,3-4,6 - p=0,007, regressão logística. Conclusão: para cada aumento de 1cm no maior diâmetro da lesão, há um aumento de 2,4 vezes no risco de recidiva linfonodal ao longo do acompanhamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Neck Dissection , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Prognosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
9.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(5): 456-461, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038498

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The indolent evolution of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (mPTC) in adult patients and the consequences of thyroidectomy require a revision of the management traditionally recommended. Aiming to spare patients unnecessary procedures and therapies and to optimize the health system in Brazil, we suggest some measures. Fine-needle aspiration of nodules ≤ 1 cm without extrathyroidal extension on ultrasonography should be performed only in nodules classified as "very suspicious" (i.e., high suspicion according to ATA, high risk according to AACE, TI-RADS 5) and in selected cases [age < 40 years, nodule adjacent to the trachea or recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), multiple suspicious nodules, presence of hypercalcitoninemia or suspicious lymph nodes]. Active surveillance (AS) rather than immediate surgery should be considered in adult patients with low-risk mPTC. Lobectomy is the best option in patients with unifocal low-risk mPTC who are not candidates for AS because of age, proximity of the tumor to the trachea or RLN, or because they opted for surgery. The same applies to patients who started AS but had a subsequent surgical indication not due to a suspicion of tumor extension beyond the gland or multicentricity. Molecular tests are not necessary to choose between AS and surgery or, in the latter case, between lobectomy and total thyroidectomy. The presence of RAS or other RAS-like mutations or BRAFV600E or other BRAF V600E-like mutations should not modify the management cited above; however, the rare cases of mPTC exhibiting high-risk mutations, like in the TERT promoter or p53, are not candidates for AS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Expert Testimony
10.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(3): 175-178, jul. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006639

ABSTRACT

Los nódulos tiroideos suelen ser benignos en más del 95% de los casos y eutiroideos. La probabilidad de cáncer de tiroides en el hipertiroidismo es baja. Al enfrentarse a un nódulo tiroideo la importancia radica en excluir patología maligna, pero se debe mantener el orden en el algoritmo de estudio para evitar un diagnóstico incorrecto y caer en costos innecesarios. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 23 años de edad con hipertiroidismo que en la ecografía aparece un nódulo tiroideo y adenopatía derecha, ambos con elementos sospechosos de malignidad, por lo que se pide punción de ambas estructuras, y se confirma el carcinoma papilar en el nódulo tiroideo, no así en la adenopatía. En el centellograma se observa un nódulo caliente que coincide con el nódulo maligno. Se realiza biopsia intraoperatoria de la adenopatía sospechosa y resulta ser una metástasis de carcinoma papilar. Se procedió a la tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento ganglionar central y lateral derecho. La anatomía patológica confirmó la presencia del carcinoma papilar clásico con metástasis de la adenopatía sospechosa. Posteriormente se administraron 130 mCi de radioyodo. Se debe considerar que los carcinomas pueden enmascararse ocasionalmente como nódulos «calientes¼ en el centellograma y en este caso, si bien en principio no estaría indicada la punción con aguja fina del nódulo dado que es hipercaptante en el centellograma, la ecografía demuestra elementos sospechosos contundentes de malignidad. En este caso el hilo conductor fue la ecografía y se rompió con el esquema clásico en la solicitud de estudios paraclínicos, obteniendo finalmente la confirmación diagnóstica de un cáncer y se realizó el tratamiento adecuado del mismo.


