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Rev. invest. clín ; 73(1): 39-51, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289743


ABSTRACT Background: Cancer gene therapy using a nonviral vector is expected to be repeatable, safe, and inexpensive, and to have long-term effectiveness. Gene therapy using the E3 and C1 (E3C1) domain of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del1) has been shown to improve prognosis in a mouse transplanted tumor model. Objective: In this study, we examined how this treatment affects angiogenesis in mouse transplanted tumors. Materials and methods: Mouse transplanted tumors (SCCKN human squamous carcinoma cell line) were injected locally with a nonviral plasmid vector encoding E3C1 weekly. Histochemical analysis of the transplanted tumors was then performed to assess the effects of E3C1 on prognosis. Results: All mice in the control group had died or reached an endpoint within 39 days. In contrast, one of ten mice in the E3C1 group had died by day 39, and eight of ten had died or reached an endpoint by day 120 (p < 0.01). Enhanced apoptosis in tumor stroma was seen on histochemical analyses, as was inhibited tumor angiogenesis in E3C1-treated mice. In addition, western blot analysis showed decreases in active Notch and HEY1 proteins. Conclusion: These findings indicate that cancer gene therapy using a nonviral vector encoding E3C1 significantly improved life-span by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. (REV INVEST CLIN. 2021;73(1):39-51)

Animals , Rabbits , Calcium-Binding Proteins/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Cell Adhesion Molecules/therapeutic use , Epidermal Growth Factor/therapeutic use , Discoidin Domain/genetics , Calcium-Binding Proteins/genetics , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Genetic Therapy , Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics , Amino Acid Motifs , Epidermal Growth Factor/genetics , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Transplantation , Neovascularization, Pathologic/therapy
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 82(4): 385-390, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794975


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Tumors of the lip and oral cavity differ in various aspects; therefore a clarification of the distinctions among these sites may help to better understand the biologic behavior of neoplasms occurring in these locations. OBJECTIVE: Considering that angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are two major elements that can influence various aspects of tumor biology, we aimed to compare these factors between squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip and oral cavity. METHODS: A total of 84 primary squamous cell carcinomas including 45 oral and 39 lower lip tumors were selected and immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal antibody against D2-40 and CD105. Mean microvessel density was assessed in tumoral tissue, while lymphatic vessel density was calculated in both neoplastic tissue and invasion front. Data were statistically analyzed using t-test and p-values of <0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: We found a mean microvessel density ± standard deviation of 31.94 ± 18.9 in oral cavity and 27.54 ± 20.8 in lower lip squamous cell carcinomas, with no significant difference (p = 0.32). Mean lymphatic vessel density ± standard deviation was 13.05 ± 8.2 and 16.57 ± 10.79 in of oral cavity and lower lip neoplastic tissue, respectively. The corresponding values were 9.94 ± 5.59 and 12.50 ± 7.8 in the invasive front. Significant differences were not observed in either of the lymphatic vessel density variables between the two sites. CONCLUSION: According to our results, it seems that the search for additional factors other than those related to the vasculature should continue, to help clarify the differences in biologic behavior between lower lip and oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas.