Thyroid nodules are usually benign in more than 95% of cases and euthyroid. The likelihood of thyroid cancer in hyperthyroidism is low. When dealing with a thyroid nodule the importance lies in excluding malignant pathology, but order must be maintained in the study algorithm to avoid an incorrect diagnosis and to fall into unnecessary costs. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman with hyperthyroidism who presented a thyroid nodule and right adenopathy on ultrasound, both with suspicious elements of malignancy, so puncture of both structures was requested, and papillary carcinoma was confirmed in the thyroid nodule, but not in adenopathy. In the scintigraphy a hot nodule is observed that coincides with the malignant nodule. Intraoperative biopsy of the suspected adenopathy is performed and it turns out to be a metastasis of papillary carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy was performed with central and right lateral lymph node dissection. The pathological anatomy confirmed the presence of classic papillary carcinoma with metastasis of the suspected adenopathy. Subsequently, 130 mCi of radioiodine was administered. It should be considered that carcinomas can occasionally be masked as «hot¼ nodules in the scintigraphy and in this case, although in principle the fine needle puncture of the nodule is not indicated given that it is hypercaptant in the scintigraphy, the ultrasound shows blunt suspicious elements of malignancy. In this case, the common thread was ultrasound and it was broken with the classic scheme in the request for paraclinical studies, finally obtaining the diagnostic confirmation of a cancer and the appropriate treatment was carried out.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Radionuclide Imaging , Ultrasonography , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m , Hyperthyroidism
11.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(2): 237-243, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001541

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: For papillary thyroid microcarcinoma patients, the reported incidence of lymph node metastasis is as high as 40%, and these occur mainly in the central compartment of the neck. Because these metastases are difficult to detect using ultrasonography preoperatively, some authors advocate routine central neck dissection in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma patients at the time of initial thyroidectomy. Objective: To evaluate whether prophylactic central neck dissection can decrease the local recurrence rate of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma after thyroidectomy. Methods: The publicly available literature published from January 1990 to December 2017 concerning thyroidectomy plus prophylactic central neck dissection versus thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma was retrieved by searching the national and international online databases. A meta-analysis was performed after the data extraction process. Results: Four studies were finally included with a total of 727 patients, of whom, 366 cases underwent thyroidectomy plus prophylactic central neck dissection and 361 cases received thyroidectomy only. As shown by the meta-analysis results, the recurrence rates in cases of thyroidectomy plus prophylactic central neck dissection were approximately 1.91% and were significantly lower than those with thyroidectomy only (OR = 0.24, 95% CI [0.10, 0.56], p = 0.0009). Conclusion: For patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, thyroidectomy plus prophylactic central neck dissection is a safe and efficient procedure and it results in lower recurrence rate. Since the evidences are of low quality (non-randomized studies), further randomized trials are needed.


Resumo Introdução: A incidência relatada de metástases linfonodais chega a 40% em pacientes com microcarcinoma papilífero de tireoide e essas ocorrem principalmente no compartimento cervical central. Como essas metástases são difíceis de ser detectadas com o uso de ultrassonografia no pré-operatório, alguns autores defendem o esvaziamento cervical central de rotina em pacientes portadores de microcarcinoma papilífero de tireoide no momento da tireoidectomia inicial. Objetivo: Avaliar se o esvaziamento cervical central profilático pode diminuir a taxa de recorrência local de microcarcinoma papilífero de tireoide após a tireoidectomia. Método: A literatura disponível, publicada de janeiro de 1990 a dezembro de 2017, sobre tireoidectomia com esvaziamento cervical central profilático versus tireoidectomia somente para microcarcinoma papilífero de tireoide foi obtida através de busca nas bases de dados online nacionais e internacionais. A metanálise foi feita após o processo de extração de dados. Resultados: Quatro estudos foram finalmente incluídos na metanálise, com 727 pacientes, dos quais 366 foram submetidos à tireoidectomia com esvaziamento cervical central profilático e 361 só receberam tireoidectomia. Como mostrado pelos resultados da metanálise, as taxas de recorrência com tireoidectomia com esvaziamento cervical central profilático foram de 1,91% e foram significantemente menores do que aquelas em pacientes submetidos somente à tiroidectomia (OR = 0,24, IC95% [0,10-0,56], p = 0,0009). Conclusão: Para pacientes com microcarcinoma papilífero de tireoide, o esvaziamento cervical central profilático é um procedimento seguro e eficiente e resulta em menor taxa de recorrência. Como as evidências são de baixa qualidade (estudos não randomizados), mais estudos randomizados são necessários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Neck Dissection/methods , Thyroidectomy/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Prophylactic Surgical Procedures/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/prevention & control , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome
12.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(1): 67-74, mar. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004385

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Aunque el carcinoma papilar de tiroides (CPT) tiene una buena sobrevida, en el 30% de los casos recidivará a largo plazo. Se han descrito factores pronósticos como el tamaño, histopatología, procedimiento quirúrgico y administración de yodo radiactivo. Objetivo: Este trabajo pretende determinar factores de riesgo de recidiva a largo plazo. Material y método: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y observacional, se incluyeron a los pacientes sometidos a cirugía por CPT con seguimiento a 10 años, y se analizaron variables clínicas y bioquímicas relacionadas con la recidiva a largo plazo. Resultados: Se identificaron 91 pacientes con seguimiento de 10 años. No se encontró relación para recidiva con historia familiar oncológica, enfermedad tiroidea pre-via, pero sí con tabaquismo (p 0,040). Se encontraron a 27 (29%) con recidiva, en relación a lesiones >3 cm (p 0,05), y CPT multicéntrico (p 0,003). Conclusión: El tiempo de evolución prolongado favorece el crecimiento de las lesiones, y la diseminación de la enfermedad, así como la recidiva. El CPT es una enfermedad con capacidad metastásica a largo plazo, que requiere un seguimiento cercano y detección oportuna de pacientes susceptibles de recidiva. El tiempo entre el diagnóstico y la cirugía es un factor fundamental para el crecimiento de las lesiones y la propagación de la enfermedad, por lo que se debe reducir el tiempo de espera, evitando así las lesiones de mayor tamaño, diseminación de células tumorales y la recidiva con peor pronóstico para los pacientes.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The papillary thyroid cancer has good survival rate, however, 30% of the patients will have a recurrence. Prognostic factors have been described such as size, histopathology, surgical procedure and administration of radioactive iodine. Aim: To determine preventable risk factors for long-term recurrence. Material and method: This is a retrospective and observational study, patients undergoing surgery for CPT and 10 year follow up were included to analyze clinical and biochemical variables related to long-term recurrence. Results: Ninety-one patients with a 10-year follow-up were identified. No relationship was found for recurrence with oncological family history, previous thyroid disease, but smoking was a risk factor (p 0.040). We found 27 (29%) with relapse, in relation to lesions > 3 cm (p 0.05), and multicentric PTC (p 0.003). Conclusion: The long evolution time favors the growth of lesions, the spread of the disease, as well as the recurrence. The CPT is a disease with long-term metastatic capacity; it requires close monitoring and opportune detection of patients susceptible to recurrence. The time between diagnosis and surgery is a fundamental factor for the growth of the lesions and the spread of the disease, so the waiting time must be reduced, thus avoiding larger lesions, malignant cell dissemination and recurrence with worse prognosis for patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neck Dissection , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Disease-Free Survival
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(5): 495-500, Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983800

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Our aim was to present our experiences related to performing neck surgery using the guided intraoperative scintigraphic tumor targeting (GOSTT) procedure for patients who had locally recurrent or persistent differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and who had undergone previous thyroid surgery. Subjects and methods: We retrospectively evaluated 11 patients who had locally recurrent or persistent DTC, who had undergone previous surgery, and for whom reoperation was planned for metastatic cervical lymph nodes (LNs). We performed the neck surgery using the GOSTT procedure on all patients and at a single academic institution. Results: The 11 patients had a total of 26 LNs, as marked with a radiotracer, and those LNs' mean size was 14.7 ± 8.2 mm (range: 5-34 mm). Histopathological examinations revealed DTC metastasis in all 26 of the preoperatively marked LNs. Of the 11 patients, only one needed a reoperation in the neck; she had another successful surgery (also using the GOSTT procedure). In the evaluation of the patients' final status, all were disease-free in their necks. There also were no GOSTT-associated postoperative complications. Conclusion: The GOSTT procedure is a useful, successful, inexpensive, and comfortable procedure for marking and mapping metastatic LNs, especially in DTC patients who have undergone previous surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/secondary , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Neck/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Radiography, Interventional , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neck/pathology , Neck/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
14.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(4): 448-452, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951847