Resumo Introdução: Os tumores de lábio e da cavidade oral diferem em vários aspectos; portanto, o conhecimento das diferenças entre eles pode ajudar na melhor compreensão do comportamento biológico das neoplasias que ocorrem nesses locais. Objetivo: Considerando que a angiogênese e a linfangiogênese são dois elementos importantes que podem influenciar diversos aspectos da biologia dos tumores, objetivamos comparar esses fatores entre o carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE) de lábio inferior e da cavidade oral. Método: No total, foram selecionados 84 CCEs primários (45 tumores da cavidade oral e 39 tumores de lábio). Esses tumores foram corados por processo imunohistoquímico com anticorpo monoclonal anti-D2-40 e CD105. Avaliamos a densidade média de microvasos (DMV) no tecido tumoral, enquanto que a densidade vascular linfática (DVL) foi calculada tanto no tecido neoplásico como no front de invasão. Os dados foram estatisticamente analisados com o uso do teste t e valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significantes. Resultados: Chegamos a uma média para DMV ± DP de 31,94 ± 18,9 para CCEs na cavidade oral e de 27,54 ± 20,8 no lábio inferior, sem diferença significante (p = 0,32). As médias para DVL ± DP foram de 13,05 ± 8,2 e 16,57 ± 10,79 no tecido neoplásico da cavidade oral e lábio inferior, respectivamente. Os valores correspondentes foram 9,94 ± 5,59 e 12,50 ± 7,8 no front invasivo. Não foram observadas diferenças significantes nas duas variáveis DVL entre os dois locais. Conclusão: De acordo com os nossos resultados, a pesquisa por fatores adicionais, além daqueles relacionados à vasculatura, deve ter continuidade, para auxiliar no esclarecimento das diferenças do comportamento biológico entre CCEs no lábio inferior e na cavidade oral.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Lip Neoplasms/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Lymphangiogenesis , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Lip Neoplasms/blood supply , Mouth Neoplasms/blood supply , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Retrospective Studies , Lymphatic Vessels , Microvessels , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/metabolism
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158239


Context: Like normal tissues, tumors require an adequate supply of oxygen, metabolites and an effective way to remove waste products. This is achieved by angiogenesis, which is defined as the process by which new blood vessels are produced by sprouting from preexisting vasculature. There is a large spectrum of physiological and pathological processes in which angiogenesis occur, ranging from tissue hypertrophy, wound healing, and inflammation to tumors. Aims: The present study was designed to morphometrically evaluate the angiogenesis in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) under light microscope by the use of H and E stained sections and to assess that whether the parameters of vascularity like mean vascular density (MVD), mean vascular area (MVA), and total vascular area (TVA) can be used to histologically grade the tumors. Subjects and Methods: A total of 10 cases each of well‑, moderately‑ and poorly‑differentiated SCC cases were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology and were morphometrically analyzed for mean vascular density (MVD), MVA, and TVA. Ten cases of normal oral mucosa were taken as Control. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 19.0 version (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) software for windows. Group mean for MVD, TVA and MVA were calculated for 10 cases of each group. “Student’s t‑test” was applied to assess the intergroup variation of mean values of MVD, TVA, and MVA. Results: Our results showed significant differences between all the three parameters, that is, MVD, MVA and TVA when poorly differentiated OSCC was compared with the normal mucosa, well‑ and moderately‑differentiated OSCC. However, when comparison was made between the well‑ and moderately‑differentiated OSCC, the differences in the three parameters were present but not statistically significant. Conclusion: There was an increased MVD, MVA and TVA in poorly differentiated OSCC, which could be used as an additional criterion to histologically grade the tumor.

Blood Vessels/anatomy & histology , Blood Vessels/growth & development , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/anatomy & histology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Humans , Mouth Neoplasms/anatomy & histology , Mouth Neoplasms/blood supply , Neovascularization, Pathologic/analysis , Neovascularization, Pathologic/anatomy & histology
Braz. dent. j ; 24(3): 194-199, May-Jun/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-681863


Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are the main cellular component in stroma of many tumors and participate in tumor angiogenesis. The aim of present study was to compare the microvascular density (MVD) and infiltrating macrophage density (IMD) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) with different histological grades. A histomorphometric analysis was performed after immunohistochemistry using antibodies such as von-Willebrand factor and CD68. A significant difference in MVD was found between well and moderately differentiated OSCCs (p<0.05). TAM were largely present in all studied tumors and the IMD was not different among OSCCs with different histological grades (p=0.381). Significant correlation between MVD and IMD was not observed (p=0.870). In conclusion, these results suggest that TAM and angiogenesis have an influence at different histological grades of OSCC. However, the lack of correlation between MVD and IMD could suggest that angiogenesis does not depend on the number of macrophages present in OSCC, but their predominant phenotype. Further studies involving distinct phenotypes of macrophages should be done to better understand the influence of TAM on the tumor angiogenesis.

Macrófagos associados a tumores (MAT) representam o componente principal do estroma de muitos tumores, além de participar da angiogênese tumoral. Este estudo comparou a microdensidade vascular (MDV) e densidade de macrófagos infiltrando o tumor (DMIT) em carcinoma escamocelular da boca (CEC) com diferentes graus histológicos de malignidade. Análise histomorfométrica foi empregada após técnica imuno-histoquímica para os anticorpos fator von-Willebrand e CD68. Uma diferença significante entre MDV e carcinomas bem e moderadamente diferenciados foi observada (p<0,05). MAT estavam fortemente presentes em todos os tumores estudados e a DMIT não foi diferente entre os diferentes graus histológicos de malignidade do CEC (p=0,381). Correlação significante entre MDV e DMIT não foi observada (p=0,870). Em conclusão, os resultados desse estudo sugerem a influência de MAT e angiogênese nos diferentes graus histológicos de malignidade do CEC. Entretanto, a ausência de correlação entre MDV e DMIT sugere que a angiogênese não depende do número de macrófagos presentes neste tipo de câncer, mas do fenótipo predominante. Outros estudos devem ser realizados a fim de contribuir para melhor compreensão da participação de MAT na angiogênese tumoral.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Macrophages/pathology , Microvessels/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Antigens, CD/analysis , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/analysis , Cell Count , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Gingival Neoplasms/blood supply , Gingival Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Mouth Floor/blood supply , Mouth Floor/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/blood supply , Neoplasm Grading , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Phenotype , Tongue Neoplasms/blood supply , Tongue Neoplasms/pathology , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
Braz. dent. j ; 24(1): 3-9, 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671347


The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and CD31/microvascular density in squamous cell carcinomas of the floor of the mouth and to correlate the results with demographic, survival, clinical (TNM staging) and histopathological variables (tumor grade, perineural invasion, embolization and bone invasion). Data from medical records and diagnoses of 41 patients were reviewed. Histological sections were subjected to immunostaining using primary antibodies for human MMP-2, MMP-9 and CD31 and streptavidin-biotin-immunoperoxidase system. Histomorphometric analyses quantified positivity for MMPs (20 fields per slide, 100 points grade, ×200) and for CD31 (microvessels <50 µm in the area of the highest vascularization, 5 fields per slide, 100 points grade, ×400). Statistical design was composed by non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test (investigating the association between numerical variables and immunostainings), chi-square frequency test (in contingency tables), Fisher's exact test (when at least one expected frequency was less than 5 in 2×2 tables), Kaplan-Meier method (estimated probabilities of overall survival) and Iogrank test (comparison of survival curves), all with a significance level of 5%. There was a statistically significant correlation between immunostaining for MMP-2 and lymph node metastasis. Factors associated negatively with survival were N stage, histopathological grade, perineural invasion and immunostaining for MMP-9. There was no significant association between immunoexpression of CD31 and the other variables. The intensity of immunostaining for MMP-2 can be indicative of metastasis in lymph nodes and for MMP-9 of a lower probability of survival.