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction In patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma who have negative serum thyroglobulin after initial therapy, the risk of structural disease is higher among those with elevated antithyroglobulin antibodies compared to patients without antithyroglobulin antibodies. Other studies suggest that the presence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is associated with a lower risk of persistence/recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Objective This prospective study evaluated the influence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the risk of persistence and recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with negative thyroglobulin but elevated antithyroglobulin antibodies after initial therapy. Methods This was a prospective study. Patients with clinical examination showing no anomalies, basal Tg < 1 ng/mL, and elevated antithyroglobulin antibodies 8-12 months after ablation were selected. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A, with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on histology; Group B, without histological chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Results The time of follow-up ranged from 60 to 140 months. Persistent disease was detected in 3 patients of Group A (6.6%) and in 6 of Group B (8.8%) (p = 1.0). During follow-up, recurrences were diagnosed in 2 patients of Group A (4.7%) and in 5 of Group B (8%) (p = 0.7). Considering both persistent and recurrent disease, structural disease was detected in 5 patients of Group A (11.1%) and in 11 of Group B (16.1%) (p = 0.58). There was no case of death related to the disease. Conclusion Our results do not support the hypothesis that chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is associated with a lower risk of persistent or recurrent disease, at least in patients with persistently elevated antithyroglobulin antibodies after initial therapy for papillary thyroid carcinoma.


Resumo Introdução Em pacientes com carcinoma papilífero de tireoide e com tireoglobulina sérica negativa após a terapia inicial, o risco de doença estrutural é maior entre aqueles com anticorpos antitireoglobulina elevados em comparação com pacientes sem anticorpos antitireoglobulina. Outros estudos sugerem que a presença de tireoidite linfocítica crônica está associada a um menor risco de persistência/recorrência do carcinoma papilífero de teireoide. Objetivo Este estudo prospectivo avaliou a influência da tireoidite linfocítica crônica sobre o risco de persistência e recorrência do carcinoma papilífero de tireoide em pacientes com tireoglobulina negativa, mas com anticorpos antitireoglobulinas elevados após a terapia inicial. Método Esse foi um estudo prospectivo, no qual foram selecionados pacientes com exame clínico sem anomalias; tireoglobulina basal < 1 ng/mL e anticorpos antitireoglobulina elevados 8-12 meses após ablação. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: Grupo A, com tireoidite linfocítica crônica no exame histológico; Grupo B, histologicamente sem tireoidite linfocítica crônica. Resultados O tempo de seguimento variou de 60 a 140 meses. Doença persistente foi detectada em 3 pacientes do Grupo A (6,6%) e em 6 do Grupo B (8,8%) (p = 1,0). Durante o seguimento, as recidivas foram diagnosticadas em 2 pacientes do Grupo A (4,7%) e em 5 do Grupo B (8%) (p = 0,7). Considerando tanto a doença persistente quanto a recorrente, doença estrutural foi detectada em 5 pacientes do Grupo A (11,1%) e em 11 do Grupo B (16,1%) (p = 0,58). Não houve nenhum caso de óbito relacionado à doença. Conclusão Nossos resultados não apoiam a hipótese de que a tireoidite linfocítica crônica esteja associada a um menor risco de doença persistente ou recorrente, pelo menos em pacientes com anticorpos antitireoglobulina persistentemente elevados após a terapia inicial do carcinoma papilífero de tireoide.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Autoantibodies/blood , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/etiology , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/etiology , Hashimoto Disease/complications , Thyroidectomy/methods , Radioimmunoassay/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/blood , Carcinoma, Papillary/blood , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Hashimoto Disease/blood , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/etiology
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(1): 6-13, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887624