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a imunoexpressão de MMP-2, MMP-9 e CD31/densidade microvascular em carcinomas espinocelulares de soalho bucal e correlacionar os resultados com variáveis demográficas, de sobrevida, clínicas (estadiamento TNM) e histopatológicas (grau de diferenciação tumoral, invasão perineural, embolização e invasão óssea). Dados de prontuários e de diagnósticos de 41 pacientes foram revisados. Cortes histológicos foram submetidos à imunomarcação usando anticorpos primários para MMP-2, MMP-9 e CD31 humanos e sistema streptoavidina-biotina-imunoperoxidase. Análise histomorfométrica quantificou a positividade para MMPs (20 campos, grade de 100 pontos por lâmina, ×200) e para CD31 (microvasos <50 µm na área de maior vascularização, 5 campos, grade de 100 pontos por lâmina, ×400). O planejamento estatístico foi composto pelo teste não paramétrico U de Mann-Whitney (verificação da associação entre variáveis numéricas e imunomarcações), teste de frequências do qui-quadrado (em tabelas de contingência), teste exato de Fisher (quando pelo menos uma frequência esperada foi menor do que 5 em tabelas 2×2), método de Kaplan-Meier (estimativa de probabilidades de sobrevida global) e teste de Iogrank (comparação das curvas de sobrevida), todos com nível de significância de 5%. Houve correlação estatisticamente significante entre imunomarcação para MMP-2 e metástase em linfonodo. Os fatores relacionados negativamente com a sobrevida foram estadiamento N, gradação histopatológica, invasão perineural e imunomarcação de MMP-9. Não houve associação significativa entre imunoexpressão de CD31 e as demais variáveis. A intensidade de imunomarcação para MMP-2 pode ser indicativa de metástase em linfonodo e para MMP-9 de uma menor probabilidade de sobrevida.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/enzymology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , /metabolism , Mouth Neoplasms/enzymology , /analysis , Chi-Square Distribution , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/immunology , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lymphatic Metastasis , Microvessels , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/analysis , /analysis , Mouth Floor/blood supply , Mouth Floor/enzymology , Mouth Floor/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/blood supply , Mouth Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Staging , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric
Archives of Iranian Medicine. 2011; 14 (4): 276-280
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-129716


Neovascularization is an important factor for predicting tumor behavior. Evidence suggests that endoglin [CD105] is a powerful marker of neovascularization and determination of microvessel density in several malignancies, and can be used as an agent to predict lymph node metastasis. However, it is controversial, particularly in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. We studied CD105-MVD in tongue squamous cell carcinoma and evaluated its correlation with lymph node metastasis in relation to sex, age, and histopathologic grade. This study analyzed a total of 40 cases of tongue squamous cell carcinoma by dividing patients into two groups, a] with meta-static lymph nodes [N+] and b] without metastatic lymph nodes [N-]. By CD105 immunostaining, microvessel density was determined in three different areas [intratumoral, invasive front and adjacent normal tissue] of all cases. Statistically, we evaluated the relation between microvessel density and lymph node involvement, in addition to other clinicopathologic factors by using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, f-test, and other analyses. CD105-MVD in the invasive front [P<0.001] and intratumoral [P<0.006] areas of the N+ group was significantly higher than in the N-group. In addition, there was a correlation between CD105-MVD and differentiation in the invasive front area [P< 0.013] No relation existed between CD105-MVD and other clinicopathologic features. CD105-MVD, as a prognostic factor, may be helpful for determining the possibility of lymph node metastasis of primary SCC of the tongue

Tongue Neoplasms/blood supply , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/secondary , Microvessels/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Antigens, CD/analysis , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Receptors, Cell Surface/analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Tongue/blood supply
Clinics ; 66(3): 465-468, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-585959


OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the role of angiogenesis in the progression of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. INTRODUCTION: Angiogenesis is a pivotal phenomenon in carcinogenesis. Its time course in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma has not yet been fully established. METHODS: We studied the vascular bed in 29 solar keratoses, 30 superficially invasive squamous cell carcinomas and 30 invasive squamous cell carcinomas. The Chalkley method was used to quantify the microvascular area by comparing panendothelial (CD34) with neoangiogenesis (CD105) immunohistochemical markers. The vascular bed from non-neoplastic adjacent skin was evaluated in 8 solar keratoses, 10 superficially invasive squamous cell carcinomas and 10 invasive squamous cell carcinomas. RESULTS: The microvascular area in CD105-stained specimens significantly increased in parallel with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma progression. However, no differences between groups were found in CD34 sections. Solar keratosis, superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma and invasive squamous cell carcinoma samples showed significant increases in microvascular area for both CD34- and CD105-stained specimens compared with the respective adjacent skin. DISCUSSION: The angiogenic switch occurs early in the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, and the rate of neovascularization is parallel to tumor progression. In contrast to panendothelial markers, CD105 use allows a dynamic evaluation of tumor angiogenesis. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the dependence of skin carcinogenesis on angiogenesis.

Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Neovascularization, Pathologic/physiopathology , Skin Neoplasms/blood supply , Antigens, CD/analysis , /analysis , Cell Count , Keratosis, Actinic/pathology , Receptors, Cell Surface/analysis , Skin/blood supply
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139859


Objectives : Angiogenesis is a complex event mediated by angiogenic factors released from cancer cells and immune cells. It has been reported to be associated with progression, aggressiveness and metastases of various malignant tumors including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Similarly, mast cells have also been reported to play a role in tumor progression and metastases by promoting angiogenesis. The present study aims at comparison of microvascular density (MVD) and mast cell density (MCD) in normal oral mucosa (NM) and among various grades of OSCC. Materials and Methods : MVD was assessed immunohistochemically using anti-Factor VIII related von Willebrand factor, and MCD using anti-mast cell tryptase in a study sample of 30 cases of OSCC and 10 cases of clinically normal oral mucosa. Results : The mast cells in normal oral mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma strongly expressed mast cell tryptase. The density of mast cells and micro vessels were significantly higher in OSCC compared to normal oral mucosa. The MCD and MVD were higher in moderately differentiated OSCC than in well differentiated OSCC ( P > 0.05) and normal oral mucosa ( P < 0.05). Pearson's correlation revealed a positive correlation between MCD and MVD ( r=0.33; P=0.077). Conclusion : These findings indicate that mast cells may play a role in up regulation of tumor angiogenesis in OSCC probably through mast cell tryptase.

Analysis of Variance , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Cell Count , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Mast Cells/enzymology , Mast Cells/pathology , Mast Cells/physiology , Microvessels/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/blood supply , Mouth Mucosa/cytology , Mouth Neoplasms/blood supply , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tryptases/analysis
Int. j. morphol ; 26(1): 77-82, 2008. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-558577


El carcinoma de células escamosas de la cavidad oral presenta una alta prevalencia en nuestro país, siendo el labio inferior el sitio más comúnmente afectado. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el grado de angiogénesis en el carcinoma de células escamosas de labio inferior, y su asociación con el grado de diferenciación según la Clasificación Internacional de Tumores y el Frente de Invasión Tumoral según el sistema de medición de Bryne, en pacientes con carcinoma de células escamosas de labio inferior, diagnosticados en los hospitales de Talca y Curicó, entre los años 1995 y 2005.

Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity present a high prevalence in our country, become the lower lip the most common site affected. The aim of this study was determinated the angiogenesis grade in the lower lip squamous cell carcinoma and their relationship whit the histological grading according to the International Tumours Classification and the Invasion Tumoral Front according to the Bryne's system measuring in patients with lower lip squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed in the Talca´s and Curico´s Hospital between 1995 and 2005 years.

Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Lip Neoplasms/blood supply , Lip Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasms, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Lip Neoplasms/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-44768


This study was performed to determine the reliability and replicability of IMD analysis using the Factor VIII immunohistochemical method. The following purpose was determining the relationship between IMD and clinical outcome in individual cervical cancer patient treated with radical radiotherapy. Twenty nine patients with stage IIIB cervical cancer were enrolled. Phase one was performed by using two pieces of tissue biopsy from different locations in the tumor from each patient. The IMD value was counted by the two pathologists after counterstaining by Factor VIII immunohistochemical method. No interobserver disagreement between the two pathologists was found (correlation coefficient = 0.92, 95% CI 0.82-0.96 for the first piece of tissue and 0.85, 95% CI 0.67-0.93 for the second piece). There was no variability in the IMD between the 2 pieces of tissue specimens from different locations of the tumor Phase two followed to evaluate the relationship between IMD and clinical outcome in individual cervical cancer patients. Because of the small sample size, different patients' characteristics, different treatment protocol and short term follow up, there is no statistically significant conclusion.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/mortality , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Ovarian Neoplasms/blood supply , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results