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective We aimed to describe the presentation of papillary microcarcinoma (PTMC) and identify the clinical and histological features associated with persistence/recurrence in a Latin American cohort. Subjects and methods Retrospective study of PTMC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy, with or without radioactive iodine (RAI), and who were followed for at least 2 years. Risk of recurrence was estimated with ATA 2009 and 2015 classifications, and risk of mortality with 7th and 8th AJCC/TNM systems. Clinical data obtained during follow-up were used to detect structural and biochemical persistence/recurrence. Results We included 209 patients, predominantly female (90%), 44.5 ± 12.6 years old, 183 (88%) received RAI (90.4 ± 44.2 mCi), followed-up for a median of 4.4 years (range 2.0-7.8). The 7th and 8th AJCC/TNM system classified 89% and 95.2% of the patients as stage I, respectively. ATA 2009 and ATA 2015 classified 70.8% and 78.5% of the patients as low risk, respectively. Fifteen (7%) patients had persistence/recurrence during follow-up. In multivariate analysis, only lymph node metastasis was associated with persistence/recurrence (coefficient beta 4.0, p = 0.016; 95% CI 1.3-12.9). There were no PTMC related deaths. Conclusions Our series found no mortality and low rate of persistence/recurrence associated with PTMC. Lymph node metastasis was the only feature associated with recurrence in multivariate analysis. The updated ATA 2015 and 8th AJCC/TNM systems classified more PTMCs than previous classifications as low risk of recurrence and mortality, respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Prognosis , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Carcinoma, Papillary/radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Combined Modality Therapy
16.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 37(3): 252-257, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362875

ABSTRACT

Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a neuroectodermal tumor thought to originate from cells of the subcommissural organ. Its oncologic properties are still under investigation, as well as the most suitable therapeutic measures for this type of neoplasm.We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with a 1-year history of headache and intermittent diplopia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass in the pineal region that caused an acute hydrocephalus, and an emergency shunt derivation was necessary. One week later, the patient was submitted to subtotal tumor resection, and remained asymptomatic in the post-operative period. In the follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic; in the imaging control 3.5 years after the surgical resection, local recurrence was identified, and the patient was submitted to a local radiation protocol. Our literature review showed an early clinical onset due to intracranial hypertension signs. Definitive clinical onset might be reached only through a histopathological examination. Gross total resection followed by radiotherapy is the current standard of care. Local recurrence is often observed, with rare dissemination to the cerebral spinal fluid. The natural history of the PTPR remains unknown, as well as the best treatment strategy. Large case series with longer follow-ups are necessary for further conclusions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pineal Gland , Subcommissural Organ , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/metabolism , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt , Diagnosis, Differential
18.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 45(5): e1934, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-976934

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: conhecer o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia do carcinoma bem diferenciado da tireoide no Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, assim como os resultados oncológicos e as principais complicações pós-operatórias. Métodos: estudo transversal e retrospectivo de pacientes portadores de carcinoma bem diferenciado da tireoide operados no período de janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2015. Resultados: no período do estudo, dos 353 pacientes submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico da glândula tireoide, 95 eram portadores de CBDT. O carcinoma papilífero da tireoide foi o mais frequente (91,57%). A tireoidectomia total não associada a esvaziamento cervical foi o procedimento cirúrgico mais frequente (65,26%). As complicações pós-operatórias ocorreram em 6,31% dos pacientes, sendo o hematoma a mais frequente. O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 36,9 meses. A recidiva ocorreu em quatro pacientes (4,21%), sendo locorregional em todos os casos. Os fatores prognósticos analisados, como sexo, idade, tamanho do tumor, acometimento linfonodal, estadiamento, tipo de cirurgia, histologia e iodoterapia complementar não demonstraram significância estatística. Conclusão: o carcinoma papilífero da tireoide foi a neoplasia maligna mais frequente, acometendo o sexo feminino na faixa etária dos 49 anos mais frequentemente. A recidiva locorregional ocorreu em quatro pacientes. O hematoma foi a complicação mais frequente.


ABSTRACT Objective: to know the epidemiological profile of patients undergoing surgery for well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma at the Cassiano Antônio Moraes University Hospital of the Federal University of Espírito Santo, as well as the oncological results and the main postoperative complications. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study of patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) operated from January 2008 to December 2015. Results: During the study period, 95 of the 353 patients undergoing surgical treatment of the thyroid gland had WDTC. Papillary carcinoma was the most frequent (91.57%). Total thyroidectomy not associated with cervical emptying was the most frequent surgical procedure (65.26%). Postoperative complications occurred in 6.31% of patients, hematoma being the most frequent. The mean follow-up time was 36.9 months. Relapse occurred in four patients (4.21%), being locoregional in all cases. The prognostic factors analyzed, such as gender, age, tumor size, lymph node involvement, staging, type of surgery, histology and complementary iodine therapy did not show statistical significance. Conclusion: papillary carcinoma was the most common thyroid malignant neoplasm, affecting women in the 49-year-old age group more frequently. Loco-regional recurrence occurred in four patients. Hematoma was the most frequent complication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Thyroidectomy , Brazil/epidemiology , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
19.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(6): 643-646, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887603

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. On the contrary, primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare disease, accounting for 2% to 5% of all thyroid malignancies. Despite several cases in which both PTC and PTL arise in the setting of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), the coexistence of both tumors in HT patients is very rare. Herein we report the case of a 66-year-old woman with long-standing nodular HT under replacement therapy, who presented with a fast, painless enlargement in the right anterior side of the neck. Thyroid ultrasonography demonstrated increased growth of a hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe measuring 32 × 20 mm. A total thyroidectomy was performed, and histology revealed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) on a background of florid HT. Moreover, a unifocal papillary microcarcinoma, classical variant (7 mm, pT1aNxMx), was discovered. The patient was then treated with chemotherapy for the PTL, but she did not undergo radioactive iodine ablation treatment for the microPTC as per guidelines. Two years after surgery, the patient had no evidence of recurrence of either malignancy. This rare case highlights the importance of monitoring HT patients with nodular lesions, especially if they have long-standing disease. In addition, PTL should be considered for differential diagnosis in elder HT patients who present with sudden thyroid enlargement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology , Hashimoto Disease/pathology , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/surgery , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Hashimoto Disease/surgery , Hashimoto Disease/complications , Image-Guided Biopsy , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/surgery
20.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 77(2): 214-218, jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902766

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma tiroideo familiar no medular (CFTNM) representa aproximadamente entre el 3,2% y 9,6% de todos los cánceres de tiroides, y se define por la presencia de cáncer diferenciado de tiroides en 2 o más familiares, en ausencia de otros síndromes familiares conocidos o exposición a radiación. Si bien su fisiopatología es aún incierta, algunos investigadores postulan un patrón de herencia dominante con penetrancia incompleta, no habiendo aún un gen específico responsable. Esta entidad suele presentarse a una menor edad y con características más agresivas que en su forma esporádica. Dado el interés por conocer la presentación de esta enfermedad y las recomendaciones para su manejo, se presenta el caso de una paciente diagnosticada con cáncer papilar de tiroides con el antecedente de 4 familiares con la misma patología. Actualmente el tamizaje mediante ecografía cervical y biopsia por punción aspiración con aguja fina de los nódulos tiroideos es el examen de elección ante la presencia del antecedente de CFTNM, ya que aún no hay estudios genéticos disponibles. La tiroidectomía total más disección ganglionar es el tratamiento de elección. Debido al comportamiento más agresivo y peor pronóstico del CFTNM, es necesaria un alto índice de sospecha y una investigación completa en la presencia de un componente familiar.


The non-familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) represents approximately between 3.2 and 9.6% of all thyroid cancers, and is defined by the presence of differentiated thyroid cancer in 2 or more families in the absence of other known familial syndromes or radiation exposure. Although the pathophysiology is still uncertain, some investigators posit a dominant pattern of inheritance with incomplete penetrance, but still there is no specific gene responsible. It occurs at a younger age and with more aggressive characteristics than the sporadic form. Because of the interest in learning about the presentation of this disease and its recommendations, we present the case of a patient diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer with a history of 4 family with the same pathology. Actually cervical screening by ultrasound and the fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid nodules is the examination of choice in the presence of a history of FNMTC, since no genetic studies yet available. Total thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection is the treatment of choice. Because the more aggressive behavior and poor prognosis of FNMTC, a high index of suspicion and a full investigation is required in the presence of a familial component.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL